INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Introduction: Infections are the commonest reason for children to be brought to a health facility. They are responsible for the high infant and preschool child mortality in most developing countries. Fever - Normal body temperature as measured orally is 36.5 – 37.2 0C. - Fever is said to be present if the temperature exceeds 38 0C rectally, 37.8 0C orally or 37.2 0C axillary. – Fever causes a minimal rise of respiratory rate (1 – 2 cycles per 1 0C ). Seriousness of fever A – First 2 months of life: serious bacterial infection is likely. B – Fever above 40.5 0C : greater incidence of bacteraemia. C – Severe malnutrition. D – Inconsolable child: continued crying inspite being held and comforted by the parent. E – Disorientation or lethargy. F – Meningism, petechiae or purpura.

methyl dopa Allergy: transfusion reaction Metabolic: gout. A child who appears uncomfortable from fever (usually above 38. Tissue injury: infarction. uremia Familial Mediterranean fever Factitious fever Management of fever: Not every case of fever needs antipyretics. Malignancy. burns. anticonvulsants. In hyperthermia antipyretics are not effective and physical cooling with sponging and cooling blankets should be initiated immediately.5 C rectally) should receive an antipyretics (paracetamol 10 15 mg /kg /dose) for symptomatic relive.Causes of fever Infections (the commonest). Vaccination. . Collagen diseases Drug fever: antibiotics.