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SPACE TRUSS DESIGN
1. DESIGN SPECIFICATION 1.1. Design Standard 1) The design basis of the tower applied is EIA Standard EIA222E “Structural Standards for Steel Antenna Tower and Antenna Supporting Structure”. The fabrication and materials of the tower will be according to the relevant Indonesian Standard. 2) The self supporting tower has square cross sections. 3) All the legs and bracings are made of equals legs angles steel. 4) All the connections in the field are made with Steel Bolts, each fitted with one spring washer and nut. 1.2. Tower Structure Design Condition 1) Tower height : 42.0 meter ( location : Limboto, North Sulawesi ) 2) Maximum wind velocity (V) : V = 120 km/hour = 33.33 m/sec. 3) Existing antennas loading ( see the drawing attachment ) : • 2 (two) Planar type antennas at 42.0 m • 1 (one) Planar type antennas at 38.0 m • 1 (one) Paraboloid grid antennas 1.20 diameter at 35.0 m • 1 (one) Paraboloid grid antennas 1.20 diameter at 42.0 m 4) Proposed antennas loading ( see the drawing attachment ) : • 1 (one) Paraboloid solid antenna 1.2 diameter at 38.0 m 1.3. Loads 1) Dead load Dead load is weight of tower, antenna, ladder, platform etc. 2) Wind load on tower structure Wind load calculation method on the tower and appurtenances are as follows F qz = qz . GH . CF . AE and not to exceed 2 . qz . GH. AG = 0.613 . KZ . V2
Kz = ( z / 10 )2/7 GH = 0.65 + 0.60 / ( h / 10 )1/7 CF = 4.0 e2 – 5.9 e + 4.0 ( square cross section ) CF = 3.4 e2 – 4.7 e + 3.4 ( triangular cross section ) e = AF / AG AE = DF . AF Where : F qz = Horizontal wind force ( N ) = Velocity pressure ( Pa )
GH = Gust response factor ( 1.00 ≤ Kz ≤ 1.25 ) CF = Structure force coefficient AE = Effective projected area of structural component in one face ( m2 ) AG = Gross area of one tower face ( m2 ) Kz = Exposure coefficient ( 1.00 ≤ Kz ≤ 2.58 ) V = Basic wind speed for the structure location ( m/s )
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
z h e
= Height above average ground level to midpoint of the section ( m ) = Ttotal height of structure ( m ) = Solidity ratio
AF = Projected area of flat structural component in one face of the section (m2) DF = Wind direction factor 1.00 1.00 + 0.75e for square cross section and normal wind direction for square cross section and 450 wind direction
3) Wind load on Antenna Wind load calculation method on the parabolic antenna is as follow : Fa = Ca x A x Kz x GH x V2 Fs = Cs x A x Kz x GH x V2 Kz = ( z /10 ) 2/7 GH = 0.65 + 0.60 / (h/10) 1/7 Where : Fa = Axial Force (lb) Fs = Side Force (lb) Ca = Wind load coefficient for axial Cs = Wind load coefficient for side Kz = Exposure coefficient ( 1.00 ≤ Kz ≤ 2.58 ) z = Height above average ground level to midpoint of the section (m) h = Total height of the structure (m) A = Normal projected area of Antenna V = Wind velocity ( m/s ) 4) Load combination Herewith the following combinations are used below : a) DL + WL at 0 degree direction (with weight of existing antenna) b) DL + WL at 45 degree direction (with weight of existing antenna) c) DL + WL at 0 degree direction (with weight of existing + proposed antenna) d) DL + WL at 45 degree direction (with weight of existing + proposed antenna) Where : DL WL 1.4. Allowable unit stress The unit stresses in the structures members do not exceed the allowable unit stresses for the materials as specified in the AISC Standard (American Institute of Steel Construction Standard) 1. Tension 2. Shear 3. Compression i) On the gross section of axially loaded compression members when kl/r is less than Cc : (kl/r)2 [ 1  ] Fy 2Cc2 Fa = 5/3 + [3/8(kl/r)]/8Cc  [(kl/r)3/8Cc3] ( kg/cm2 ) : Ft = 0.60 Fy ( kg/cm2 ) : Fv = 0.40 Fy ( kg/cm2 ) = Dead load weight of the structure and appurtenances. = Design wind load on antenna at above direction.
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
2π2E Where: Cc = Fy ii) On the gross section of axially loaded compression members, when kl/r exceeds Cc : 12π2 E Fa = 23(kl/r)2 4. Bending Tension and compression on extreme fibers : Fb = 0.66 Fy ( kg/cm2 ) 5. Tension on bolts : Ft = 0.60 Fy ( kg/cm2 ) 6. Shear on bolts : Ft = 0.30 Fy ( kg/cm2 ) 7. Bearing on bolts : Ft = 1.20 Fu ( kg/cm2 ) 8. The maximum slenderness ratio (kl/r) are as follows : kl/r = 120 for compression members of legs kl/r = 150 for compression members of diagonals kl/r = 200 for tension members Notations : Ft = Allowable tensile stress ( kg /cm2 ) Fy = Minimum yield point ( kg /cm2 ) Fv = Allowable shear stress ( kg /cm2 ) Fa = Allowable compressive stress ( kg /cm2 ) k = Effective length factor l = Actual unbraced length of member ( cm ) r = Governing radius of gyration ( cm ) Cc = Column slenderness ratio E = Modulus of elascity of steel = 2,100,000 kg/cm2 Fb = Allowable bending stress ( kg /cm2 ) Fu = Minimum tensile strength ( kg /cm2 ) 1.5. Materials Steel materials to be used for the towers and appurtenances conform to the relevant Indonesian Standards and/or Japanese Industrial Standard. 1) Steel Structural Description Tensile Strength ( kg/cm2 ) Bj – 41 SS – 41 2) Bolts Description Ft Fv Friction Type Fv Bearing Type 4100 4100 Minimum Yield Point Fy ( kg/cm2 ) 2500 2500 ( kg/cm2 )
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
( kg/cm2 ) A – 325 Bolts 3) Concrete Design compressive strength of concrete (f’c) at 28 days. K  175 U  24 1.6. Structural Analysis f’c = 175 kg/cm2 Fy = 2400 kg/cm2 4) Reinforcement steel 3900
( kg/cm2 ) 1230
( kg/cm2 ) 1476
The purpose of the structural analysis is to find the joint translations and the design axial loads in all members of the tower. Load is applied and separate load cases combined to give the most severe design conditions at various section. The structural calculation is made using SAP 90 (Structural Analysis Program 90). The program will perform the static analysis of a space truss of arbitrary geometry by the stiffness method. The truss may be subjected to loads consisting of forces acting on the joints in any directions in space. The program output consists of the joint translations, the member forces and the support reactions. The program input contains : a. Structure title b. Loading system : number of static analysis that applied to the structure. c. Group of data corresponding to the properties of the mathematical model of truss and the applied joint load : • • • • • Group 1 : Joint coordinates Group 2 : Support joint restraints Group 3 : Material and member data Group 4 : Joint loads Group 5 : Loading combinations
The location of the joints in any structure are expressed as coordinates in a global right hand othogonal XYZ coordinate system. For the space structures the Z axis is oriented in the vertical direction positive upward, with the X and Y axes oriented in the major directions of the structure. Z+ Y+
Global Axis 0 X+ All applied joint loads, joint displacement and reactions are expressed as component in the global coordinate system. Force component and translation components are positive if they act in the positive direction of an axis. The member forces and support reactions for both conditions, tower with existing antennas and tower with existing and proposed antennas, are attached in computer output. 1.7. Design Calculation Of Foundation The calculation of foundation consists of design and control of foundation. Control of foundation includes : 1) Control of stability for uplift force :
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
Sf = W1 / T > 2.0 Where : W1= Weight of foundation and soil ( kg ) T 2.0 = Uplift force ( kg ) = Allowable safety factor
2) Control of bearing capacity of soil : Wt M F =  +  < Q ( kg/m2) A 1/6.A . B Where : Wt = Total vertical load includes support reaction, weight of foundation and weight of soil (kg) M = Moment load ( horisontal loads x height of foundations ) ( kgm ) A = B = Q = Area of the foundation base ( width x length of foundation ) (m2) Width of the foundation base ( m ) Allowable bearing capacity of soil.
3) Control of sliding force : SF = Wt . φ / H > 1.5 Where : SF = Wt = and weight of soil (kg) φ = Coefficient of soil friction H = Horisontal loads ( kg ) 1.5 = Allowable safety factor 2. STRUCTURAL CALCULATION The structural analysis is made using SAP 90. Input and output program is shown as attachment. Safety factor Total vertical load includes support reaction, weight of foundation
Deflection, sway and twist are calculated as follows : a. Deflection : Dxn : Joint displacement at a point n Dxn’ : Joint displacement at a point n’ Dxn – Dxn’ b. Sway angle = arc tan (  ) Distance between point n and point n’ Dxn – Dxn’ c. Twist angle = arc tan (  ) Distance between point n and point n’ 1) Tower without proposed antenna a. Deflection b. Dxn = 6.4177 cm = 5.2096 cm
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
Dxn’ d Sway angle c. Dxn Dxn’ d Twist angle a. Deflection b. Dxn Dxn’ d Sway angle c. Dxn Dxn’ d Twist angle
= 5.8865 cm = 250 cm = arc tan (( 5.8865 – 5.2096 ) / 250 ) = 0.1551 degree = 5.8865 cm = 6.4173 cm = 300 cm = arc tan (( 6.4173 – 5.8865 ) / 300 ) = 0.1014 degree = 6.5947 cm = 5.2534 cm = 5.9388 cm = 250 cm = arc tan (( 5.9388 – 5.2534 ) / 250 ) = 0.1570 degree = 6.4763 cm = 5.9388 cm = 300 cm = arc tan (( 6.4763 – 5.9388 ) / 300 ) = 0.1027 degree
2) Tower with proposed antenna
Sway and twist at 120 km/hour wind velocity without proposed antennas as follows : Deflection (cm) Sway angle (degree) Twist angle (degree) Actual 6.4177 0.1551 0.1014 Allowable 42 0.5 0.5
Sway and twist at 120 km/hour wind velocity with proposed antennas as follows : Deflection (cm) Sway angle (degree) Twist angle (degree) Actual 6.5947 0.1570 0.1027 Allowable 42 0.5 0.5
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
3. FOUNDATION ANALYSIS 3.1. Column Anchorage Bolt Calculation 1 1) Steel Bar Bj 37
2 2 ) Notation : Fy Fv Ft = Yield strength of steel = Allowable shear strength of anchor bolt = Allowable tensile stress of anchor bolt  Fy = 2400 kg / cm2
Fts = Allowable tensile stress for bolt subject to combine tension and stress Fcv = Allowable bond stress of concrete fv ft f’c A P T S Le = Actual shear stress of anchor bolt = Actual tensile stress of anchor bolt = Compressive strength of concrete = Total area of anchor bolt = Total compression of tower base per one leg = Total uplift force at tower base per one leg = Total shear force at tower base per one leg = Required embeded length of anchor bolt in concrete
3 3 ) Maximum forces at tower base a. Tower with existing antenna : T = 21110 – 488.09 = 20621.91 kg S = 2377 kg b. Tower with existing and proposed antenna : T = 21110 – 488.09 = 20621.09 kg S = 2387 kg 1 4 ) Allowable tensile stress of anchor bolts Fv Ft a. = 0.3 Fy = 0.3 x 2400 = 720 kg/cm2 = 0.6 Fy = 0.6 x 2400 = 1440 kg/cm2 Tower with existing antenna : Number of anchor bolt = 6 φ ¾ “ A fv = 6 x ( 0.25π x 1.9052 ) = 6 x 2.85 = 17.1 kg/cm2 = S / A = 2377 / 17.1 = 139.0 kg/cm2 < Fv ………….Ok ! = ( 1.4 x 1440 ) – ( 1.6 x 139.0 ) = 2016 – 222.40 = 1793.60 kg Fts > Ft ft b. use Ft = Fts = 1440 kg/cm2 = T / A = 20621.09 / 17.1 = 1205.91 kg/cm2 < Ft ……… Ok !
Fts = 1.4 Ft – 1.6 fv
Tower with existing and proposed antenna : Number of anchor bolt = 6 φ ¾ “  A = 17.1 cm2 fv = S / A = 2387 / 17.1 = 139.59 kg/cm2 < Fv ……………. Ok ! use Fts = Ft = 1440 kg/cm2 Fts = ( 1.4 x 1440 ) – ( 1.6 x 139.59 ) = 2016 – 223.344 = 1792.656 kg/cm2 Fts > Ft ft = T / A = 20621.09 / 17.1 = 1205.91 kg/cm2 < Ft ……… Ok !
Keep using anchor bolt 6 φ ¾ “ Required embedded length of anchor bolt :
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
Fcv Le Use
= 0.53 f’c = 0.53 175 = 7.0 kg/cm2 = T / ( Fcv x 6 x π x d ) = 20621.09 / ( 7 x 6 x 3.14 x 1.905 ) = 82.1 cm Le = 85 cm
3.2. Column Base Plate
1) Steel Concrete : Bj – 37 : K – 175 Ar = P / Fp Fy = 2500 kg/cm2 Fp = 0,35 f’c = 0,35 x 175 = 61.25 kg/cm2 ( m2 )
2) The formula to calculate column base plate is shown as follows : Ab ≥ Ar then check fp ≤ Fp Ab = B x B t = ( 6M / Fb )½ Fb = 0.75 Fy = 0.75 x 2500 = 1875 kg/cm2 Where : P Ar B fp Fp tp M Fb Fy f’c m fb = Total compression at tower base per one leg ( kg ) = Required area of column base plate ( m2 ) = Length of base plate ( cm ) = Actual bearing pressure ( kg/cm2 ) = Allowable bearing strength stress ( kg/m2 ) = Required thickness of base plate ( cm, mm) = Moment at the edge of base plate ( kgm, kgcm) = Allowable bending stress of base plate ( kg/cm2 ) = Yield strength of steel ( kg/cm2 ) = Compressive strength of concrete ( kg/cm2 ) = Distance from steel structural to the edges of base plate ( cm ) = Bending stress ( kg/cm2 )
Ab = Designed area of column base plate ( m2 )
The calculation is shown as follows below : a. Tower without proposed antennas Column base plate area The existing column base plate : 600 mm x 600 mm x 25 mm Maximum compression force ( P ) = 26980 kg Applied load at support join = 488.09 kg P Total = 26980 + 488.09 = 27468.09 kg A = 60 x 60 = 3600 cm2 fp = P / A = 26980 / 3600 = 7.494 kg/cm2 < Fp …………. Ok ! Column base plate thickness Use m = (60 – 15) / 2 cm = 22.5 cm M = ½ q m2 = ½ x 7.494 x 22.52 = 1896.92 kgcm check the stress : fb = ( 6M / tp2 )= (6 x 1896.92 / 2.52 ) = 1821.042 kg/cm2 < Fb (1875 kg/cm2 )………….Ok ! b. Tower with proposed antennas Maximum compression force ( P ) = 27200 kg Applied load at support join = 488.09 kg P Total = 27200 + 488.09 = 27688.09 kg fp = P / A = 27688.09 / 3600 = 7.691 kg/cm2 < Fp …………. Ok ! Column base plate thickness
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
Use m = (60 – 15) / 2 cm = 22.5 cm M = ½ q m2 = ½ x 7.691 x 22.52 = 1946.78 kgcm check the stress : fb = ( 6M / tp2 )= (6 x 1946.78 / 2.52 ) = 1868.91 kg/cm2 < Fb (1875 kg/cm2 )………….Ok ! Keep using column base plate : 600 mm x 600 mm x 25 mm
3.3. Design and Control Of Foundation
3.3.1. Tower with existing antennas 1) Design load : H V T V1 P Tt horizontal loads (sliding). Design of foundation :
800
= 2377
kg
( max horizontal reaction ) ( max vertical reaction ) ( max uplift reaction ) ( dead load at support join )
= 26980 kg = 21110 kg = 488.09 kg
= V + V1 = 26980 + 488.09 = 27468.09 kg = T – V1 = 21110 – 488.09 = 20621.91 kg
From data above the design foundation will be checked for uplift force, bearing capacity of soil and
200
GroungLevel Soil
1950 2850
700 3000
2) Check stability for uplift force Concrete volume ( Vc ) : Pedestal column : 0.80 x 0.80 x 2.15 Footing : 3.0 x 3.0 x 0.70 Soil volume for anti uplifting ( Vs ) : Vs = (( 3.0 x 3.0 ) – ( 0.80 x 0.80 )) x 1.95= 16.30 m3 = 44.5024 t Weight of concrete and soil : W1 = W+ Ws = 7.676 x 2.4 + 16.30 x 1.6 3 ) Bearing capacity of soil The allowable bearing capacity of soil is 0.267 kg/cm2 = 2.67 t/m2 ( Bearing capacity data was gathered from Tower Name / Date Plate ) 4 ) Check of compressive force Wt = 44.502 + 27.468 M = 2.377 x 2.85 = 71.970 t = 6.774 tm S.F = W1 / T = 44.502 / 21.110 = 2.11 > 2.0 ………………..Ok ! = 1.376 = 6.300 = 7.676 m3 m3 m3
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
Z Z fe A fe
= Section modulus of footing base = 3.0 x 3.0 x 3.0 / 6 = Compressive stress of footing base = Area of foundation base = 3.00 x 3.00 = 9.00 m2 = 71.970/ 9.0 + 6.774 / 4.5 = 7.999 t/m2 > 2.67 t/m2………….Fail = 4.500 m3
The dimension of foundation is designed based on the nomogram. As shown in calculation above, the bearing capacity of soil is unable to support the existing tower. In fact, the soil is bearable. Possibly this is due to the difference in type and dimension between the existing tower foundation and the designed foundation above. 5) Factor of safety against sliding Wt H θ SF = 71.970 t = 2.377 t = Coefficient of friction = 0.45 = Wt x θ / H = 71.970 x 0.45 / 2.377 = 13.62 > 1.50 …………. Ok ! H V T V1 P Tt = 2387 kg = 27200 kg = 21160 kg = 488.09 kg ( max horizontal reaction ) ( max vertical reaction ) ( max uplift reaction ) ( dead load at support join )
3.3.2. Tower with existing and proposed antennas 1) Design load :
= V + V1 = 27200+ 488.09 = 27688.09 kg = T – V1 = 21160 – 488.09 = 20671.09 kg
2) Check stability for uplift force Concrete volume ( Vc ) : Pedestal column : 0.80 x 0.80 x 2.15 Footing : 3.0 x 3.0 x 0.70 Soil volume for anti uplifting ( Vs ) : Vs = (( 3.0 x 3.0 ) – ( 0.80 x 0.80 )) x 1.95= 16.30 m3 = 44.502 t Weight of concrete and soil : W1 = W+ Ws = 7.676 x 2.4 + 16.30 x 1.6 3 ) Bearing capacity of soil The allowable bearing capacity of soil is 0.267 kg/cm2 = 2.67 t/m2 4 ) Check of compressive force Wt = 44.502 + 27.688 M Z Z fe A fe Wt = 2.387 x 2.85 = Section modulus of footing base = 3.0 x 3.0 x 3.0 / 6 = Compressive stress of footing base = Area of foundation base = 3.00 x 3.00 = 9.00 m2 = 72.190/ 9.00 + 6.803 / 4.500= 8.022 t/m2 > 2.67 t/m2………….Fail = 72.190 t = 4.500 m3 = 72.190 t = 6.803 tm S.F = W1 / T = 44.502 / 21.160 = 2.103 > 2.0 ………………..Ok ! = 1.376 = 6.300 = 7.676 m3 m3 m3
5) Factor of safety against sliding
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
H θ SF
= 2.387 t = Coefficient of friction = 0.45 = Wt x θ / H = 72.190 x 0.45 / 2.387 = 13,61 > 1.50 …………. Ok !
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION We have carefully analysed the existing tower of Limboto structure for the proposed additional antenna at 120 km/hr wind velocity. The following major conclusions have been drawn from this analysis :

The existing tower has strength enough to support the existing configuration and the proposed antennas at 120 km/hr maximum wind velocity. The anchor bolt and the base plate has strength enough to resist the forces at support joint. Additional force at the tower base (maximum) due to the proposed antennas is less than 2.10 % of support reaction at tower without proposed antennas. The designed foundation has strength enough to resist the uplift and shear forces. The designed foundation has not strength enough to resist the compressive force. It means that the bearing capacity of soil is unable to support the structure. This is, possibly, due to the difference in type and dimension between the existing tower foundation and the designed foundation.

The minimum required of bearing capacity to support the tower with existing and proposed antennas is about 8.0 t/m2.
Luwuk, Januari 2001
Yoppy Soleman
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Space Truss Design
800 GL
200
Soil
1950
2850
700 3000
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
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B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. © Yoppy Soleman, 2005