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An Application of the Quality Transfer
Function by Andy Urquhart
In a previous article 1, we proposed a Quality transfer function as a general form of the transfer
functions used by engineers to describe the Quality of various characteristics, such as optical images,
acoustic waveforms, feedback control responsiveness, and electronic filter response, as follows:
Y ( ) = Г ( )* X ( )
Where, in using Equation (1) Y ( ) represents an output, X ( ) an input, and Г ( ) as the set of
Quality transfer functions, all functions having an argument denoting frequency.
Although some may consider Equation (1) somewhat daunting, it only represents the product of two
variables, which some people already use intuitively when inquiring about the frequency response of
a stereo amplifier.
With one particular frequency in mind, instead of Equation (1) we could simply write:
Y = Г *X
Where, in using Equation (2) Y represents an output, Г a scalar transfer function, and X an
In the following sections, we will describe how we can use one particular member of the set of
Quality transfer functions – a work transfer function (WTF) – to study the principles of operation of
systems, such as film handling systems; one of the many sub-systems comprising Image Setters: but
before we do, to clarify our usage, we will describe how we use the WTF to gain insights into simpler
systems, such as a single-flow manufacturing line and a Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS.)
Once the reader has become accustomed to our terminology, we will then use the WTF to
investigate the film handling system in rather more detail, with the goal of understanding the
principles of operation and the root cause of a family of failures modes . We will also mention how
we incorporate other methods and approaches into our studies, including: emulation, the scientific
method, and the systems approach; which we use to reduce complexity.
Although we completed this film handler study several years ago, 2 and the company has sold more
than 3,000 units of their award winning Drum Image Setter worldwide, our use of the WTF is
germane given the resurgent interest in rotating systems; including kinetic energy recovery systems
(KERS) 2 and high-efficiency renewable energy systems. Renewable energy systems, such as
windmills, hybrid magnetic motors, and permanent magnetic generators can all benefit from our
Quality Transfer Function approach, because in working with these types of systems, we cannot
always assume 100% efficiency when transforming energy from one form to another, which is why
we introduce the concepts of useful work and worthwhile work.
© Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved.
If the reader is happy to accept efficiency as a member of the set of Quality transfer functions. Useful Work versus Worthwhile Work As optical engineers often factorise the Optical Transfer function (OTF) into two parts: a Modulation transfer function (MTF) part and a Phase transfer function (PTF) part. in sympathy with a takt cycle. Our justification for using the OTF as a template is the knowledge that lenses transform light. each stage uses autonomous inspection (process self-assurance) to trigger an alarm that stops production as soon as the stage encounters a problem. we can better appreciate how another transformation .2 The Work Quality Transfer Function As we mentioned in our earlier article 1.wordpress. Since we can associate the work transfer function WTF with efficiency = Work OUT / Work IN by virtue of the relationship: Eqn. (5) We further clarify the relevance of the frequency in Equation (5) in the context of a single-flow manufacturing line. and WTF ( ) the work transfer function – a particular member of the set of Quality transfer functions. (The reader may recall energy and work share the same physical dimensions: Joules. in using the optical transfer function as a template. and since light comprises electromagnetic energy. we base our general form of the Quality transfer function (Equation 1) on the optical transfer function (OTF). in using Equation (3) Y ( ) represents an output.tauquality.com) . Г(ω).) As with the response of a stereo amplifier. sometimes through numerous stages. Eqn. process capability. or period of repetition. our usage is limited to production lines using the method of one-by-one confirmation of the Toyota Production System (TPS) as described by Kitano-san 2. X ( ) an input. (6) Although American Lean production lines use takt times. (4) We can rewrite Equation (4) as follows: Y(ω) = (ω)*X(ω) Eqn. Therefore. we cannot define the Quality of a product or service in terms of defects. because the one-by-one confirmation method implies zero defects. (7) (www.can improve Quality. (3) Where. we invoke a WTF having the following form: Y(ω) = WTF(ω)* X(ω) Eqn. in which we process items one by one. we have inadvertently stumbled upon a transfer function suitable for describing the Quality of work. Therefore. under the TPS. or any other inspection metric. or defect.the 5S transformation . the WTF ( ) is a function of frequency. as indicated by Equation (7) as follows: OTF (ω) = MTF (ω) * PTF (ω) © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. The relationship between the the takt period ( ) and the frequency is: ω=1/ Eqn. Under the TPS.
m.) Worthwhile Work In manufacturing. or light collecting ability. Japanese companies calculate standard times theoretically using software 5.3 Where. we have to recognise that periods of hard labour require periods of rest otherwise mistakes happen.wordpress. or spectrum of worthwhile work. the malformation due to a lens aberration. or the spectrum of useful work. (10) Accordingly. while the other term W ( ) denotes the worthwhile efficiency. T. (8) Where. This ‘no unreasonableness’ principle is called “Muri” in Japanese © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. T successful takts produce: WU = m * T Eqn. such as a spherical aberration. Useful Efficiency versus Worthwhile Efficiency Since it is unreasonable to expect someone performing manual labour to work flat out all the time with maximum effort. (In the author’s experience. we are able to estimate the amount of useful work WU performed by a stage in a singleflow manufacturing line from the standard time. The PTF ( ) on the other hand represents the bandwidth of worthwhile energies remaining after degradation in passing through a malformed lens. this only occurs after completing a successful takt because as soon as someone on the production line encounters a problem. in using Equation (8) the term U ( ) denotes the useful efficiency. Useful Work Using the example of a single-flow manufacturing line again and bearing in mind the following relationship: Work = Power * time Eqn. (11) Where in using Equation (11). Accordingly. as in the following: How often does useful work bring forth little worthwhile. we determine the useful work by multiplying the number of stages. an alarm sounds and the production line stops. the only worthwhile work is that which delivers a fully functional unit or part. in using Equation (7) the MTF ( ) represents the bandwidth or spectrum or useful energies available to an optical imaging system due to the physical limitation of a finite lens aperture. If the line is balanced and there are m stages. we can also factorizing the WTF into two parts: Y (ω) = U (ω) * W (ω) * X(ω ) Eqn.com) . (We often use the terms ‘frequency response’ and ‘spectrum’ interchangeably. we can rewrite Equation (9) as: Work = Effort * time Eqn. in a single flow line. In sympathy with the OTF. by the total number of takt periods. provided we assume an average effort.tauquality. (www.) Our usage allows us to draw a distinction between useful work and worthwhile work. (9) Alternatively.
through the creation of a greater number of stages. Furthermore. time / Takt time Eqn. we combine both efficiencies. as this would diminish the rest period. Indeed. literary works. Applications Previously. and n = number of planned daily takts. Useful Efficiency For reasons already mentioned. For processes not involved in replication. we will ignore the possibility of the actual working time being greater than the standard time because under TPS this would also cause considerable concern.tauquality. the Quality of these processes. such as original works of art. we must first reduce the standard time by increasing the division of labour. For the sake of simplicity.wordpress. we now see how we can improve the efficiency of a production line using power tools. Worthwhile Efficiency As mentioned previously. we conclude the use of these can actually improve Quality and not just productivity. hoists. Taking this in account. TG the number of good takts. More conventionally. time) / (Power In * Takt time) = Std. we can calculate the useful efficiency using the ratio: U ( ) = (Power Out * Std. which explains their preference for calculating standard times – not to make people work harder . the Power Out equals the Power In and the useful efficiency is just the ratio of the standard time to the takt time. we provided a manufacturing interpretation of U ( ) and w ( ) . the rest time also sufficient to allow an operator to move from one stage to another: if necessary. If we want to reduce the takt time. in our usage. and services must be characterised by different means. if the effort only goes towards producing a part. How different from most Western companies who always try to ‘crack the whip’ at the end of the month.4 companies because it has a major impact on waste. (www. which is often the case on a new line. or other means to improve the efficiency of useful work. The reader should note it is not possible to keep on increasing the frequency of production by reducing the period of the takt while maintaining the same standard time. We would then have to work out how much rest operators need to maintain stamina while working under the arrangements. (12) Thus.we will now discuss how we can apply the Work transfer function to KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems) in the hope © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. in using Equation (13) m represents the number of stages. means of production.com) . we can calculate the worthwhile efficiency using the following ratio: ( ) = (m * TG ) / n Eqn. the takt time should comprise the standard time and a period of rest. (13) Where.but to ensure a balance between effort and sufficient time to complete the task correctly. or even custom designed software. the amount of worthwhile work equates to the number of good items produced through each stage and since the potential for good items is the theoretical number of takts per day. we refer to the useful efficiency as production efficiency and the worthwhile efficiency as yield. Thus.
Since printing in colour requires four imprints: three colours and black.tauquality. KERS Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) is a recent innovation in F1 Motor Racing. we will now apply these concepts to a film handling system.an etch process.wordpress. – more than five thousand components – we have to take a systems approach (Appendix A) to reduce complexity to a manageable level. operators transfer records on to plates using lithography . Film Handling System Image Setter Description Image Setters are high resolution (1200 to 4800 dots per inch) laser optical systems widely used in the printing industry to record photographic images of various media. Clearly then. and text.) After coating the plates with ink. In Japanese companies. compact flywheel and later released via a continuous velocity transmission (CVT) to boost performance along straight sections of the racetrack. The use of wide format film gives the option of printing up to four magazine pages at a time in what printers term a ‘four up. (c) (a) (d) Film Handler Sub-Assembly (Sub-System) The design of a film handler is technically challenging because the mechanism has to operate at high speeds to achieve high productivity using wide format film. this mindset reflects the true interpretation of attention to detail.’ (d) (e) (f ) FIG.com) . Having clarified our use of useful and worthwhile energy terms with several examples. we will then describe how we used the WTF to study our film handling system in detail in the next sections. KERS involves recovering angular kinetic energy from wheel spins ( U) which is then stored in a lightweight.5 this might further clarify our approach. even beyond (b) the functional level to observe the principles of (e) operation. © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. Following this short description of KERS. Once developed. which is a function of usage. The angular momentum carried also varies considerably depending on the amount of film remaining on the roll. it is advantageous for the KERS to have any useful energy derived from the racing car’s wheels transmitted efficiently to the storage flywheel ( U) and likewise to have any stored energy transmitted efficiently to the wheels ( w). it is often advantageous to analyse (using the reduction method) to drill down to a deeper level. One of the most important considerations is how to decelerate the film and mechanism towards the end of a feed cycle. but this is only an upgrade of the existing equipment. (Nowadays one can also use infrared to record images direct to plate. As Image-setters are as complex as motor vehicles. alignment and registration of each impact are critical to image Quality. such as photographs. we press the plates on to paper to form a portion of a colour image. 1: Basic film handling system. graphics. giving the sport even greater interest and excitement. (www. Indeed. since rolls of film inside cassettes carry considerable angular momentum.
and the warranty costs. and Act. When encountering these components. how else can one insure/assure production processes? Reliability One of the important measures of reliability is ‘Mean Time between Failures’ (MBTF.with all the difficulties and delays that entails. The Systems Approach Complex systems. We use the systems approach to reduce the extent of the system boundary and study a less complex part of the system in detail. test. with the major cause due to component mismatching. (The reader should note that for clarity the following important components are not indicated in Figure (1): film guides. those who make such claims contradict Deming’s own advice encapsulated by his universally known ‘PDCA’ Cycle: Plan. uninterrupted testing without a single failure. film-handling sub-systems suffer many production problems. In the case of our film handler development. Check. (www. which includes unit manufacturing costs. Anyone who has actually worked for a Japanese company should understand the importance of checking and taking immediate corrective action.for this very reason. For major projects. or burn-in. By mismatching. Consequently.com) .6 Figure (1) illustrates. Do. the specification for the film handling MTBF was so low it implied six months of continuous. in diagrammatic form. or mesh: even though they satisfy univariately specified tolerances. such as KERS and Film Handling Systems really require us to take a systems approach because the function of these systems is quite complex. and the rotor u-grooved wheel. including difficulties assembling components.wordpress. even on processes that are near perfect! Without checking and confirmation. which invariably have to be completed within the space of one year. service costs. we infer those components that do not interfere correctly.) This metric is important because it has a direct bearing on the cost-of-ownership. Indeed. many Japanese companies cite unquestionable reliability as their most important mission . and how to justify continued testing to meet deadlines. having rollers (a) and film (b) either driven forwards (c) or backwards (d) in sympathy with roller bar (c) the roller bar rotating under the influence of drive band (d) and U-tube wheel (e) which under normal circumstance would be connected to motor (f). Moreover. the specified operational performance for new systems can be exceptionally challenging . multiple adjustments. or modify the components on the production line . early failures might lead to technologists spending most of their time trying to explain the cause of failure.) Historical Perspective Historically. Hardly a worthwhile investment of resources when no one has any idea how extreme values of distributions and joint probability can conspire to cause reliability failures in the first place. Inspection/Checking/Final Test/ Burn-in Although many authors claim Japanese manufacturers do not inspect.tauquality. but also due to the length of time involved testing and confirming the reliability. operators have either to choose another component. roller bar u-grooved wheel. why it won’t happen again. © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. a basic film handling system. nothing could be further from the truth. and numerous rechecks.not just in terms of eliminating those conditions that might conspire to create reliability functional failures.
. We considered using an inexpensive package called Working Model. we stand a greater chance of discovering the best system instead of merely improving or optimizing what someone came up with as a first guess. not just the aesthetics of a particular design. 4.com) .” and immediately threw the report on the fire because he knew none of his chickens were round in appearance.tauquality. it is useful to try to produce them intentionally .” Methods suitable for observation. 1. In the 70’s there was a story about a farmer who wanted to know how long it would take to freeze a chicken by dipping it in iced water. Mathematical modelling Statistical modelling Simulation Emulation Prototypes Moreover.. (www. unfortunately. the Scientific Method is a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypothesis.. 3. theorizing. Unfortunately. at the time. as is the practice in the West. and linear momentum. including equations with terms. angular momentum.. Prototyping © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. moments of inertia. Mathematical models Various mathematical models can be formulated. 2. it did not support the simulation of drive belts. such as angular kinetic energy. 4. On opening the final report. he read the first sentence: “Consider a spherical chicken . 5. One method of emulation still very popular in Japan is the use of functional Cardboard Models to study the function of designs. 3. in terms of well-known failure modes. Emulation Many people working outside the field computer science often overlook the usefulness of emulation – to emulate the characteristics of one system by another. 2.wordpress. Figure (2) illustrates a statistical model we developed to explain film handling skew film failures. nor does it today. Statistical modelling We use statistical models to try to explain reliability failures because these problems occur randomly and relatively infrequently. mathematical models do not always predict what we observe in practice.7 By combining the systems approach with the scientific method. Simulation There are many software packages for simulation. The Scientific Method According to the Princeton University’s Word Net. and testing include: 1. “.to confirm we understand the true cause.
Even a well-designed prototype may not work as expected or indicate what we might expect to see on a production line. a statistical model for use with a film handler which might explain the possible cause of a family of failure modes known as film skew.8 While the use of a prototype might give us a good idea of what to expect when we build an actual product.) The skew film failure mode Operators often observe film skew after assembling and setting up film handling systems on the production line. In other words. We often find differential variation in processes. wave fronts. we theorise the skew film problem occurs when one edge of the film runs faster than the other.tauquality. and only relying on verifiable facts. diffusion boats. when we use the emulator to characterise the film handler’s function. The famous Quality Engineer. “The human mind is so rational. we can describe the correct choice of roller/film-guide interaction has having a directional polarisation. driven from one side. or if the rollers cannot accommodate a redirection of the film stock as it bumps off one of the film guides. remaining sceptical. A situation made worse when there is a high degree of correlation. we do it without film guides because the presence of film guides might encourage the film to stick or jam when the skew of sufficient magnitude. such as the right edge illustrated in Figure (2) where the average speed on the right edge is faster than the average speed of the left edge. float glass. correct alignment of each colour recording and plate is critical for the production of high resolution images and any deviation of the film.com) . and injection moulds. we illustrate. To accomplish this end. components in trays. Left edge ( (a) b ) Right edge FIG. rolled sheets. reality often brings many surprises. in diagrammatic form.] © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. Operators also observe skew film during operation. 2: Statistical model Based on previous observations . as light passes through a lens in the presence of a non-spherical lens form. it can explain anything. (14) The speed variation across the width of the film is similar to non-spherical. many operators use different names to describe the same fault. such as textile webs. Usually. either on start-up or even after manufacturing several thousand units. the mechanism performs more useful work on the right than on the left by virtue of the relationship: Work = force*speed*time Eqn. As mentioned previously.” which is why we must always be on our guard. [The rollers depicted in Figure (1) do not exhibit this property. which in the case of the film handling system is intentional and the reason for having a rigid roller bar. as depicted in Figure (2) would lead to misplacement of half-tone dots with consequential degradation of image Quality. and we leave it to the reader to draw their own conclusions.wordpress. Dorian Shainin once remarked. Datum Statistical Model With reference to Figure (2). but less frequently. (In practice. (www.
we infer the use of cardboard to create structural elements. Although our statistical model suggests an approach to reduce the incidence of stuck film.wordpress. fast and flexible method of emulation. The first is due to material properties while the second is a consequence of function. it is not always sufficient to optimise a system using Design of Experiments (DOE) or Robust Design and it is necessary to innovate. which they use to resolve functional problems long before committing resources. we imply a ‘suck it and see it’ approach. or sub-systems in their entirety with any degree of accuracy.com) . but without excluding the use of other materials. © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. cardboard modelling is very popular in Japan because it provides an inexpensive. such as chassis and skins. reliability engineers have used mechanical cycling mainly to study material fatigue. polymer drive bands (neoprene) etc.by matching edge speed distributions. Historically. This is the primary purpose of emulation because a heuristic approach allows us make quick changes. 3: Film handling sub-system with adjustable pendulum drive Emulation arm As we mentioned previously. We take a heuristic approach to cardboard modelling because it is difficult to emulate the properties of a real systems. long before we commit to a hardware design and ordering components for a prototype. we imply those problems that arise because of a joint probably of extreme values. By functional. and then trying to induce various failure modes and the consequences of extreme values of joint probability. but we believe it can also use cycling to test functional reliability.9 Reliability There are two types of reliability failures. It also suggests how we might devise a system having a very low MTBF . iron ball bearings. induce conditions intentionally. (www. the statistical model of Figure (2) suggests how we might accelerate reliability testing by cycling our mechanism at higher frequencies. as illustrated in Figure (2) it is a rare event – one of low joint probability. thereby increasing the likelihood of a rare event. Cardboard Modelling By cardboard modelling. By what means can we match the average edge speed and reduce edge speed variation? Unfortunately. Fortunately. Figure (2) illustrates the second type of reliability failure in diagrammatic form. (d) (e) (c) (a) (b) FIG.tauquality. by first testing the basic functions. and to use the scientific method to test our understanding of the basic principles of operation. it does not provide any insight as to how to go about it. such as aluminium u-groove wheels. When one considers the likelihood of encountering two extreme values from the opposite ends of two distributions. By heuristic.
it jams hard up against the film guide and causes a stuck film failure. in diagrammatically form.tauquality. Datum DL DR Film stock FIG. (15) Estimating the efficiency of Useful Work We estimate the efficiency of the Useful work using the ratio WU-OUT / WU-IN and counting the number of swings with the load connected to give WU-OUT and then with drive band (c) disconnected to give WU-IN. the film skews towards the left because the edge speed of the film is faster on the right. a film handling sub-system with adjustable pendulum drive. We can avoid the use of Polar coordinates by defining X(ω) as the starting height of mass (b) in Figure (3) and Y(ω) as the height of mass (b) on the opposite side. we can write the relationship between work and the successive pendulum swings is as: Work ( ω) ~ N(ω) Eqn. Before describing how we estimate the efficiency of the Worthwhile Work. as before. Although we can use a pair on film guides.10 Using the Cardboard Emulator Referring to Figure (4) which illustrates. Each time the pendulum swings from XN to YN it performs a small amount of work. Since our pendulum does not constitute an ideal pendulum because it is damped by the ugroove wheel bearing or by a load transmitted by drive belt (e) we have to restrict ourselves to small amplitudes of oscillations to avoid instability due to non-linear effects. we have to estimate the work applied and the work done and we do not have to measure energy directly because we can use the relationship: © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. but we only have to record the number of swings since the constant of proportionality will cancel in our efficiency ratio. we do not use film guides because our first goal is to try and understand what causes film skew in the first place.com) . and film guides would only mask the root cause. (www. Accordingly. when skew is severe. refer to Figure (4) where we illustrate. As film stock traverses along the bed of the Image Setter. In principle. on either side of the film. to minimise the skew. we could calculate the total work by summing over the total number of swings (N) until the pendulum rests. comprising arm (a) mass (b) platen (c) drive belt (e) and u-groove wheel (d) we first set up the pendulum to oscillate at a particular frequency by adjusting the height of mass (b). Estimating the efficiency of Worthwhile Work In order to estimate the worthwhile efficiency.wordpress. 4: A method for measuring film skew In the first instance. in diagrammatic form: A method for measuring film skew.
This was because it is difficult to calculate these terms using an emulation comprising a cardboard model. roller radius. depending on the geometry and position of the film rollers. in the case of the film handling system. Our own studies lead to three main conclusions: 1. and belt tension.com) . in practice we use film guides. which can lead to belt slip. With reference to Figure (4) if there is considerable © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. we can use Equation 19 to calculate a -3dB bandwidth of in the usual way. we still suffer the effects of skew film.11 Work = Force * Distance Eqn. The problem of film jamming due to film skew occurs because rollers should allow some sideways movement of the film under the roller. However.wordpress. the relationship between belt slip and film skew becomes obvious. and in the case represented in Figure (4) we obtain: DM = (DR – DL) / (DR + DL) Eqn. roller bar pressure. In fact.DMAX) / (DMAX + DMAX) Eqn. Now there is a temptation to assume that the observed effect is only due to our use of a ‘Heath Robinson” emulator. we used an acetate overhead projector slide to emulate film. and left edges of the film travel respectively. in using Equation (17) DMAX and DMAX represent the maximum and minimum distances travelled by the film during a cycle. an understanding of the terms of the work transfer function is necessary to gain insight into the principles of operation and the root cause of a failure mode. The rollers illustrated in Figure (1) are not optimised so that when the film stock meets the film guide. 4. Belt Wrap Belt wrap is a major issue in film handling systems because it affects traction and less belt wrap implies less traction. When operating the pendulum at high frequencies. (17) Where.tauquality. including roller width. so that there is high resistance axially and less trans-axially. 2. one could say the roller should exercise polarised control. Although we optimize the film handler to drive the film stock along the centre of the bed. (19) As with optics and stereo amplifiers. (www. (16) Referring to Figure (4) the arrows marked DR. we can calculate the efficiency spectrum as: (ω) = [ 1 – DM(ω)] Eqn. when we use film guides. Unfortunately. Synthesis and Integration Although we have endeavoured to provide a mathematical foundation for our approach. DL represent the distance the right. it can still jam up against the guide and jam. but this does not appear to be the case because we observe film stress proximal to the roller. which implies several factors have to be optimized. we took a heuristic approach. Taking the maximum and minimum of these DR and DL. (18) After we measure DM for each frequency of interest. (In our more recent model.) 3. we can calculate a modulation defined by the following relationship: DM = (DMAX .
5: Various belt wrap configurations Figure (5) illustrates.wordpress. and Figure (5b) an arrangement designed to minimize relative error. This is because it is so flexible and easy to modify in an effort to induce problems and to investigate possibilities for eliminating them. © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. and even during the production phase. A solution suggested by one of our Japanese mechanical design engineers is represented in Figure (5c.com) .) Conclusions By now. (www. he would like to thank Giuseppe (Peppe) Calcara and Matt Moore for proof reading the article. in diagrammatic form: Various belt wrap configurations. Acknowledgements Although the author takes full responsibility for any conceptual flaws or mistakes in this article. it should be apparent the use a Quality Transfer Function in conjunction with a rapid prototyping methodology provides a useful approach to indentifying the root cause of variation and defects. (5a) (5b) (5c) FIG.the wrap on only one wheel increases as in (b. which leads to film skew .) The solution proposed by a Japanese mechanical design engineer is illustrated in (c) and has the effect of increasing efficiency of worthwhile efficiency at higher frequencies (short arm pendulum swings. there is a tendency for the right side of the film to speed up.) Referring to Figure (5a) when u-groove wheels are of the same size the wrap on each is about 50%. When we change the size of one wheel compared to another – perhaps in order to use scaling to reduce a sources of error . where the drive wheel and the slave wheel have the same diameters.12 belt slippage at high frequency. Figure (5a) depicts a typical arrangement.a counter intuitive result. the design phase. The method can also be used to reduce functional testing to ensure the ‘Mean Time between Failures’ is limited to material’s properties and not to functional failures. both in the concept phase.tauquality.
org/dictionary/Effort 5 Software suitable for calculating theoretical standard times can be found here: http://www.com/features/articles/y-fx-really-transfer-function 2 Toyota Production System: One-by-one confirmation.dfma.htm 6 As a Japanese colleague built our first cardboard model of the film handler system several years ago and only reported his results.edu/perl/webwn © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved.wordpress. the author had to build a new model in 2009 and perform his observations to confirm the importance of belt wrap. (www. Andy Urquhart 2009 4 Definition of Effort in terms of Power http://www. 7 The Scientific Method – Princeton WordNet: wordnetweb. by Kitano-san.com/software/dfm.tauquality.biology-online.princeton.com) .improvementandinnovation. 3 Introduction to Tau Quality Lecture.13 References 1 Is y= f(x) really a Transfer function http://www.
into a number of sub-assemblies or components. there is greater appreciation of the various process steps. Delivery. Integrate the sub-system back into the overall system 5. analysis implies reduction – breaking systems down into ever smaller sub-systems and assemblies.wordpress. Quality. Cost. Reliability. for example. Some risks the Chief Engineer and his team have to consider include: Do we understand how the technology works? . The systems approach incorporates the following steps: 1. Analyse the system (sub-divide the system into sub-assemblies) 3. what are the lead times for custom components? What is the security of supply? – Are the manufacturers financially sound? © Andy Urquhart 2009 All Rights Reserved. theorize (model) and test hypothesis.Can we model the system and predict the outcome? How sensitive might products are to component variation? – Is the design robust to component variation? What is the manufacturability like? How many components are off the shelf.tauquality. it is necessary to analyse. etc.) In the systems approach. Competitiveness. observe. His ultimate choice depending on a number of factors.com) . This systems approach is somewhat different to the DMADV or DMAIC process because the latter processes take a statistical approach – one in which Analysis has a different meaning. This is also true for process development where.14 APPENDIX A The Systems Approach Most Japanese companies we’ve encountered use the scientific method in conjunction with a systems approach to break down. a Chief Engineer in a Japanese company. Observe and model the sub-system of interest (to try to understand its principles of operation) 4. how resist spreads on spinning disk. such as the dynamics of spinning wafers. Since R&D engineers continually investigate alternative solutions. In other words there is a greater attention to detail and cause and effect. Test and evaluate the overall system performance Once the system has been defined in terms of what it has to deliver and how. Cost of ownership (warranty costs) and Risk. (www. (If the reader finds these terms unfamiliar. Define the system 2. is often able to choose the best solution from a number of options under investigation by R&D teams. including: the company’s mission statement. documents describing these processes are readily available on this internet site and others. In my own experience. Japanese companies tend to reduce sub-system boundaries to a greater degree than most western companies. or break the system down.
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