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CORRESPONDENT
aontion:
C.
J.
263,
THE ELEMENTS
OP
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
THE ELEMENTS
OF
COOEDINATE aEOMETRY
BY
S.
L.
LONEY,
M.A.,
LATE FELLOW OF SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, PROFESSOR AT THE ROYAL HOLLOWAY COLLEGE.
^^^l^^mU. MASS.
MATH, DEPTi
MACMILLAN AND
AND NEW YOEK.
1895
[All Bights reserved.']
CO.
CTambrtlJse:
PRINTED BY
J.
&
C.
F.
CLAY,
150553
PKEFACE.
"TN
the following work I have tried to present the
Beginners and
Junior Students.
The
Polar
present
Coordinates.
Within these
is fairly
limits I venture to
hope
been omitted.
elementary conceptions
and they
are,
in
elementary
character.
The examples
numerous in
vi
PREFACE.
I
am much
for
reading
Mr W.
suggestions, or
corrections, I
be
grateful.
S.
L.
LONEY.
EoTAIi
HOLLOWAY COLLEGE,
Egham, Surbey.
July
4, 1895.
CONTENTS.
CHAP.
I.
Introduction.
Algebraic Kesults
...
PAGE
1
II.
8 19
III.
Locus.
Equation to a Locus
24
IV.
Straight line through two points Angle between two given straight lines Conditions that they may be parallel and per.
....
. .
.
31
39
42
pendicular
Bisectors of angles
.44
.
Length of a perpendicular
"
51
58
The Straight
Line.
66
.
73 80
88 90 94
109
115
by one equation
.
.
VII.
Transformation of Coordinates
Invariants
Vlii
CHAP.
CONTENTS.
PAGE
VIII.
The Circle
Equation to a tangent
Pole and polar
118
126
137
.
Equation to a circle in polar coordinates Equation referred to oblique axes Equations in terms of one variable
.
.
.145
.
148
.150
160
IX.
Systems of Circles
Orthogonal circles
Kadical axis
. . ,
.160
161
Coaxal circles
166
X.
Conic Sections.
The Parabola
. .
174 180
Equation to a tangent
Some
187
190
195
. .
.198
206
.
The Parabola
{continued')
....
.
Loci connected with the parabola Three normals passing through a given point Parabola referred to two tangents as axes
.
.
206
211
.217
225
XII.
The Ellipse
Auxiliary circle and eccentric angle
.
.231
.
Equation to a tangent
Some
....
. . .
237 242
Conjugate diameters
......
.
. .
249 254
265
266
271
The Hyperbola
Asymptotes Equation referred to the asymptotes as axes One variable. Examples
284
296 299
CONTENTS.
CHAP.
IX
XIV.
....
,
PAGE
306
313 322 322 326
XV.
General Equation.
Tracing of Curves
....
.
XVI.
General Equation
Tangent
Conjugate diameters
329
332 338 342
349 349
352
356 358
circle
...... .......
j)air
of tangents
drawn
364 365
367 369
Lengths of straight lines drawn in given directions to meet the conic Conies passing through four 23oints
. .
.
The
conic
LM=B?
....
.
On
Confocal conies
.......
and contact of the third order
i
385
Circles of curvature
392 398
407
Envelopes
Answers
xiii
ERKATA.
Page
,,
87,
Ex.
27, line 4.
,,
,,
line 5.
"and Page
37,
Ex. 15."
,,
282, Ex.
3.
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTION.
Quadratic Equations.
a'3^
The
ratic equation
+ 6x + c =
may
easily
be shewn to be
They are
&
JlP'
4ac
'^"'^
2i.
2^
therefore real
and unequal,
b^
i.e.
according as
4:ac.
2.
and
the coejicients
Relations between the roots of any algebraic equation of the terms of the equation.
If any equation be written so that the coefficient of the highest term is unity, it is shewn in any treatise on Algebra that
the sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient of (1) the second term with its sign changed,
(2)
the
is
at a time,
sum of the products of the roots, taken two equal to the coefficient of the third term,
the sum of their products, taken three at a time, (3) equal to the coefficient of the fourth term with its sign changed,
is
and so
L.
on.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Ex.
1.
If
a and
/3
ax'^
+ bx + c = 0,
a + p=
x^
+  x + ~ = 0,
a
a
^
c
we have
and a^ = .
Ex.
2.
If a,
j8,
i.e.
of
x^+x^
a
a
+x +  = 0,
a a
we have
+ p + y:
^y + ya + a^=:and
oPl
3.
It can easily be
of the
equations
a^x
G^z
= 0,
and
a^ + h^y + c^z = 0,
X
y
^1^2 ~ ^2^1
'^1^2
IS
^1^2
~ ^2^1
~ ^2^1
Determinant Notation.
4.
The
quantity
is called
a determinant of the
a})^
aj)^,
so that
d^
^1,
= Ob^^ 62&i
Exs.
(1)
!4, 5i
3,
(ii)
4
7,
6 = 3
6)
{
7)
 4) = 18  28 = 
10.
DETERMINANTS.
!,
5.
The quantity
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
(h.1
^2>
&2)
^25
5
%J
hi
^3>
^4
8.
The quantity
j
61,
^11
^1) ^2
^3) ^4
is
called a determinant of the fourth order and stands for the quantity
K
i X
^2
h,
^3
J
^4
i^lJ
^35
^3}
33
h
4
Clo
C,
<^2>
^3> ^4
&i,
62J
^4!
C^
cCj_
&1,
+ 6^3
X
1
?
ELIMINATION.
Elimination.
11.
Suppose
we have
aj^x
+ a^y =
(1),
between the be some relation holding between the four ^or, from (1), we have bi, and 63
(2),
y.
There must
6*i, ctaj
coefficients
y~
and, from
(2),
%'
=^
we have
= y
K
of 
we have
i.e.
aJ)^
ajb^ =
(3).
The result (3) is the condition that both the equations and (2) should be true for the same values of x and y. The process of finding this condition is called the eliminating of X and y from the equations (1) and (2), and the result (3) is often called the eliminant of (1) and (2). Using the notation of Art. 4, the result (3) may be
(1)
'^
0.
is obtained from (1) and (2) by taking the x and y in the order in which they occur in the equations, placing them in this order to form a determinant, and equating it to zero.
This result
coefficients of
12.
we have a^x + a^y + a^^ = \x+ h^y^ h^z = G^x + G^y + C3S = unknown quantities
(2),
(3), x, y,
and
z.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
By
we have
X
z
three equations
Two
of
%,
ELIMINATION.
14.
If again
we have
a^x
dil/
cf'zZ
+ a^u =
0, 0,
h^x
Ci;
+ +
h^y
c^i/
+
+
b^z
+ + +
b^u
c^u
G^z
d.^z
0,
and
it
djX + d^y
d^ 0,
could be shewn that the result of eliminating the four quantities cc, y, z^ and u is the determinant
1J
CHAPTER
COORDINATES.
II.
and 15. Coordinates. Let be two fixed The line is straight lines in the plane of the paper. the axis of y, whilst the called the axis of cc, the line two together are called the axes of coordinates.
OX
07
OX
OY
The point
is
more
in
Distances measured parallel to or without a suffix, {e.g.Xj, x.^... x\ measured parallel to OY are called
suffix, (e.g.
2/i, 2/2,2/'.
OX
y",)
If the distances
OM and MP
the coordinates of
{x, y).
P are,
Conversely, when we are given that the coordinates of For from we a point are (x, y) we know its position. {x) along and have only to measure a distance
OM
OX
COORDINATES.
then from 21 measure a distance
{=y) parallel to arrive at the position of the point P. For example be equal to the unit of length and in the figure, if
MP
OY
and we
MP= WM,
16.
OM
the line OX' and backwards to become OY'. In Analytical Geometry we have the same rule as to signs that the student has already met with in Trigonometry. Lines measured parallel to OX are positive whilst those measured parallel to OX' are negative ; lines measured parallel to OY are positive and those parallel to OY' are
YO
negative.
quadrant YOX' and P^M^, drawn y, meet OX' in M^^ and if the numerical values of the quantities OM^ and J/aPg be a and h, the coordinates of P are {a and h) and the position of Pg is given by the symbol (a, h).
If
P2 b i^
*li
its
Similarly, if P3 be in the third quadrant X'OY', both of coordinates are negative, and, if the numerical lengths of Oi/3 and J/3P3 be c and d, then P3 is denoted by the
symbol (
positive
17.
c,
if
d).
Finally,
and
Ex.
(i)
P4
lie
1),
(ii)
(3,
and
(iii)
(2, 3).
To get the first point we measure a distance 2 along OX and then a distance 1 parallel to OF'; we thus arrive at the required point. To get the second point, we measure a distance 3 along OX', and then 2 parallel to OY. To get the third point, we measure 2 along OX' and then 3 parallel to OT. These three points are respectively the points P4 P., and Pg in
, ,
18. When the axes of coordinates are as in the figure of Art. 15, not at right angles, they are said to be Oblique Axes, and the angle between their two positive directions and 07, i.e. the angle XOY, is generally denoted by
OX
w.
10
In general,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
it is
however found
to
and OZat right angles. take the axes said to be Rectangular Axes.
OX
It may always be assumed throughout this book that the axes are rectangular unless it is otherwise stated.
few
spoken of in the last System of CoordiIt is so called because this system was first intronates. duced by the philosopher Des Cartes. There are other systems of coordinates in use, but the Cartesian system is by far the most important. 19.
of coordinates
articles is
The system
known
as the Cartesian
20.
To find
Let Pi and P^ be the two given points, and let their coordinates be respectively {x^ y^)
,
and
(a^sj 2/2)
Draw
rallel
to
J/j
and M^.
to
OX to meet M^P^ in R.
Then
jvT
We therefore have
P^P^^
 x^)
(2/1
 2/2) cos
(180
 (o)
= (XiX2)2 + (yj_y2)2+2(XiX2)(yiy2)COSCO...(l).
If the axes be, as is generally the case, at right angles,
we have
<o ==
90
0.
The formula
then becomes
(x,
P^P^ 
 x^Y +
(2/1
 y^Y^
11
SO that in rectangular coordinates the distance between the two points (x^j y^ and (ag, 2/2) is
V(Xi
is
 x^)^ +
(Yi
 y^)^
(2).
(x^, y^ from the origin Cor. The + 2/1^, the axes being rectangular. This follows from Jx^ (2) by making both x^ and y^ equal to zero.
case
The formula of the previous article has been proved for the when the coordinates of both the points are all positive.! Due regard being had to the signs of the coordinates, the formula
21.
As a numerical example, let Pj be the point (5, 6) and Pg be the point (7, 4), so that we have
and Then y2= ^.
P^ = 31^0 + OM^ = 7 + 5
and
RPt^ = EM^ + l/iPj = 4 + 6
Yi
2/1.
=
The
2/2 +
22. To find tJie coordinates of the point which divides in a given ratio (ni^ m^ the line joining two given jyoints
:
(a?!, 2/1)
and
(x^, y^).
M,
M
{x^, y^),
M,
X
(x^, y^),
Po the point
and
we have
12
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Let P be the point (sc, y) so that if P^M^, PM, and P^M^ be drawn parallel to the axis of y to meet the axis of C in i/i, Mj and M^, we have
Oi/i
MP = y,
QM^^x^,
and
2/2
Draw PiEi and PSg, parallel to OX, to meet J/P and M^P^ in Pi and Pg respectively. Then PjPi = M^^M^^ OM OM^ = xx^, PR^ = MM^ = OJ/2  0M= x,^  X, R,P^MPM,P, = yy,,
and
.
P2P2 = M^P^ 
MP = y^y.
x'
From
m^ m^
PjP PP^
PR^
i/VoOOi
x^
t.e.
x=
mi m^
ifvtt/Uey *T"
^^
Again

*
so that
yy.
2/22/'
{y
 3/1),
.
and hence
^^
Wi +
^^
7?22
The coordinates of the point which divides PiP^ internally in the given ratio rrii tyi^ are therefore
:
nil
If the point
+ ^2
Q
:
mi + nig
:
^^2
'^i
as
" ^^2
for the student.
The proof
an exercise
13
Cor.
joining
{x^,
of the line
23.
lohere
Ex.
the
1.
In any triangle
ABC 'prove
that
D is
B
Take
Let
pendicular to
5C
and a
line through
B i>er
BC
BG=a,
so that
is
the point
(a, 0),
and
let
be the point
Then
D is
C>
Hence Hence
^D2=ra;i
^Y + i/i^
::=
and
DG^=f~y.
2 (^D^ + DC^)
+ ?j^2^
_
2aa;i
and
Therefore
AB^=^x^\y^.
AB'^ + ^(72 = 'Ix^ +
2?/i2
+ a^.
Hence
This
is
Ex. 2. ABG is a triangle and D, E, and F are the middle points of the sides BG, GA, and ; prove that the point lohich divides 1 also divides the lines BE and GF in internally in the ratio 2
AB
:
AD
and G be
and

The
Let
coordinates of
D are therefore
^
^^
.
and
let its
AD
in the ratio 2
1,
By
2Xiy "T Xq
^_
So
2+1
3
^ ^1 + 3^2 + ^3
3
^^2/rt^^3.
14
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
In the same manner we could shew that these are th^ coordinates and CF in the ratio 2 : 1. of the points that divide Since the point whose coordinates are
BE
x^
+ x^ + x^ and ^L^2+l_3
3
3
it
lies
lines
This point
EXAMPLES.
I.
points.
5).
2.
7),
(4,
4.
6. 7.
and
(o, 6).
+ c, c + a) and
/3).
{c
+ a,
+ b).
and
{a cos
S,
a sin
in a figure the positions of the points (1,  3) and  2,1), and prove that the distance between them is 5. ( Find the value of x^ if the distance between the points [x^^, 2) 9. and (3, 4) be 8.
8.
Lay down
if
 3) 10. A line is of length 10 and one end is at the point (2, the abscissa of the other end be 10, prove that its ordinate must be 3 or  9.
11. Prove that the points (2a, 4a), (2a, 6a), and (2a + s/3a, oa) are the vertices of an equilateral triangle whose side is 2a.
12.
and
(1, 2)
are
13.
2),
(8, 4),
(5, 7),
and (1,
1) are
14. Prove that the point (  xV. f I) is the centre of the circle circumscribing the triangle whose angular points are (1, 1), (2, 3),
and ( 
2, 2).
of the point
which
(1,
3)
and
(2,
7) in
the
16.
divides the
same
4.
(
and
:
1,
2)
3.
[EXS.
18.
to
(
I.]
EXAMPLES.
(
15
3,
 8,
7) in
 4)
19. The line joining the points (1,  2) and find the coordinates of the points of trisection.
 3,
4) is trisected
20. The line joining the points (  6, 8) and (8,  6) is divided into four equal parts ; find the coordinates of the points of section.
and
rind the coordinates of the points which divide, internally externally, the line joining the point {a + b, ah) to the point (a&, a + 6) in the ratio a h.
21.
:
22.
{x^,
The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are [x^, y^ and (xg, y^. The line joining the first two is divided in
I
:
2/i)
the
line joining this point of division to the opposite angular point is then divided in the ratio : + Z. Find the coordinates of the latter point of section.
ratio
h,
and the
Jfc
23. Prove that the coordinates, x and y, of the middle point of the line joining the point (2,3) to the point (3, 4) satisfy the equation
xy + l=:0.
24.
If
ABC and O
be any other
and
25. Prove that the lines joining the middle points of opposite sides of a quadrilateral and the Une joining the middle points of its diagonals meet in a point and bisect one another.
B, G, D... are n points in a plane whose coordinates are 2/2)' (^3> 2/3)j* ^S is bisected in the point G^; G^G is (^i 2/i)> divided at G^ in the ratio 1:2; G^D is divided at G^ in the ratio 1:3; GgE at G^ in the ratio 1 4, and so on until all the points are exhausted. Shew that the coordinates of the final point so obtained are
26.
4,
(^2'
^1 + ^2
+ 3^3+ +^n
n
called the
^j^^ yi
+ y^ + Vz+''^Vn
n
[This point
points.]
is
27. Prove that a point can be found which distance from each of the four points
at
the
same
(am,,
^)
(a
^)
{am,,
^J
and
{am^m^,
^^)
rilateral
To prove that the area of a trapeziitm, i. e. a quadhaving two sides parallel, is one half the sum of the two parallel sides multiplied by the perpendicular distance
24.
between them.
16
Let
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
ABGD
AD
and
BC
parallel.
Join
dicular to AD^ produced if necessary. Since the area of a triangle is one B half the product of any side and the perpendicular drawn from the opposite angle,
we have
area
AL.
25. To find the area of the triangle^ the coordinates of whose angular 'points are given^ the axes being rectangular.
Let ABG be the triangle and let the coordinates of its angular points A, B and G be {x^, 2/1), (a?2, 2/2), and {x^, y^). Draw AL, BM, and Ci\^ perpendicular to the axis of x, and
let
Then
A == trapezium A LNG + trapezium GNMB trapezium A LMB = \LN {LA + NG) + \NM {NG + MB)  \LM (LA + MB),
by the
last article,
= i [(^3  ^1) (2/1 + ys) + {002  ^z) (2/2 + 2/3)  (^2  a^i) {Vi + 2/2)]On simplifying we easily have ^ ^ I (^172  XaYi + y^zYz  ^372 + XgYi  x^yg),
or the equivalent form
^=J
If
[^1
(2/2
 Vz) +
^2
(2/3
 2/1) + ^3
(2/1
we
 2/2)]. may be
written
2/1)
^
'
2/2?
2/35
^3j
Cor.
origin (0, 0)
triangle
is
(^12/2
^'22/1)*
AREA OF A QUADRILATERAL,
,
17
26. In the preceding article, if the axes be oblique, the perpendiculars AL, BM, and CN, are not equal to the ordinates y^ y^ and 2/3, but are equal respectively to yi sin w, 2/2 sin w, and y^ sin w.
,
The area
isin
{x^y^
xu
I.e.
yi, 1
fsm
wx
27. In order that the expression for the area in Art. 25 may be a positive quantity (as all areas necessarily are) the points A, B, and G must be taken in the order in which they would be met by a person starting from A and walking round the triangle in such a manner that the area of the triangle is always on his left hand. Otherwise the expressions of Art. 25 would be found to be negative.
28. To find the area of a quadrilateral the coordinates of whose angular foints are given.
order,
Let the angular points of the quadrilateral, taken in be A^ B, C, and D, and let their coordinates be
(x.^,,
y^), (x^,
y^\ and
{x^, y^).
CJV,
and
DH
of the quadrilateral
= ILR {LA + RD) + IRN (RD + NG) + ^NM {JVC + MB) lLM{LA\MB) _ 1 {(^4  ^1) + 2/4) + (^3  ^4) (2/3 + 2/4) + (^2  ^^) (2/3 + 2/2) (2/1  (a?2  x^) (2/1 + 2/2)} _ 1 {(^12/2  ^22/i) + fez^s  ^zvi) + {xsy4.  ^42/3) + (^42/i  ^y^)}'
L.
18
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
29. The above formula may also be obtained by drawing the lines OA, OB, OC and OD. For the quadrilateral
But the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle OBG are (0, 0), (ajg, 2/2) ^^^ (^35 2/3) ^ hence, by Art. 25, its area is ^ i^^y^ ^zV^)So for the other triangles.
^ h [(^22/3  a^32/2) + {^zVa,  ^m)  (^Wi  ^12/2)  {^i2/4  ^'42/l)l = i [{^^2  ^22/1) + (^22/3  ^32/2) + {^3y4  ^m) + (^42/l  ^l2/4)]In a similar manner it may be shewn that the area
of a polygon of n sides the coordinates of points, taken in order, are
(^IJ is
2/1/5
whose angular
V^2)
2/2/3
(^35
(^n2/i
 a'l^/ri)]
EXAMPLES.
II.
Find the areas of the triangles the coordinates of whose angular points are respectively
1.
(1, 3),
(
7, 6)
and
(5,
1).
2.
and
8,
 2).
3.
(5,2),
{a,
l>
4.
5. 6.
(9, 3) and (3, 5). + c), (a, hc) and {a, c).
{a, c)
{a,c
+ a),
(pi,
{a cos
b sin
<p^),
and
7. 8.
(a7?ij2^ 2a7?i;^),
[arn^^
2avi^.
^^cl
+ %)}
9.
lam,.
\am^,
and
Jawo,
Prove (by shewing that the area of the triangle formed by them a straight line :
(1,4), (3, 2),
is
10.
11.
and (3,16).
(i,
(.
12.
[EXS.
II.]
POLAR COORDINATES.
19
Find the areas of the quadrilaterals the coordinates of whose angular points, taken in order, are
13.
14. 15.
(1,1),
(3,4),
6),
(5,
2), and
(5,
(4,
7).
(3, 9).
(1,
If
(3, 9),
8), and
if
the coordinates of any two points and [x^, y.^, prove that
OP^ OP2
.
cos
30. Polar Coordinates. There is another method, which is often used, for determining the position of a point
in a plane.
Suppose to be a fixed point, called the origin or pole, and OX a fixed line, called the initial line.
join OP. angle
Take any other point P in the plane of the paper and The position of P is clearly known when the XOP and the length OP are given.
XOP
OP
is
OP
tells
the distance of
along this
which would be traced out by the line is called the in revolving from the initial line vectorial angle of and the length OP is called its radius vector. The two taken together are called the polar coordinates of P.
The angle
XOP
OP
OX
r,
the
position of
P is
positive
if it
along the line bounding the vectorial angle; measured in the opposite direction it is negative.
31.
(ii)
Ex.
Construct
the
positions
(iv)
of the
'points
(i)
(2,
80),
(3,
(vi)
ff\
To construct the first point, the radius vector revolve from OX through an angle of 30, and then mark off along it a distance equal to two units of length. We thus obtain the point P^.
let
/^
yC
'p
y
^
M"
(ii) For the second point, the radius vector revolves from OX through 150 and is then in the position OP^ ; measuring a distance 3 along it we arrive at Pg
22
20
COORDINATE GEOMETKY.
(iii) For the third point, let the radius vector revolve from OX through 45 into the position OL. We have now to measure along OL a distance  2, i.e. we have to measure a distance 2 not along OL but in the opposite direction. Producing iO to Pg, so that OP3 is 2 units of length, we have the required point P3.
get the fourth point, we let the radius vector rotate from 330 into the position and measure on it a distance 3, i.e. 3 in the direction produced. thus have the point P^y which is the same as the point given by (ii).
(iv)
To
OX through
MO
OM
We
(v) If the radius vector rotate through  210, position OP2, and the point required is Pg.
(vi)^
it
will
be in the
 30,
point, the radius vector, after rotating through in the position OM: then measure  3 along it, i.e. 3 in the direction produced, and once more arrive at the point Pg.
is
MO
We
32. It will be observed that in the previous example the same point P^ is denoted by each of the four sets of
polar coordinates
(3, 150),
(3, 330),
In general it v^ill by each of the polar coordinates (r, 0), ( r, 180 + 6), {r,  (360 or,
210) and (3, 30). be found that the same point is given
(3,
6%
co
ordinates
(r,
e\ {r,7r +
6), {r,
{ r,
(tt
$)}.
It is also clear that adding 360 (or any multiple of 360) to the vectorial angle does not alter the final position of the revolving line, so that {r, 6) is always the same point as (r, ^ + ?i 360), where n is an integer.
.
So, adding 180 or any odd multiple of 180 to the vectorial angle and changing the sign of the radius vector
gives the
same point as
before.
[r, ^
is
+ (2n + 1)180]
6
r,
180],
i.e. is
[r,
6\
33. To find the length of the straight line joining two points whose polar coordinates are given.
Let
A and B
(r^,
coordinates be
be the two points and let their polar 6y) and (r^, 6^ respectively, so that
lX0B = 6^,
POLAR COORDINATES.
Then (Trigonometry, Art. 164) AB"  OA'' + OB'' 20 A. OB cos = r^ + r^  2r^r^ cos {0^  6^.
21
AOB
34. To find the area of a triangle the coordinates of whose angular points are given.
(rg, ^3)
its
Let ABC be the triangle and be the polar coordinates of angular points. We have
let
(r^,
0^),
(r^,
62),
and
AABO=AOBC+aOCA
AOBA
Now
(1).
So
and
= ^r^r^ sin (^3  $^). A OCA = \0G OA sin CO A = ^r^r, sin (6,  6,), AOAB^^OA. OB sin AOB = ^r^r^ sin {6^  6.^ =  Jn^2 sin (^2  ^1).
.
Hence
(1) gives
\r<^r^
A ABC = J
35. Let
sin (^3 
6^ +
r^r^ (sin
0^
0^)
+ r^r^ sin
Coordinates,
{Oo
to
0^)].
Polar
and
conversely.
to rectangular axes, are x and y, and whose polar coordinates, reas as pole and ferred to initial line, are (r, 6). Draw Pit/'perpendicular to so that we have
OX
OX
X'
O:
OM=x,
and
MP = y, LMOP =
OP = r.
the triangle
e,
From
have
MOP
we
(1), (2),
(3),
x= y=
OM=OPcosMOP = rcosO
22
COORDINATE GEOMETRY,
and
Equations (1) and (2) express the Cartesian coordinates in terms of the polar coordinates. Equations
(3)
and
(4) express
Cartesian coordinates.
be in anyThe same relations will be found to hold if other of the quadrants into which the plane is divided by
XOX'
Ex.
and
YOT.
to
Change
{!) r
= asind,
and (2)r=a^cos.
a
r, it
(1)
i.e.
Q,
by equations
(2)
and
(3), x^\y^
= ay.
becomes
(1

(2), it
r=acos2 =
i. e.
+ cos^),
2^2
= ar + ar cos 6,
i.e.
i.e.
EXAMPLES.
Lay down
III.
L
5.
(3,45).
(2, 60).
6.
(1,
3.
(4,135).
(5,
4.
8.
(2,330).
(1, 180).
210).
7.
675).
(>
)
9.
(2a.^).
10.{a,l).
n.(2a.4').
30)
and
(4, 120).
13.
(7, 105).
14.
>
and ("'!)
[EXS. III.]
EXAMPLES.
(0, 0),
23
and
( 3,
(3,
)
form an equiJ
Find the areas of the triangles the coordinates of whose angular points are
16.
(1, 30), (2, 60),
and
(3, 90).
(5, 150),
and
(7,
210).
(^. i)'
('i)'^^*l(2.
x=^B,
y = l.
21.
x=l,
y = l.
Find the Cartesian coordinates (drawing a figure in each case) of the points whose polar coordinates are
22.
(5,
I).
23.
(6, I).
24.(5,^).
Change
25.
x^+y^=a\
26. y = xtana.
29. x^=y^{2ax).
30.
{x^
27. x^ + y^ = 2ax.
28. x^y^=2ay.
+ y^)^ = a^{x^y^).
r=a.
33. r = acos^.
36. 39^
o'^
= a2cos2^.
e
sin 2d =2a^.
r^=ai sin.
a
40.
'T
= 5h sin 6 cos
CHAPTER
LOCUS.
III.
EQUATION TO A LOCUS.
36. When a point moves so as always to satisfy a given condition, or conditions, the path it traces out is
called its
Locus under these conditions. For example, suppose to be a given point in the plane of the paper and that a point F is to move on the paper so shall be constant and equal to a. that its distance from
It
lie
is
and on the circumference of a circle whose centre is whose radius is a. The circumference of this circle is therefore the " Locus" of P when it moves subject to the shall be equal to the condition that its distance from
constant distance
a.
Again, suppose A and B to be two fixed points in the plane of the paper and that a point P is to move in the plane of the paper so that its distances from A and B If we bisect AB in G and through are to be always equal. it draw a straight line (of infinite length in both directions) perpendicular to AB, then any point on this straight line Also there is no is at equal distances from A and B. point, whose distances from A and B are the same, which This straight line is does not lie on this straight line. therefore the "Locus" of P subject to the assumed con
37.
dition.
to be
two
fixed points
APB AB
is
as diameter then
P may
be any
EQUATION TO A LOCUS.
25
point on the circumference of this circle, since the angle in a semicircle is a right angle; also it could easily be shewn that APB is not a right angle except when P lies under the The "Locus" of on this circumference. assumed condition is therefore a circle on 4^ as diameter.
39. One single equation between two unknown quanx and y, e.g. x+y=l (1), cannot completely determine the values of x and y.
tities
*\P6
\Q
vPs
^1?
OM
\1
Vs
\P
Such an equation has an infinite number of Amongst them are the followins:
a:
solutions.
= 0,1
26
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Similarly the point Pg,
(2,
1), and
P4,
(3,
2),
satisfy
the equation
(1).
Again, the coordinates (1, 2) of Pg and the coordinates (2, 3) of Pg satisfy equation (1).
that
the measurements carefully we should find the points we obtain lie on the line P^P^ (produced both ways).
On making
all
Again, if we took any point Q, lying on P^P^, and draw to OX, we should find on measurement a perpendicular that the sum of its x and y (each taken with its proper sign) would be equal to unity, so that the coordinates of Q
QM
would
satisfy (1).
(1),
Also we should find no point, whose coordinates satisfy which does not lie on P1P2.
All the points, lying on the straight line P1P2, and no others are therefore such that their coordinates satisfy the equation (1).
This result is expressed in the language of Analytical Geometry by saying that (1) is the Equation to the Straight Line P^P^.
40.
+ 2/2 = 4
(1).
Amongst an
x = 2A
infinite
number
x= J?>\ V3
x = J'I\
J\
x=^i x^l
2/=2r
x = '2,\ 2/^0
53
2/=x/3r
2/=V2
x=
y=i
x = l,
r
\
r
'
J2A
3/=v2r
y=si^)'
= 0, 2/ = 2j
x=l,
y
V3/'
EQUATION TO A LOCUS.
27
28
If
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
a large number of values of x and the corresponding values of ?/, the points thus obtained would be found all to lie on the curve in the figure.
we took
Both
Also,
of its branches
would be found
to stretch
away
to
with
took any point on this curve and measured accuracy its x and y the values thus obtained would be found to satisfy equation (1). Also we should not be able to find any point, not lying on the curve, whose coordinates would satisfy (1). In the language of Analytical Geometry the equation This curve is called (1) is the equation to the above curve. a Parabola and will be fully discussed in Chapter X.
if
we
sufficient
If a point move so as to satisfy any given condition describe some definite curve, or locus, and there can always be found an equation between the x and y of any
42.
it will
This equation
curve.
is
Hence
Def.
Equation to a curve.
The equation
to
curve is the relation which exists between the coordinates of any foint on the curve^ and which holds for no other points except those lying on the curve.
43.
will be
locus.
both ways).
is
x'^
y'^^ 4,
and the
definite
the dotted
circle.
Again the equation 2/ = 1 states that the moving point is such that its ordinate is always unity, i.e. that it is always at a distance 1 from the axis of x. The definite path, or locus, is therefore a straight line parallel to and at a distance unity from it.
OX
EQUATION TO A LOCUS.
44.
29
In the next chapter it will be found that if the equation be of the first degree {i.e. if it contain no products, squares, or higher powers of x and y) the locus
corresponding is always a straight line. If the equation be of the second or higher degree, the corresponding locus is, in general, a curved line.
45.
We append
the algebraic
is
its
distances
equal
to
a constant quantity a;
Take the two straight lines as the axes of coordinates. Let {x, y) be any point satisfying the given condition. We then ha,wex + y = a. This being the relation connecting the coordinates of any point on the locus is the equation to the locus. It will be found in the next chapter that this equation represents
a straight
line.
Ex. 2. The sum of the squares of the distances of a moving point from the tioo fixed points {a, 0) and {a, 0) is equal to a constant quantity 2c^. Find the equation to its locus. Let (a;, y) be any position of the moving point. Then, by Art. 20,
the condition of the question gives
{
[x
 af + /} +
{ (a;
+ af + if] = 2c\
i.Ci
This being the relation between the coordinates of any, and every, point that satisfies the given condition is, by Art. 42, the equation to the required locus. This equation tells us that the square of the distance of the point {x, y) from the origin is constant and equal to c^  a^, and therefore the locus of the point is a circle whose centre is the origin.
is
Ex. 3. A point moves so that its distance from the point (1,0) always three times its distance from the point (0, 2).
satisfies
We
i.e.
every, point
This being the relation between the coordinates of each, and that satisfies the given relation is, by Art. 42, the
required equation. It will be found, in a later chapter, that this equation represents a circle.
30
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
EXAMPLES.
:
IV.
41,
sketch
2x + dy = l0.
a;24aa; + ?/2 + 3a2
2.
^xy = l.
5.
y'^
3.
x'^2axVy'^ = Q.
6.
4.
= 0.
= x.
^x = y^^.
A and B being the fixed points (a, 0) and ( obtain the equations giving the locus of P, when
8.
9.
PA"^
10.
11.
is
12. Find the locus of a point whose distance from the point equal to its distance from the axis of y.
(1, 2)
Find the equation to the locus of a point distant from the points whose coordinates are
13.
15.
(1, 0)
which
(2, 3)
is
and
(0,
2).
14.
and
{a
b,
three times
its
distance from
17. its distance from the point tance from the axis of y. 18. the
to 3.
(a, 0)
is
its dis
sum
is
equal
4.
its
equal to
20.
its
from
21.
(0, 2).
its
is
its
from the
fixed point is at a perpendicular distance a from a fixed 22. straight line and a point moves so that its distance from the fixed point is always equal to its distance from the fixed line. Find the equation to its locus, the axes of coordinates being drawn through the fixed point and being parallel and perpendicular to the given
line.
and
23. In the previous question if the first distance be (1), always half, (2), always twice, the second distance, find the equations to the
respective loci.
CHAPTER
THE STRAIGHT
LINE.
IV.
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES.
46. To find the equation to a straight line which is parallel to one of the coordinate axes.
Let CL be any line parallel to the axis of y and passing through a point C on the axis of x such that OG = c. Let F be any point on X and y.
this line
Then the
always
c,
is
so that
x=c
(1).
This being true for every point on the line CL (produced indefinitely both ways), and for no other point, is, by Art. 42, the equation to the line.
coordinate
2/
= 0.
47. To find the equation to a st7'aight line which cuts off a given intercept on the axis of y and is inclined at a given angle to the axis of x. Let the given intercept be
c
and
let
32
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
of y such that
Let C be a point on the axis Through C draw a straight line Z(7Z' inclined at an angle a (= tan~^ m) to the axis of x^
so that tan a
OC
is
c.
m.
The straight line LCL' is therefore the straight line required, and we have to 'l find the relation between the lying on coordinates of any point
^^ ^^ O
it.
MX
^a
line
through
to
OX
cu
to
meet in
?/
be
and
so that
OM=x
c,
MP
MN =C]Srt^iia + 00 = m.x +
y = mx+c.
i.e.
This relation being true for any point on the given straight line is, by Art. 42, the equation to the straight
line.
[In this, and other similar cases, it could be shewn, is only true for points lying
Cor.
of
2/,
the origin,
is
to any straight line passing through which cuts off a zero intercept from the axis found by putting c O and hence is 3/ = mx.
The equation
i.e.
48. The angle a which is used in the previous article is the angle through which a straight line, originally parallel to OZ, would have to turn in order to coincide with the given direction, the rotation being always in the positive direction. Also m is always the tangent In the case of such a straight line as AB, in the figure of this angle. is equal to the tangent of the angle PAX (not of the of Art. 50, angle PAO). In this case therefore wi, being the tangent of an obtuse angle, is a negative quantity.
The student should verify the truth of the equation on the straight line LCL', and also
for such a straight line as
latter case
A^B^ in the
both
and
c are negative
careful consideration of all the possible cases of a few propositions will soon satisfy him that this verification is not always necessary, but that it is sufficient to consider the standard figure.
THE STRAIGHT
LINE.
33
49. Ex. The equation to the straight line cutting off an intercept 3 from the negative direction of the axis of y, and inclined at 120 to the axis of a;, is
i.e.
i.e.
50.
off given
1^0
find
which cuts
i7itercepts
a and
OX
h.
and
OY
respectively,
and be
AB
and produce
Let
it in
be
PM
to
OX.
We require the
By
Euc. YI.
4,
relation that
3/,
so
we have
OM_PB
OA~AB'
OA
X
^.e.
MP _AP
^"""^
'OB~AB
AB
1,
OM MP PB + AP = +
OB
a
This
lying on
51.
is
y
D
therefore the required equation ; for it is the between the coordinates of any point the given straight line.
in the preceding article
The equation
may
he also obtained
by expressing the fact that the sum of the areas of the triangles and OPB is equal to OAB, so that
OP A
52. Ex. 1. Find the equation to through the point (3,  4) and cutting
opposite signs,
straight
off intercepts,
from
a.
34
The equation
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
to the straight line is then
a
i.e.
a
xy = a
3(4) = a,
(1).
(3,
Since, in addition, the straight line is to go through the point 4), these coordinates must satisfy (1), so that
a = l.
is
therefore
xy = 7.
Ex. 2. Find the equation to the straight line lohich passes through the point (5, 4) and is such that the portion of it between the axes is divided by the point in the ratio ofl 2.
:
Let the required straight line be a in the points whose coordinates are {a,
+ t = 1. b
0)
and
The coordinates
the
2(1
line
joining these
2.a+1.0
If this
2.0 + 1.&
i.e,^
and .
be the point
5, 4)
we have
,
,
a=Y and
required straight line
is
= 12.
The
therefore
X y i^^l2
I.e.
'
oy
8a;
= 60.
a straight
line in tenns
53.
the
To find
the equation to
of
perpendicular let fall upon it from the origin and the angle that this perpendicular makes with the axis of x.
Let be jo.
OR
and
let its
length
OR
makes
co
Let
ordinates are x and y, lying on draw the ordinate PM, and also perpendicular to OR and perpendicular to ML.
AB
PN
ML
',
85
(1),
OL = OMco^a
LR = NP = MF&inNMP.
But
Hence, adding
Oil/ cos a
i.e.
=79,
X COS a + y sin a = p.
This
is
54. In Arts. 47 53 we have found that the corresponding equations are only of the first degree in x and y. shall now prove that
We
Any
sents
i7i
a straight line. For the most general form of such an equation is Ax + By^C = ^ (1), which do where A^ B, and C are constants, i.e. quantities not contain x and y and which remain the same for all points on the locus. Let (cCi, 2/1), (a?2) 2/2)) ^iicl (rt's, 2/3) be any three points on
the locus of the equation
(1).
Since the point {x^, y^) lies on the locus, its coordinates when substituted for x and y in (1) must satisfy it.
Hence
So and
Ax^ +
Ry^+C=0
(2).
C^O
(3),
(4).
ys+C =
Since these three equations hold between the three quantities A, B, and C, we can, as in Art. 12, eliminate them.
The
result is
=
^35
2/35

(5).
But, by Art. 25, the relation (5) states that the area of the triangle whose vertices are (x^, y^), (x^, 3/2)5 ^^^ (^3> 2/3) is
zero.
locus.
32
36
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
The
locus
must therefore be a straight line ; for a curved not be such that the triangle obtained by joining any three points on it should be zero.
line could
55.
The proposition
may also
be deduced
% + (7=0
may be
and
written
A C y= x^,
same
as the straight line
this is the
y = mx + c,
if
?3i= and
x>
=
is
But in Art. 47 it was shewn that y = mx + c was the equation to a straight line cutting off an intercept c from the axis of y and inclined at an angle tan~^m to the axis of x.
The equation
Ax + By + C=0
an intercept  from
x>
to the axis of x.
first
56.
degree
We
Ax + By + C =
(1)
to the form of Art. 53. For, if p be the perpendicular from the origin on (1) and a the angle it makes with the axis, the equation to the straight line must be
(2).
as
Hence
p
cos a
cos a
ABC
sin a
\/cos^
(1).
p
a + sin^ a
1
sin a
C
Hence
cos a 
A
B

Ja^ + B'
sJa^'
+ B^
A
s/A^
sm a =
B
,
^ and p =
C
sfA^
+ B^'
\fA'
+ B''
it
+ B^ form (2)
so that the
negative.
THE STRAIGHT
57.
LINE.
37
Ex.
Reduce
to tlie
Here
Dividing
(1)
by
2,
we have
i.e.
^(i)+y(^)i=o,
X cos 240 + y sin 240  1 = 0.
i.e.
58.
To
an equation of
Ax + By + G =
(a)
(1).
A
Comparing
this
B
we
see that it
represents a straight
off intercepts
(J ^
and
jO
therefore known.
be
zero, the
equation
(1)
A
and thus (by Art.
47, Cor.)
represents a straight
I
hne
~ r)
known.
The
straight line
may
also be traced
it.
by
firnding
we put y
in (1)
we have x r.
JL
The point
therefore lies
on
it.
i'i')
38
If
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
we put
G^
lies
oj
= 0, we have
it.
2/
= ^
(.)
line.
on
Ex.
lines
(2)
7a;
3a;4i/
7 = 0;
(4)
+ 8y + 9 = 0j
2/= 2.
(3)
%y = x',
x = ^i
(5)
Putting 2/ = 0, we have rc= , (1) and putting x = Q, we have y = ^. Measuring 0A^{= ^) along the axis
the Hne.
of
Hence
Measuring OB^ (=t) along the axis of y we have another point. A^B^ produced both ways, is the required line,
,
Putting in succession y and x equal to zero, we have the (2) intercepts on the axes equal to  f and  f. If then 042= f and 0^2=  , we have A^B^, the required line.
(3)
The point
(0, 0) satisfies
is
on
the line.
(3,
1),
i.e.
C.^,
on
it.
The required
line is
The line ic = 2
is,
by
and passes
The line y=  2 is parallel to the axis of x and passes through (5) the point B^ on the axis of y, such that 0B^=  2.
60.
39
 and from
Ji.
the axes of
Jj
is infinitely great.
The equation of the straight line the form y = constant, and hence, as in
vanish, but not A or C, the straight line meets So if the axis of y at an infinite distance and is therefore parallel
to
it.
If A and both vanish, but not C, these two intercepts are both infinite and therefore the straight line Q .x + .y + C = is altogether at infinity.
The multiplication of an equation by a constant Thus the equations it. and 10a; 152/+ 25 2a;32/+5 = represent the same straight line. Conversely, if two equations of the first degree represent the same straight line, one equation must be equal to the other multiplied by a constant quantity, so that the ratios of the corresponding coefficients must be the same. For example, if the equations and A^^x + B^y + Cj = a^x + \y + Ci = we must have
61.
does not alter
!
CjL
62. To jind the equation to the straight line which passes through the two given points {x\ y') and (x", y").
By By
any
straight line
is
mx VG
(1).
make
and properly determining the quantities (1) represent any straight line we please.
(a;',
we can
y')^
we have
(2).
= mas' + c
the equation (1) becomes
Substituting for
from
(2),
yy' = m(xx')
(3).
40
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY.
This is the equation to the line going through (x\ y') making an angle tan~^ with OX. If in addition (3) passes through the point {x", y"), then
y
*
*
y=m{x
ti
x),
r
y
X'
y

(3),
we
'
63.
Ex.
Find
the
the straight
line
which passes
3)
and
(4,
2).
y=mx + c
Since
(1)
(1).
first
c,
point,
we have
3=m +
Hence
(1)
so that c =
m + S.
(2).
becomes
y = mx + m + S
goes through the second point,
so that
we have
2 = 47?i + m + 3,
Hence
(2)
m=
1.
becomes
y=x + 2,
i.e.
x + y = 2.
Or, again, using the result of the last article the equation is
y + x=2.
64.
To
fix definitely
we
must have always two quantities given. Thus one point on the straight line and the direction of the straight line will determine it; or again two points lying on the straight
line will determine
it.
Analytically, the general equation to a straight line two arbitrary constants, which will have to be determined so that the general equation may represent any particular straight line.
will contain
Thus, in Art. 47, the quantities and c which remain the same, so long as we are considering the same straigld line, are the two constants for the straight line.
EXAMPLES.
41
Similarly, in Art. 50, the quantities a and h are the constants for the straight line.
65. In any equation to a locus the quantities x and y, which are the coordinates of any point on the locus, are
called Current Coordinates
;
the curve
may
be conceived as
EXAMPLES.
V.
Find the equation to the straight line 1. cutting off an intercept unity from the positive direction of the axis of y and inclined at 45 to the axis of x. 2. cutting off an intercept  5 from the axis of y and being equally
inclined to the axes.
3. cutting off an intercept 2 from the negative direction of the axis of y and inclined at 30 to OX.
4.
an angle tan~i f
5. 6.
and inclined
at
 5 and
Find the equation to the straight line which passes through the point (5, 6) and has intercepts on the axes equal in magnitude and both positive, (1) equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. (2)
7.
8.
the point
Find the equations to the straight lines which pass through (1,  2) and cut off equal distances from the two axes.
9. Find the equation to the straight line which passes through the given point {x\ y') and is such that the given point bisects the part intercepted between the axes.
10. Find the equation to the straight line which passes through the point (  4, 3) and is such that the portion of it between the axes is divided by the point in the ratio 5 3.
:
3a;
+ 2?/+3 = 0. + 7r/ = 0.
12. 14.
5a7//9
2a;3?/
= 0.
through the
(5, 6).
+ 4 = 0.
Find the equations to the straight lines passing following pairs of points.
15.
17.
(0, 0)
and
3)
(2,
2). 7).
16.
18.
(3, 4)
and
(1,
and
(6,
(0,
a) and
(&, 0).
42
19.
(a, &)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
and
{a
[Exs. v.]
+ h, ah).
(at^^ 2at;).
20. 22.
23.
and
21.
(p^,
(a^)and(a^j.
^a)
a sin
<pi)
and
(a cos
a sin
24.
Find the equations to the sides of the whose angular points are respectively
25. 26.
(1,4), (2,3),
(0,1), (2,0),
and (1,2).
27. Find the equations to the diagonals of the rectangle the equations of whose sides are x = a, x = a\ y = b, and y = b\
28. Find the equation to the straight line which bisects the distance between the points {a, b) and {a', b') and also bisects the distance between the points (  a, b) and (a',  b'). 29. Find the equations to the straight lines which go through the origin and trisect the portion of the straight line 3a; + 2/ = 12 which is intercepted between the axes of coordinates.
lines.
To find the angle between two given straight lines. Let the two straight lines be AL^ and AL^j meeting the axis of X in L^ and L^,
I.
y m^x^G^ and y ~ in.j,x ^r c.^ By Art. 47 we therefore have tan^ZjA'^mi, and td^Vi. AL.^X^Wj.^,.
Now
rn^
1
n^
+mii2
43
= tani
"'^""'^
+ mim2
(2)
(2).
be a positive quan;
if
negative,
II.
lines
be
and
B^, they
may be
written
and
44
67.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
To find
the condition that
may
he parallel.
Two
straight lines are parallel when the angle between therefore the tangent of this angle is zero.
(2) of the last article
then gives
straight lines whose equations are given in the "m" form are therefore parallel when their "7?i's" are the same, or, in other words, if their equations differ only in the constant term.
Two
The straight line Ax + By + G' = parallel to the straight line Ax + By two equations are the same.
is
any straight
the
line
which
is
+ C = 0. For
"m's"
of the
Again the equation A {xx')+B {yy') = clearly represents the straight line which passes through the point {x', y') and is parallel to
Ax + By + C=0.
The
68.
Ex.
Find
(4,
the equation to the straight line, which passes  5), and which is parallel to the straight line
3:c
+ 4r/ + 5=0
has
its
(1).
Any
form
straight line
which
is parallel to (1)
3a;
equation of the
(2).
+ 4^/ + (7=0
(2) is
[For the
"w"
of both (1)
and
the same.]
(4,
 5)
if
3x4 + 4x(5) + C = 0,
i.e. if
(7=2012 = 8.
(2)
The equation
then becomes
3a;+42/
+ 8 = 0.
two
st^'aight linesj
69.
To find
whose
may
lines
he 'perpendicular.
be
iCi,
\ G.2_.
and
y m^x y m.^x
CONDITIONS OF PERPENDICULARITY.
If
45
(1).
90,
and therefore
tan
= 00
be
infinite,
The righthand member of equation (1) must therefore and this can only happen when its denominator
is zero.
The condition
1
O,
i.e.
Tn^Tn2
c.^
I.'
The
to
straight line y
if
tu^x
is
therefore perpendicular
y = ...H.c.,
, = !.
y/c't
A^x +B^y + C^ =
for
which m^ =
and
m^^ ^
/
if
AA a)
i.e.
a
70.
_ V A^A^+B^B^ = 0.
A,,
From
it
two
straight lines
A^x + B,y + Ci = Q
(1),
and
are at right angles
;
B,xA,y+C^ =
for the product of their m's
(2),
Also
of
a;
derived from (1) by interchanging the coefficients y, changing the sign of one of them, and changing the constant into any other constant.
(2) is
and
Ex.
where
The
(x', y')
perpendicular to
(1) is (2)
B^x'
therefore
B,{xx')A^{yy') = 0.
46
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
71. Ex. 1. Find the equation to the straight line which passes through the point (4, 5) and is perpendicular to the straight line
Sx + 4ij + 5 =
First Method.
last article
(1).
Any
4:XSij
+ C=0
(2).
[We should expect an arbitrary constant in (2) because an infinite number of straight lines perpendicular to (1).] The straight line (2) passes through the point (4,  5) if
i.e.
there are
therefore
4:XSy = 31.
Any
the given
y {5)=m{x~4:).
This straight line
m's
is
is
perpendicular to
(1) if
1,
i.e. if
i.e. if
mX
is
 1) = 
1,
m=.
therefore
y + 5=i{x4),
4:X'6y
= Sl.
Third Method.
the point
It is
(4,
Any
if
straight line is
y=mx + c.
It
passes through
(3).
 5),
5 = 4m + c
(1) if
perpendicular to
mx{i)=l
Hence m = f and then (3) gives c = V. The required equation is therefore y = '^x^^,
i.e.
(4).
4xBy = Sl.
[In the first method, we start with any straight line which is perpendicular to the given straight line and pick out that particular straight line which goes through the given point. In the second method, we start with any straight line passing through the given point and pick out that particular one which is perpendicular to the given straight hne. In the third method, we start with any straight line whatever and determine its constants, so that it may satisfy the two given conditions.
illustrate
by
figures. ]
Ex. 2. Find the equation to the straight line which passes through the point (x', y') and is perpendicular to the given straight line
yy' = 2a {x
+ x').
THE STRAIGHT
The given Any
straight line is
LINE.
47
yy'
 2ax  2ax' = 0.
(1).
2ay + xy'+G=0
This will pass through the point
straight line required
if
(x', y')
i.eAt
i.e. if
xY+C = 0,
is
Substituting in
(1) for
therefore
2a{yy')
+ y'{xx') = 0.
72. To find the equations to the straight lines which pass through a given point (x', t/') and make a given angle a with the given straight line y nix + c.
Let
P be
= m.
In general
a
is
are
FNS
the given
Let these
the axis of
x.
lines
The equations
to the
lines are
and
(1),
(2).
6*,
Now
and
= L LMR + L RLM = a +
<^'^L
Hence
tan
<^
= tan (a + ^) tan
</>'
^.
.j
^
ff
tana + m
i
m tan a
.
and
.
= tan
tan d
1
80
 a)
= tan (^
a)
= ^
tan a
p,
+ tan
m tan a
.,
tan a
+7n tan a
48
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
(2),
On substituting these values in (1) and the required equations + tan a ^ ^ ^ 1mtana^
,
we have
as
,,
and
yy = 1 + m 1 a \^  ^ ^ ^ tan
1
m tan a
,.
EXAMPLES.
VI.
Find the angles between the pairs of straight lines 1. xijsj^ ^ and ^/3a;+2/ = 7. 3. 2/ = 3a3 + 7 and 3?/a; = 8. 2. ic4?/ = 3 and ^xy = ll.
= (2V3)a: + 5 and 2/= (2 + ^/3) a; 7. {m'^mn)y = (inn^n^)x + n^ and (?n7H m^) y = (??i?i  w'^) a; + m^ 5. 6. Find the tangent of the angle between the lines whose intercepts on the axes are respectively a,  6 and 6,  a. 7. Prove that the points (2,  1), (0, 2), (2, 3), and (4, 0) are the
4.
2/
coordinates of the angular points of a parallelogram and find the angle between its diagonals.
3)
and perpendicular
to
the
6,
10)
and perpendicular
to the
straight line
+ 8?/ = 5.
(2,
10. passing through the point straight line joining the points (5,
7)
and
to the
11. passing through the point (4, straight line joining (1, 3) and (2, 7). 12.
to the
drawn
at right angles to
it
13. Find the equation to the straight line which bisects, and is perpendicular to, the straight line joining the points (a, b) and
(a',
&')
14. Prove that the equation to the straight line which passes through the point {a cos^ 6, a sin^ 6) and is perpendicular to the straight line xsecd + y cosec d = ais x cos dy sin d = a cos 26. 15. Find the equations to the straight lines passing through {x', y')
and
xxf\yy'=a\
[Exs. VI.]
EXAMPLES.
XX
a
49
yy
62
= 1,
which divide, internally
and
16.
x'y
+ xy' = a.
 4)
in the ratio of 4
:
and and
to the straight lines externally, the line joining (3,7) to (5, which are perpendicular to this line.
17. Through the point (3, 4) are drawn two straight lines each inclined at 45 to the straight line xy = 2. Find their equations and find also the area included by the three lines.
18.
Shew
(3,
the point
that the equations to the straight lines passing through 2) and incHned at 60 to the line
iJ3x + y = l are y
+2=
and y
J3x + 2 + 3^S = 0.
19. Find the equations to the straight lines which pass through the origin and are inclined at 75 to the straight line
x + y + ^S{yx) = a.
20. Find the equations to the straight lines which pass through the point {h, k) and are inclined at an angle tan~'^m to the straight
line
y = mx + c. Find the angle between the two straight lines 3a; = 4?/ + 7 and 5y = 12x + 6 and also the equations to the two straight lines which pass through the point (4, 5) and make equal angles with the two
21.
given lines.
73. To sheiv that the point (x', y') is on one side or the other of the straight line Ax + By +(7 = according as the quantity Ax + By' + C is positive or negative.
Let
ix\ y).
LM
any point
Through
the axis of
straight line
P
3/,
draw P^,
to
parallel to
ordinates of
y").
line,
Since
lies
on the given
^c'
we
i>x:x
have
%" + C=:0,
Ax + C
so that
.(1).
It is clear from the figure that PQ is drawn parallel to the positive or negative direction of the axis of y according as is on one side, or the other, of the straight line LM^ i.e. according as y" is > or < y\ i.e. according as y" y is positive or negative.
L.
50
COORDINATE GEOMETKY.
Now, by
(1),
The point
{x
LM according
positive.
y') is therefore on one side or the other of as the quantity Ax' + By' + C is negative or
^
Cor.
The point
signs,
(cc',
y')
and the
origin are
on the same
two quantities have opposite signs, then the and the point (x, y') are on opposite sides of the
given
line.
The condition that two points may lie on the !74. same or opposite sides of a given line may also be obtained by considering the ratio in which the line joining the two points is cut by the given line. For let the equation to the given line be
Ax + ByC=0
and and
7?ii
:
(1),
[x^,
let
y^
(a?2, 2/2)
The coordinates
vu the
Tn^
TYi.j
7)1^
+ m^
''
on the given
^
line
we have
^
m^x^ + m^x^
mj + mg
so that
^1
.
m^y^ + m^y^
m^ + m^
^2/2
^^^
'
^1 _i = m^
+G _^ + w^Ti Ax^ +^
Ax.\By.
/,
(3
If the point (2) be between the two given points {x^, y^) and (x^, 2/2), i.e. if these two points be on opposite sides of the given line, the ratio in^ 711^ is positive.
:
In this case, by (3) the two quantities Ax^ + By^ + C and Ax^ + By^ + C have opposite signs. The two points (a?i, y^ and {x^^ y^) therefore lie on the op
LENGTHS OF PEKPENDICULARS.
51
posite (or the same) sides of the straight line Ax + By + (7 = according as the quantities Ax^ + By^ + G and Ax.^ + By.^ + G
have opposite
(or the
same) signs.
Lengths of perpendiculars.
75. To find the length of the perpendicular let fcdl from, a given point upon a given straight line.
.
(i)
CCOSa+
so that, if
2/
sin a
p=
it,
(1),
be the perpendicular on
we have
Through P draw PR parallel to the given line to meet OiV produced in R and draw PQ the required perpendicular. If OR be 2^'i the equation to PR is, by Art. 53,
X
c'
cos a
2/
^^^ ^
~P'
y\ we have
+ 2/' sin
a.p' = 0,
2/'
so that
p = x' cos a +
sin
a.
(2).
The length of the required perpendicular is therefore obtained by substituting x and y for x and y in the given
Let the equation to the straight line be
Ax + By + G=^0
the equation being written so that
(7 is
(3),
a negative quantity.
42
52
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
As
is
(1)
by dividing
by V^^ + B^.
It then becomes
^A^^B"
slA^^B"
,
^A^\E'
^ and
y')
Hence
cos a
A
,,
,
sm a =
=
_
B
,
G
^A'^
^'A^
+ B^'
\/J''
+ B''
The
therefore
sin
The length
of the perpendicular
from (x,
y')
on
(3) is
therefore obtained by substituting x and y for x and 2/ in the lefthand member of (3), and dividing the result so obtained by the square root of the sum of the squares of
y.
Cor. 1.
origin
Cor. 2. The length of the perpendicular is, by Art. 73, positive or negative according as {x y) is on one side or
^
line.
may
also
be
in the figure of the last article let the straight line the axes in L and M^ so that meet
As
OL^ %
A
and
0M=%,.
Let PQ be the perpendicular from F (re', y'^ on the given line and PS and PT the perpendiculars on the axes
of coordinates.
its
since the area of a triangle is one half the product of base and perpendicular height,
PT.
EXAMPLES.
53
since
(7 is
a negative quantity.
Hence
so that
P<?r=
Ax' + By' +
Ja^ + b^
EXAMPLES.
1.
VII.
upon the
straight line
^
3a;
+ 4?/ = 10.
2.
upon the
(
straight line
 j=l.
3.
the point
 3, 
4)
upon the
straight line
12{x + 6) = 5{y2).
4.
the point
(&, a)
upon the
straight line
=! upon the
Find the length of the perpendicular from the origin 5. straight line joining the two points whose coordinates are
{a cos a, 6.
a sin
a)
and
(a cos
j8,
a sin
j8).
Shew
(
two points
h^, 0)
upon the
^
straight line
 cos a
7.
+^
sin
^= 1
is 62.
If
p and
straight lines
p' he the perpendiculars from the origin upon the whose equations are x sec ^ + ^ cosec 6 = a and a; cos ^  2/ sin ^ = a cos 2^,
prove that
8.
4Lp^+p'^
a'^.
Find the distance between the two parallel straight lines y = mx + c and y = mx + d. What are the points on the axis of x whose perpendicular 9. X 1/ distance from the straight line  + ~ =lis a^
ah
10. Shew that the perpendiculars let fall from any point of the straight line 2a; + 11?/ = 5 upon the two straight lines 24a; + 7t/ 20 and 4a; 3?/ = 2 are equal to each other.
54
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[EXS. VII.l
of
11. Find the perpendicular distance from the origin perpendicular from the point (1, 2) upon the straight line
the
To find the coordinates of the foint of intersection 77. two given straight lines. of
Let the equations
of the
a^x
two straight
h{y
522/
lines
be
(1), {2)5
Ci
and and
let
fta^^
+ ^2 =
as in the figure
of Art. 66.
Since (1) is the equation of AL^^ the coordinates of any So the coordipoint on it must satisfy the equation (1). nates of any point on AL^ satisfy equation (2).
Now the only point which is common to these straight lines is their point of intersection A.
The coordinates both (1) and (2).
If therefore
of
two
this point
must therefore
t/i)?
satisfy
be the point
ia^i
{x^,
Ci
<^2
^^ have
(3),
+ ^i2/i +
+ 522/i +
= =
and
Solving
(3)
a2^i
W
and
^x
(4)
we have
(as in Art. 3)
2/1
\__
common
point are
h.^c^
c^a^
c^a^
found
a^^ajb^
a}><^a^^
78.
The coordinates
a^^
are parallel
if
a^hi
0.
straight lines
Hence
parallel lines
is
as lines
whose
point of intersection
at an infinite distance.
CONCUKEENCE OF STRAIGHT
79.
ineet
LINES.
55
may
and
(1),
(2),
(3).
Art. 77 the coordinates of the point of intersection of (1) and (2) are
By
J
and jf
J
(4).
If the three straight lines meet in a point, the point of intersection of (1) and (2) must lie on (3). Hence the values (4) must satisfy (3), so that
0iCn
3 X ^r
i. e.
Oc\C\
t
T
^3 X
V
C\Cto
C.^Cti
~Y
C3
0,
a^ (b^c^ ai (b^c^
b^c^)
i. e.
+ 63 b^c^) + b^
c^ (a^b^ Cj
. . ,
(5).
Aliter. If, the three straight lines meet in a point let be (ccj, 2/1), so that the values x\ and y^ satisfy the it equations (1), (2), and (3), and hence
a^x^
and
6i2/i
0,
0,
0.
The condition that these three equations should hold between the two quantities x^ and y^ is, as in Art. 12,
^3
^3 )
<^3
which
is
(5).
80.
If
whether the three straight meet in a point is the following. any three quantities ^p, q, and r can be found so
criterion as to
Another
that
(ajX
b^y
+ C;^) + q
(a^x
b.2y
c^)
r (a^x
b^y
Cg)
identically,
56
For in
a^x
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
this case
we have
(a^x
h^y
Cg =:
h^y
Cj)
{a^x
h^y
+ Co)
(!).
Now
first
two of the lines make the righthand side of (1) vanish. Hence the same coordinates make the lefthand side vanish. The point of intersection of the first two therefore satisfies the equation to the third line and all three therefore meet
in a point.
81. dx + ^y
If
Ex.
1.
Shew
9a;
1 = 0, and
5y 4 8 =
+ 5 = 0,
2,
and 
we have
identically
32/
+ 5) + 2 (3x
I
4t/  7)
2
(9a;
5?/ F 8)
= 0.
The coordinates of the point of intersection of the first two lines make the first two brackets of this equation vanish and hence make
the third vanish.
therefore therefore
satisfies
of intersection of the first two the third equation. The three straight lines
meet in a
Prove that the three 'perpendiculars draicn from the vertices of a triangle upon the opposite sides all meet in a point. Let the triangle be ABC and let its angular points be the points
2.
Ex.
to
BG is yy^ = "^x^
x^
{x
 x^).
is
to the perpendicular
i'^'
So the
+ ^(^3 ^2) =2/1 (1/3 2/2) +^1(^3 ^2) perpendiculars from B and C on CA and AB are
2/ (2/3
2/2)
(!)
2/(2/i2/3)+^(aa^3) = 2/2(2/i2/3)+'2{^i^3)
(2).
and
2/ (2/2
+ ^3 (^2^1)
(3).
On
The
by them
sum
This point
82.
2)asses
To Jind the equation to any straight line which through the intersection of the two straight lines
a^x
+ \y +
c^
=
=
(1)>
(2).
and
a^x
+ b^y +
Cg
57
(1)
2/1,
and (2) we may, as in Art. 77, find the values of x^ and and then the equation to any straight line through it is
where
lines,
is
Aliter. If A be the common point of the two straight then both equations (1) and (2) are satisfied by the coordinates of the point A.
h^y
+ Ci + X
{a,^x
h^y
Co)
(3)
is satisfied
where \
is
But (3), being of the first degree in x and y, always represents a straight line.
It therefore represents a straight line passing through
Also the arbitrary constant X may be so chosen that (3) fulfil any other condition. It therefore represents any straight line passing through A.
may
83. Ex. Find the equation to the straight line ivhich passes through the intersection of the straight lines
2xSy + = 0,
4:
Sx + ^y5
(1),
and
is
perpendicular
Gx7y + 8 =
Solving the equations point are given by
^1
(1),
(2).
x^^, 7/1
the coordinates
of their
common
1
(3)(5)4x4
so that
yi
_
2/1
4x32x(5)
 yY and
2x43x(3)
=Tf
^^'
x^=
The equation
therefore
of
any straight
common
point
is
yH=m{x + ^).
This straight line
is,
m X f=
The required equation
i.e.
(2) if
therefore
119a;
+ 1022/ = 125.
58
Aliter.
lines (1) is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Any
straight line through the intersection of the straight
i.e.
(2
(3).
perpendicular to
(2), if
6(2 + 3X)7(4X3) = 0,
i.e.
(Art. 69)
a
*
\ = u.
(3) is therefore
The equation
i.e.
119a; +102?/
125 = 0.
byy
Cj^
(1),
(2).
and
a^ + b^ + c^ =
Let the two straight lines be AL^ and AL^, and let the between them be AM^ and A^f^
Let P be any point on either of these bisectors and draw PiVi and FJV^ perpendicular to the given lines.
The
triangles
so that the
perpendiculars
PAN^ and PAN<^ are equal in all respects, PN^ and PN^ ^re equal in
magnitude.
so that
Let the equations to the straight lines be written Ci and c^ are both negative, and to the quantities
let
59
be the point
aJh
(/i,
k),
PN^
,
,
and PN^
+ ,_
hJc
c.
and
+
.
hjc
c^
(1).
If P lie on AM^^ i.e. on the bisector of the angle between the two straight lines in which the origin lies, the point P and the origin lie on the same side of each of the two lines. Hence (by Art. 73, Cor.) the two quantities (1) have the same sign as c^ and c^ respectively. In this case, since c^ and c^ have the same sign, the quantities (1) have the same sign, and hence
aji
hjc
Ci
aji
hjc
+ c^
But
may lie on
h{y
Cj
a^ + h^y + c^
which
If,
is
however,
on the other bisector AM^, the two have opposite signs, so that the equation
lie
+ \y +
Ci
a^x
+ })c^y + c^
The equations to the original lines being therefore arranged so that the constant terms are both positive (or both negative) the equation to the bisectors is
VS7+b7
85.
Vi7+bp
'
the upper sign giving the bisector of the angle in which the origin lies.
Ex.
Find
the
equations to
the
bisectors
of the
angles
3x4:y + 7 =
and 12x5yS = 0.
Writing the equations so that their constant terms are both positive they are
SxAy + 7 =
and 12x + 5y + 8 = 0.
60
The equation
is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
to the bisector of the angle in
lies
therefore
Bx^y + 7 _ 12x + 5y + 8
i.e.
i.e.
772/
+ 51 = 0.
The equation
Sxiy + l _
 12x + 5?/ + 8 ~
'
t.e.
i.e.
+ 272/ 131 = 0.
It will be found useful in a later chapter to have the equation to a straight line, which passes through a given point and makes a given angle 6 with a given line, in
86.
{h,
k)
x.
AP be
r.
Draw
Then
and
PM
to the axis of x
Hence
perpendicular perpendicular to
.(1).
of
any point
Cor.
This being the relation holding between the coordinates P on the line is the equation required.
The coordinates
therefore
line are
87. To find the length of the straight line drawn through a given point in a given direction to meet a given
straight line.
EXAMPLES.
Let the given straight
line
61
be
AxBy +
C^Q
(1).
Let the given point A be (7t, k) and the given direction one making an angle 6 with the axis of x. Let the line drawn through A meet the straight line (1) in P and let AP be r. By the corollary to the last article the coordinates
of
are
6.
(A
r cos ^) r
B sin 6
(2),
AP which
required.
Cor.
From
the preceding
may be deduced
(A,
the length
of the perpendicular
drawn from
k)
For the
tan ^ and
is
 .
if
perpendicular to (1)
y.
tan
^\ =
=
\,
i. e.
if
tan ^
cos 6
sin 6
A
1
so that
JA' + B'
and hence
AcosO + BsinO= 4=^L^s/A^ + B'. Vi' + ^Substituting this value in (2) we have the magnitude
of the required perpendicular.
EXAMPLES.
lines
VIII.
Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the straight whose equations are
1.
2xSi/
+5=
and 7x^y=S.
62
2.
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
a
[EXS.
+ T=1 and
a
+^ = 1.
ha
^
3
.
y = vi,x\
a;
and y=moX\
a
.
4.
cos 01 + ^ sin 01 = a
and
a;
straight lines cut the axis of x at distances a and  a and 5. the axis of y at distances & and 6' respectively ; find the coordinates of their point of intersection.
Two
6.
of
straight lines
2xSy + 5 =
from the straight
line
and dx + 4:y =
5x2y = 0.
Shew that the perpendicular 7. straight line joining the points
(a cos a,
from the
/3,
origin
upon the
{a cos
a sin ^)
Find the equations of the two straight lines drawn through 8. the point (0, a) on which the perpendiculars let fall from the point (2a, 2a) are each of length a.
Prove also that the equation of the straight line joining the feet of these perpendiculars is y r2x = oa.
9.
lines
line
2ySx + l =
meets the line joining the two points the angle between them.
(6,
2)
and
8, 7).
Find also
11. Find the coordinates of the feet of the perpendiculars let fall from the point (5, 0) upon the sides of the triangle formed by joining the three points (4, 3), (4, 3), and (0, 5); prove also that the points so determined lie on a straight line.
12. Find the coordinates straight lines
of the point
of intersection
of
the
Find also the coordinates of their point of intersection and the lines drawn perpendicular to them from the point
VIII.]
14.
EXAMPLES.
63
Prove that the points whose coordinates are respectively 1), and (11, 4) lie on a straight line, and find its intercepts
on the axes.
Prove that the following sets of three lines meet in a point.
15.
16.
17.
j+^ abba
+ 7 = 1,
= l,
and y = x.
18.
Prove that the three straight lines whose equations are 15a; 18?/ + 1 = 0, 12x + lOi/  3 = 0, and 6x + QQyll =
also that the third line bisects the angle between the other
all
meet in a point.
Shew
two.
19.
Find the conditions that the straight lines y = m^x + ai, y = m^\a^, and y = m2X\a^
in a point.
may meet
21. 22.
(1)
(2)
(1,0), (2,4),
and (5,2).
C meet
in a point,
and
(3)
the medians, i.e. the lines joining each vertex to the middle point of the opposite side, meet in a point, the straight lines through the middle points of the sides perpendicular to the sides meet in a point.
Find the equation to the straight line passing through 23. tlie point (3, 2) and the point of intersection of the 2x + Sy = l and SxAy = Q. 24. the point (2,  9) and the intersection of the lines
2x + 5y8 =
25.
lines
and 3x4y=^S5.
lx + y + 20=0, between them.
x~y4i=0 and
proving that
26.
it
X y  +f a b
27. 28.
the point
(a, b)
=1
^
y ^ ^ X and Y + ^ = 1. b a
lines.
x2ya=0
and x + 3y2a =
64
and
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
parallel to the straight line
[Exs.
29.
x + 2y
+S=
and 3x + iy + 7 =
and perpendicular
30.
yx = 8.
the intersection of the lines
dxiy + l =
and cutting
31.
off
and 5x + y
1=0
16a;102/ = 33
If
and 12x + Uy + 29 = 0.
through the angular points of a triangle straight lines be 32. drawn parallel to the sides, and if the intersections of these Hnes be joined to the opposite angular points of the triangle, shew that the joining lines so obtained will meet in a point.
33. Find the equations to the straight lines passing through the point of intersection of the straight lines
Ax + By + C =
(1)
(2)
(3)
and
(4)
cutting off a given distance a from the axis of y, passing through a given point {x', y').
34. Prove that the diagonals of the parallelogram formed by the four straight lines
^?>x + y = 0, ^?>y
35. are
+ 7=1, b
+  = l,  +  = 2, and a a
t
o
+  = 2.
a
36. One side of a square is inclined to the axis of x at an angle a and one of its extremities is at the origin ; prove that the equations to its diagonals are
(cos a
(sin a
sin a)
= x (sin a + cos a)
+
a:
+ cos a)
(cos a
sin
a)
= a.
to
the straight lines bisecting the angles lines, placing first the bisector
a;?/
37.
^3 = 62^3.
VIII.]
38.
39.
EXAMPLES.
12x + 5y4c =
ix + Sij
65
7 =
40.
41.
2x + y=4: and y + Sx = 5.
yb=^ ^
lm2^
Find the equations to the bisectors of the internal angles of the triangles the equations of whose sides are respectively
42. 43.
44. Find the equations to the straight lines passing through the foot of the perpendLcular from the point {h, Jc) upon the straight line Ax + By + G = and bisecting the angles between the perpendicular and the given straight line.
45. Find the direction in which a straight Kne must be drawn through the point (1, 2), so that its point of intersection with the line x + y = 4: may be at a distance ^^6 from this point.
CHAPTER
THE STRAIGHT LINE
POLAR EQUATIONS.
V.
{continued).
OBLIQUE COORDINATES.
LOCI.
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS.
88. To find the general equation polar coordinates.
origin
let
to
a straight line in
Y from
the
this
and
6.
will
r, 6,
p,
and
a.
From the
triangle
YP we
is
have
(6
 a).
a) =p.
[On transforming to Cartesian coordinates this equation becomes the equation of Art. 53.]
89. To find the polar equation of the straight line joining the poiiits whose coordinates are (r^, 6^) and {r^, 6^.
THE STRAIGHT
Let
LINE.
OBLIQUE COORDINATES.
67
two given points and on the line joining them whose coordinates are r and
and
e.
B be the
any point
Then, since
AA0B=AA0P+A POB,
we have
^.e.
A OB = J r^r sin AOP + ^ ri\ sin POB, r^r^ sin {6 6^ = r^r sin {0 6^ + rr^ sin (0^ 6),
J r^r^ sin
2
sin (^,^i)
I.e.
sin ((9^1)
sin ((92^)
OBLIQUE COORDINATES.
90. In the previous chapter we took the axes to be In the great majority of cases rectangular rectangular. axes are employed, but in some cases oblique axes may be
used with advantage.
In the following articles we shall consider the proposiwhich the results for oblique axes are different from those for rectangular axes. The propositions of Arts. 50 and 62 are true for oblique, as well as rectangular,
tions in
coordinates.
91.
axes inclined at
to
a straight
line referred to
Let LPL' be a straight line which cuts the axis of a distance c from the origin and is
inclined at of X.
Fat
an angle
to the axis
Let
P
it
y to meet OX in M^ meet the straight line through C parallel to the axis of x in the point N, Let P be the point (.r, y\ so that
and
let
CN^OM^x,
and
NP = MP 00 ^yc.
5
'
68
Since
L
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
we have
TT
Hence
3?his
^)
(1). ^
^
7:.
/1\
equation
is
of the
form y = mx +
sin^
c,
where
7)1
=
,
,
sin^
sin
(o)
6)
sin
w cos
J
cos to sin
and thererore
tan v =
/>
^ sin
1
CD
y = mx +
angle
tan~i
to the axis of x.
m sin o)
l+mcosco
Cor. From. (1), by putting in succession equal to 90 and 90 + o), we see that the equations to the straight lines, passing through the origin and perpendicular to the axes of X and
y,
are respectively y
and y = x cos
w.
92.
is
of length
p and makes
angles a
and ^ with
and
the axes
of x
and y.
Let
dicular
OK
the perpen
Let
straight line
PN and draw NP
to
OK
and
PS
NR.
Let P be the point {x, = y. that OJV = X and
NP
'
'
THE STRAIGHT
The
Also
to
lines
LINE.
OBLIQUE COORDINATES.
69
being perpendicular
NB.
Thus
lSPN^lKOM=^.
Hence
93.
To find
y = mx +
the axes being oblique.
and y = mx + c,
and
If these straight lines be respectively inclined at angles 0' to the axis of x, we have, by the last article,
tan u =
msinoD
:.
and tan
CO
,,,
ni cos
is
0~
0'.
ir\ tan(ee)=j^:^^^^^^^,
t\t\
tan
^ tan ^'
m sm +m cos m sin 1 +
CD
in
1
sm co
cos
CO
CO
CO
+ 771
1
m' sin co
CO
1+771 cos
CO (
+ m' cos CO
co)
m sin
(1
+ m' cos
m' sin co (1 +
7?i.
cos
co)
_
1
+ m cos co) (1 + cos co) + ?92m' sin^ co (m w') sin CO + (m + m ) cos CO + mm'
is
therefore
Cor.
1.
m = m'.
Cor. 2.
+ (m + m')
cos 0} +
mm' = O.
70
94. form
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
If the straight lines
Ax\By + G =
then
7n
C = 0,
=  ^ and
=Wt'
Substituting these values in the result of the last article the angle between the two lines is easily found to be
J
A'BAB'
AA' + BB'  {AB' + A'B) cos w
The given
A'BAB'=^0.
They are perpendicular
if
cos w.
95. Ex. The axes being inclined at an angle of 30, obtain the equations to the straight lines ivhich pass through the origin and are inclined at 45 to the straight line x + y = l.
Let either of the required straight lines be y = mx.
The
isy= x + 1,
so that
m'=  1.
We therefore have
+ (m + m') and w = 30.
1
cos
<a
+ mm'
m+1
+ (,,,_ 1)^3 2m
"^^^
m=
j^.
m=
 ^3.
The
y + iJ3x=^0 and
JSy + x = 0.
To find the length of the lyerpendicular froin the point (x'j y) upon the straight line Ax + By +0 0, the axes being inclined at an angle <a, and the equation being written
96.
so that
is
a negative quantity.
L
THE STRAIGHT
LINE.
OBLIQUE COORDINATES.
71
L and M^
OL = , and A
OM^
=,
be the given point {x', y'). the perpendiculars PQ, PR, and PS on the given line and the
Let
Draw
two
axes.
Taking
and
P on opposite sides
we then have
PQ
LM + OL OM silicon OL PE + OM
.
PS. ..{I).
y and
x,
that
to the axes of
so
Hence
and
Also
Oif cos w
(7
V
since
so that
(72
C'
0^
z^'^^zg'"'"^
/l+l
(1),
2 cos w
in
we have
CO
pc><(o)xyi+i
7.7/
2 cos
C^
sm o>
Pi
sm
00,
PQ =
If
(0
sm a;.
we
Cor.
90,
if
75.
72
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
EXAMPLES.
1.
IX.
inclination
to the axis of
The axes being inclined at an angle of 60, find the x of the straight lines whose equations are
(1)
2/=2^ + 5,
and
(2)
2y=.{^^l)x + l.
The axes being inclined at an angle of 120, find the tangent 2. of the angle between the two straight lines
Qx + ly=.l and
3.
28a;
73?/
= 101.
of
find
the tangent
the
angle
y = mx + c and
4.
my+x = d.
liy=x
tan
Prove that the straight lines y + x=c and 5. right angles, whatever be the angle between the axes.
y=x + d
are at
Prove that the equation to the straight line which passes 6. through the point {h, Jc) and is perpendicular to the axis of x is
w.
hexagon, two of
coordinates.
Find the equations to the sides and diagonals of a regular its sides, which meet in a corner, being the axes of
8. From each corner of a parallelogram a perpendicular is drawn upon the diagonal which does not pass through that corner and these are produced to form another parallelogram shew that its diagonals are perpendicular to the sides of the first parallelogram and that they both have the same centre.
;
If the straight lines y = miX + Cj^ and y=m,^x + C2 make equal 9. angles with the axis of x and be not pariallel to one another, prove that iiij^ + ^2 + 2mjin2 cos w = 0.
10. The axes being inclined at an angle of 30, find the equation to the straight line which passes through the point (  2, 3) and is perpendicular to the straight line y + Bx 6.
(4,
of the perpendicular drawn from the point line 6a; + 3^ 10 = 0, the angle between the
[EXS. IX.]
THE STRAIGHT
LINE.
PROBLEMS.
73
13. The coordinates of a point P referred to axes meeting at an angle w are [h, k) prove that the length of the straight line joining the feet of the perpendiculars from P upon the axes is
;
sin
cos w.
perpendiculars are drawn to the and their feet are joined. Prove that the length of the perpendicular drawn from [h, Jc) upon this line is hk sin^ 0}
14.
From
a given point
is
axes,
whose inclination
JhF+W+2hkcos^'
and that
its
equation
is
hx  ky = h^
k^.
where \ is any arbitrary constant^ it always passes through one fixed point whatever be the value of \. For the equation (1) is satisfied by the coordinates of the point which satisfies both of the equations
and
This point
is,
77,
ca'
'
sum of the
shew that the base always passes through a fixed point. Take the fixed angular point as origin and the directions of the sides containing it as axes ; let the lengths of these sides in any such triangle be a and &, which are not therefore given.
We have
The equation
to
r
(say)
(1).
v
z...,by(l),
1
^'+^(1_1)^1,
(xy) + ^l = 0.
y
i.e.
74
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
"Whatever be the value of a this straight line always passes through the point given by
xy =
i.e.
and
1 = 0,
k
through
ih.e fixed
point
{k, k).
98.
(^ij
2/i)>
circle inscribed
(^2 J
Prove that the coordinates of the centre of the in the triangle, whose vertices are the points
2/2)5
^^G? (a^3,
2/3),
are
ay^
axi
hx^
+ cx^
hy.2
cy^
'
a+b+G
where
a, 6, 7ic? c
a+b+c
of
the centres
Find
circles.
of
the escribed
ABC
AD
and
CE
be the
and
(xj.yj)
point.
Since
BAC we
~
AD
so that
DG
b
ba
+c
AGD, we have
a
CD~
ba
b
<
AG,
i.e.
b.
Also
0' divides
AD
in the ratio b
a.
D are
+ bx^ c+ b
fi
^3 + ^.'/2
c
+b
THE STRAIGHT
Also,
(b
^
LINE.
PROBLEMS.
by the same
cxo
c) X
'
article,
^ + hxo + ax, ^
and
T
G+h
(b
'
G+b
ay. ^
{b
(b

+ c) + a
ax^
ay^
4
by^
a+ b
+ cy^ +c
Again,
if
to the angle
0^ be the centre of the escribed circle opposite 4, the line COi bisects the exterior angle of
ACB. Hence
(Euc. VI.
AD
externally in
(b
^
+ c)
^
GXo
^
+ +
G)
bx^ ^
^
 ax^
^
{b
(b
^
a+b+G
B
'
a+b+c
ay^
Similarly, it may be shewn that the coordinates of the escribed circles opposite to and C are respectively
^aXj^
bx2
GXs
by^ + cyA
c
ab+G
ab+c
ay^
and
99.
/axj^x2_cxs a+bc \
'
As
triangle formed
3x+4cy7 = 0,
12x +
6yl7 =0 and
5x + 12y 
34:
0.
These three straight lines being BC, CA, and respectively we easily obtain, by solving, that the points A, B, and C are
AB
11)
^"'^
(i'^>
76
COORDINATE GEOMETRY,
Hence
682
5p
85 ==16'
yfi?')"*(s')'V
16^^"^^
17
,j.^,
?V 5=./ 1^
1)
12'_ 13
and
/ 72
V
Hence
"^
V7
16/
52Y "^
_ 62Y _ ~ VT~
/19
/395T165^
22 "~Tl2
^^Vl69 112"
85
2
'^'
112'
170
85
19
1615
13
52__676
429
c^z
13
67
871
and
C2/3
YY9,>
429
Yj2
The
_ 1X2 ~
85
170
6^6 iT2
13
m
"^
1615
,
871
"^
429
'^
112
IT2"
85
16
112
13
II2
429
112
429'
112
16
^T"^
"^y^
1
The length
dicular from
(
^
)
and
,265
^.
is
the perpenline
T^ jYo
,
^P^^ *^ straight
42/
3aj
= 0,
THE STRAIGHT
LINE.
PROBLEMS.
77
and therefore
i^)^0
255
51
5x112
112'
escribed
circle
BG
externally are
_170_676
112
429
429
1615
871
"^
429
112^112
13
~Tl2"
85
112"^Tl2
13
_85
429
'
"le'^T'^m
417 42~
,
~l6'^T'^ri2 315
^""^
^r
Similarly the coordinates of the centres of the other escribed circles can be written down.
100. Ex. Find the radius, and the coordinates of the centre, of the circle circumscribing the triangle formed by the points
(0, 1),
(2, 3),
and
(3, 5).
Let
(iCi
2/j)
the radius.
is
Since the distance of the centre from each of the three points
the
same, we have
^i'+
(2/1
From
From
the
first
 1)'= (^1  2)H (^/i  3)2= (.ri  3)2+ (y,  5)2= J22...(l). two we have, on reduction,
^1 + 2/1
= 3.
the
first
i2=tx/10.
101.
Ex.
plete quadrilateral
Prove that the middle points of the diagonals of a comlie on the same straight line.
Let
[Complete quadrilateral. Def. Let OAGB be any quadrilateral. AG and OB be produced to meet in E, and BG and OA to meet in F. Join AB, OC, and EF. The resulting figure is called a complete quadrilateral the lines AB,OG, and EF are called its diagonals, and the points E, F, and D (the intersection of AB and OC) are called its
;
vertices.]
78
Take the
lines
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
as the axes of x
and
y.
BI
[EXS. X.]
3.
THE STRAIGHT
AB
LINE.
PROBLEMS.
au
79
and
AC
of
AB% shew
EF
of the perpendiculars (7, 2) is equal to three times the perpendicular on it from a third fixed point (1, 3), prove that there is another fixed point through which this line always passes and find its coordinates.
let fall
move
so that the
sum
on
it
fixed points
(3, 4)
and
triangle formed
5. 6.
3a;
Find the centre and radius of the circle which is inscribed in the by the straight lines whose equations are
7.
8.
+ 42/ + 2 = 0, 3x4.y + 12 = 0, and 4x3y = 0. + 3 = 0, and a;+l = 0. y = 0, 12x5y=0, and 3a; + 4?/7 = 0.
2x + iy + S = 0, 4x + Sy
Prove that the coordinates of the centre of the circle inscribed whose angular points are (1, 2), (2, 3), and (3, 1) are
in the triangle
8 + v/lQ
g
ana and
^^^^^Q
g
.
Find
9. circles
Find the coordinates of the centres, and the radii, of the four which touch the sides of the triangle the coordinates of whose angular points are the points (6, 0), (0, 6), and (7, 7).
10. Find the position of the centre of the circle circumscribing the triangle whose vertices are the points (2, 3), (3, 4), and (6, 8).
Find the area of the triangle formed by the straight lines whose equations are
11. 12.
13.
xy + l = 0.
14. Sx'iy + 4a = 0, 2xBy + 4a = 0, and 5xy + a = 0, proving also that the feet of the perpendiculars from the origin upon them are coUinear. 15. 16.
y = in^\
and y = moX +
17.
18.
y=m^x + Ci, y m^x + c^, and y=v\x + c^, y =m^ + c^, and
y=m^ + c^.
19. Prove that the area of the triangle formed by the three straight lines a^x + h^y + c^ = 0, a^x + K^y + Cg = 0., and a^x + Z>3i/ + Cg = is
^
2
^
1
2
^ 
K^2  2&l)
(2&3
3&2) (3&1
" ^1^
80
20.
lines
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[ExS. X.]
Prove that the area of the triangle formed by the three straight
X GOB a + y sin a Pi = 0,
and
^
a;
sin (7
 /3)
sin (a
sin
{^a)
21.
lines
4ySxa=0,
and
22.
straight lines
Sy 4:X + a = 0, 4:ySxda=0,
is
3y4:x + 2a=0
faK
Prove that the area of the parallelogram whose sides are the
aiX
+ biy + Ci = 0,
and
IS
a^x + b^y
+ c^^O,
 ^2^1
vertices of a quadrilateral, taken in order, are the points and (0, 3) ; find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the two lines joining the middle points of opposite
23.
The
sides.
24.
The
lines
a;
are the equations to the sides of a quadrilateral taken in order ; find the equations to its three diagonals and the equation to the line on which their middle points lie.
25.
Shew
straight lines
y=mr.x\
is
y=.m^x\
and y=nux\
the point
\a,a
26.
{ + + +
4 and are two fixed points whose coordinates are (8, 2) and is an equilateral triangle on the side of respectively ; remote from the origin. Find the coordinates of and the orthocentre of the triangle ABP.
(5, 1)
ABP
AB
jX. The base of a triangle is fixed ; find the locus of the vertex when one base angle is double of the
other.
102.
THE STRAIGHT
Let
LINE.
PROBLEMS.
j
81
take
its
AB
as origin, the direction of 0 as the axis of x and a perpendicular line as the axis of y.
middle point
Let
AO=OB^a.
O If be one position of the a vertex, the condition of the problem then gives
lPBA^2^.PAB,
i.e.
i.e.
TT
cf>
= 20,
tan <^=:tan
Let
W
=
tan ^.
(1).
P be the point
h+a
(li,
k).
= tan
and
ha
(1),
we have
1{h + a)k (h+ayk^'
h+a
a
1
h
i.e.
\h + a/
{h + aY + ^=2{h^a%
k''3h^2ah + a^^0.
i.e.
But
this
is
(A, k)
should
lie
on the curve
y^3x'2ax +
This
is
a''
0.
103.
Ex.
From a
point
perpendiculars
if
PM and
P move
on a fixed
MN.
Let the
Let the two fixed lines be taken as the axes. coordinates of P, any position of the
moving
point, be {h, Tc). Let the equation of the straight line on which P lies be
Ax + By +
so that
(7
= 0,
(1).
we have Ah + Bk + C =
L.
82
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
We then have 0M= OL + LM = OL + LP cos oi^h + cos 0J\^= OL' + L'N ^LP + L'P cosoi = k + h cos w. and
Jc
o>,
M
(0,
is
+ k cos co,
0)
Hence,
of JfiV,
if
{x,
y) be the coordinates
2cc'
we have
=h\h cos
CO
(2),
(3).
and
relations
2y
k + h cos
co
Equations (1), (2), and (3) express analytically which hold between x, y\ A, and k.
all
the
and k are the quantities which by their variation cause Q to take up different positions. If therefore between we shall obtain a (1), (2), and (3) we eliminate h and k relation between x and y which is true for all values' of h and k^ i. e. a relation which is true whatever be the position that P takes on the given straight line.
Also
li
From
k
(2)
and
(3),
by
solving,
we have
{y'
^ 2(a3^y^cosco ) ^^^
sin^
00
2 ^^
sin^
(1),
co
we
obtain
co)
 y'
cos
co)
+ 2^ {y x
line
cos
+C
sin^
co ==
0.
But
always
(cc',
y)
shall
on the straight
'2 {y
X cos
cos
co)
C sin^ co  0,
0,
on the straight
line
x{A cos
which
is
(j>)
+ y { A
co)
+ J C sin co =
104. Ex. A straight line is drawn jjarallel to the base of a given triangle and its extremities are joined transversely to those of the base; find the locus of the 2>oint of intersection of the joining lines.
THE STRAIGHT
LINE.
PROBLEMS.
as the origin
83
and
Let the triangle be OAB and take the directions of OA and OB as the axes of x and y.
Let
so
OA = a and OB = 6,
are given
that a and h
quantities.
line
base
ABj
so that
OA ~~0B
(say),
and hence OA' = \a and OB' Xb. For different values of X we therefore have
positions of A'B'.
different
is
 +
a
= Xb
(1).
is
(2)
Since is the intersection of AB' and A'B its coordinates satisfy both (1) and (2). Whatever equation we derive from them must therefore denote a locus going through P. Also if we derive from (1) and (2) an equation which does not contain X, it must represent a locus which passes through P whatever be the value of A.; in other words it must go through all the different positions of the point P. Subtracting (2) from (1), we have
l(}l
%.e.
^%(Ui b\X
X a
b'
0,
This then is the equation to the locus of P. always lies on the straight line
Hence
y = x.
62
'
84
which
gram.
Aliter.
is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
the straight line
OQ
the
where
OAQB
(1)
is
a parallelo
By
solving
equations
and
(2)
we
Hence,
if
be
h=
A.
a and k
A.,
1
i.e.
\+
zr ^
Ji_k
h
i.e.
But
should
P,
lie
on the straight
line
'
The
straight line
is
105.
Ex.
variable straight line is drawn through and S ; to cut two fixed straight lines in
j)oint
P such
that
OP''OR'^OS''
shew that
the locus
of P
is
livie.
Take any two fixed straight lines, at right angles and passing through 0, as the axes and let the equation to the two given fixed straight lines be
Ax + By + C=0,
and
A'x + B'y + G'
0.
and  =
r
y^,
THE STRAIGHT
If the angle
LINE.
PROBLEMS.
1
85
and
1
;=r5
XOE be
+
^
are
therefore
cos ^
^ sin
and
We therefore have
2
^cos^ + .gsin^
A' cos
+ B' sin
C'
0P~~
fA
C
A'\
a
(^
^'\
'
(A
A'\
(B
B\
and
EXAMPLES. XL
The base BG (=:2a) of a triangle ABC is fixed; the axes being BC and a perpendicular to it through its middle point, find the locus
of the vertex A^
1.
when
is
given
= a).
is
2. 3.
given
= X).
is
other.
times the square of one side added to n times the square of 4. the other side is equal to a constant quantity c^.
From
a point
P perpendiculars TM and PN
equal to
if
if
fixed lines which are inclined at an angle w, and which are taken as the axes of coordinates and meet in find the locus of ;
5. 7.
9.
if
if
Oll^ ON be
2c.
6.
OM ON be equal
P^I  P^V be equal
to 2d.
to 2c.
2c.
8.
10.
11.
MN pass through the fixed point (a, b). MN be parallel to the given line y = mx.
86
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[Exs.
12. Two fixed points A and B are taken on the axes such that OA = a and OB = h; two variable points A' and B' are taken on the
same
(1)
axes;
find the
locus of the
intersection of
when
(2)
and
when
__,__=A__.
any two straight lines to and another fixed straight
of the intersection of the passing through 0.
13. Through a fixed point P are drawn cut one fixed straight Hne OX in A and B prove that the locus line OY in. C and ; is a straight line straight lines AG and
BD
are two straight lines at right angles to one any point B; A and on on AB an equilateral triangle is described, its vertex C being on the is a straight Shew that the locus of side of AB away from 0.
is
OY
OX
15. If a straight line pass through a fixed point, find the locus of the middle point of the portion of it which is intercepted between two given straight lines.
16. A and B are two fixed points; if PA and PB intersect a constant distance 2c from a given straight line, find the locus of P.
are drawn two straight lines at right 17. Through a fixed point angles to meet two fixed straight lines, which are also at right angles, Shew that the locus of the foot of the in the points P and Q. on PQ is a straight line. perpendicular from
18.
same
Find the locus of a point at which straight line subtend equal angles.
19. Find the locus of a point which moves so that the difference of its" distances from two fixed straight lines at right angles is equal to its distance from a fixed straight line. 20. A straight line AB, whose length is c, slides between two find the locus of the orthocentre given oblique axes which meet at of the triangle OAB.
;
21. Having given the bases and the sum of the areas of a number of triangles which have a common vertex, shew that the locus of this vertex is a straight line.
a straight line is drawn to cut two 22. Through a given point given straight lines in R and S find the locus of a point P on this variable straight line, which is such that
;
(1)
20P.= 0R+0S,
and
(2)
0P^=0R.0S.
XI.]
THE STRAIGHT
LINE.
EXAMPLES.
87
is
R.^,
23. Given n straight lines and a fixed point 0; through drawn a straight line meeting these lines in the points K^, R^, ...Bm and on it is taken a point R such that
OR
shew that the locus of
OR^
i2 is
OR^
OR^
line.
OR^'
a straight
variable straight line cuts off from n given concurrent 24. straight lines intercepts the sum of the reciprocals of which is constant. Shew that it always passes through a fixed point.
If a triangle ABC remain always similar to a given triangle, the point A be fixed and the point B always move along a given straight line, find the locus of the point C.
25.
and
if
26. A. rightangled triangle ABC, having C a right angle, is of given magnitude, and the angular points A and B slide along two given perpendicular axes; shew that the locus of G is the pair of
straight lines
= x.
given straight lines meet in 0, and through a given point straight line to meet them in Q and R; if the parallelogram OQSR be completed find the equation to the locus of R. S
27.
is
Two
drawn a
is drawn a straight line to meet two 28. Through a given point given parallel straight lines in P and Q ; through P and Q are drawn straight lines in given directions to meet in R prove that the locus of
;
CHAPTER
VI.
2/2_3a;2/
+ 2a;2 =
(1).
equivalent to
{yx){y2x) =
It
(2).
is satisfied by the coordinates of all points which the first of these brackets equal to zero, and also by the coordinates of all points which make the second bracket zero, i.e. by all the points which satisfy the equation
make
2/^ =
and
also
(3),
satisfy
(4).
y2x =
But, by Art. 47, the equation (3) represents a straight line passing through the origin, and so also does equation
(4).
(1) represents the two straight lines which pass through the origin, and are inclined at angles of 45 and tan~^ 2 respectively to the axis of x.
Hence equation
is satisfied
by O and by x
all
Trace the locus xy = 0. This equation the points which satisfy the equation all the points which satisfy y 0, i. e. by the points which lie either on the axis of y or on the
107.
Ex.
1.
all
axis of X.
89
locus
is
therefore the
two axes
of coordi
is
This equation Trace the locus x^ hx+ &=^ 0. Elx. 2. It is therefore satisfied equivalent to {x 2) (a; 3) = 0. by all points which satisfy the equation a; 2 = and also by all the points which satisfy the equation a? 3 = 0.
But these equations represent two straight lines which are parallel to the axis of y and are at distances 2 and 3 respectively from the origin (Art. 46).
Ex.
equation
3.
is
represents a straight line parallel to the axis of y at a distance 5 and also a straight line parallel to the axis of x at a distance 4.
108.
+ 2hxy +
it
hy'^
^
 ah)
y'^
(1).
On
L e.
multiplying
it
by a
may be
{(ax
0, 0.
\{ax
As in the last article the equation (1) therefore represents the two straight lines whose equations are
ax + hy + y Jh^ ab =
(2),
(3),
and
For
ax + hy y J li^ ab =
(1)
and
is satisfied by all the points which satisfj' (2), by all the points which satisfy (3), These two straight lines are real and different if h^>ab, real and coincident if h^ = ah, and imaginary if h^<ab.
also
[For in the latter case the coefiicient of y in each of the equations (2) and (3) is partly real and partly imaginary.]
In the case when h^ < ab, the straight lines, though For the themselves imaginary, intersect in a real point. origin lies on the locus given by (1), since the equation (1) and y = 0. is always satisfied by the values x =
90
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
109. An equation such as (1) of the previous article, which is such that in each term the sum of the indices of x and y is the same, is called a homogeneous equation. This equation (1) is of the second degree; for in the first term the index of cc is 2 in the second term the index of both x and 2/ is 1 and hence their sum is 2 whilst in the third term the index of y is 2.
; ;
+ ix^y
5xy'^
9y^
The expression
Scc^
4:x'^y
5xy^
9y^
7xy
not however homogeneous ; for in the first four terms the sum of the indices is 3 in each case, whilst in the last
is
term
this
sum
is 2.
it
follows that a
110.
between the
The axes being rectangular, to jind straight lines given by the equation
aa?
the
angle
'ihxy
by
=
lines
(1).
be
(2),
ymiX =
and y~ni^x
mjx)
(y
tUox) =
xy and
x^ in (1)
(3).
coefficients of
and
(3),
we
b
xu so that
i.
{nil
^2)
m,.
m.y
^ ana m^m^
a
j
.
CONDITIONS OF PERPENDICULARITY.
If be the angle between the straight lines (2) have, by Art. 66,
91
we
tan 6
= ^^ ~
1
^^^^
=_
n/(^i
+ m^m^
J F~T
1
2Vh2ab
a+b
.(4).
0^
is
found.
Condition that
of
the 'previous
may
he iV) 'perpendicular,
and
(2) coincident.
is
90
If + 5=:0 the value of tan ^ is cx) and hence the straight lines are therefore perpendicular.
Hence two straight lines, represented by one equation, are at right angles if the algebraic sum of the coefficients of
^ and
2/^
be
zero.
if =
and
Qx^
+ llxy
6^
Ihx'y
y^ =
0,
If h^ = ah, the value of tan is zero and hence 6 is The angle between the straight lines is therefore
zero and, since they both pass through the origin, they are therefore coincident.
This
may be
= ah,
i.e.
For
if A^
h=
ax^
Jah,
4
it
may be
x'y
written
'^Jah
hy =^0,
i.e.
[Jax\is
JhyY=0.
which
two coincident
straight lines.
92
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
112.
Tojind
the equation to the straight lines bisecting
+ 2hxy +
by^
(1).
(1)
so that (1)
is
B^
and
0.^
to the axis
b{y
Hence
tan
6^
+ tan ^o =
;
and tan
0^ 1
tan
6^
^
.
b
.(2). '
Let
OA and OB
:.
Since
Also
:.
AOL^ = / L^OA, iA0Xe^ = 6^~ lAOX. :. 2 lAOX^B^ + e,^. z ^(9X = 90 + z .4 OX. 2 z^OX=180 + ^i + ^2.
Hence,
if
AOX or BOX,
2A
I 6
we have
n/i tan 2^ = tan
J.
/A {0^
A\
^o)
'
= r^a^
1
t^i^ ^1
+ tan
t/j
 tan
tan
^ = "
^2
t'a
'
by equations
(2).
But, if (x, 2/) be the coordinates of any point on either of the lines OA or OB, we have
tan^=^.
X
TWO STRAIGHT
2h
LINES.
93
^^ tan 2^
,
2tan^
1
tan^
a;
*?
2xy
*>
9.
a?"
x2
I.e.
 y2
Z
a~b
any point on
= r h
xy
.
of
This, being a relation holding between the coordinates either of the bisectors, is, by Art. 42, the
ing manner
(1),'
+ m2=  Y'
^nd
m^m^^
(2).
The equations
lines (1) are,
by Art.
yntj^x
_ ym^x
yvi^x
ym^x
or,
yvi^x _ yjn^x
J y
m^x
yiihx
\_^
i.e.
i. e.
{ym^xf 1 + m^
y^)
{ym^_
 m^^)
{pt^
i. e.
(mj + W2)
Hence, by
(2),
2fe
6
I.e.
.,.
{x^y')
+ 2{~ljxy = 0,
/a
x^y"^ _ xy ^ ao h
94
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
EXAMPLES.
XII.
following equations
Find what straight lines are represented by the and determine the angles between them.
1.
x^7xy + 12tf=0.
SSx^71xijUif = 0.
2/216 = 0.
x^ +
2. 4. 6.
4a;224'cz/+ll?/2 = 0.
3.
5.
x^&x^ + llxQ = 0.
7.
9.
2xysecd + y'^=0.
8.
Find the equations of the straight lines bisecting the angles between the pairs of straight lines given in examples 2, 3, 8, and 9.
10.
Shew
make with
tangents
11.
is
+ y^) (cos^ d
sin2 a
6)
12.
x^ sia^acoa^9
meet
at
an angle
expression,
which contains
terms involving x and y in a degree not higher than the second, must contain terms involving x^, xy, 7/~, x, y, and a
constant.
The notation
pression
is
vv^hich
is
in
this
ex
aa^
+ 2hxy +
hy"^
+ 2gx +
yy
(1).
known as the general expression of when equated to zero is called the general equation of the second degree. The student may better remember the seemingly
arbitrary coefficients of the terms in the expression (1) if the reason for their use be given.
LINES.
95
of
The most general expression involving terms only the second degree in x, y, and z is
aa^
h'lf'
Gz^
%fyz
'^gzx
+ Vixy
(2),
where the
If in this expression
we put
G
;:;
equal to unity
we
get
+ %fy + ^gx + 2hxy, which, after rearrangement, is the same as (1). Now in Solid Geometry we use three coordinates x, y, and z. Also many formulae in Plane Geometry are derived from those of Solid Geometry by putting z equal to unity.
ao^ \hy^
We
therefore, in Plane
corresponding to which
Solid Geometry.
we have
115. In general, as will be shewn in Chapter XV., the general equation represents a CurveLocus.
If a certain condition holds
its
between the
coefficients of
terms
it
This condition
article.
we
shall
116.
of
To find
ax^
general equation
+ 2hxy +
hy'^
+ Igx +
2/^/
+c
==
(1)
Tnay rejyresent
If
factors,
we can break
each of the
the lefthand
first
will represent
two straight
it
by and arrange
in powers oi x;
a^a?
then becomes
{hy
= ahy^ 2afy ac. On completing the square on the left hand we have V ^ 2ax {hy + g) + (hy + gf = y {li? ah)
+ 2ax
+
g)
\2y{ghaf)^g''~ac,
i.e.
...{2).
96
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
From (2) we cannot obtain x in terms of y, involving only terms of the Jirst degree, unless the quantity under the radical sign be a perfect square.
The condition
for this
is
i. e.
gVi^
a^bc.
we have the
required
abc
(3).
117. The foregoing condition may be otherwise obtained thus The given equation, multiplied by (a), is
a?x'^{2ahxy
+ aby'^ + 2agx^2afij + ac =
(4).
The terms of the second degree in this equation break up, as in Art. 108, into the factors
ax + liyy /Jh^ab and ax + hy+y fjh^ab.
If
then
(4)
it
must be equivalent
to
where
A and B
a{A+B) = 2ga
(5),
(6),
A{h+
and
(7).
The equations
(5)
give
A+B = 2g,
The
/^/h^
ab
Aac = 4:AB =
{A+B)^{AByh^ab
'
~^^
i.e.
{faghf = {g~ac){h^ab),
abc + 2fgh 
ap  bg"^  cli^=^^.
will represent
Ex.
If
two straight
If
is
2fg
 ch~0.
LINES.
97
The
This
of the determinant
by writing down the value by the rule of Art. 5. geometrical meaning to this form of the relation (3)
easily verified
may be
is
Discriminant
119.
Ex.
Prove that
the equation
12a;2 + Ixy 
lOy"^
+ 13a; + 45?/  35 =
the angle between them.
and find
Here
a=12, Hence
/i=,
&=10,
abc + 2fgh 
g=^,
ap  x V x ^
/=*/, and
ch^
c= 35.
10) x (V)^
bg^ 
= 12 X  10) X
(
35)
+2 X
 12 x (V)^  ( 
(35)(i)2
for x,
we have
~
~l 7y + 13 _
7
or
24
2 3y43
I. e.
 x= 2?/
o
 5w + 5
.
.
98
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
f and
,
The "m's" of these two lines are therefore f and angle between them, by Art. 66,
the
Ex.
2.
Find
6a;2
may
Here
a = 6,
i
= 12,
^ = 11,
The condition
(3)
Hence
Taking the
first
^.
6^2 +
i.e.
+ 57a;?/ + 40?/2 + ^fa + H2/ + t = 0, (4a; + o?/ + V)(5a; + 8?/ + 10) = 0.
EXAMPLES.
find also their point of intersection
1. 3.
XIII.
Prove that the following equations represent two straight lines and the angle between them.
4.
5.
3?/28a;?/3a;229a;
Find the value of k so that the following equations pairs of straight lines
:
may
represent
6.
7. 8.
9.
+ + 31?/ + ^ = 0. + + lla;5?/ + = 0. 12a;2 + A;a;?/ + 2?/2 + lla;5?/ + 2:=0. 6a;2 + a;?/ + A?/2ll.r + 43?/35 = 0.
6a;2+lla;?/10?/2
12a;210a;?/
2?/2
a;
A;
[EXS. XIII.]
10.
EXAMPLES.
99
11.
12.
13. 14.
kxy8x + 9y12 = 0. x'^ + is^xij + 'if5x7y + k=:0. 12x^ + xyQif2dx + 8y + k = 0. 2x^ + oiyyy'^ + kx + 6yd = 0. x^ + kxy + y^5xly + Q = 0.
15. Prove that the equations to the straight lines passing through the origin which make an angle a with the straight line y + x = are given by the equation x^ + 2xy sec 2a + y^ = Q. 16. What relations must hold between the coordinates of the equations ax^ + hy'^ ^cx\cy = 0, (i)
and
17. are
(ii)
ay'^
+ lxy + dy {ex=zQ^
pair of straight lines
?
so that each of
The equations
a;27a;
+6=
that
and
2/^ 14?/
+40 =
120.
all
To prove
degree represents
straight
+ A.^x''
=
0.
This
is
an equation
roots.
of the
nth degree in
JO
and hence
must have n
Let these roots be m^, m^, mg, ... m. Then (C. Smith's Algebra, Art. 89) the equation (1) must be equivalent to the equation
'^)6"'^)(l0(2) is
(!'")='<'>
all
The equation
satisfied
by
^ _ mi = 0, ^  m. = 0,
/v. tLf
*^
^'T* tKf
m,,
 0,
72
100
i.e.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
all
by
lie
on the n straight
lines
y nijX = 0, y m^x = 0, ... y in^x = 0, Conversely, the all of which pass through the origin. coordinates of all the points which satisfy these n equations satisfy equation (1).
Hence the
proposition.
121.
which
Ex.
1.
The equation
is
equivalent to
{yx){y'lx){y^x) = Q,
represents the three straight lines
yx=.^,
all of
?/2a: = 0,
origin.
and
y3a; = 0,
Ex.
i.e.
The equation
= 0, y{y2){yS) = 0,
y^  5y^ + 6y
y=0,
all
y = 2,
and
y = S,
122. To find the equation to the two straight lines joining the origin to the points in which the straight line
Ix
+ my = n
is
(1)
+ 2hxy +
(1)
hy"^
"Igx
+ 2fy + c =
(2).
The equation
may be
Ix
written
+ my
(3).
The coordinates of the points in which the straight line meets the locus satisfy both equation (2) and equation (3), and hence satisfy the equation
ax'
'^^ + c ('^^)' =
......(4).
it is
clear
Hence
the intersections of
and
(3).
101
But, since the equation (4) is homogeneous and of the second degree, it represents two straight lines passing through the origin (Art. 108).
It therefore must represent the two straight lines joining the origin to the intersections of (2) and (3).
123.
metrically
The preceding
if
article
may be
illustrated geo
that the equation (2) represents some such curve as PQRS in the figure.
we assume
"'/O
Let the given straight line cut the curve in the points
P and
Q.
(2)
holds for
all
all
PQRS.
PQ.
and
Q.
The equation
holds therefore at
of
(4),
which
Q.
is
(3),
P and
But the equation (4) represents two straight lines, each which passes through the point 0. It must therefore represent the two straight lines OP and OQ.
124. Ex. Prove that the straight lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of the straight line xy=:2 and the curve
5a;2
make equal angles with the axes. As in Art. 122 the equation to the required
5a;2
+ 12a;?/8i/2+(8a;4i/)^^ + 12fc^Y =
102
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
For this equation is homogeneous and therefore represents two straight lines through the origin; also it is satisfied at the points where the two given equations are satisfied.
Now
(1) is,
on reduction,
was stated in Art. 115 that, in general^ an the second degree represents a curve line, equation of including (Art. 116) as a particular case two straight lines. 125.
It
it
will
What
is
the squares of two real quantities cannot be zero unless each of the squares is
that the
of
We
know
sum
separately zero.
The only real points that satisfy therefore satisfy both of the equations
cc
the equation
(1)
2/ + c =
re
and x + and y =
yG = 0.
is
c.
solution of these
two equations
Oj
by equation
(1) is therefore
result
may be
(1) gives
i.e.
and
103
these two straight lines passes through the may therefore say that (1) represents c). imaginary straight lines passing through the point
We
jX. 2.
What
is
As in the last example, the only real points on the locus are those that satisfy both of the equations
oc^
a^
x=
=i=
and
a,
y^
h^ = 0,
i.e.
and y = d=h.
therefore
b),
h), (a,
Ex.
3.
The only real points on the locus are those that satisfy three of the equations all
x=
0,
2/=0,
and a =
0.
Hence, unless a vanishes, there are no such points, and the given equation represents nothing real.
y^
= a^y
whose distance from the origin is asl\. It therefore represents the imaginary circle whose radius is asJ1 and whose centre is the origin.
so that it represents points
126. Es. 1. Obtain the condition that one of the straight lines given hy the equation ax^\2hxy + by^ = (1)
may
(2).
be
(3).
and
(2),
and
therefore be a factor of the lefthand of therefore the value y = m^x must satisfy both (1)
and
'
104
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
bmi^ + 2hm^ + a=:0
and
Solving
(4)
b'm^^ + 2h'm^
+ a' =
(5).
and
(5),
we have
^ _ '^h _ ~ aV a'b~2 {bh'  b'h)
wij^
2 {ha'
^
 h'a)
ha'h'a _
bh'
^_
ab'a'b ]^
'
so that
we must have
{ab'
Ex.
2.
m{x^Sxy^) + y^3x^y=0
represents three straight lines equally inclined to one another.
equation gives
+ sin3^  3 cos^^
^
sin ^
= 0,
m(l3tan2^) + tan3^3tan^ = 0,
3tan^tan3^
If
m=tan a,
tan 3^ = tan
the solutions of which are
a,
3^ = a, or 180 + a, or 360 + a,
i.e.
= ,
or 60 + ^, or 120 + ^.
The locus is therefore three straight lines through the origin inclined at angles
^,
to the axis of x.
60
+ ,
and
120 +
They are
Ex. 3. equation
lines represented
by the
(1)
ymiX = 0,
ym2X=0,
ym^x=0,
EXAMPLES.
so that the equation
(1) must be equivalent to d{y  m^x) (y  m^) (y  m^x) = 0,
105
and therefore
c mj^+m2+m^= 
(2),
(3)i
and
m^m^m^ =  ^
(4).
we
have,
(5).
1
a
From
(4)
and
(5),
we have
and
therefore,
from
(2),
+a
The equation
(3)
then becomes
a f
i.e.
+ a\
_b
a^ + ac
+ bd + d^ = 0.
EXAMPLES. XIV.
1.
y^x^ + 3xy
2.
(y
x) =
a) sin
a=
V3'
and that
3.
Shew
J3{A^ + B^)'
=
106
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[ExS.
Find the equation to the pair of straight lines joining the _ 4. origin to the intersections of the straight line y = mx + c and the curve
Prove that they are at right angles
2c2
if
= a2(l + m2).
Prove that the straight lines joining the origin to the points 5. of intersection of the straight line
kx + hy = 2hk
with the curve
are at right angles
6.
{^h)^+{y k)^ = c^
if h^+k^=c^. Prove that the angle between the straight lines joining the origin to the intersection of the straight line y = 3x + 2 with the curve
x'^
istani?^.
3
that the straight lines joining the origin to the other two 7. points of intersection of the curves whose equations are
Shew
and
will
ax^ + 2hxy
g{a' + b')g'{a + b) = 0.
What
8.
by the equations
9.
x^y^=0.
x'^xy = 0.
10.
13.
11. 14.
17.
x^x^x + l = 0.
x^ + y^=0.
12. 15.
x^xy^ = 0.
16.
xyay = 0. x^ + y^ = 0.
x^y = 0.
{x'l){y^^)=0.
{x^lf + {y^4y=0.
(x + y)^c^=0.
18.
{ymxcY + {ym'xc')^=0,
19.
{a;2a3)2(^2_52)2 + c'*(?/2a2)
= 0.
20.
(<? a).
{xa)^y^=0.
21,
23.
22.
r=a sec
Shew
tliat
the equation
bx^2hxy + ay^=0
represents a pair of straight lines which are at right angles to the pair given by the equation ax^ + 2 Jixy + by^ 0.
24.
+ by^=0.
107
XIV.]
26.
EXAMPLES.
Shew
also that the pair
is
same
pair.
27.
If
+ 2h'xy + bY=0,
by them be perpendicular, prove that
,
lines represented
ha'b'
h'ah
a
ba
28. Prove that the equation to the bisectors of the angle between the straight lines ax^ + 2hxy + by'^=0 is
a)
w,
+ by'^=zQ
a;
make
if
7t
= acosw,
w + 2/^cos
2a;
31.
cos 3a {x^
Sx'^y)
an
area
is
3 sJSa^.
Prove also
= ab
is
V
33.
If the equation
9' ac
a(a+ b)' {a
ax'^ + 2hxy + by^ + 2gx + 2fy + c = represent a pair of straight lines, prove that the equation to the third pair of straight lines passing through the points where these meet the axis is
ax^
108
34.
'
'
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
If the equation
[Exs. XIV.]
as(^ + 2hxy + by^ + 2gx + 2fy + c = represent two straight lines, prove that the square of the distance of their point of intersection from the origin is
35.
Shew
straight lines
by^=0 and
lx
+ viy = l
is
a point (x\
y')
such that
a+ ^ _y' _ ~ m~ aw?  2hlm + bP
i>
Hence find the locus of the orthocentre of a triangle of which sides are given in position and whose third side goes through a fixed point.
36.
two
37. Shew that the distance between the points of intersection of the straight Hne X cos a + y sin ap =
ax^ + 2 hxy
from the
straight lines
ax^ + 2hxy
^^
'
by the
+ c + e) = 0.
40.
+ Qa=0 and
+ d = 0.
41.
CHAPTER
yil.
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
127.
It
is
of problems to alter the origin and axes of coordinates, either by altering the origin without alteration of the direction of the axes, or by altering the directions of the axes and keeping the origin unchanged, or by altering the
and also the directions of the axes. The latter case merely a combination of the first two. Either of these processes is called a transformation of coordinates.
origin
is
We
128.
To
the directions
OX
OL = h and LO' = h.
Let
of the paper, and let its coordinates, referred to the original axes, be x and y, and referred to the new axes let them be
x'
and
y'.
Draw
PN perpendicular to OX to meet
OX'
in N'.
110
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Then
ON^x, NF = y,
we
origin is therefore transferred to the point Qi, k) when substitute for the coordinates x and y the quantities
X + h and
y'
+ k.
The above
or rectangular.
article is true
129. To change the direction of the axes of coordinates, without changing the origin, both systems of coordinates being
rectangular.
Let
OX and OF be
,
OX'
the angle, XOX' through which the axes are turned be called 0.
F in
the plane
Draw
dicular to
FN
OX
OX and
FN.
If the coordinates of F, referred to the original axes, y, and, referred to the new axes, be xi and y', we
ON^x, NF = y, ON'^x',
The angle
and N'F = y.
CHANGE OF AXES.
Ill
If therefore in any equation we wish to turn the axes, we must substitute being rectangular, through an angle
X' cos
for
^ y' sin
+ y' cos
X and
y.
"When we have both to change the origin, and also the direction of the axes, the transformation is clearly obtained by combining the results of the previous articles.
If the origin is to be transformed to the point
(Ji,
k)
to be turned through
an angle
sin
6,
we have
cos 6
to
h + X cos
for
sin 6
and k + x
+y
X and y
respectively.
projection of the fact that
The student, who is acquainted with the theory of straight lines, will see that equations (1) and (2) express and are respectively the projections of OP on sum of the projections of ON' and N'P on the same two
OX
OY
equal to the
lines.
130.
Ex.
1.
Transform
2a;2
to parallel
2, 3)
the equation
We
2
i.e.
substitute
+ 4a;2/ + 5^/2  4^  22?/ + 7 =: 0. x=x' 2 and y=y' + S, and the equation becomes
(?/'
(x'
 2)3 + 4 (a;'  2)
+ 3) + 5
(?/'
2x'^
+ 4xy + 5y'^22 = 0.
axes inclined at 30 to the original axes the
Ex. 2. equation
Transform
to
x'^
+ 2fj3xyy'^=2a^.
sin 30 + ?/' cos 30,
to substitute
a;'
cos 30
 ?/ sin 30 and
t.e.
^^r
 and
^^
(^'
x'^y'^ = a^.
112
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
EXAMPLES. XV.
1.
Transform to
(1)
parallel
(1,
2) the
equations
y'^4:X + 4y
+ 8 = 0,
and
2.
(2)
2x^ + y^4:X + 4y = 0.
What
{xa)^+{yb)^=c^
become when
(1)
it is
(2)
the point
{a,
bc)?
3.
What
{ab){x^ + y^)2abx=0
become
4.
if
the origin be
moved
to the point
equations
x^y^ = a\
and
5.
(3)
Transform
(1)
an angle a
the equations
x^+y^=r^,
a^
and
(2)
If the axes be turned through an angle tan~i 6. equation Axy  3x^ = a^ become ?
7.
By
point
{h, k),
transforming to parallel axes through a properly chosen prove that the equation
12ciP10xy + 2y^ + llx5y + 2 = 0
Find the angle through which the axes may be turned so that
the equation
Ax + By + 0=0
a;
may
= constant,
this constant.
131. The general proposition, which is given in the next article, on the transformation from one set of oblique axes to any other set of oblique axes is of very little importance and is hardly ever required.
CHANGE OF AXES.
*132. To change from one
set,
113
axes, inclined at
w',
set
of
an
angle w, to another
inclined at
an angle
the origin
remaining unaltered.
__
/""1M
N L X M O Let OX and (9Fbe the original axes, OX' and OY' the new axes, and let the angle XOX' be 0. Take any point P in the plane of the paper. Draw PN and PN' parallel to 07 and OY' to meet OX and OX' respectively in N and iV", PL perpendicular to OX, and N'M and X'M' perpendicular to OL and LP.
Now
z
PNL = L YOX =
if
0),
and PN'M' =
Y'OX =
oi'
B.
Hence
OX^x, NP^y, ON'^x, s.rvAN'P^y', y s>\n.oi = NP ^irna^ LP = MX' + M'P we have = OX' sin + X'P sin (w' + 6), = sin 6 + y' sin (w' + ^) so that y sin w
cc'
(1).
Also
(2).
by sinw,
sin (w
(1)
we have
X sin
dicular from
(o
=x
(3)
^) + y'
w 6)
(3).
[This equation
may
also be obtained
upon
OT
and proceeding as
(1) (3) give the proper substitutions for the change of axes in the general case.
The equations
and
As in Art. 130 the equations (1) and (2) may be obtained by equating the projections of OP and of ON' and N'P on OX and a straight line perpendicular to OX.
L.
,
114
'^133.
COORDINATE GEOMETKY.
Particular' cases of the preceding article.
Suppose we wish to transfer our axes from a (1) rectangular pair to one inclined at an angle w'. In this case (0 is 90, and the formulse of the preceding article
become
x=
x'
cos 6 6
and
y=
^' sin
(w'
(w'
+ +
6),
6).
Suppose the transference is to be from oblique (2) axes, inclined at w, to rectangular axes. In this case co' is
90,
and
=X y sin o> =
X
sin
isi
sin (w
^)
y'
cos (w
0)^
a:;'
sin 6
y' cos ^.
These particular formulse may easily be proved independently, by drawing the corresponding figures.
Ex.
Transform the equation
2
f^
= l from
rectangular axes
to
axes inclined at an angle 2a, the new axis of x being inclined at an angle
to the old
to
(1)
= 2a,
(a;'
+ y)
cos a
,
and y =
[y'
x') sin a.
Since sin a =
we have
cos a =
Ja'^ +
b'^
i.e.
x'y'=i{a'^ +
b^).
*134. The degree of an equation is unchanged hy any transformation of coordinates. For the most general form of transformation is found by combining together Arts. 128 and 132, Hence the most general formulse of transformation are
x = hx
,
sin
(oi
^
6)
sm 0)
_
,
+y
sin
(o>
^>7
w' 6) sm w
+
&)
.
and
y = kvx
sin
.
smo)
+y
sin (w'
^
sinw
CHANGE OF AXES.
115
For X and y we have therefore to substitute expressions in X and y' of the first degree, so that by this substitution
the degree of the equation cannot be raised.
Neither can, by this substitution, the degree be lowered. For, if it could, then, by transforming back again, the degree would be raised and this we have just shewn to be impossible.
*135. If by any change of axes, without change of origin, the quantity ax^ + Ihxy + &i/^ become
a'x'^
+ 2h'xY + by%
By
x being inclined
at
an angle 6 to the
+ y' cos. 6
We then have
tt'
= a cos^ ^ + 2/i cos ^ sin ^ + 6 sin^ = 1 [(a + &) + ( 6) cos 2^ + 2/1 sin 2^] b' = aBin^d 2h cos ^ sin ^ + 6 cos^^ = i[(a + 6)(a&)cos2^27isin2^]
(9
(1),
(2),
and
/i'=
= i[2;icos2^(a&)sin2^j
By
adding
Also,
we have ' + &'= + &. them, we have by multiplying 4a'&' = (a + 6)2  { (a  h) cos 2d +2h sin 26}^.
1)
and
(2) ,
Hence
4a'&'
 47i'2
= (a + 6)2 _ i{2h sin 2d + {a b) cos 20]^+ {2h cos 20 {a b) sin 20}^ = (a + &)2 _ [(a  6)2 + 4/i2] = 4a6  4h%
so that
a'b'h'^ = abh^.
136. To find the angle through which the axes must be turned so that the expression ax^ + 2hxy + by^ may become an expression in which there is no term involving x'y'.
82
116
vanishes
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
article the coefficient of x'y'
(3), if
Assuming the work of the previous if h' be zero, or, from equation
2h
27icos2^ = (aZ>)sin2^,
i.e. if
tan 2(9=
is
a~h
.
therefore
i tan~i
(S)
is
case,
*137. The proposition of Art. 135 when the axes are rectangular, of the
a particular
folloM^ing
more
general proposition. If hy any change of axes, without change of origin, the quantity ax + ^hxy + 6?/" becomes a'x'^ + 2h'xy + 6'^/^, then
a+
2h cos w
sin^
lo
a'
b'
2h' cos
sin^ w'
w'
'
and
0)
abh^
sm"
.
o
(i)
=^
db'K'' sm^
.
o)
a7id oi' being the angles between the original and final indrs of axes. Let the coordinates of any point P, referred to the original axes, be x and y and, referred to the final axes, let them be x and y By Art. 20 the square of the distance between P and the origin is o^ + 2xy cos a> + 2/^, referred to the original axes,
.
and
x'^
+ 2xy
X
We
Also,
cos w' + y"^^ referred to the final axes. therefore always have
+ Ixy cos w +
ax""
2/^
= a;'^ + ^xy
cos
vy''^
(1).
by
supposition,
we have
+ 2hxy + by"" = ax' + 2h'xy' + b'lj^ (2). Multiplying (1) by \ and adding it to (2), we therefore have x^ ( + X) + 2xy (h + X cos to) +y^ (b + X) = x"" (a' + X) + 2x'y' {h' + X cos o>') + y" {b' + X) .(3). If then any value of X makes the lefthand side of (3) a perfect square, the same value must make the righthand
. .
But the values of X which make the lefthand a perfect square are given by the condition
(h
+X
cos
(o)2
(a +
X) {b
X),
EXAMPLES.
i.e.
117
by
\2 (1
cos^ w)
^
.
+ X{a + h2h
h
cos
oi)
+ ab
h^
= 0,
,,,
i.e.
by
X^
+X
a+
2hcos(ji
r^
ab
r^
h^^ =
(4).
In a similar manner the values of A, which make the righthand side of (3) a perfect square are given by the equation a'b'h'^ ^ ^a' + b'2h'cosoy'
X'
+X
r^^ sm^ to
sm'^ci)
=0
(5). '
^
Since the values of \ given by equation (4) are the same as the values of X given by (5), the two equations (4) and (5) must be the same.
Hence we have
a + b 2h cos cu
sin^ (o
a'
and
abh2
sin2 0)
a'b'h'2
sin2
cd'
EXAMPLES. XVI.
The equation to a straight line referred to axes inclined at 30 1. to one another is y = 2x + l. Find its equation referred to axes inclined at 45, the origin and axis of x being unchanged.
2.
Transform the
at
inclined
30
to
equation rectangular
2x'^
axes,
=2
from axes
x remaining
unchanged.
Transform the equation x^ + xy + y^ = 8 from axes inclined at 3. 60 to axes bisecting the angles between the original axes.
Transform the equation y'^\4cy cot a  4cc=0 from rectangular 4. axes to oblique axes meeting at an angle a, the axis of x being kept the same.
obUque
aj and y be the coordinates of a point referred to a system of axes, and x' and y' be its coordinates referred to another system of oblique axes with the same origin, and if the formulae of
5.
If
transformation be
.,
prove that
,.
.,
7
CHAPTER
VIII.
THE CIRCLE.
138. Def. A circle is the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from a fixed point, called the The given distance is centre, is equal to a given distance,
called the radius of the circle.
139.
angles.
To find
the equation to
circle, the
axes of coordi
Let Let
let
a be
its radius.
OX
and
OF
be the axes of
coordinates.
Let P be any point on the circumference of the circle, and let its coordinates be X and y.
OX and
Then (Euc.
i.e.
I.
47)
This being the relation which holds between the coordinates of any point on the circumference is, by Art. 42, the required equation.
140.
To find
the equation to
circle referred to
any
rectangular axes.
THE CIRCLE.
Let
circle
119
OX and F be
(9
Take any point P on the circumference and draw perpendiculars and upon ; let F be the point (x, y).
CM
FN
OX
Draw GL NF.
perpendicular to
we have
This
is
(xh)2+ (yk)2 = a2
the required equation.
circle,
(1).
whose centre
is
the point
3, 4)
141.
noticed
(a)
Some
may
be
i.e.
h^
+ Jc'^=a^.
The equation
i.e.
(1)
then becomes
x'^
+ y^2hx2ky = 0.
lie
Let the origin be not on the curve, but let the centre (jS) the axis of x. In this case k = 0, and the equation becomes
{x
(7)
on
lif \y^
= a^.
diameter.
Let the origin be on the curve and let the axis of re be a We now have fe = and a = h, so that the equation becomes
x^ + t/2hx = 0.
have
By
taking
Tiero,
we
120
(e)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
The
circle will
if
MG
be equal to the
radius,
i.e. if
k = a.
to a circle touching the axis of
x'^
The equation
is therefore
+ 7f2hx2ky + h'^ = Q.
is
+ k^ = 0.
142.
To prove
a^
+ 2/'+2^a;+2/2/ + c =
circle for all values
(1),
c,
always represents a
find
its centre rectangular.]
of g,f and
and
to
and
radius.
This equation
{a?
i.e.
may be
written
2/2/
+ 2gx + cf) + {f +
{X
+/^) = cf +f'
 c,
140,
+ gf 4this
{y
+ff = {JfTp^cf.
(1) of Art.
Comparing
we
h = g,
h^f
and a =
Jg""
hf^c.
is
Hence
If g^
whose centre
the point
Jg^^f^ c.
is real.
the radius vanishes, i. e. the circle becomes a point coinciding with the point ( ^, f). Such a circle is called a pointcircle.
If g^ +f'^
If g^
= c,
is
imaginary.
In
this case the equation does not represent any real geometrical locus. It is better not to say that the circle does
it is
The equation
x"^
+ ij^ + 4^x 
6y =
+ 2f + iyBf = lS = {JlS)\
circle
whose centre
is
the point
 2,
3)
and
121
is
2.
The equation
45a;2
equivalent
(')^ + (y +
F=f + ^*5H=/A,
whose centre
is
and
and
whose radius
=15
143.
degree
may
circle.
The equation (1) of the preceding article, multiplied by any arbitrary constant, is a particular case of the general equation of the second degree (Art. 114) in which there is no term containing xy and in which the coefficients of x^ and y^ are equal. The general equation of the second degree in rectangular
coordinates therefore represents a circle if the coefficients of x^ and y^ be the same and if the coefficient of xy
be zero.
144. The equation (1) of Art. 142 is called the general equation of a circle^ since it can, by a proper choice of g, f and c, be made to represent any circle. The three constants g, f, and c in the general equation
correspond to the geometrical fact that a circle can be found to satisfy three independent geometrical conditions and no more. Thus a circle is determined when three points on it are given, or when it is required to touch three straight
lines.
145.
Let
To find
y^)
which is described on the and (x^ 2/2) ^^ diameter. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ y^) and B be the point {x^, 2/2) on the circle be h and k.
,
The equation
to
AP is
(Art. 62)
(1).
to
(2).
But, since
APB
is
and
(2)
APB
122
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY.
^Vi h^ljh^ _
_
i.e.
(hx^){hx^)
+ {kyj}{Jcy2) = 0.
But this is the condition that the point {h, k) may lie on the curve whose equation is {X  x^) {x  x^) + {y y^) {y  y^) = 0.
This therefore
is
146.
Intercepts
made on
The
i.e.
where the
circle (1)
x,
The
and
x^
we have
^+
and
29
^2
'
(Art. 2.
Hence
A^A^ = x^ x^= J{x^\x^^
 4x^i
a
V
The
circle will
=
a2
Again, the roots of the equation (2) are both imaginary if g^<ac. In this case the circle does not meet the axis of x in real points, i.e. geometrically it does not meet the axis of x at all.
if
the intercept
A^A^,
be just
zero, i.e. ii g^
= ac.
It will meet the axis of x in two points lying on opposite sides of if the two roots of the equation (2) are of opposite signs, the origin i. e. if c be negative.
147. Ex.1.
the points
to the circle
be
x^ + y^ + 2gx + 2fy + c = (1). Since the three points, whose coordinates are given, satisfy this equation, we have l + 2^ + c = (2),
and
3612/+c=0 25 + 6^ + 8/+c =
(3),
(4).
EXAMPLES.
Subtracting (2) from
(3)
123
(4),
and
(3)
from
we have
2^ + 12/= 35,
and
Hence
Equation
(2)
then gives
= ^.
the required equation
is
(1)
Ex. 2. Find the equation to the circle which touches the axis ofy at a distance + 4 from the origin and cuts off an intercept 6 from the axis of X.
Any
circle is
= 0.
+ c = 0.
to 4, so
The roots of this equation must be equal and each equal that it must be equivalent to {y  4)^ = 0. Hence 2/= 8, and c = 16. The equation to the circle is then x'^ + y^ + 2gx8y + 16 = 0.
This meets the axis of x in points given by
x'^
+ 2gx + l&:=0,
and gJg^lJG,
i.e. at
points distant
g+slT^^
Hence
Therefore
Q = 2^g^ie.
^=
is
+ U = 0.
There are therefore two circles satisfying the given conditions. This is geometrically obvious.
EXAMPLES. XVII.
Find the equation to the
1.
circle
is
(
Whose Whose
Whose
Whose
radius
radius
is
 1,
2).
6).
2. 3.
is
is is
is
(  5,
is {a,
is
radius
radius
 h).
{
4.
centre
 a, 
6).
Find the^ coordinates of the centres and the whose equations are
5.
x^ + y^ix8y
= ^l.
Q,
Sx'^
+ Sz/  5x Qy + 4 = 0.
124
7.
9.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
x^
[ExS.
+ y^=k{x + k).
{x^
8.
x^ + y'^
= 2gx2fy.
Jl+m"^
Draw
10. 12.
tlie circles
x^ + y^ = 2ay.
5x'^
H,
3x^ + 3y^=4x.
+ 5y^=2x + 3y.
13. Find the equation to the circle which passes through the points (1,  2) and (4,  3) and which has its centre on the straight
line
305
+ 42/ = 7.
14.
(0, a)
Find the equation to the circle passing through the points and (6, h), and having its centre on the axis of x.
to the circles
(0, 6).
(3, 2).
and
4), and
(5,
6).
17. 19.
(1,1), (2,1),
(, &)> (j
and
18.
and
(1, 3).
&)>
and(a + 6, ab).
is a square whose side is <x; taking as and 20. axes, prove that the equation to the circle circumscribing the square is
ABGB
AB
AD
x^\y^
= a{x\y).
circle
21.
origin
to 3
22. Find the equation to the circle passing through the origin and the points (a, 6) and (6, a). Find the lengths of the chords that it cuts off from the axes.
23. Find the equation to the circle which goes through the origin and cuts off intercepts equal to h and h from the positive parts of the
axes.
24.
which passes
through the two points on the axis of x which are at a distance & from
the origin.
to the circle
which
is of
radius
a,
(
27.
28.
(1,
2,
3).
2) and
(6, c).
touches the axis of x and passes through the two points (3, 4).
29. point
XVII.]
TANGENT TO A CIRCLE.
125
31. Points (1, 0) and (2, 0) are taken on the axis of x, the axes being rectangular. On the line joining these points an equilateral triangle is described, its vertex being in the positive quadrant. Find the equations to the circles described on its sides as diameters.
32. If 1/ = mx be the equation of a chord of a circle whose radius is the origin of coordinates being one extremity of the chord and the axis of X being a diameter of the circle, prove that the equation of a circle of which this chord is the diameter is
a,
(1
+ m2)
(c2
Find the equation and (42, the points (  54,  69) and
33.
(12, 43), (18, 39),
to the circle passing through the points 3) and prove that it also passes through
(
 81, 
38).
Find the equation to the circle circumscribing the quadrilateral formed by the straight lines
34.
2x + 3y = 2,
35.
{x^ , y^)
dx2y =
4:,
x + 2y = 3,
and
2xy = B.
and
is
Prove that the equation to the circle of which the points {x^ y^) ^^^ the ends of a chord of a segment containing an
,
angle 6
{x
 x^)
{x
 x^) + (y  yj)
(y
 y^)
{y
 2/2)  {x x^)
(y
 y^)] = 0.
36. Find the equations to the circles in which the line joining the points {a, h) and {b,  a) is a chord subtending an angle of 45 at any point on its circumference.
148. Tangent. Euclid in his Book III. defines the tangent at any point of a circle, and proves that it is always perpendicular to the radius drawn from the centre to the
point of contact.
From this property may be deduced the equation to the tangent at any point (x\ y') of the circle x^ ^y^ o?.
For
(a;',
let
the point
to
(Fig.
Art.
139)
be the point
through
y').
any straight
line passing
T is,
y~
Also the equation to
y'
= m, {x x)
is
(1).
OP
3/
= *
(2).
126 The
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
straight lines (1)
if
and
i.e.
the
mx^ = l,
I. e.
(Art. 69)
II
m=
y
is
>
m in (1),
tangent at {x\ y)
yy =f{^^h
t.e.
xx+yy x'^ + y
(oj.
But, since {x, y) lies on the circle, and the required equation is then
XX'
+ yy' = a2.
149. In the case of most curves it is impossible to give a simple construction for the tangent as in the case of the circle. It is therefore necessary, in general, to give a
different definition.
Tangent.
Join
secant.
Def.
then
Let
TQ
FQ
is
The position of the line PQ when the point Q is taken indefinitely close to, and ultimately coincident with, the is called the tangent at F. point
X^
^^,___^^
he conceive the curve to be made up of a succession of very small points (much smaller than could be made by the finest conceivable drawing The pen) packed close to one another along the curve. tangent at F is then the straight line joining F and the next of these small points.
{x\
imint
127
The equation
to
FQ
is
then
y2/'
Since both
(cc',
f^(^')
circle,
(1)
we have
and
y'"^
= a^.
By
i. e.
subtraction,
we have
x"^x" + y"'y" = 0,
(y"
r
{x"
+ y') ^
0,
X +x
,
It
y +y
(1),
the equation to
FQ
is
yy'=^^'('''')
(^)
Now let Q be taken very close to F, so that mately coincides with P, i, e. put x" = x and y" = y.
Then
(2)
it ulti
becomes
yy' = 7yA^^\
^y
i. e.
2x
yy'
therefore
(3).
+ yy' = a2
It will be noted that the equation to the tangent found in this article coincides with the equation found from Euclid's definition in Art. 148.
Our
definition of a tangent
and Euclid's
definition there
same straight
151.
(x'y y')
any point
y'^
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = 0.
128
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
a point
(x'\
y") lying on
The equation
to
PQ
is
therefore
2/2/'
C^!(x')
(cc",
(1).
y") lie
on the
C
circle,
we have
(2),
+
+
y'^
'lgx'
2fy'
and
x"^
y"'
+ 2gx" +
2fy" +
c^^
2/(y" y')
(3).
= 0,
(x"
 x) {x" + x' +
2g)
(y"
 y')
{y"
+ y' + 2/) = 0,
y y X X
X +X y +y
(1),
Zg
+2/
the equation to
.
PQ
/
, V
be
comes
f
X + X + Ag
,.
Now
let
Q be taken very
i. e.
coincides with P,
put x"
x and
y"
= y'.
The equation
(4)
then becomes
^. e.
y {y +/) + 0^(03' + ^) =
y' {y'
to
+f)+x
fO
/
{x'
/
+ g)
/
This
may be
written
XX'
+ yy' + g (x + X') + f (y + y) + c = O
The equation
to the tangent at
(x', y') is
which
is
152.
XX
for
x^y
fore obtained
from that of the circle itself by substituting yy' for y^, x { x' for 2a;, and y V y for 2y.
This
is
153.
line
y^mx
with the circle
x'
\
(1),
(2).
y^
= d^
The coordinates
(1)
of the points in
meets
(2) satisfy
both equations
solve
line
If therefore
we
them
we
points.
Substituting for y from (1) in (2), the abscissae of the required points are given by the equation
x^
i.e.
+ {mx +
c)^
a^,
x^ (1
+ m^) + 2mcx +
c^
 =
1,
(3).
by Art.
real, coinci
4
a? {\
(1
+ m^)
m^)
(c^
a^)
is positive, zero,
or negative,
according as
\
c^
is positive, zero,
or negative,
i.e.
according as
c^ is
<=
or
>
a^ (1
m^).
II,
all
In the
marked
130
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
The straight line I corresponds to a value of c^ which is <a^ (1 + oYv^) and it meets the circle in two real points. The straight line III which corresponds to a value of c^, > a^ (1 + m^), does not meet the circle at all, or rather, as in Art. 108, this is better expressed by saying that it meets
the circle in imaginary points.
straight line II corresponds to a value of c', which is equal to a^ (1 + m^), and meets the curve in two coincident points, i.e. is a tangent.
The
can now obtain the length of the chord inter154. For, if x^ and cepted by the circle on the straight line (1). be the roots of the equation (3), we have X2
^
We
2mc 1 + m"
_,
c^
cC
^
2
"2
+ m^
Hence
^1
^2 = Jip^i
^2)^
^x^x^ =
1
z
J.
"r 7Yh
+m^
Q and
c)
R we have,
{x^
since
2/2 = {mx^ +
<^)
"~
(^^2 +
= rri
x^.
(x^^
Hence
QR = J(yi  y^Y +
Ka^ (1
oc^y
Jl+ m'
c^
 x.^
y
a;^
+ m^) + 7n^
In a similar manner we can consider the points of section of the straight line y = mx + k with the circle
inter
2/2
+ 2yx + 2fy +
line
= 0.
155.
The straight
y = mx + ajl + m^
is
always
a.
131
As
y = mx +
meets the
circle in
G
if
a straight line meets the circle in two points which are indefinitely close to one another then, by Art. 149, it is a tangent to the circle.
But
if
The
circle if
straight line
y = mx +
c is
G^a J\
i.e.
772^,
is
y=
mx + a Vl + m2
(1).
Since the radical on the right hand may have the + or sign prefixed we see that corresponding to any value of in They are marked II and IV in there are two tangents. the figure of Art. 153.
156.
The above
which
result
may
also be
may
be written
a2 x' y= +(1).
Put
=
x'
,
y
'm,
y
relation
.r'
so that x'=
+ ?/'2 = a^
gives
y'^{m^+l) = a^,
i.e.
= /Jl+m^.
The equation
(1)
then becomes
y = mx + afjl + m\
This
is
~ma Vi + w2
and
7i + W''
157. If we assume that a tangent to a circle is always perpendicular to the radius vector to the point of contact, the result of Art. 155 may be obtained in another manner.
For a tangent
centre
is
92
132
The
perpendicular on
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
straight line
it
y=mx + c
will therefore
touch the
a, i.e. if
circle if the
i.e. if
c
is
= a /sjl + m^.
This method
circle.
158.
Ex.
+ y^6x + Ay = 12
4a;+3i/
+ 5 = 0.
'
Any
+ 32/ + (7 =
+ 2)2 =52.
(1).
The equation
The
that
its
to the circle is
(a;
3)2 + (2/
if it
Hence
so that
^l7^f=:5
(7=
31.
+ 32/ + 19 =
and
4;r
+ 3?/31 = 0.
of 159. Normal. Def. The normal at any point and is a curve is the straight line which passes through perpendicular to the tangent at P.
To find
normal at
the j^oint
(x', y'^
of
2/
= a%
2/2/ is
and
X
y^
+ Igx +
(.t', 3/')
0.
(1)
The tangent at
i.e.
XX + yy a^, X a^ ,x + y^ y y
133
The equation to the straight line passing through {x\ y) perpendicular to this tangent is
yy'
where
^m{x x),
1,
mx
( %] = y'
(Art. 69),
is
therefore
yy
i. e.
^'(^^^)'
0.
X y xy =
which
If
This straight line passes through the centre of the circle is the point (0, 0).
to
(;', 2/').
(2)
The equation
'
to the tangent at {x
y) to the
circle
i/^
+ ^yx + %fy +
CI
c
.
IS
y = 
X +
.x^gx +/^^+
fu
line,
(Art. 151.)
point
this tangent,
m x f%^\  
1,
(Art. 69),
I.e.
y+f m^, 
yy'^K~^{^x), X
+ g
^
'
i. e.
y {x'
134
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
EXAMPLES.
+ 7/2 3a; + 10?/ = 15
16a;
XVIII.
to the circle
2.
4^2 + iy^
+ 24y ^ 117
at the point
4,
 V)
to the circle
a;
+ 2/^ = 4 which
+ 2^ + 3 = 0.
4.
JC'
5.
x'^\y'^
= c\
and find
its
point of contact.
6.
Find the condition that the straight line ex ~hy + 1x^ = x'^ + y^ = ax + by and find the point of contact. Find whether the straight
line
may
x+y
x + y^2x2y
=2+J + l = Q.
2,
Find the condition that the straight line ^x + ^y = k 8. touch the circle x'^\y'^ lQx,
9.
may
line
a+?/sinap =
sin a  a^ sin^ a 0.
line
may
touch the
circle
a;2
10.
Ax\By + G Q
may
touch the
11.
{xaf+{yhf=c^.
Find the equation
(i)
a?
which
is
= mx + c,
(ii)
(iii)
is
and
(iv)
triangle
whose area
is a.
12.
Find
which the
straight line
X
a
meets the
13.
circle
x'^
+ y^ = r".
and cut
to the circles which pass through the origin equal chords a from the straight lines y x and yx.
[EXS. XVIII.]
EXAMPLES.
135
14. Find the equation to the straight lines joining the origin to the points in which the straight Hne y = rnx + c cuts the circle
x^ + y'^ = 2ax
+ 2by may
subtend a right
Hence
Find
circle.
also the
may
touch the
to the circle
which
(3, 4)
has
its
straight line
5x + 12y
16.
= l.
a
the centre being in the positive quadrant.
17.
Hne
2a:
(1,
3)
18. Find the general equation of a circle referred to two perpendicular tangents as axes.
19. Find the equation to a circle of radius / which touches the axis of 2/ at a point distant h from the origin, the centre of the circle being in the positive quadrant.
Prove also that the equation to the other tangent which passes through the origin is {r^h'^)x + 2rhy = 0.
20.
(a,
p)
Find the equation to the circle whose centre is at the point and which passes through the origin, and prove that the
is
21.
Two
circles are
drawn through the points {a, 5a) and (4a, a) Prove that they intersect at an angle tan^^ y*
.
passes through the points (  1, 1), (0, 6), and (5, 5). this circle the tangents at which are parallel to the straight line joining the origin to its centre.
22.
circle
160. To shew that from any i^oint there two tangents^ real or imaginary^ to a circle.
Let the equation to the
given point be
(ajj,
caii he
drawn
let
circle
be
'3t?
\ y"^
', and
155,
the
y^.
The equation
to
any tangent
by Art.
rn?.
mx +
a J\ +
136
If this
COORDINATE GEOMETllY.
pass through the given point
v/i
(xj^,
y^ we have
(1).
mx'i
aj\
+ m^
This is the equation which gives the values of m corresponding to the tangents which pass through (x^^^ y^).
Now
i.e.
i. e.
(1) gives
?/i
jiid\ a Jl
m^,
y^ m^ {xj^
2rax^y^
+ m^x^ =
ahn^^
(2).
a^)
2mx^y^ + y^^ a^ =
The equation (2) is a quadratic equation and gives therefore two values of ?m (real, coincident, or imaginary) corresponding to any given values of x^^ and y^. For each of these values of 7?i we have a corresponding tangent.
The
(2xi?/i)^
i. e.
roots of
(2)
are,
by Art.
is
1,
real,
coincident or
imaginary according as
(.r/
a"^) (2/1^
a^)
is
according as
a^
a"^
Xj^
+ y^)
i. e.
according as
If
x^
+ y^
x^ + y^>
is
a^, the distance of the point greater than the radius and hence
y^)
from
it lies
outside
If x{ + yi = a?, the point {x^ y^ lies on the circle and the two coincident tangents become the tangent at (x^^ y^.
,
within the circle, and no tangents can then be geometrically drawn to the circle. It is however better to say that the tangents are imaginary.
If x^
{x^^
y^
lies
161.
If
T without
two tangents
the circle, the straight line of contact is called the chord of contact of tangents from T.
equation of the chord of contact of tangents circle x^ + y"^ a^ from the external point
137
T
and
be the point
(a?",
(x^,
y^),
and
y") respectively.
The tangent
XX
at
F is
a^
+1/1/'
is
(1),
and that at Q
xx" + yy" d^
(2).
Since these tangents pass through T^ its coordinates {x^ y^ must satisfy
,
both
(1)
and
(2).
Hence
and
x^ + y^y a?
x^od'
(3),
y^y"
= cir
.(4).
The equation
to
FQ
is
then
xxi
For, since (3) F, lies on (5).
Also, since (4)
i.e.
+ yyi=a2
(5).
is true, it
y),
i.e.
is
Q, lies
on
(5). (5),
i.e.
Hence both
(5) is
F and Q lie on the straight line the equation to the required chord of contact.
If the point {x^, y^) lie within the circle the argument of the preceding article will shew that the line joining the (imaginary) points of contact of the two (imaginary)
+ yy^
a^.
We thus see, since this line is always real, that we may have a real straight line joining the imaginary points of contact of two imaginary tangents.
F
162. Pole and Polar. Def. If through a point (within or without a circle) there be drawn any straight line to meet the circle in Q and F, the locus of the point of is called the polar intersection of the tangents at Q and is called the pole of the polar. ; also of
In the next
straight line.
be proved to be a
138
163.
(^ij
2/1)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
To
Jincl
the
equation
to
the 'polar
of
the point
d^.
Let
QR
Q and
:Z^
Hence
QR
is
from the point (h, k) and therefore, by Art. 161, its equation is xh \ yk o?. Since this line passes through the point (x^, y^ we have
xJi
+ y^
is
a"
it
(1).
relation
(A, k)
(1)
true
follows
that
the
always
lies
equation
is
xxi + yyi
= a2
(x^, y^).
(2).
Hence
(x'l,
(2) is
In a similar manner it may be proved that the polar of i/i) with respect to the circle
is
y^
c=^ 0.
164. The equation (2) of the preceding article is the same as equation (5) of Art. 161. If, therefore, the point
{xi, 2/i) be without the circle, as in the righthand figure, the polar is the same as the chord of contact of the real tangents drawn through (x^^, y^).
If the point
(x^, y^)
it.
be on the
circle,
(Art. 150.)
139
If the point (x^, yf) be within the circle, then, as in Art. 161, the equation (2) is the line joining the (imaginary) points of contact of the two (imaginary) tangents that can
be drawn from
(x^
y^.
We
that
have
been
polar of a given point is the straight line which passes through the (real or imaginary) points of contact of tangents drawn from the given point ; also the pole of any straight line is the point of intersection of tangents at the points (real or imaginary) in which this straight line meets
The
the
circle.
165.
The equation
OP^ which
is
(0, 0)
to
^.e.
(!)
P is
xx^
+ yVx cC"
(2).
By
of P.
one another.
Art. 69, the lines (1) and (2) are perpendicular to Hence OP is perpendicular to the polar
OP  ^x^+y},
140
COORDINATE GEOMETRY,
OiV,
from
upon
(2)
ON
if
circle.
Through
LL' perpendicular to
LL'
lies
OP
[It will be noted that the middle point of any chord the line joining the centre to the pole of the chord.]
on
166.
To Jind
the pole
to
any
circle.
be
(1).
% + (70
circle
be
and
let
{x^, y^.
(oji,
Then
i.e. it is
(1) must be the equation to the polar of the same as the equation
xx^
y^,
(2).
J B
so that
Xt
'
C
is
yz a^
A
(2)
circle
be
+ 2/2 +
l.yx
+ 2fy + g=Q.
141
then
(1)
must be
1 63),
xx^
i.e.
+yyi +
x,)
(Art.
(3).
Comparing

(1)
sc^
with
(3),
we
therefore have
9^1 +/2/1
+ 9 _ Vi+f^ A " B
+g
the values of x^
C
we have
By
and
2/1.
Ex.
Find
9x+2j28 =
2vith respect to the circle
(1)
2x^+2y'^Sx + 5ij7 =
yj) be the required point the line polar of (x^, 2/i)' whose equation is
(2).
If
(.Tj,
(1)
(3).
and
(3)
4.'Ci
we have
3
Hence
and
= S and
t/^
=  1,
so that the
167.
Let
If
the 2')olar
and
T
of
be the points
{x^,
y^ and
to
(.Tg,
2/2)
^^
spectively.
a;^
y^
with
Cb^'
respect
the
circle
xx^
+ 2/2/1 =
T if
(!)
+ 2/22/1 =
ct^
142
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
(x^,
is
Since the relation (1) is true it follows that the point 2/1), i.e. P, lies on the straight line xx^\yy^ = (]?^ which the polar of {x^^ y^)^ i.e. T, with respect to the circle.
Cor. and Q,
168. To find the length of the tangent drawn from the point (x^ y^ to the circles
,
can he
(1)
a?^y'^
x?
= a\
+ 2gx +
2/^/
and
(2)
y^
= 0.
If T be an external point (Fig. Art. 163), TQ a tangent and the centre of the circle, then TQO is a right angle and hence
If the equation to the circle (1) origin, OT'^ = x^ + y^.^ and OQ^ = a^.
be
x" ^y"
a^,
is
the
Hence
(2)
TQ" = x^^ +
x^
y^
 a\
be
c
circle
0,
i.e.
(x
+ gfv{y+fY = f+f'c.
the point (
g,
In this case
f) and
(Art. 20).
Hence
Therefore
+ gf +
(y,
+ff 
In each case to the circle being written so that the coefficients of x^ and y" are each unity) the square of the length of the tangent drawn to the circle from the point {x^, y^) is obtained by substituting x^ and 2/1 for the current coordinates in the lefthand member of the equation to the circle.
can
(f +p + c.
 c)
the point
(x^^
y^
d^.
ANY
POINT.
143
Since any straight line touches a circle if the perpenit from the centre is equal to the radius, the perpendicular from the origin upon the line joining (x^, y^) to (A, k) must be equal to a.
dicular on
The equation
points
is
two
Vi
i.e.
yQ^~~ ^'i)
Hence
so that
__
k)
always
lies
on the locus
(1).
This therefore
The equation
(1)
may
(x^
y'^
CL^)
{^i
+ y\ ^) = x'^X{' + y^y^ +
a^
+ 2xyx{y^
(2).
#170. In a later chapter we shall obtain the equation to the pair of tangents to any curve of the second degree in a form analogous to that of equation (2) of the previous article.
drawn from
Similarly the equation to the pair {x^, y^ to the circle
of
form
similarly,
= \xx^^yy^^g{x\x^^f{y^ry^) + cf
(2).
144
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
EXAMPLES.
Find the polar of the point
1.
(1, 2)
(4,
XIX.
+ y^ = 7. 2x" + 2y^=ll,
circle
a;
2.
3.
circle
to the circle
+ y^4x&y + 5 = 0.
circle
4.
(5,
I)
Sy^1x + 8y9 = 0.
circle
b
5.
(a,
6)
x^ + y^ + 2ax  2by + a^ 
= 0.
Find
6. 7.
+ 2y = l 2xy = G
2x + y
circle 5x^
+ oy^ =9.
8.
+ 12 =
54?/
circle
Byl=0.
circle
9.
48;r
+ 53 =
Sx^
+ 3y^ + 5x7y + 2 = 0.
with respect to the circle
10.
ax + by + 3a^ + 36^ =
x^ + y^ + 2ax
+ 2by = a^ + b^.
;
11. Tangents are drawn to the circle x^ + y^ = 12 at the points where it is met by the circle x^ + y^  5x + Sy ~ 2 = find the point of
intersection of these tangents.
is
12. Find the equation to that chord of the circle x'^ + y^ = 81 which bisected at the point (  2, 3), and its pole with respect to the circle. 13.
(1,
2)
circles
+5=
and
x'^
+ y^ + 2x + 8y + 5 =
coincide ; prove also that there is another point the polars of which with respect to these circles are the same and find its coordinates.
14. Find the condition that the chord of contact of tangents from the point (x', y') to the circle x^+y^=a^ should subtend a right angle at the centre.
and Q, each from 15. Prove that the distances of two points, the polar of the other with respect to a circle, are to one another inversely as the distances of the points from the centre of the circle.
16. Prove that the polar of a given point with respect to any one of the circles x^\y'^2kx\c'^ = 0, where k is variable, always passes through a fixed point, whatever be the value of A\
[EXS. XIX.]
145
17. Tangents are drawn from the point {h, k) to the circle x^ + y^ = aP; prove that the area of the triangle formed by them and the straight line joining their points of contact is
ajJi^
h^
+ Ji^aY + k^
drawn
(
of the tangents
2, 3).
(6,
19.
7x6y = 12 from
the point
7).
20.
21.
and
+ 37/36a; + 81 = 0, a:2^.,y2_i6^_12y + 84 = 0,
3ic2
find (1) the point from which the tangents to length, and (2) this length.
them
are equal in
distances from the origin of the centres of three circles (where c is a constant and X a variable) are in geometrical progression ; prove that the lengths of the tangents drawn to them from any point on the circle a;"^ + ^ = care also in geometrical progression.
22.
The
ic2hy"^2Xic
= c^
23.
drawn
(2)
from the point (11, 3) to the. circle xr'\y^ ^^, from the point (4, 5) to the circle 2x + 2i/3  8a; + 12?/ + 21 r= 0.
171.
to
To
of a
circle referred
polar coordinates.
Let
centre
circle.
OX
C
the
R and a, L XOC = a.
so that
00 M
and
Let a radius vector through at an angle 6 with the initial line cut the circle in and Q. Let OP, or OQ, be r.
L.
10
146
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY.
{Trig. Art. 164)
Then
CP ^
i.e. i.e.
OC'^
r
cos
C OF,
(1).
a''^P^ + r'2Prcos(e~a),
r'
2Rr cos
 a) + R""  a" ^0
This
is
172. Particular cases of the general equation inpolar coordinates. Let the initial line be taken to go through the centre G. Then (1) a = 0, and the equation becomes
r2
(2)
 2Rr cos ^ + E^  a^ = 0.
circle, so that
be taken on the
B=OG = a.
^^M
i.e.
let
In this case
a=0,
and
R a.
figure.
0
OCA
be a diameter, we have
0P=0^ cos ^,
i.e.
r=2aQO8 0.
173. The equation (1) of Art. 171 is a quadratic equation which, for any given value of 6, gives two values of r. These two values in the figure are OP and
OQ.
If these
two values be
7\r^
called
r^
and
rg,
we
a"^,
have, from
equation
(1),
= product
of the roots
E^
i.e.
of
is therefore the It follows that if we drew any to cut the circle in P^ and Q^ we
0.
= OP^ .OQ^.
This
is
Euc.
iii.
36, Cor.
147
174. Find the equation to the chord joining the points on the circle r 2a cos 6 whose vectorial angles are d^ and 6^, and deduce the equation to the tangent at the point 6^.
The equation
If this
to
any
^ = rcos((9a)
pass through the points
(2a;
(1).
cos
^j^,
6^ and (2asin^2
^.3
^2)' ^^^
have
2a cos
d^
cos
(^ja)=^ = 2acos
cos {9.^~a)
(2).
Hence
i.e.
cos (2^^  a)
+ cos a = cos
(2^.,
a)
+ cos
a,
2^1
a=
(2^0 a),
since d^
and
^2 ^^^
iiot i'^
general, equal.
Hence
a d^ +
(2), j?
d.^^
= 2a cos
(1),
6^
cos
d.^.
On
substitution in
is
(3).
r cos (^
^1
^2)
= 2a cos ^1 cos ^2
is
The equation
Art. 150,
by putting
found, as in
We
2acos2^j^.
As in the foregoing article it could be shewn that the equation to the chord joining the points d^ and 6^ on the circle r= 2a cos {d  7) is
r cos {d 9^6.,
+ 7] 2a cos {9^
2^j
7) cos
(9.^
7)
cos
(^
EXAMPLES. XX.
1.
r=A
2.
cos 9
+ B sin
9.
tangent.
3.
Find the polar equation of a circle, the initial line being a What does it become if the origin be on the circumference?
4.
r = a sin ^; (3) r = ttcos^; (4) r = asec^; = acos(^a); (6) r = asec(^a). Prove that the equations r = acos(^a) and rb sin (9 a)
Prove that the equation r^ cos 5. represents a straight line and a circle.
^ a;*
cos 2^
2a cos
102
148
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[Exs. XX.]
Find the polar equation to the circle described 6. line joining the points {a, a) and (&, /3) as diameter.
on the straight
Prove that the equation to the circle described on the straight 7. line joining the points (1, 60) and (2, 30) as diameter is
r^r [cos
8.
{d
60)
+ 2 cos
{0
30)]
+ ^3 = 0.
line
may
touch the
circle
= 2c cos d.
a
circle referred to
175.
To find
an angle
to.
Let C be the centre and a the radius of the the coordinates of C be (h, k) so that if CM, drawn parallel to the axis of 2/, meets in M, then
circle.
Let
OX
OM=h
and MC=.k.
Let P be any point on the circle whose coordinates are x and Draw PN, the ordinate of P, y. and CL parallel to OX to meet
PNinL.
Then
and
Also
CL = MN =
tu.
Hence, since
CL^
+ LP^ 
WL
(x

LP cos CLP = a\
h) (y
we have
i.e.
(x
 h)2 +
(y
 k)2 + 2
[h
 k)
ik
cosco
= 3?,
x^
+ y^ + 2xy
cos
w  2x
+ k cos w) ~2y
+ h cos w)
+ JiT + k^ +
2M COS w or.
that the
is
therefore found.
it
As
in
Art.
142
oi\
may be shewn
'2gx
+ ^xy cos
y"
+ 2fy +
OBLIQUE COORDINATES.
Ex.
If the axes he inclined at 60, prove that the equation
x^ + xy+i/^x5y
represents a circle
If
49
2
(1)
and find
its
centre
and radius.
the equation of Art. 175
cosw=,
D6COII1GS
and
Solving
gives

(2)
and
(3),
(2),
(3),
(4).
Equation
(4)
then
so that
The equation
point
(1, 2)
and
(1) therefore represents a circle whose centre is the whose radius is 3, the axes being inclined at 60.
EXAMPLES. XXI.
may
Find the inclinations of the axes so that the following equations represent circles, and in each ease find the radius and centre ;
1.
x'xy\y'^~2gx'ify = 0.
x'^
2.
+ fjZxy+if^x%y + 5 = Q.
The axes being inclined at an angle w, find the centre and 3. radius of the circle
a;2
+ 2xy
cos
4.
whose centre
inclined at 45, find the equation to the circle the point (2, 3) and whose radius is 4.
circle
The axes being inclined at 60, find the equation to the 5. whose centre is the point (  3,  5) and whose radius is 6.
Prove that the equation to a circle whose radius is a and 6. which touches the axes of coordinates, which are inclined at an angle
to, is
x^ + 2xycoso} + y'^2a
7.
(.T
+ ^)cot +a^cot^=0.
circle
Prove that the straight line y mx will touch the x^ + 2xy cos (o + y^ + 2gx + 2fy + c =
{g
if
+fm)^ = c
(1
+ 2m cos
o)
+ m^)
8. circle
inclined at an angle w, find the equation to the diameter is the straight line joining the points
{x\ y')
and
{x", y").
150
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
MOP equal
seen to be a
article.
in the figure of Art. 139, we put the angle to a, the coordinates of the point P are easily cos a and a sin a.
(1)
of
that
The
is
may
the ordinary Cartesian coordinates we have to give the values of two separate quantities x and y' (which
are however connected by the relation x' = Ja^ y"^) to on the circle. The express the position of a point above substitution therefore often simplifies solutions of problems.
With
178.
To find
tlie
equation
joining
y8, 07i
the circle xr
y^
= a.
Let the points be P and Q, and let OA^ be the perpendicular from the origin on the straight line PQ ; then OJV bisects the angle POQ, and hence
z
X0]^= 1 (
Also
The equation
X cos
If
to
PQ
j8
is
.
a + 2
p^"
+ y sm
^
a+
2 ^
i8
a cos a /?
2
we put P = a we
a,
at the point
X cos a + y sin a = a. This may also be deduced from the equation of Art. 150 by putting x' = a cos a and y =cb sin a.
179.
circle
be in the more
(Art.
1
general form
 hy
(yky^ a',
40),
ONE VARIABLE.
151
F in
ct
the form
(X
cos
a,
^ +
sin a).
satisfy the
above equation.
Here a
is
the angle
LOP
The equation to the straight line joining the points a and can be easily shewn to be
{x
/
IN h) cos + yS ^r^
^
{y
Ic)
7\
sm
a + = a cos ^ ^
)8
a.
is
K) cos a +
the four
(2/
li)
sin a
= a.
#180. Ex.
and
Find
common
ox'^
+ 5i/  22x + iy + 20 = 0,
5a;2
20 = 0.
(x
Any
Any
article
point on the
first
 V + 3 cos 0, f + 3
sin 0).
The equations
by the
last
i^)cos^ +
{y
+ )sin^ = l
(1),
(2).
and
tangents,
if
(a;
+ V)eos0 + (?/)sin0 = 3
common
^'
cos
<p
From
the
first
we have
(f)
dor(p = d + 180.
If 0=:^, the
i.e.
i.e.
'
(4),
On
solving,
we have tan
=
or 
^^.
152
which satisfy which do not
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
Corresponding to tan^ =  we have the values sin ^ = 4, cos^ = f f (4) ; we have also the values sin ^=  1 and cos ^=
satisfy
it.
Corresponding to
tan^=
which
= 180+ ^,
(3)
give
 11 cos
i,e.
+ 2 sin
^5
(5).
This gives
so that
tan^=for^.
satisfy (5) are
found to be
0=1,
cos0=
(3)
The
solutions of
are therefore
f,
sin0=f, i^,
cos
and ^^;
= 1,
2^5,
On
the
common tangents
are found to be
+ 42/ = 10,
5,
7.^24?/
4a;3i/=
and
24.^+
181.
We
cellaneous examples on
Ex. I. Find the locus of a point P lohich moves so that its distance is always in a given ratio [n 1) to its distance from a given point from another given point A. as origin and the direction of OA as the axis of x. Let Take
:
the distance
OA
be
rt,
so that
is
the point
{a, 0).
any position of
we have
OP2=n2.^p2,
i.e.
i.e.
(a;2
x'^\y'^
= n^[{xa)^\y'\,
(1).
+ 2/2)(n2l)2an2a; + 7i2a2=0
P is
a circle.
Let this
and
OB
circle meet the axis of x in the points C and D. Then OC are the roots of the equation obtained by putting y equal to
zero in
..
(1).
Hence
^^ 00=
na
n+
1
and
^^ 0D=
na
5. n1
THE CIRCLE.
EXAMPLES.
153
n+1 OG
and
AD =
''
n1
OB
in the given ratio,
GA=AD =
The points C and D therefore divide the line OA and the required circle is on CD as diameter.
Ex. 2. From any 'point on one given circle tangents are drawn to another given circle ; prove that the locus of the middle point of the chord of contact is a third circle.
Take the centre of the first circle as origin and let the axis of x pass through the centre of the second circle. Their equations are then a;2+2/2=a2 (1),
and
where a and
the circles.
(.'cc)2
+ r/2 = &2
(2),
and
6,
a sin
where
is variable.
Its
chord
is
 c)
{a cos 9
c) {ya
^m 6 = 1^
(3)
The middle point of this chord of contact is the point where it met by the perpendicular from the centre, viz. the point (c, 0). The equation to this perpendicular is (Art. 70) {xc)a sin 6 + [a cos 6 c)y = (4).
is
Any equation deduced from (3) and (4) is satisfied by the coordinates of the point under consideration. If we eliminate 6 from them, we shall have an equation always satisfied by the coordinates of the point, whatever be the value of 6. The result will thus be the equation to the required locus.
Solving
(3)
and
(4),
we have
/I a Bin 6 =
^^y
7/ + (.r6f'
and
so that
_ a cos 6  c
acos^ = c+
y^ixc)
62 {x
~f+{^c^cf'
c)
y^ +
{x cy
Hence
a2
^~^
y^+(x[x
^
c)
^,
+ y^
+ .
+ {x  c)2
The required
This
is
locus is therefore
(a2
c2) [?/2
(.^
_ c)2] = 2c62
c)
a circle and
its
centre
easily found.
154
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Ex. 3. Find the locus of a point which is such that its polar with respect to one circle touches a second circle.
Taking the notation of the
circles are
two
x^ + if=a
(1),
and
Let
{h,
Jc)
(a?c)2 + ^2^62
(2).
Its polar
with
respect to (1)
xh + yk = a^
Also any tangent to
(2)
(3),
has
its
[x If
c)
cos d
+y
sin d = b
of the
(4).
then
(3)
be a tangent to

(2) it
must be
,5
form
(4).
^,
Therefore
a"^
= hh, and
sin
d{a^ch) = hk.
The
is
+ y^) = {a^cxf.
(3)
Aliter. found.
may
touch
(2)
may
be otherwise
For, as in Art. 153, the straight line (3) meets the circle points whose abscissae are given by the equation
(2)
in the
k^{xc)^ +
i. e.
{a^hxf^b%\
x^
{h^
The
i.e.
a
is
h^h^ + B) = {chaY,
equation
(5).
which
is a fixed point and P any point on a given circle ; OP Ex. 4. joined and on it a point Q is taken so that OP OQ = a constant quantity k ; prove that the locus of Q is a circle which becomes a lies on the original circle. straight line ivhen
is
THE CIRCLE.
Let
EXAMPLES.
C
155
as the
taken as pole and the line through the centre Let OC = d, and let the radius of the circle be a. Qyf\
O be
initial
line.
The equation to the circle is then a2 = 72 + d^  2rd cos d, (Art. 171),
where
\d
C"
the given
?
condition,
=
P
we have
(1),
a2=^VtZ22 cos^
so that the equation to the locus of
'
is
2
55
2^cos^=is a'
(2.
But the equation to a circle, whose radius on the initial line at a distance d', is
Comparing such that
and
is
r22rd'cos0 = a'2d'2
(1)
(2),
Z'2/7
we
,r
and
n"^
d'^
2= __
^,
^^^^^.^
J=
^^
~z^
d^
whose
a"
on the same
fixed point.
lies
(1)
d
kH
^
a^
from the
When
the equation
on the original circle the distance d is equal to a, and becomes k'^ 2drQ05dy i.e., in Cartesian coordinates,
_fc2
is
OG.
When a second curve is obtained from a given curve by the above geometrical process, the second curve is said to be the inverse of the first curve and the fixed point O is called the centre of inversion.
The inverse of a circle is therefore a circle or a straight line according as the centre of inversion is not, or is, on the circumference of the original circle.
'
156
Ex.
5.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
PQ
is
ivhich
line drawn through O, one of the common and meets them'again in P and Q; find the locus of bisects the line PQ.
a straight
Take O as the origin, let the radii of the two circles be R and R', and let the lines joining their centres to O make angles a and a' with
the initial
line.
The equations
to the
two
172
(2)},
S be
PQ, we have
is
therefore
+ R'co3{ea')
(1),
where
= {R cos a + R' cos a') cos ^ + (JR sin a + R' sin a'} sin 6 = 2R''co8{da") 2R" cos a" = R cos a + R' cos a',
2R" sin a" =Rsma + R' sin a'.
R" = i s/R^ + R'^ + 2RR' cos
jR
and
Hence
and
(a
a')
From (1) the locus of S is a circle, whose radius is JR", which and is such that the line joining O to its passes through the origin centre is inclined at an angle a" to the initial line.
EXAMPLES.
1.
XXII.
point moves so that the sum of the squares of its distances sides of a square is constant prove that it always lies
;
A point moves so that the sum of the squares of the perpendi2. culars let fall from it on the sides of an equilateral triangle is constant; prove that its locus is a circle.
3.
is
A point
moves
so that the
sum
is
Find the locus of a point which moves so that the square of 4. the tangent drawn from it to the circle x^ + y^=a^ is equal to c times its distance from the straight line lx + my + n = 0.
Find the locus of a point whose distance from a fixed point is 5. in a constant ratio to the tangent drawn from it to a given circle.
[EXS. XXII.]
EXAMPLES.
157
Find the locus of the vertex of a triangle, given (1) its base and 6. the sum of the squares of its sides, (2) its base and the sum of m times the square of one side and n times the square of the other.
7.
point moves so that the sum of the squares of its distances is given. Prove that its locus is a circle.
Whatever be the value of a, prove that the locus of the inter8. section of the straight lines
X cos a + y sin a a and x sin
is
ay cos a b
circle.
9.
From
to
a point
on a
circle
FN
;
radii of the cu'cle which are not at right angles the locus of the middle point of 3IN.
drawn
10.
lies
two
are find
Tangents are drawn to a circle from a point which always on a given line prove that the locus of the middle point of the
;
chord of contact
11.
x^ + y^
is
another
circle.
= aP which
of the middle points of chords of the circle pass through the fixed point {h, k).
circle
12.
x'^
+ y^=a? which
13.
Find the locus of the middle points of chords of the subtend a right angle at the point (c, 0).
;
is
on OP is a fixed point and P any point on a fixed circle taken a point Q such that OQ is in a constant ratio to OP ; prove that the locus of Q is a circle.
is a fixed point and P any point on a given straight line joined and on it is taken a point Q such that OP OQ = k; prove that the locus of Q, i. e. the inverse of the given straight line with respect to 0, is a circle which passes through O.
14.
OP
is
15. One vertex of a triangle of given species is fixed, and another moves along the circumference of a fixed circle prove that the locus of the remaining vertex is a circle and find its radius.
;
O is any point in the plane of a circle, and OP^P^ any chord 16. of the circle which passes through O and meets the circle in Pj and P.2. On this chord is taken a point Q such that OQ is equal to (1) the arithmetic, (2) the geometric, and (3) the harmonic mean between OP^ and 0P<^\ in each case find the equation to the locus of Q.
Find the locus of the point of intersection of the tangent to and the perpendicular let fall on this tangent from a fixed point on the circle.
17.
any
circle
18.
21
is 2/^
touches the axis of x and cuts off a constant length prove that the equation of the locus of its centre ;  x^ = l^ cosec^ w, the axes being inclined at an angle w.
circle
158
COORDINATE GEOMETHY.
[ExS.
19. A straight line moves so that the product of the jDerpendiculars on it from two fixed points is constant. Prove that the locus of the feet of the perpendiculars from each of these points upon the straight line is a circle, the same for each.
are two fixed parallel is a fixed point and and 20. is a right straight lines is perpendicular to both and Prove that the locus of the foot of the perpendicular drawn angle. is the circle on as diameter. from O upon
;
AP
BQ
BOA
POQ
PQ
AB
Two rods, of lengths a and b, slide along the axes, which are 21. rectangular, in such a manner that their ends are always concyclic prove that the locus of the centre of the circle passing through these ends is the curve 4 {x^  y'^) a'^  b^.
22. Shew that the locus of a point, which is such that the tangents from it to two given concentric circles are inversely as the radii, is a concentric circle, the square of whose radius is equal to the sum of the squares of the radii of the given circles. 23.
circle
Shew
that
if
P
it
circle x^
+ y^=a^ be four times the length of the tangent from {x  a) + y^ = a?, then P lies on the circle Ihx'^ + 15?/2  ^lax + a2 = 0.
to the to the
Prove also that these three circles pass through two points and that the distance between the centres of the first and third circles is sixteen times the distance between the centres of the second and
third circles.
24. Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the origin upon any chord of the circle x + y'^\2gx + 2fy + c=i(i which subtends a right angle at the origin.
Find
25.
fixed point O are drawn two straight lines circle in and Q, and jR and S, respectively. Prove that the locus of the point of intersection of PS and QR, as also and QS, is the polar of with that of the point of intersection of respect to the circle.
Through a
to
OPQ
and
ORS
meet the
PR
are four points in a straight line; prove that 26. ^) B, C, and the locus of a point P, such that the angles APB and CPD are equal, is a circle. 27. The polar of P with respect to the circle x'^\y'^ a touches the circle {x  of + {y  ^)"b^ ; prove that its locus is the curve given by the equation {ax + ^ya^f b^ {x^ + y^)
.
28. A tangent is drawn to the circle {x  a)" + y" = b and a perpendicular tangent to the circle {x + a)'^ + y = c" find the locus of their point of intersection, and prove that the bisector of the angle between them always touches one or other of two fixed circles.
;
XXII.]
29.
it
EXAMPLES.
Ill
'
159
on the
any circle prove that the perpendicular from any point of line joining the points of contact of two tangents is a mean
proportional between the perpendiculars from the point upon the two tangents.
30.
From any
a sin
a),
(acos/S, asin/3),
and
(sin a
Hence prove that if ^i, B, C, and D be four points on a circle the orthocentres of the four triangles ABC, BCD, CDA, and DAB lie on a circle.
32. A variable circle passes through the point of intersection of any two straight lines and cuts ofi from them portions OP and OQ such that OP + n OQ is equal to unity prove that this circle always passes through a fixed point.
33. Find the length of the common chord of the circles, whose equations are (xaf + y'^ = a? and x^ + (1/  h)=^JP, and prove that the equation to the circle whose diameter is this common chord is
(a2
+ &2)
(a;2
34.
common
circles
c2
is
V^c  2
h)K
Hence
35.
two
circles
may
touch.
circles
and
X' + y'oax
+ 4:ay = 0.
common
to the
common
and
x
+ y^ + ex2y + 1 = 0,
x^
a)^
+ y^ = h.
CHAPTER
IX.
SYSTEMS OF CIRCLES.
[This chapter
may he
first
182.
Def.
Two
circles are
at P,
must
also
be at right angles.
Hence
O^Oi=O^P^vO.JP\
i.e. the square of the distance between the centres must be equal to the sum of the squares of the radii.
Also the tangent from Oo, to the other circle is equal to the radius a^,, i.e. if two circles be orthogonal the length of the tangent drawn from the centre of one circle to the second circle is equal to the radius of the first.
Either of these two conditions will determine whether the circles are orthogonal.
The
a;2
and
a;
are the points {g, /) and (^', /') radii are g^+f~ c and g'^ +f'^  c'.
161
i.e. if
2gg' + 2ff=c
+ c'.
1S3.
two
Radical Axis.
Def.
The
radical axis
of
the locus of a point which moves so that the lengths of the tangents drawn from it to the two circles are
circles is
equal.
circles
2fi/
be
+ y' + 2gx +
G^0
(1),
and and
let (x^,
+ i/^ + 2gjX + 2fy + c^ = (2), y^ be any point such that the tangents from
x"
it
By
^1^
i.e.
Art. 168,
we have
+
2/2/1
+ Vx +
^9^1
a^i"
2/r
2g^x^
+ 2fy^ +
0.
(iCj, 2/1)
c^,
lie
should
(3).
is
This
is
and
it
It is easily seen that the radical axis is perpendicular For these to the line joining the centres of the circles. The centres are the points ( g, f) and (^1, /i)
"m"
i.e.
of
is
therefore
^
9x{9)
{,
tA.
99i
The
"?7i" of the line (3) is
7.
is
The product
of these
Hence, by Art. 69, the radical axis and the line joining the centres are perpendicular.
L.
11
162
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
184.
R,
RADICAL AXIS.
185.
If the equations to the circles in Art.
163
183 be
aS" 0, the equation (3) to the radical axis may be written S S' = 0, and therefore the radical axis passes through the common points, real or and aS" = 0. imaginary, of the circles S =
In the
last article
we saw that
this
which the
circles
the circles do not geometrically intersect, as in look upon the straight line TO as passing through the imaginary points of intersection of the
Fig.
2,
When
we must then
two
circles.
meet
circles
be
(1),
(2),
(3).
^=
'S^'^O
and
S"=^0
The
line
and
(2) is
the straight
(4).
S>S'
=
(3) is the straight line
The
and
.S".S"'=:0
(5).
If we add equation (5) to equation (4) we shall have the equation of a straight line through their points of intersection.
Hence
is
.S'aS'"0
(6)
(5).
But
in pairs,
and
(1).
point.
This point
circles.
called the
Radical Centre
of the three
This may also be easily proved geometrically. For let the three circles be called A, B, and C, and let the radical axis of A and B and that of B and C meet in a point 0.
112
164
COORDINATE GEOMETKY.
By the definition of the radical axis, the tangent from ^^ to the circle A = the tansrent from V j to the circle B, and the tangent ^^\^^ = tangent z'^' to the circle \ from f \ Ip from it to the circle C.
f
to Hence the tangent from the circle A = the tangent from it is also a to the circle C, i.e. point on the radical axis of the
circles
>v
^/^v^'
I
/^"^^
^^7\
V
^^
\
j
and
C.
If S=0 and S' = he the equations of two circles, any circle through their 2>oints of interAlso the equation to any circle, such that section is S \S'. radical axis of it and S0 is u = 0, is S + \u ~ 0. the are both satisfied the For wherever S =0 and >S" = equation S = XS' is clearly satisfied, so that S = \S' is some = and *S"= 0. locus through the intersections of Also in both S and S' the coefiicients of x^ and y'^ are equal and the coefiicient of xy is zero. The same statement
187.
the
equation of
aS'
is
equation S=XS'.
Hence the
proposition.
S + Xu
Again, since u is only of the first degree, therefore in the coefficients of ay^ and y^ are equal and the is clearly a circle. coefficient of xy is zero, so that S + Xu = Also it passes through the intersections of *S^ = and u 0.
EXAMPLES.
Prove that the following pairs of
1.
x'^
XXIII.
circles intersect
orthogonally
+ y^2ax + c =
and x^ + y^ + 2by c = 0.
2. 3.
x^ + y  2ax
+ 2hy + c =
and
x^ + y^ + 2hx
+ 2ay c = 0.
and
Find the equation to the circle which passes through the origin cuts orthogonally each of the circles
x^ + y^ex
+8=
and x^ + y^2x2y = 7.
of circles
+ 2/2=144 and x^ + y^15x + lly = 0. x^ + y^3x4:y + 5=0 and Sx^ + By^7x + 8y + ll=0.
RADICAL AXIS.
6.
EXAMPLES.
&nd
x^
165
x^ + yxy
+ Qxly + 8 =
+ ij' xy4 = 0,
sets of circles
x^+y^ + x + 2y + S = 0,
x^ + 2fh2x
+ 4:y + 5 = 0,
and
8.
x^ + y^7x8yd
= 0.
(a;2)2+(z/3)2 = 36,
(a;4)2 +
(i/
and
9.
Prove that the square of the tangent that can be drawn from circle to another circle is equal to twice the product of the perpendicular distance of the point from the radical axis of the two circles, and the distance between their centres.
common
is
bisected
by the
11. Find the general equation of aU circles any pair of which have the same radical axis as the circles
j.2^y2
4.
an^
x^ + y^ + 2x
+ 4:y = &.
12. Find the equations to the straight lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of
x^ + y^4:x2y
4:
and
x'
+ y^2x~'iy 4^ = 0.
with respect to two fixed circles meet 13. The polars of a point as diameter passes in the point Q. Prove that the circle on through two fixed points, and cuts both the given circles at right angles.
PQ
14.
(0, a)
and
Prove that the two circles, which pass through the two points (0,  a) and touch the straight line y = mx + c, will cut orthoif c2
gonally
15.
= a2 (2 + m^).
of the centre of the circle
circles orthogonally.
16. If two circles cut orthogonally, prove that the polar of any point P on the first circle with respect to the second passes through the other end of the diameter of the first circle which goes through P.
Hence, (by considering the orthogonal circle of three circles as the locus of a point such that its polars with respect to the circles meet in a point) prove that the orthogonal circle of three circles, given by the general equation is
\x+9i>
\x + go,
y+fi,
y + f^,
9i^+fiy+ci
g^x
\x
+ gz,
y + fs,
166
COORDINATE GEOMETEY.
188.
Coaxal
Circles.
Def.
system of
circles
is said to be coaxal when they have a common radical axis, i.e. when the radical axis of each pair of circles of the system is the same.
Tojind
Since,
of coaxal
circles.
radical axis of
any pair
of the
follows that the centres of all the circles of a coaxal system must lie on a straight line which is perpendicular to the radical axis.
Take the line of centres as the axis of x and the radical axis as the axis of y (Figs. I. and II., Art. 190), so that
is
the origin.
The equation
of
c
to
any
circle
with
its
is
x^
y'^
2gx + c0
is (0, y^).
it
Any
is,
Since this quantity is to be the same for all circles of the system it follows that c is the same for all such circles the different circles are therefore obtained by giving different values to g in the equation (1).
The
obtained by putting
intersections of (1) with the radical axis are then a^ = in equation (1), and we have
If c be negative,
we have two
as in Fig.
I.
of Art. 190.
points of in
189.
The equation
circle of the
system
may be
2/2
(xgY +
^/
= [Jf  cf.
COAXAL CIRCLES.
It therefore represents a circle
(^,
167
is
whose centre
the point
0)
is
g^
c.
the circle becomes a point
i.e.
when
g^
G,
i.e.
when g Jc.
Hence
circles
we have
point
These
pointcircles are
But it was shown in the last article that when c negative the circles intersect in real points as in Fig. Art. 190.
real,
is
I.,
If c be positive, the limiting points L^ and L^ (Fig. II.) are and in this case the circles intersect in imaginary points.
The limiting points are therefore real or imaginary according as the circles of the system intersect in imaginary
or real points.
190.
Let T be any point on the of a system of coaxal circles, and from it to any circle of the system.
TR
be the tangent
Then a
circle,
whose centre
is
T and whose
radius
is
TR^
system orthogonally.
168
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[For the radius TR of this circle is at right angles to the radius O^R, and so for its intersection with any other circle of the system.]
Fig. II.
Hence the limiting points (being point c^rcZes of the system) are on this orthogonal circle.
The limiting points are therefore the intersections with the line of centres of any circle whose centre is on the common radical axis and whose radius is the tangent from it to any of the circles of the system.
Since, in Eig. I,, the limiting points are imaginary these orthogonal circles do not meet the line of centres in real
points.
II.
they
jDass
These orthogonal
Also
if
circles (since
the original
circles, as
in Fig.
I.,
imaginary
points; in Fig. II. the original circles intersect in imaginary points, and the orthogonal circles in real points.
We
A
set
set of coaxal circles can be cut orthogonally hy another of coaxal circles, the centres of each set lying on the radical axis of the other set ; also one set is of the limitingpoint sjyecies and the other set of the other species.
ORTHOGONAL
CIRCLES.
169
191. Without reference to the limiting points of the original system, it may be easily found whether or not the orthogonal circles meet the original line of centres.
For the circle, whose centre is T and whose radius is TR, meets or does not meet the line 0fi,2 according as TR^ is > or < TO^,
i.e.
according as
as
TO^^O^R^
TO^ +00^^00^ is
is
>
TO^,
L e. according
i.e.
i.e.
0fi^ is
>
TO^,
according as
<
is
O^R,
without, or within, each of the
192. In the next article the above results will be proved analytically.
To find
the
equation
to
any
two ghien
circles orthogonally.
Take the
two
in the
form
(1),
(2),
and
a?
2g^x +c
for each.
{xAy + {yBf = E^
The equation
(1)
....(3).
{xgf + f^[J^::rcy
The circles (3) and (4) cut orthogonally if the square of the distance between their centres is equal to the sum of the squares of their radii,
i.e. if
i.e. if
{A
(5).
AvB'''lAg^ =
Subtracting (6) from
(5),
E'c
(g
(6).
we have A
c.
 g^)
^^^
0.
Hence ^ = 0, and
i?
= B^ +
=
170
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
(3),
+ 2/'2%c =
(7),
where
B is any
quantity whatever.
Whatever be the value of B the equation (7) represents a circle whose centre is on the axis of y and which passes through the points (+ Jc, 0). But the latter points are the limiting points of the coaxal system to which the two circles belong. [Art. 189.]
Hence any pair of circles belonging to a coaxal system cut at right angles by any circle of another coaxal system ; also the centres of the circles of the latter system lie on the common radical axis of the original system, and all the circles of the latter system pass through the limiting points (real or imaginary) of the first system.
is
B) and
radius
is
JB"^ + c.
The square of the tangent drawn from (0, B) to the circle {I) = B"" + c (by Art. 168). Hence the radius of any circle of the second system is equal to the length of the tangent drawn from its centre to any circle of the first system.
193. The equation to the system of circles which cut a given coaxal system orthogonally may also be obtained by using the result of Art. 182. For any circle of the coaxal system is, by Art. 188, given by a? + y'^ Igx + c = (1),
where
c is
all circles.
Any
point on the radical axis is (0, y). The square on the tangent drawn from
y"^
it
to
(1) is
therefore
therefore
c.
The equation
to
any
i.e.
ORTHOGONAL CIRCLES.
Whatever be the value
the points (+
^]c, 0), i.e.
171
through
of
system of
circles
194.
By
has
its
its
Similarly any circle cutting B and centre on the radical axis OE.
orthogonally has
Any circle cutting all three circles orthogonally must and OE., therefore have its centre at the intersection of Also its radius must be the i.e. at the radical centre 0. length of the tangent dravi^n from the radical centre to any one of the three circles.
OD
Ex.
Find
of the three
circles
x^ + 'ij^ +
x'^
2x + ny+ 4 =
(1),
(2),
(3).
The
5xlly + 7 = 0.
The
radical axis of (2)
(3) is
8xl&y + 8 = 0.
These two straight Hnes meet in the point the radical centre.
(3, 2)
which
is
therefore
to
The square of the length of the tangent from the point each of the given circles =57.
The required equation
i. e.
(3, 2)
is therefore {x
x^ + ?/2
195. Ex. Find the locus of a point which moves so that the length of the tangent draion from it to one given circle is X times the length of the tangent from it to another given circle.
As in Art. 188 take as axes of x and y the line joining the centres The equations to the two of the two circles and the radical axis. circles are therefore x'^ + y''2g^x + c = Q (1),
and
a;2
+ ^2_2^^a; + c =
(2).
172
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
it
(1) is
Let (h, k) be a point such that the length of the tangent from always X times the length of the tangent from it to (2).
Ji^
to
Then
Hence
{h, h)
always
on the
circle
x'^
+ y^<ix^^^ + cr=0 1
A"'
(3).
This
(2)
system to which
0),
'
(1)
and
belong.
(1) is
the point
is
(f/^,
the centre of
'
(2) is
^toZ\^ ^)
,
Hence,
0.^
and O3 we have
,
"\
and
so that O1O3
:
O^Os =
"^^
~ ^3 = ^YZi
(^2
" ^i)>
0^0^
X^
is
1.
The
circles
required locus
and whose centre divides externally, in the joining the centres of the two given circles.
therefore a circle coaxal with the two given ratio X" 1, the line
:
EXAMPLES. XXIV.
Prove that a common tangent to two circles of a coaxal 1. system subtends a right angle at either limiting point of the system.
Prove that the polar of a limiting point of a coaxal system 2. with respect to any circle of the system is the same for all circles of
the system.
Prove that the polars of any point with respect to a system of 3. coaxal circles all pass through a fixed point, and that the two points are equidistant from the radical axis and subtend a right angle at a limiting point of the system. If the first point be one limiting point of the system prove that the second point is the other limiting point.
by a series of circles all of which pass prove that the straight line joining the intersections of the fixed circle with any circle of the system always passes through a fixed point.
4.
Prove that tangents drawn from any point of a fixed circle of 5. a coaxal system to two other fixed circles of the system are in a constant ratio.
[EXS. XXIV.]
COAXAL CIRCLES.
EXAMPLES.
173
Prove that a system of coaxal circles inverts with respect to 6. either limiting point into a system of concentric circles and find the position of the common centre.
one of a system of coaxal R. Shew that PQ and PR subtend equal or supplementary angles at one of the limiting points of the system.
8. Find the Ipcus of the point of contact of parallel tangents which are drawn to each of a series of coaxal circles.
9.
two
circles
+ y'^2kx + b =
and
x + if2k'x
+ 5=Q
subtend the same
circles
10. From the preceding question shew that the centres of similitude {i.e. the points in which the common tangents to two circles meet the line of centres) divide the line joining the centres internally and externally in the ratio of the radii.
If x + y sj l = tan{u + v /sf 1), where x, y, u, and v are all prove that the curves tt=: constant give a family of coaxal circles passing through the points (0, 1), and that the curves ?; = constant give a system of circles cutting the first system orthogonally.
11.
real,
12. Find the equation to the circle which cuts orthogonally each of the circles
x^\y'^ x'^\y^ + 2g'x{c = 0, + '2.gx + c = 0, x^ + y'^ + 2hx + 1ky + a=.0.
and
cutting
orthogonally the
and
x^ + {y
l))'"
a'^.
orthogonally the
and
15.
circles
a;2
+ 2/2 + 7^9?/ + 29 = 0.
Shew
{xaY + {yhf = h\
and
is
a;2
{^xbf+{yaf=d^
CONIC SECTIONS.
CHAPTER
X.
THE PARABOLA.
196. Conic Section. Def. The locus of a point P, which moves so that its distance from a fixed point is
always in a constant ratio to its perpendicular distance from a fixed straight line, is called a Conic Section.
The
Focus
and
is
usually
denoted by
Eccentricity and
Directrix.
is
is
called the
The straight line passing through the Focus and perpendicular to the Directrix is called the Axis.
When
Section
is
the eccentricity
called a
e is less e
is
is
Parabola.
it is
When When
bola.
than unity,
called
it is
an SUipse.
called a
Hyper
[The name Conic Section is derived from the fact that first obtained by cutting a cone in
THE PARABOLA.
197.
Let
175
To find
the equation to
a Farahola.
be the fixed point and require therefore the locus of a point F which moves so that its distance from S is always equal to PM, its perpendicular distance from
ZM
the directrix.
We
ZM. Draw 8Z
perpendicular
ZA
The point A is clearly a point on the curve and is called the Vertex of the Parabola.
Take A
as
origin,
it,
AX
as
the axis of
x,
and J.F,
perpendicular to
as the axis of y.
Let the distance ZA^ or A8^ be called , and let P be any point on the curve whose coordinates are x and y.
Join
/S'P,
PM perpendicular
{a
respec
We have then
^.e.
+ xf,
(1).
= 4ax
This being the relation which exists between the coon the parabola is, by Art. 42, the ordinates of any point equation to the parabola.
Cor.
The equation
(1) is equivalent to
the geometrical
proposition
PN^ = 4:AS.AIi.
198. The equation of the preceding article is the Throughout simplest possible equation to the parabola. this chapter this standard form of the equation is assumed
unless the contrary
is
stated.
176
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
If instead of as directrix
^M
AX
(x
the axes
would be
2a)
+ y^ = x",
(1).
i.e.
y'^
= ia{x a)
the axis and a perpendicular line be taken as the axes of coordinates, the equation is
Similarly,
if
aj2
SX
SL
+ 2/2 = (a? +
y^
2a)2,
(2).
i.e.
4:a(x
+ a)
the equation
by transforming the
origin, firstly to
(a, 0).
a, 0)
The equation
may
be easily obtained.
3)
any focus and Thus the equation to the parabola, and whose directrix is the straight
i. e.
17
[x^
i.e.
200.
To
iax
(1).
If X be negative, the corresponding values of y are imaginary (since the square root of a negative quantity is unreal) ; hence there is no part of the curve to the left of
the point A.
If
y be X be
x meets
only.
y meets
only.
For every positive value of x we see from (1), by taking the square root, that y has two equal and opposite values.
is
Hence corresponding to any point P on the curve there another point P' on the other side of the axis which is obtained by producing to P' so that and NP' are
PN
PN
THE PARABOLA.
equal in magnitude.
ordinate.
177
is
The
line
PP'
called
double
As X increases in magnitude, so do the corresponding values of y ; finally, when x becomes infinitely great, y becomes infinitely great also. By taking a large number of values of x and the corresponding values of y it will be found that the curve is as in the figure of Art. 197.
The two branches never meet but are
of infinite length.
201. The quantity y"^ 4aa;' is negative^ zero, or positive according as the point {x\ y') is within, upon, or without the parabola.
Let Q be the point {x , y') and let it be within the curve, i.e. be between the curve and the axis AX. Draw the ordinate and let it meet the curve in P.
QN
Then (by Art. 197), PN^  la a;'. Hence y"^, i.e. QN^, is < PiV^, and hence
.
is
< iax
y"^,
.'.
y'^
4:ax
is
negative.
i.e.
is
Q be without the curve, then > PN^j and hence is > 4iax'.
Similarly,
if
QJV%
Hence the
proposition.
202. Latus Rectum. Def. The latus rectum of any conic is the double ordinate LSL' drawn through the
focus S.
In the case of the parabola we have from the directrix SZ= 2a.
SL = distance
of
is given it follows that the equation to the parabola is completely known in its standard form, and the size and shape of the curve determined.
la.
The quantity la
is
principal
The
focal distance
any point
P is the distance
8P.
x.
= PM = ZN= ZA+AN'=a +
12
178
Ex.
Find
COORDINATE GEOMETEY.
the vertex, axis, focus,
4?/2
and
+ 12ar202/ + 67 = 0.
written
Transform this equation to the point (, f) and it becomes represents a parabola, whose axis is the axis of x and whose concavity is turned towards the negative end of this axis. Also its latus rectum is 3. Eeferred to the original axes the vertex is the point i^, f), the axis is 2/ = f, and the focus is the point ( , f), e. ( Vi f)
EXAMPLES. XXV.
1.
Find the equation to the parabola with focus (3, 4) and directrix Gcc 7?/ + 5 = 0.
focus
(a, &) ^
2.
and
directrix 
+f ah =
4.
6.
XI
1.
y^
= 4:X + ^y.
the curves
+ 2y = 8x7.
x^2ax + 2ay = 0.
2/^=4y4a:.
7.
Draw
(1)
y'2=4:ax,
(2)
x'^=4:ay,
and
(3)
y'^
xz=4:ay.
p when
(ii) (9,
the parabola
12).
= 4px
goes through
= 18x
is
10. Prove that the equation to the parabola, whose vertex and focus are on the axis of x at distances a and a' f om the origin respectively, y^ = 4:{a'a){xa). is
.
11. In the parabola y^=Qx, find (1) the equation to the chord through the vertex and the negative end of the latus rectum, and (2) the equation to any chord through the point on the curve whose
abscissa is 24.
12. Prove that the equation y^ + 2Ax + 2By + C = parabola, whose axis is parallel to the axis of x, and find the equation to its latus rectum.
its
13. Prove that the locus of the middle points of all chords of the parabola ?/2 = 4aa; which are drawn through the vertex is the parabola y'^ = 2ax.
[EXS.
14.
XXV.]
THE PARABOLA.
EXAMPLES.
179
a chord
Prove that the locus of the centre of a circle, which intercepts of given length 2a on the axis of x and passes through a given point on the axis of y distant 6 from the origin, is the curve
a;22'/&
+ &2 = a2.
Find the locus of
its
16. Prove that the locus of a point, which moves so that its distance from a fixed line is equal to the length of the tangent drawn from it to a given circle, is a parabola. Find the position of the focus and directrix.
17.
line
If a circle
and
be drawn so as always to touch a given straight also a given circle, prove that the locus of its centre is
a parabola.
18. The vertex ^ of a parabola is joined to any point P on the curve and PQ is drawn at right angles to AP to meet the axis in Q. Prove that the projection of PQ on the axis is always equal to the latus rectum.
19. If on a given base triangles be described such that the sum of the tangents of the base angles is constant, prove that the locus of the vertices is a parabola.
20. A double ordinate of the curve y^=^px is of length 8p ; prove that the lines from the vertex to its two ends are at right angles.
21.
Two
parabolas have a
;
site directions
if
any
parabolas in P and P', is another parabola, provided that the latera recta of the given parabolas are unequal.
and concavities in oppocommon axis meet the prove that the locus of the middle point of PP'
22.
parabola
is
drawn
to pass through
A and
to
P, the ends of
a diameter of a given
circle of radius a,
and
;
tangent to a concentric circle of radius h a perpendicular diameter, prove that the locus of the focus of the
parabola
IS
 + ,^^=1,
To find
the points
203.
parabola
2/^
= 4acc
c
The equation
y = 7nx +
line
The coordinates of the points common to the straight and the parabola satisfy both equations (1) and (2), and are therefore found by solving them.
122
180
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
(1),
we have
(3).
i.e.
roots, real,
The straight
The
{2(mc2a)f47^iV
is
as
is
aTnc +
ia.
a^
is
204.
To find
y mx + c
If
(o^i
,
(1).
y^
as in Art.
and {x^, y^) he the common points 154, we have, from equation (3) of the
{^x^
of intersection, then,
last article,
x^j
= (ajj + x^)
^x^x^
4:C^
_4(mc2a)^ ~ m*
and
_l&a{amc)
wi'*
'
m^
yj^y^ = m{x^x^).
\/(l/i
2/2)^
+ (^1 ~ ^"2)^
= Jl +
205.
(^'3
m'^
(x^
 ajg) = ^2
Jl + mP
J a (a  mc).
any point
To find
i^^^
y) 9f
parabola y^
= 4:ax. Q
a point
(x", y")
The
Let
P be
on the
parabola.
The equation
PQ
is
2/y'
Since
f5f'(^'')
on the curve, we have
(!)
P and Q
both
lie
y'^^4ax'
(2),
(3).
and
y"^^4.aa/'
181
..
182
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
line (1) will touch (2) if it meet it in are indefinitely close to one another,
The
which
i.e.
points which ultimately coincide. The roots of equation (3) must therefore be equal. The condition for this is 4 {mc
i.e.
ct?
2ay
 amc a
G
iirrc^
0,
so that
in
(1),
we have
as the
y = mx + m
the tangent of th6 angle which the axis of x. the tangent makes with
In
this equation
tyi
is
The foregoing proposition may also be obtained from the equation of Art. 205. For equation (4) of that article may be written
la lax' y=x+^ y y
In this equation put ^
,^.
(1).
=m,
,
i.e.
and hence
x
(1)
y'^
r
4a
= ^,
a m^
and
m 2ax' a = m y
,
The equation
Also
it is
(^,
207.
normal
{x\ y')
is
Equation to the normal at (x, y'). The required the straight line which passes through the point and is perpendicular to the tangent, i.e. to the
yz=z{x + x).
straight line
2a
,.
y where
m' x
y =
1
rri'
{x
x'),
2fi
rr
i.e.
^i'
= ^
11
2a
(Art. 69.)
NORMAL TO A PARABOLA.
and the equation
to the
183
normal
is
yy'=^(xx')
208.
To
exj^ress the
,(1).
y = mx
In equation
(1) of
am^.
 am.
^.
2a
= m,
X
,
%.e.
Hence
The normal
t.e.
y =^ = 4a
/2
aiir.
is
therefore
y + 2am = m
{x
am %
2am)
of the curve.
y=
it is
mx 2am am^
m
and
is the tangent of the angle which In this equation makes with the axis. It must be carefully the normal of Art. 206 which is the tangent distinguished from the The of the angle which the tangent makes with the axis. m" of this article is  1 divided by the " m'' of Art. 206. "
209.
Def.
If
of a conic section the tangent and normal at any point be the meet the axis in T and G respectively and the is called the Subtangent and ordinate at P, then Subnormal of P.
PN
NT
NG
To find
If
of the subtangent and suhnorm^al. be the point {x\ y') the equation to TP is, by
the length
(1).
Art. 205,
yy 2a{x\ x)
we put
2/
= 0in
(1)
and we
(2).
have
x=^x
Hence
AT=AN,
184
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
N always
Since
[The negative sign in equation (2) shews that lie on opposite sides of the vertex 4.]
and
2J^iV
= twice
the abscissa
(Euc.
vi. 8)
TFG
is
a rightangled triangle,
we have
FN'^^TN.NG.
Hence the subnormal
NG
_ PiP _ PN^
The subnormal
the parabola and
is
is
210. Ex. 1. If a chord which is normal to the parabola at one end subtend a right angle at the vertex, prove that it is inclined at an
angle tan~^ ^J2 to the axis.
The equation
i.e.
to
is
mxy = 2am+am^. y^ 4:ax. The parabola is The straight lines joining the origin to the
intersections of these
two are therefore given by the equation y^ {2am + am^)  iax {mx y) = 0. If these be at right angles, then 2am + am^ 'iam = 0,
i.e.
m= ^sJ2.
Ex. 2. From the point where any normal to the parabola y^ = ^ax meets the axis is draion a line perpendicular to this normal ; prove that this line always touches an equal parabola.
The equation
of
any normal
to the parabola is
0).
The equation
to the
normal
is
where
The equation
therefore
y = m,[x2a^^,
i.e.
y = m^{x2a)
EXAMPLES.
185
This straight line, as in Art. 206, always touches the equal parabola y^=  4a (a; 2a), whose vertex is the point (2a, 0) and whose concavity is towards the
negative end of the axis of
x.
EXAMPLES. XXVI.
Write down the equations to the tangent and normal
1.
at the point (4, 6) of the parabola at the point of the parabola at the ends of the latus at the ends of the latus
?/^
y^=9x,
2.
= 6a;
whose ordinate
is 12,
3.
4.
5.
(.^
a).
which
6.
is parallel to
Find the equation to that tangent to the parabola y^ = 7x the straight line 4y x + S = 0. Find also its
point of contact.
A tangent
;
to the parabola
of 60 with
the axis
A tangent to the parabola y'^ = 8x makes an angle of 45 with 7. the straight line y = Sx + 5. Find its equation and its point of
contact.
8.
tangent, and
Find the points of the parabola y^ = 4:ax at which (ii) the normal is inclined at 30 to the axis.
(i)
the
Find the equation to the tangents to the parabola 9. goes through the point (4, 10).
10.
y^=9x which
y=xx^.
11.
?/^=4a
+ a)
'
if
c=ma + .
Ix
+ my + w =
13. For what point of the parabola y^ 4:ax is (1) the normal equal to twice the subtangent, (2) the normal equal to the difference between
to the
common
.'r2
tangents of
the parabolas
?/2
= 4aa;
and
= 4&i/,
15.
16.
Two
equal parabolas have the same vertex and their axes are common tangent touches each at the
186
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY.
[ExS.
17. Prove that two tangents to the parabolas y^ 4a {x + a) and y^=4:a' {x + a'), which are at right angles to one another, meet on the straight line x + a + a' = 0.
is
the
common
;
PN is
NQ
an ordinate of the parabola a straight line is drawn NP and meets the curve in Q prove
;
such that
AT = %NP.
19. Prove that the chord of the parabola y^ 'iax, whose equation isy 'XiJ2 + 4:a^2 = 0, is a normal to the curve and that its length is 6 ^Sa.
If perpendiculars be drawn on any tangent to a parabola from axis, which are equidistant from the focus, prove that the difference of their squares is constant.
20.
be three points on a parabola whose ordinates 21. If P, Q, and and are in geometrical progression, prove that the tangents at meet on the ordinate of Q.
22. Tangents are drawn to a parabola at points whose abscissae are in the ratio fi : 1; prove that they intersect on the curve
.
y^={fi^ + fi~^)^ax.
If the tangents at the points {x', y') and {x", y") meet at the [x^, yj) and the normals at the same points in {x^, y^, prove
(1)
.,=y^
.ni
y,=y^f
(2)
V.^yV^^,
x,=2a+y^ X, and
y,
 "^^^^
24. From the preceding question prove that, if tangents be drawn to the parabola y^ = 4:ax from any point on the parabola y^ a{x+h), then the normals at the points of contact meet on a fixed straight
line.
25. 26.
of the
= 8ax whose
normals drawn from the point on the distance from the focus is 8a.
normal intersected between the curve and the axis is a parabola whose vertex is the focus and whose latus rectum is one quarter of that of
the original parabola.
27. Prove that the distance between a tangent to the parabola and the parallel normal is a cosec 6 sec^ 6, where 6 is the angle that either makes with the axis.
XXVI.l
EXAMPLES.
187
28. PNP' is a double ordinate of the parabola ; prove that the locus of the point of intersection of the normal at P and the diameter through P' is the equal parabola y^ = 4a (xAa).
29. The normal at any point P meets the axis in G and the be the vertex and the rectangle tangent at the vertex in G' ; AGQG' he completed, prove that the equation to the locus of Q is
HA
equal parabolas have the same focus and their axes are a normal to one is perpendicular to a normal to the other prove that the locus of the point of intersection of these normals is another parabola.
30.
at right angles
;
Two
31.
If a
it
shew that
32.
with the axis, normal to a parabola make an angle will cut the curve again at an angle tan~i (^ tan 0).
b)
cannot
have a
common
ac
>2.
33. If aP>8h, prove that a point can be found such that the two tangents from it to the parabola y^=4tax are normals to the parabola
x^=^by.
34. Prove that three tangents to a parabola, which are such that the tangents of their inclinations to the axis are in a given harmonical progression, form a triangle whose area is constant.
35.
at
Prove that the parabolas y^=4tax and x^ = 4:by cut one another
^
an angle tan
2 {a
+ 6)
same focus and
their axes
36. Prove that two parabolas, having the in opposite directions, cut at right angles. 37.
Shew
at
x^ + 4:a{y2ba)
intersect of each.
=
a
and
y'^
= 4:b{x2a + b)
of the latus rectum
right angles at
common end
having
parabola is drawn touching the axis of x at the origin and vertex at a given distance k from this axis. Prove that the axis of the parabola is a tangent to the parabola x'^= Sk {y 2k).
38.
its
211.
(a)
Some
If
the tangent
the
188
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
P is equally inclined to
the axis
and
the
Let
P be the point
(x, y).
Draw PM perpendicular to the directrix. By Art. 209, we have AT^AN. :. TS=TA + AS=^AF+ZA = ZF=MP = SP, and hence z STP = z SPT. By the same article, NG  "iAS = ZS. :. SG^SN\NG = ZS+SF=MP = SP.
(/8)
KSP
is
at
Por z SPT=^ L PTS=^ L KPM. Hence the two triangles KPS and have the two sides KPj PS and the angle KPS equal respectively to the two sides KP, and the angle KPM. Hence z KSP = z KMP = a right angle.
KPM
PM
Also
(y)
sect at right
lSKP=lMKP.
Tangents at the extremities of any focal chord interangles in the directrix.
PS
is
be produced to meet the curve in P', then, a right angle, the tangent at P' meets the
189
by
(13),
L /
MKP = z SEP,
M'KP' L
and, similarly,
SKF.
Hence
z
(8)
lies
PKP' = J
z:
7/ /Sl^ 6e jyerpe^Lclicular to the tangent at P, then on the tangent at the vertex and SY^ = AS SP. For the equation to any tangent is
ymx\
The equation
through the focus
(Ij.
2/
= (^)
meet where
\
,
.
(2).
The
lines (1)
and
H
(2)
nix
i. e.
a [x = m
7n
a)
mX
^
in
where x 0.
Hence
Also,
Y lies
by Euc.
SY^ = SA.ST=AS.SP,
212.
To prove
to
that through
{x^^
y^
The equation
any tangent
y = mx
\
is
(x^, y^),
).
If this pass
we have
= TUX, +
i. e.
m^Xj^
tny^ + ^ =
of x^
(2).
is
and y^ this equation general a quadratic equation and gives two values For any given values
(real or imaginary).
in
of
in
we
have,
by
substi
a different tangent.
190
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
roots of (2) are real and different i.e., by Art. 201, if the point {x^,
if y^
y^)
The
positive,
4:ax^
lie
be without
the curve.
They are equal, i. e. the two tangents coalesce into one tangent, if yi ^cix^ be zero, i.e. if the point {x^, y^ lie on the curve.
The two
i.e. if
if
y^
4a.x\
be negative,
the point
y^
lie
213. Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point {x^, y^). The equation to the tangent at any point Q, whose
coordinates are x' and
y',
is
yy' = 2a
(x
x).
yy" 2a{x +
If these tangents
x").
y^,
coordi
y^y'
= 2a{x^+ x)
= 2a{x^ +
then
x")
(1)
(2).
and
y^y"
The equation
For, since (1)
to
QR
is
3ryi
is
= 2a(x + Xi)
y') lies
(3).
is true,
the point
{x",
Hence (3) must be the equation to the straight line joining ix\ y) to the point {x' y"), i. e. it must be the the chord of contact of tangents from the equation to point {x^, ?/i).
,
QR
214.
bola
is
The polar
of
the equation of the polar of the point [x^ with respect to the parabola y^ ^ax.
To find
2/1)
Let Q and R be the points in which any chord drawn through the point P, whose coordinates are (x^, y^), meets
the parabola.
THE PARABOLA.
Let the tangents at coordinates are (A, k).
T(h.Wji.
191
Q and R meet
whose
We require the
its
locus of
(h, k).
(7i,
k)
ky = 2a(x +
h).
(r^
y^)
we haye
%i = 2a{x^ + h)
{hj k)
(1).
Since the relation (1) is true, it always lies on the straight line
3ryi
= 2a(x + xJ
(ic^,
(2).
Hence
is
(2) is
y^.
[a, 0),
Cor. The equation to the polar of the focus, viz. the point Q = x + a, so that the polar of the focus is the directrix.
215. When the point (x^,y^ lies without the parabola the equation to its polar is the same as the equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from [x^^, y^).
When
(x^, y^) is
is
the same
As in Art. 164 the polar of (a^, y^) might have been defined as the chord of contact of the tangents (real or imaginary) that can be drawn from it to the parabola.
216.
Geometrical construction for the polar of a point
192
Let
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
T be
the point
{x^^
2/1)3
is
yy^=2a{x +
(1).
;
Through
equation
is
T draw
its
therefore
y=yi
Let
in
this straight line
V and
the curve in P.
The coordinates of F, which is the intersection of (1) and (2), are therefore
^ x^
nates are therefore
and
2/1
(3).
Also P is the point on the curve whose ordinate is y^, and whose coordi2
yi and
4:a
2/1.
abscissa of
:Z^
Since abscissa of P=
fore,
abscissa of
V
there
by Art.
22,
Cor.,
is
the
P is
2/1'
yy,=
which
is
2a^.^f^
parallel to (1).
T is
parallel
T we
therefore
draw a
line
P and
through produce
to the
to
Fso
that
tangent at
217.
Let
the polar of
If the polar of a point P passes through the point T, then T goes through P. (Fig. Art. 214).
(x^, y^)
be the point
T the
point
{h, k).
The
polar of
it
Since
passes through T,
= 2a{x^ + h)
193
T isyk = 2a
(x+h).
Since
equatio
is satisfied
by the coordinates
Xj^
proposition.
and
The point of intersection, T, of the polar s of two points, Q, is the pole of the line PQ.
To find
the pole of a given straight line ivith respect to the
218.
parabola.
line be
Ax + By+C=0.
If its pole be the point {x^,
y^),
it
straight
line as
i.e.
2a
_
G
yi
_ 2axi
2Ba
j
I.e.
xi
^ = j and y^= 
219.
To find
to the
can he drawn
equation to the pcdr of tangents that parabola from the point {x^^ y^.
the
Let (A, k) be any point on either from (rL'i, y^. The equation to the
(^, k) is
of the tangents
drawn
%.e.
y=
k y. 
x^^
hy,
kx.
\
form
If this be a tangent it
must be
of the
y
,
mx
,
{
a
~
so that
^ = m and a
k
.
y^
hy.
x^
kx.i a = h x^ m kx^
[hy^
Hence, by multiplication,
k
a
I^
y^
{k
hy^
i. e.
(lb
 x^^ =
y^)
kx^.
13
194
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY.
(A,
k)
{i. e.
a(xx^y = {yy^)
{f  \ax)
220.
(2/1^
{xy^yx:^
(1).
same as
 4arci) = {2/2/1 
(a?
+ x^f.
To prove that the middle points of a system of chords of a parabola all lie on a straight line which parallel
is parallel to the axis.
Since the chords are all parallel, they Let angle with the axis of x. the tangent of this angle be on.
all
make
the same
y^^'^,
y  mx + c
where
same.
c
is
(1 ),
different for
is
the the
4:ax in points
=
4:a
4:a (y
c),
, .
V ^
y ^
Aac
=^0
i.e.
(2). '
the ordinates of
and y'\ and let the coordinates middle point of QR, be (h, k). Then, by Art. 22, y" _ 2 T _ y +
and Rj be
y'
of F, the
m
satisfy the equation
from equation
(2).
The coordinates
of
V therefore
2a
y=m^
so that the locus of of the curve,
F is
195
2a
whose ordinate
is
therefore
m"
The tangent at
this point
y = Tnx
\
by Art. a
,
205,
and
is
Hence the
tangent at which
221.
bisected at
is
By the last article the required chord is parallel to the tangent at the point P where a line through {h, k) parallel to the axis meets the
curve. Also, by Art. 216, the polar of {h, k) is parallel to the tangent at this same point P.
is
+ h).
goes through
equation
h)
is
k{yk) = 2a{x
(Art. 67).
222. Diameter. Def. The locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords of a parabola is called a diameter and the chords are called its ordinates.
QB
Thus, in the figure of Art. 220, is a diameter and and all the parallel chords are ordinates to this
PF
diameter.
may
therefore be stated
Any
diameter of a parabola is parallel to the axis and point where it Tneets the curve is parallel
223.
the diameter
The tangents at the ends of any chord meet on which bisects the chord.
QR
(Fig., Art.
c
220) be
(1),
y = mx +
132
196
and
let
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
the tangents at
Q and R meet
at the point
Then
QR
drawn
= 2a{x +
x^)
(Art. 213).
(1),
Comparing
this
with equation
,,
,
we have
>
2a
2/1
= m,
so that Vi
2a
^*
and therefore
T lies
on the straight
2a
^
line
But
the diameter
P V which
224. To find the equation to a parabola, the axes being any diameter and the tangent to the parabola at the point where this diameter meets the curve.
be the diameter and Let meeting the axis in T.
PVX
PY
the tangent at
curve,
to the
P F in L.
y.
Let
PVhQ
e^
X and VQ be
Draw
PN perpendicular to
and
let
/.
the
YPX=iPTM,
.
tan^
6.
PN = JIASTaN = 2a cot
Now
Also
QM' =
6.
4:AS.AM=4:a.AM
(1).
THE PARABOLA.
Substituting these values in
(2a cot
i. e.
EXAMPLES.
(1),
197
we have
+ x + y cos
6),
+ y sin Oy ia (a cot^
if
sin^ 6
is
^ax.
(2),
therefore
y'^^lpx
pis
T^=
(1
^ot' Q)
a^ AN= SP
The equation to the parabola referred to the above axes therefore of the same form as its equation referred to the rectangular axes of Art. 197.
The equation
(2) states
that
QV'^^iSP.PV.
225.
diameter
The quantity
4^j is
called the
P V. It is equal in length to the chord parallel to P F and passes through the focus.
PY' = ST=SP^p,
so that
Q' V""
For if Q'V'R' be the chord, parallel to PZand passing through the focus and meeting PT in V\ we have
^ip.PV'^ ip\
^
ip.
and hence
Q'R' ='2Q'V'
226. Just as in Art. 205 it could now be shown that the tangent at any point {x\ y) of the above curve is
yy 2p
(x
+ x).
any
point.
EXAMPLES. XXVII.
Prove that the length of the chord joining the points of 1. contact of tangents drawn from the point (Xj, y^ is
ijy^ + 4a2 fjy^^
 4aa; J
a
2.
{x^^
of contact
is
198
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[Exs. XXVII.]
If a perpendicular be let fall from any point P upon its polar 3. prove that the distance of the foot of this perpendicular from the focus is equal to the distance of the point P from the directrix. 4.
What
is
is
which
3) ?
^x
Wliat
is
are three points on a parabola and the chord P, Q, and 6. are drawn cuts the diameter through R in V. Ordinates P3I and Prove that to this diameter. . RN=RV^.
PQ
RM
QN
equal parabolas with axes in opposite directions touch at a point P on one of them are drawn tangents PQ and PQ' to the other. Prove that QQ' will touch the first parabola in P' where PP' is parallel to the common tangent at O.
7.
Two
a point O.
From
of
a mr
2a
7n
Hence, for
all
2a\
lies
is equal to the on the curve. By Art. 206, this tangent of the angle v^hich the tangent at the point makes
v^^ith
the axis.
at this point
is
is,
my + X =
2a +
a
, in
199
228. The coordinates of the point could also be expressed in terms of the of the normal at the point ; in this case its coordinates are am?' and 2am,
is,
2a7n)
+ X + am^
normal
is
0,
to the
mx
1am,
am?.
229.
tive signs
X=
at2 and
y = 2at.
The equations to the tangent and normal at the point by Arts. 205 and 207,
ty
=x +
at^,
and
The equation
(atj^,
and
{at^,
2at^
is easily
found to be
y {h +
^2)
= 2x +
and
2atf^.
The tangents
at the points
{at^^
2at^
t^y
iat^^
2at^
are
=^x\ at^,
and
t.^y
x\ at^.
two tangents
is clearly
The point
of intersection of these
{<X^1^2}
^(^1
^2)}
(a<^,
2a)
may, for
In the following articles we shall prove some important properties of the parabola making use of the above substitution.
=
200
230.
(1)
(2)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
If the tangents at
and Q meet in
T, prove that
TP
and
TQ
ST^=SP.SQ,
the triangles
and
(3)
are similar.
be the point {at^^, 2at^), and Q be the point (at^^, 2at2), so that (Art. 229) T is the point
Let
{atjt^, a(ii
(1)
i. e.
+ t2)}to
The equation
[t^
SP
is
y=
2at ^
^
{x
a),
The
perpendicular,
a{t ^^ 1)
on
this
straight line
+ 1^)  2^1
ati tg + 2at^
{t^^
t^^t^)
(^i
same numerical
value.
QST are therefore equal. By Art. 202 we have SP=a{l + 1^^) and SQ = a(l + f.^). (2) ST^ (af 1^2 a)^ + a^{t^ + t^yAlso = a^[tj;'t^^ + t^^ + t^^+l\ = a^l + tj^){l + ST^ = SP.SQ. Hence ST SO Since ^ = ^, and the angles TSP and T^SQ are equal, the (3) oP ol triangles SPT and STQ are similar, so that Z /SQT^ z ^TP and Z ^rQ= z 5fPT.
The angles
and
t^^).
PST
parabola
area of the triangle formed by three points on a twice the area of the triangle formed by the tangents at these points.
27ze
is
231.
[at^, 2at^,
and
{at^^,
2at^.
The area
by these points, by Art. 25, + at^ {2at^  2at^) + at^ {2at^  2at^)'\
The intersections of the tangents at these points are (Art. 229) the points
{at^t.^,
and
[at^t^, a{t^\t^].
The area
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
201
232. The circle circumscribing the triangle formed by any three tangents to a parabola passes through the focus.
Let P, Q, and R be the points and let their coordinates be
{atj^,
at
2afj),
(aig^ ^at^),
and
{at^^,
2at^).
As
Q and
a{t2 +
t^)}.
^(ig + ij)}
and
be
{at^t.^, a{tj^
+ t2)}.
(1).
circle
x^ + y^ + 2gx + 2fy
+c=
we have
Since
it
a\%^ + a2 (<2 +
and
+ 2gat^t^ + 2/a (fg + fg) + c = aH^t^ + a2 {t^ + + 2/a (tg + f^) + c = aH^t^ + a^ (i + ^ ^ + 2gat^t^ + 2fa{t^ + t^ + c = Q
t.^)^
(2),
1^'2 4 2gat^t^
(3),
(4).
Subtracting
(3)
from
(2)
and dividing by a
{t^
t^),
we have
a
Similarly,
{fgS (fi
from
(3)
(4),
we have
{i'(*2 +
From
+ t^ t^t^ts].
= a'^{t^ts +
tstj^
+ tit2).
*i^2^3)
The equation to the circle is therefore x^ + y^ ax (1 + 2*3 + *3^i + ^1^2) ~ ^^y ih + ^2 + ^3 ~
which clearly goes through the focus
{a, 0).
AM
PM
PM
Let
be the point
to
{h, 0),
(afj2, 2atj)
The equation
If this pass
PP'
is,
and let P and P' be the points and {at^, 2at^. by Art. 229,
[h, 0),
{t^
2h = 2at^t^,
202
Hence
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
and
Cor.
PM
If
PM' = 2a\
2atc^
=4^2
()= 4a
1
AO.
^0 AO = a,
and we have
The points
{at^, 2at^
and
of a focal chord.
234.
To prove that
three tangents to
a parabola
formed by
y = nhx+
y=m^ + nt
(1),
(2),
and
y = mgX\
of intersection of
(2)
m.
(3) is
(3).
The point
to be
and
The equation
to (1) is (Art. 69)
ya{ + ) =
I.e.
X
a
~
~\
?/+ =a
rl
1 ++
(4).
of
(3)
Similarly, the equation to the straight line through the intersection and (1) perpendicular to (2) is
y+
X 1 =a ( _ + _+
\
\
,
5)
line
(1)
+=a
X
wig
f \ \^\
\ \ + + ni^m^m^J
ci
6.
^2
is
common
and
(6),
EXAMPLES.
i.e.
ONE VARIABLE.
is easily
203
x=a^
and
this point lies
y = a['\
/111 +
!
on the
directrix.
EXAMPLES. XXVIII.
If w be the angle which a focal chord of a parabola makes with 1. the axis, prove that the length of the chord is 4a cosec'^ w and that the perpendicular on it from the vertex is a sin w.
2.
A point
upon the
triangle.
directrix,
on a parabola, the foot of the perpendicular from it and the focus are the vertices of an equilateral Prove that the focal distance of the point is equal to the
is
latus rectum.
a harmonic
mean between
any point on the tangent at any point P of a parabola, be perpendicular to the focal radius SP and TN be perpendicular to the directrix, prove that SL = TN.
T be
and
if
TL
Hence obtain a geometrical construction drawn to the parabola from any point T.
5.
is
a certain point
PK^'^'QK^
is
the
same
The normal at the point (at^, 2atj) meets the parabola again 6. in the point {aU^, 2at2) prove that
;
H
chord is a normal to a parabola and is inclined at an angle 7. prove that the area of the triangle formed by it and d to the axis the tangents at its extremities is 4a'^ sec^ 6 cosec^ 0.
;
If PQ be a normal chord of the parabola and if S be the focus, 8. prove that the locus of the centroid of the triangle SPQ is the curve
36a2/2 (3a;
9.
point
Prove that the length of the intercept on the normal at the made by the circle which is described on the focal distance of the given point as diameter is a f^/l + 1^.
{at^, 2at)
204
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[EXS.
10. Prove that the area of the triangle formed by the normals to the parabola at the points {at^, Satj), {at^, 2at^ and [at^y Satg) is
\
11.
is
(2
 h)
(3
 h) ih  h) ih + *2 + 3)'.
equal to
Prove that the normal chord at the point whose ordinate its abscissa subtends a right angle at the focus.
chord of a parabola passes through a point on the axis 12. (outside the parabola) whose distance from the vertex is half the latus rectum ; prove that the normals at its extremities meet on the curve.
13. The normal at a point P of a parabola meets the curve again in Q, and T is the pole of PQ; shew that T lies on the diameter passing through the other end of the focal chord passing through P, and that PT is bisected by the directrix. 14. If from the vertex of a parabola a pair of chords be drawn at right angles to one another and with these chords as adjacent sides a rectangle be made, prove that the locus of the further angle of the rectangle is the parabola
?/2
= 4a
(a;
8a).
series of chords is drawn so that their projections on a 15. straight line which is inclined at an angle a to the axis are all of constant length c prove that the locus of their middle point is the
;
curve
{y^iax)
{y
of + a^c^ = 0.
which subtend a
16. Prove that the locus of the poles of chords right angle at a fixed point (/i, /c) is ax^ 
{h^
+ A;) = 0.
all
17. Prove that the locus of the middle points of drawn from points on the directrix to the parabola is
tangents
is
PQ
20. If '^1 and r^ be the lengths of radii vectores of the parabola which are drawn at right angles to one another from the vertex, prove
that
rji^r2^=16a2{ri^ + r2^).
21.
A
A
D, E, and
point
parabola touches the sides of a triangle ABC in the points F respectively ; if DE and DF cut the diameter through the inb and c respectively, prove that Bb and Cc are parallel.
XXVIII.]
EXAMPLES.
ONE VARIABLE.
205
22. Prove that all circles described on focal radii as diameters touch the directrix of the curve, and that all circles on focal radii as diameters touch the tangent at the vertex, 23. A circle is described on a focal chord as diameter if m be the tangent of the inclination of the chord to the axis, prove that the equation to the circle is
;
m^J
a point
il/Oilf'are two chords of a parabola passing through on its axis. Prove that the radical axis of the circles described on LL' and MM' as diameters passes through the vertex of
24.
LOL' and
the parabola.
25. A circle and a parabola intersect in four points; shew that the algebraic sum of the ordinates of the four points is zero.
Shew also that the line joining one pair of these four points and the line joining the other pair are equally inclined to the axis.
26. Circles are drawn through the vertex of the parabola to cut the parabola orthogonally at the other point of intersection. Prove that the locus of the centres of the circles is the curve
2i/2 (22/2
27. Prove that the equation to the circle passing through the points {at^, 2,at^ and (2a<2^, 2at^ and the intersection of the tangents to the parabola at these points is
ic2
[t^
+ 1^
(1
t^
t^)
+ a2 1^ t^ (2 
1^
t^
= 0.
tangents to the parabola and the normals at P R on the curve prove that the centre of the circle circumscribing the triangle TPQ Kes on the parabola
28.
TP
and
TQ are
and Q meet
at a point
2y^ = a{x
a).
and
Through the vertex A of the parabola ?/2 = 4aa; two chords AP are drawn, and the circles on AP and ^Q as diameters be the angles made with Prove that, if 6^, 6^,^ and intersect in R. the axis by the tangents at P and Q and by AR, then
29.
AQ
cot ^i
+ cot ^2 + 2 tan0 = O.
30. A parabola is drawn such that each vertex of a given triangle the pole of the opposite side ; shew that the focus of the parabola lies on the ninepoint circle of the triangle, and that the orthocentre of the triangle formed by joining the middle points of the sides lies on the directrix.
is
CHAPTER XL
THE PARABOLA
{continued).
[On a first reading of this Chapter, the student may, with advantage, omit from Art. 239 to the end.]
Some examples
235. Ex. 1. Find the locus of the intersection of tangents to the parabola y^ = 4iax, the angle hetioeen them being always a given angle a.
The
If
it
straight line
^mx
]
is
{h, h)
we
have
m^hmk + a =
If
(1).
this equation

we have
(/ik)
.(2),
a
(3),
TP and TQ
a
1
are then
^
m^

tana
m^  m^ + m^m^
k^
ijjm^
_4a
a
+h
by
(2)
and
(3).
THE PARABOLA.
..
LOCI.
207
k^4:ah = {a + h)^t&n^a.
of the point
T always
We
that
As a
m^^=
(3)
1.
From
on the
we then have
straight line
x=
h= a, so that in this case the point a, which is the directrix.
lies
Hence the locus of the point of intersection of tangents, which cut at right angles, is the directrix.
Ex. 2.
to the
Prove that the locus of the poles of chords which are normal parabola y^ = 4:ax is the curve
2/2(a;
+ 2a) + 4a3 = 0.
normal
at P.
Its
Let
PQ
be a chord which
is
equation
is
then
(1).
y = mx2amam^
Let the tangents at
h and
k,
so that
we
and
Since
PQ
is
{h, k) its
yk=2a{x + h)
(2)
represent the
same
straight line, so
Hence
m=
from the
first
of
_ 2ah
~T~'W~~k''
i.e.
^
k^{h + 2a}
+ 4a^=0,
The
T is
therefore
2/2(a;
+ 2a) + 4a3=0.
Ex. 3. Find the locus of the middle points of chords of a parabola which subtend a right angle at the vertex, and prove that these chords all pass through a fixed point on the axis of the curve.
208
First Method.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Let
PQ be
any
sucli chord,
(1).
and let
its
equation be
y = mx + c
lines joining the vertex with the points of intersection of this straight line
The
y
A
y^=^ax
are given by the equation
y^c
(2),
= 4ax {y  mx).
+ 4am=:0.
(Art. 122)
These straight
c
the
equation to
FQ
is
y=m
the vertex,
If the
i.e.
{x  4a)
a;
(3).
at a constant distance
4a from
AA' = 4a.
middle point oi
PQ
be
{h, k)
we
2a
li=:
m
so that
{h, k) lies
on
(3),
we have
.(5).
k = m{h4a)
If
between
(4)
and
(5)
we
eliminate m,
we have
kJ^{h4a),
i.e.
k^=1a{h4ia),
= 2a
(a;
4a).
This is a parabola one half the size of the original, and whose vertex is at the point A' through which all the chords pass.
Second Method.
{at^, 2aio).
Let
P be the
point
(afj^,
2at^ and
be the point
are
The tangents
of the inclinations of
and
Since AP and AQ
*1
*2 .(6).
i.e.
tih= 4
PQ
is
(7).
+ t^y=:2x + 2at^t^
THE PARABOLA.
This meets the axis of
the origin.
Also, {h, k) being the middle point of
ic
LOCI.
209
by
(6), 4a,
at a distance atit2,i.e.,
from
PQ, we have
and Hence
k
2k = 2a{tj^ + t2).
{tj^
+ 1^^)
= 2a\t2=
so that the locus of
(h, k) is,
8a2,
y^
2a{x 4a).
to the
Tbird Method.
the point
{h, k) is,
The equation
chord which
is
bisected at
by Art. 221,
k{yk) = 2a{xh),
i. e.
ky  2ax=k^  2ah
(8).
Art. 122 the equation to the straight lines joining its points of intersection with the parabola to the vertex is
{k^
As in
These
{k^2ah)
+ 8a^ = 0.
Hence the
locus as before.
(8)
becomes
ky  2ax = 8a^.
(4a, 0).
EXAMPLES. XXIX.
From an external point P tangents are drawn to the parabola find the equation to the locus of P when these tangents make angles 6^ and $2 with the axis, such that
;
1.
tan
tan
dj^
+ tan 6^
tan
is
constant
{
2.
6^
d^ is
constant
= 6). = c).
( {
3. 4.
= d).
= X)
14
+ ^2
6^
is
constant
is
= 2a).
(
5.
6.
tan^
+ tan^ ^g
is
constant
(
cos ^1 cos $2
L.
constant
/u),
210
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
;
[ExS.
prove that
Two tangents to a parabola meet at an angle of 45 7. the locus of their point of intersection is the curve
y^
If
\.ax
= {x + of.
is
2/23a;210aic3a2^0.
pair of tangents are drawn which are equally inclined to a 8. straight line whose inclination to the axis is a ; prove that the locus of their point of intersection is the straight line
y = {xa) tan
9.
2a.
an
10. Shew that the locus of the point of intersection of two tangents, which with the tangent at the vertex form a triangle of constant area c^, is the curve x^ [y^  4:ax)=4:C^a^. 11. If the normals at P and Q meet on the parabola, prove that the point of intersection of the tangents at P and Q lies either on a certain straight line, which is parallel to the tangent at the vertex, or on the curve whose equation is y^ {x + 2a) + 4a^ = 0.
tangents to a parabola intercept on a fixed tangent is constant ; prove that the locus of their point of intersection is a straight line.
12.
Two
13. Shew that the locus of the poles of chords which subtend a constant angle a at the vertex is the curve
(x
14. In the preceding question if the constant angle be a right angle the locus is a straight line perpendicular to the axis.
15. A point P is such that the straight line drawn through it perpendicular to its polar with respect to the parabola y^=4:ax touches Prove that its locus is the straight line the parabola x'^ = Aby.
2ax + by + 4:a^=0.
Two equal parabolas, A and B, have the same vertex and axis 16. but have their concavities turned in opposite directions prove that the locus of poles with respect to B of tangents to A is the parabola A.
;
17.
Prove that the locus of the poles of tangents to the parabola to the circle x^ + y'^=2ax is the circle x^ + y^=ax.
the locus of the poles of tangents to the parabola respect to the parabola y^=4bx is the parabola
y'^=
X.
XXIX.]
POINT.
211
20.
21.
k).
normal
to the curve.
22.
23.
24. are such that the normals at their extremities meet on the parabola.
25. Through each point of the straight line x = niy + h is drawn the chord of the parabola y^=4iax which is bisected at the point; prove that it always touches the parahola
{y
 2am)^=8d
{x
h).
Two parabolas have the same axis and tangents are drawn to 26. the second from points on the first ; prove that the locus of the middle points of the chords of contact with the second parabola all lie on a fixed parabola.
27. Prove that the locus of the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from the vertex of the parabola upon chords, which subtend an angle
of 45 at the vertex, is the curve
r2
236. To prove that, in general, three normals can be drawn from any point to the parahola and that the algebraic
sum, of the ordinates of the feet of these three normals
zero.
is
The
straight line
y mx 2am amP
(1)
by Art. 208, a normal to the parabola at the points whose coordinates are
is,
arn^
and 2am
(2).
If
this
k = mh 2am, am,\
%.e.
arn?
+ (2a h) m + k
212
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
This equation, being of the third degree, has three Corresponding to each of these roots, we have, on substitution in (1), the equation to a normal which passes through the point 0.
through
and m^ be the
m^ +
m.^
we
have
+ m^ = 0.
normals be
0.
2/^,
y^,
and
2/3,
we then
2/1
have,
2/2
by
(2),
2o^
+ 2/3 = 
{m^
+ ^2 + m^) =
of the proposition.
shall find, in a subsequent chapter, that, for certain positions of the point 0, all three normals are real ; for other positions of 0, one normal only will be real, and the
We
237.
Ex.
Find
the
Any normal
point
{h, k), if
is
y=mx2amam^, and
am^ + {2ah)m+k =
this passes
through the
(1).
If
then
nil
roots,
we
,
have, by Art.
2,
(2)
+ m^ + m^ =
(3),
and
(a)
mim2m^=
If
k
(4).
m^^
be at right angles, we
m^.
and hence, by
substitution,
root of (1)
we have
+{2ah)~ + k = 0,
a^
^
i.e.
k^=a{h3a).
'
THREE NORMALS.
The locus
whose vertex
is
EXAMPLES.
213
of the point (/^, k) is therefore the parabola y'^ = a{x 3a) the point (3a, 0) and whose latus rectum is onequarter that of the given parabola.
The normal y = mx  2am  am^ meets the axis of a; at a point (/3) whose distance from the vertex is 2a + aw^. The conditions of the
question then give
(2a + awij^)
i.e.
+ (2a + am^^) = 2
m^ + m.^ = 2m<^
(2a
+ am^^)
If
we
and
(5)
eliminate m^, m^, and m^ from the equations we shall have a relation between h and k.
(2)
From
and
(3),
we have
(6).
and
(2)
give
m^ + 2m^m^ =0
Solving
(6)
(7).
and
(7),
we have
2a vi.mo= z ^ 3a
*
7t
,
, and ot^^ ^
^ 2 x
2ah
r
.
3a
(4),
we have
3a
i.e.
V
is
2ah_ ~Sa^ ~
= 2(7i2a)3,
~ a
27afc2
27ai/2=2(a;2a)3.
238.
point
Ex. If the normals at three points P, Q, and R meet in a and S be the focus, prove that SP SQ SR = a S0\
.
.
As
know
and
point
(A, k)
if
mj + ^2 + m3 =
m^vi.^
+ m^m^ + m^m^
mnW.,??io
'
2a ~ h
(2)
and
"
(3). '
^
By
Art. 202
we have
214
Hence
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
^P^Q^^ ^
^1 _^ ^^^2) (i
+ ^^^2) (i +
,,,^.2)
and
(2),'
we have
7712
and
(^y,by
=1+2
^
(l)and(2).
Hence
SP.SQ.SR
^
li2a
+ fli2ay )+
i,e.
SP.SQ.SR = SO^.a.
EXAMPLES. XXX.
it
O when
drawn from
axis.
2.
two of them make angles with the axis the product of whose
2.
tangents
3.
4.
two of them make equal angles with the given line y = vix + c.
the 5. constant.
6. 7.
sum
the axis is
the area of the triangle formed by their feet the line joining the feet of two of
constant.
them
is
always in a given
direction.
at three points P, Q,
and R of the parabola y^ = 4:ax whose coordinates are h and k prove that
;
PQR
lies
on the
axis.
and the orthocentre of the triangle formed by the the point 9. tangents at P, Q, and R are equidistant from the axis.
[EXS. XXX.]
THREE NORMALS.
EXAMPLES.
215
10. if OP and OQ make complementary angles with the axis, then the tangent at R is parallel to SO.
11. the sum of the intercepts which the normals cut off from the axis is 2{h + a).
12. the sum of the squares of the sides of the triangle equal to 2{h2a){h + 10a).
PQR
is
13. the circle circumscribing the triangle PQR goes through the vertex and its equation is 2x^ + 2y 2x{h + 2a) ky = 0.
be fixed, then QR is fixed in direction and the locus of 14. if the centre of the circle circumscribing PQR is a straight line.
15. Three normals are drawn to the parabola y^ = 4:ax cos a from any point lying on the straight line y = h sin a. Prove that the locus of the orthocentre of the triangles formed by the corresponding tangents
16.
is
the curve 2
+ t^ ~ ''
0,
sum of the angles which the three normals, make with the axis exceeds the angle which
with the axis by a multiple of
tt.
O makes
to the curve make 17. Two of the normals drawn from a point complementary angles with the axis prove that the locus of and the curve which is touched by its polar are parabolas such that their latera recta and that of the original parabola form a geometrical
;
progression.
18.
lx + my = l
Prove that the normals at the points, where the straight line meets the parabola, meet on the normal at the point
/4am2
( ,
4am r
\
j
.
,
of the parabola.
normals at the three points P, Q, and R meet in a point PP', QQ', and RR' be chords paraUel to QR, RP, and PQ respectively, prove that the normals at P\ Q', and R' also meet in a
19.
If the
and
if
point.
20. If the normals drawn from any point to the parabola cut the line x=2a in points whose ordinates are in arithmetical progression, prove that the tangents of the angles which the normals make with the axis are in geometrical progression.
21.
PG,
the normal at
G and is
produced to Q so that GQ = ^PG prove that the other normals which pass through Q intersect at right angles.
22. Prove that the equation to the circle, which passes through the focus and touches the parabola y^ = 4.ax at the point [at^, 2at), is
x^
+ y^ ax {St^ + 1)  ay
its
{St
 t^) + SaH^=0.
is
216
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[Exs.
XXX.]
23. Shew that three circles can be drawn to touch a parabola and also to touch at the focus a given straight line passing through the focus, and prove that the tangents at the point of contact with the parabola form an equilateral triangle.
24. Through a point P are drawn tangents FQ and PR to a parabola and circles are drawn through the focus to touch the parabola in Q and iJ respectively prove that the common chord of these circles passes through the centroid of the triangle FQR.
;
25. Prove that the locus of the centre of the circle, which passes through the vertex of a parabola and through its intersections with a normal chord, is the parabola 2y'^=iaxa^.
26. A circle is described whose centre is the vertex and whose diameter is threequarters of the latus rectum of a parabola prove that the common chord of the circle and parabola bisects the distance between the vertex and the focus.
;
27. Prove that the sum of the angles which the four common tangents to a parabola and a circle make with the axis is equal to mr + 2a, where a is the angle which the radius from the focus to the centre of the circle makes with the axis and n is an integer.
QR are chords of a parabola which are normals at P Prove that two of the common chords of the parabola and the circle circumscribing the triangle PRQ meet on the directrix.
28.
P^ and
and
Q.
29. The two parabolas y^ = 4a(xl) and x^ = 'ia(yl') always touch one another, the quantities I and V being both variable prove
;
is
moves so as always to touch an 30. A parabola, of latus rectum equal parabola, their axes being parallel ; prove that the locus of their point of contact is another parabola whose latus rectum is 21.
31. The sides of a triangle touch a parabola, and two of its angular points lie on another parabola with its axis in the same direction prove that the locus of the third angular point is another parabola.
239.
form
We
the
let
now transform
PAEABOLA.
217
By
and
Art. 133
we have
x and y to substitute
(w'
(to'
+ +
^) ^)
A,
+^
respectively.
The equation
{x sin B\y sin
i.e.
(o>'
+
+
^)
+ ^^ = 4a
+
^)
{x cos ^
+y
cos (w'
6^)
+ A},
\x sin ^ +
2/
sin
(<o'
^)}^
2c {A;
sin ^
 2a cos
+
^)}
^}
^^^
+ 1y
{h sin (w'
 2a cos
(w'
4^;^
^q
(l)
This equation is therefore the most general form of the equation to a parabola.
We
notice that in
it
240. To find the equation to a 'parabola, any two tangents to it being the axes of coordinates and the points of contact being distant a and b from the origin.
By
tion to
the last article the most general form of the equaany parabola is
{Ax^Byfv2gx+2fy^c =
(1).
V + ^gx +
(2).
If the parabola touch the axis of x at a distance a from the origin, this equation must be equivalent to
A^{xaf =
Comparing equations
(2)
(3).
and
(3),
we have
(4).
g A^a, and
A^a^
Similarly, since the parabola is to touch the axis of y at a distance b from the origin, we have
f=B%,
and
c=^B''b'
(5).
218
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
(4)
From
and
(5),
c,
we have
sothat
B = A^
sign,
(6).
we have
B = A'^,
g=
'A\
f^A'j,
and G=A'a\
as the required
we have,
t.e.
('?_iy_?^_^+i=o a \a 0/
This equation can be written in the form
(7).
\a
0/
\a
0/
ao
a
I.e.
ah'
^ /
+
/v/
^j
=lj
^.e.
yivi=i
[The radical signs in
(8)
<)
The
spond to different portions of the curve. In the figure of Art. 243, the abscissa of any point on the portion PAQ is <a, and the ordinate
< h,
signs
,
positive.
the abscissa
.
so
must be + and n^
>&, and
v>, a
must be  and +.
There
signs.]
is clearly
no part of the
PARABOLA.
241.
sign in
(6),
TWO TANGENTS AS
AXES.
219
we took
the positive
( + \a
I)
_2^ + a
= 0,
This gives us (Fig., Art. 243) the pair of coincident This pair of coincident straight lines is straight lines PQ. also a conic meeting the axes in two coincident points at and Q, but is not the parabola required.
242.
(x', y')
to the
Let
(cc", 2/")
y).
The equation
two points
is
(1)
Ix ^
sl
so that
~a
^/ = l = Vl^^/y
/y
M'
Ivi
(2).
^gz^ = ^
sjx'
(3).
s]x
s]a
The equation
/
(1) is therefore
y
or,
y ~
sly"
Jy
sly"
jr,
+
,
^y
!
I sJX
,
,.
r,\^ + sjX
^n
...
by
(3),
yy=,;
sjh
sly"
sja six
h,
+ sjy
ycc
F=X^^)
,.
(4).
220
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
y') is
The equation to the tangent at {x\ by putting x" = x and y" y', and is
then obtained
Jh yy =7%.e.
7^ (xx),
sly'
s/a \Jx
slax''^ slhy'~
\' a ^
h~^
^^^*
This
is
[In the foregoing we have assumed that [x', y') Hes on the portion (Fig., Art. 243). If it lie on either of the other portions the proper signs must be affixed to the radicals, as in Art. 240.]
PAQ
Ex.
tangent.
To find
CO
u ^+  = lmay be
(5), if
SO that
'V
Hence
This
is
s.
~i
''
and
\'
m.I^ th
fv'
 + ^ = 1.
a
the required condition; also, since
is
(
x'=
J
and
^'=
"
if
n
al
**
_i
'
bm
243.
To find
the
Let ^S' be the focus, the origin, and P and points of contact of the parabola with the axes.
Since,
the
are
OSP
and
QSO
SOP
angle
SQO.
S, then,
Hence if we describe a circle through 0, Q, and by Euc. III. 32, OP is the tangent to it at P.
AXES.
PARABOLA.
TWO TANGENTS AS
221
Hence S
origin.
lies
on the circle passing through the origin b), and touching the axis of x at the
The equation
to this circle
x^
is
oi
+ 2xy cos
+y^ = by
).
Similarly, since z SOQ L SPO^ S will lie on the circle through and P and touching the axis of y at the origin, i.e. on the circle x^ + 2xy cos (0 +y'^ ax (2).
The
intersections of (1)
and
(2)
On
solving (1)
and
air"
(2),
we have
ffl^
qP'
+ 2ah
cos
<o
6"
'
+ 2ah
cos
<o
6'
244.
If
To find
that
Now V is
to
F is y = x.
S parallel
\
I '
to
is
therefore
a^h
r=
a^
* ^
+ 2ab
cos
w +b^
,
h ( C
a\
a^
(a?
ah^
+ 2ab
^
cos
.
w + 6v
aybx= ~
a^
ab \ + lab
b^)
o)
cos
6"
'
222
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
.
245
If
To find
find
directrix.
the point of intersection of OP and a tangent perpendicular to OP, this point will (Art. 211, y) be on the directrix.
we
we can
line
OQ
which
is
on
to
A straight OX is
(/, 0)
perpendicular
+7n cos
o>
= 0.
is
The equation
then
to
this
x+
/
a
cos
(0
=y
if
^'
'
(1).
(Art. 242)
(X)
/
b cos
o)
1
'
I.
^ cos
a+
b cos
to
The point
^.
.,
,
^
\a + b cos
1
.
ab cos
=
(0
, )
<o
//^
(
ab
,
cos, (0
\
)
0,
+a cos
is
is
on
it.
(0/
The equation
x{a +
to the directrix
0))
therefore
(2).
b cos
+1/ (b
+ a cos w) = ab cos oo
The latus rectum being twice the perpendicular distance of the focus from the directrix twice the distance of the
point
/
ab^
a'^b
oo
\aP
+ 2ab
cos
5^
'
a"^
+ 2ab
w
cos
w+
b^J
(2)
4<x^6^ sin^
~
by Art.
96, after
(a^
+ 2ab
cos
oo
6^)t
some reduction.
246.
equation
To find
to the
vertex
aiid the
+
PARABOLA.
The vertex
i.e. its
'
TWO TANGENTS AS
AXES.
223
is the intersection of the axis and the curve, coordinates are given by
X
a?
a?
h^
<o
+ 2ah cos
a
6^
and by
by
X yy ^1+1 =
h
.(Art. 240),
i.e.
fx \a
(1) a,nd (2),
1
a?'
(2).
From
x=
we have a" 0O
7
<>
alP"
{ci?
{h
\
a cos
(0
w)^
+ lab
y
cos
a>
6^
+ 2a& cos
'
IP'Y
a^b (a
Similarly
b cos tof
(a?
+ 2ab cos w +
b^Y
its
b cos
co)
6^ {b
+ a cos
cos
j^
oo
uif
a^
+ 2ab
r
L
2/
b^f
.
r
,,
(6
cos
co)
^
^.e.
+a
cos
(0
2/
a+
5 cos
co
a^
+ 2ab cos
co
6^
EXAMPLES. XXXI.
If a parabola, whose latus rectum is 4c, slide between two 1. rectangular axes, prove that the locus of its focus is x'^y^=c^ {x^ + y^), and that the curve traced out by its vertex is
Parabolas are drawn to touch two given rectangular axes and 2. their foci are all at a constant distance c from the origin. Prove that the locus of the vertices of these parabolas is the curve
x^ + y^=c'"
224
3.
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY.
The axes being
[ExS.
XXXI.]
of the parabola
( + \a
rl) = t ah j
{x'^\']ff
^ 3,nd
that db = c^,
is
the curve
e^xy.
Parabolas are drawn to touch two given straight lines which 4. are inclined at an angle w ; if the chords of contact all pass through a fixed point, prove that
their directrices all (1) (2) their foci all lie on a circle
pass through another fixed point, and which goes through the intersection of
A parabola touches two given straight lines at given points 5. prove that the locus of the middle point of the portion of any tangent which is intercepted between the given straight lines is a straight
line.
6.
TP
and
TQ
are
B,
any two tangents to a parabola and the cuts them in F' and Q' prove that
;
TT'
Tq_
QQ'
_TP' _Q'R
If a parabola touch three given straight lines, prove that each 7. of the lines joining the points of contact passes through a fixed point.
if its axis pass 8. A parabola touches two given straight lines through the point {h, k), the given lines being the axes of coordinates, prove that the locus of the focus is the curve
;
x'^y^hx + ky=: 0.
A parabola touches two given straight lines, which meet at O, 9. and in given points and a variable tangent meets the given lines in Q respectively prove that the locus of the centre of the circumcircle of the triangle OPQ is a fixed straight line.
10. The sides AB and AC of a triangle ABC are given in position and the harmonic mean between the lengths AB a,nd AC is also given;
prove that the locus of the focus of the parabola touching the sides at B and C is a circle whose centre lies on the line bisecting the angle
BAG.
11. Parabolas are drawn to touch the axes, which are inclined at an angle w, and their directrices all pass through a fixed point (h, k). Prove that all the parabolas touch the straight line
h + k sec
0}
+ ^rr^sec w = 1k+ h
CHAPTER
XII.
THE ELLIPSE.
247.
The
ellipse
is
focus,
and
let
SZ
be
that
(1).
ZS produced,
(2).
SA' = e.A'Z
L.
15
226
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Let the length A A! be called 2<a^, and let C be the middle Adding (1) and (2), we have point of AA',
'la=AA!
i.e.
= e{AZ^A:Z) = 'l.e.CZ,
CZ = Subtracting
(1)
(3).
from
(2),
we have
e{A:ZAZ)^SA'8A^{SG^CA'){GACS),
i.e.
e.AA' = 2CS,
and hence
CS a.e
x,
(4).
Let G be the origin, CA' the axis of perpendicular to ^^' the axis of 3/.
and a
line
through
Let P be any point on the curve, whose coordinates are X and y, and let Pif be the perpendicular upon the directrix, and PJV the perpendicular upon A A'.
The The
focus
S is
0).
.
relation
(x
SP" = e^
then gives
+ aefy^^e^(x+'^\
(Art. 20),
i.e
ie.
2^^i
a'{le')
:i^
(^)
If in this equation
we put x = Oy we have
y = + a\/le^j
shewing that the curve meets the axis of y in two points, B and B', lying on opposite sides of C, such that
i.e.
CB
be called
6,
The equation
(5)
then becomes
+L = l
a2^b2"^
(6). ^
^
THE ELLIPSE.
248.
written
if'
Q(?
227
The equation
(6) of
may be
c?
x^
c^
x) {a
o?
x)
'
Jf
a^
FN''
AN.NA'
::
i.e.
Def.
the curve,
axis.
BC
AC\
AA'
is is
called the
major
Also
249. Since S' is the point {ae, 0), the equation to the ellipse referred to S as origin is (Art. 128),
The equation
A
^'
as origin,
and
AX
and a
(^^)'
,
a
0^
ZX and ZK as
axes
is,
since
CZ=
(3'
+
^
=h
The equation to the ellipse, whose focus and directrix are any given point and line, and whose eccentricity is known, is easily
written down.
For example,
the line
tion is
2a;
if
+ 3?/ + 4 = 0, and
the focus be the point (2, 3), the directrix be the eccentricity be , the required equa
i.e.
261*2 + 181i/2 
192a;?/
152
228
whose
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
directrix is
Ax + By + C = 0, and whose
eccentricity
250.
for
is
the curve.
the positive side of the origin take a point S', which such that SO CS' = ae, and another point Z', such that
On
Draw Z'K'
dicular to Z'K'.
perpendicular to
(5) of Art.
perpen
The equation
form
x^
247
written in the
2aex + ah^ +
{x
y^
^'^^
c?,
i.e.
 aef ^ y^ = e^ (  x\
i.e.
ST^^e^PM"".
Hence any point
curve is such that its distance distance from Z'K', so that we should from S' is e times have obtained the same curve, if we had started with S' as focus, Z'K' as directrix, and the same eccentricity.
its
P of the
251.
curve
is
The sum of the focal distances of any point on the equal to the major axis.
For
we have
and S'P^e.PM'.
.
SP = e.PM,
Hence
(Art. 247.)
and
PM' =
NZ' = e CZ' .
CN ?i ex',
where
the abscissa of
P referred
to the centre.
THE
252.
ELLIPSE.
LATUSRECTUM.
229
ellipse.
By the preceding
method
Take a piece
and
aS"
we can
of constructing
an
ellipse.
of thread,
whose length is the major axis and fasten its ends at the points S
foci.
Let the point of a pencil move on the paper, the point being always in contact with the string and keeping the two portions of the string between it and the fixed ends always tight. If the end of the pencil be moved about on the paper, so as to satisfy these conditions, it will trace out the curve on the paper. For the end of the pencil will be always in such a position that the sum of its distances from S and S' will be constant.
and
two drawing pins at S and to have an endless piece of string whose total length is equal to the sum of SS' and AA'. This string must be passed round the two pins at S and aS" and then be kept stretched by the pencil as before. By this second arrangement it will be found that the portions of the curve near A and A' can be more easily described than in the first
In
practice, it is easier to fasten
aS",
method.
253.
Latusrectum of the
ellipse.
Let LSL' be the double ordinate of the curve which passes through the focus aS'. By the definition of the curve, the semilatusrectum SL
=e
= a ae^ = .
254.
(Art. 247.)
To
%4'
230
COORDINATE GEOMETRr.
in either of the forms
or
yis
(3).
From (2), it follows that if Q^>a?, i.e. if x> a ov < a^ then y is impossible. There is therefore no part of the curve to the right of J.' or to the left of A.
From
X
is
(3),
it follows,
similarly, that, if
is
y>h
or <:6,
impossible,
above
If
X lie between a and + a^ the equation (2) gives two equal and opposite values for y^ so that the curve is symmetrical with respect to the axis of
x.
If y lie between h and + 5, the equation (3) gives two equal and opposite values for x^ so that the curve is symmetrical with respect to the axis of y. If a
number
c,
and
the corresponding values of y be determined, we shall obtain a series of points which will all be found to lie on a curve of the shape given in the figure of Art. 247.
255.
without the
The quantity ^ +
(/
7^
i^
negative^
zero,
or
upon, or
tlirough
Let Q be the point {x, y'), and let the ordinate QN Q meet the curve in P, so that, by equation (6) of
Art. 247,
PiP _
"W ~
.
^'
If
Q be
y', i.e.
QI^, is
< FN,
so
that
PN^
h
,
x'^
0
a^
RADIUS VECTOR IN ANY DIRECTION.
Hence, in this
case,
231
I.e.
r +
Similarly,
if
"v^
1 IS
negative.
'2
^ +
a"
^6^
'2
1 is positive,
centre
vector
from
the
coordinates becomes
r^cos^^
a'W
drawn at any
Since value of r
r^
is
= ^a
62
rs
tit^
r;,
we
it is
equal to
a.
Similarly, B
r, viz. h.
Also, for each value of ^, we have two equal and opposite values of r, so that any line through the centre meets the curve in two points equidistant from it.
257.
Auxiliary circle.
described on the major axis, is called the auxiliary circle of the ellipse.
Let be any ordinate of the ellipse, and produced to meet the auxiliary circle in Q.
NP
be
Since the angle AQA' is a right angle, being the angle in a semicircle, we have, by Euc. vi. 8, QN^ = AN. NA'.
232
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
gives
:
PN^
SO tliat
QN'
::
BC^
AG\
PNBCb
QN""AC"a'
Y
233
We have
and
Hence, by the
<f>
(f>,
(f>
last article,
is
<^."
known when ^
is
often called
259.
To obtain
the equation
two points on
the ellij^se
ff>
Let the eccentric angles of the two points, P and P\ be and ^', so that the points have as coordinates
{a cos ^, b sin ^)
and
(a cos
<^',
6 sin
^f)').
The equation
,
.
them
'
is
2/
 6 sm <h
6 sin
d)'
,
6
sin
</>
a cos
fp
V a cos ^
(x ^
a cos d))
cos<^;
_b
=a
i.e.
cosl(<^
. '
sin J (^'
i fh
+ +
<^')
7\
{xa cos
+
2
^
</>),
<^)
C&262
a;
 cos
+ + y
(ft
cb'
Y
Sin
^~ = cos

ch
ch'
4>
<i>
^'
cos
+ sin
</>
.6 ^ ^2
sm
+
,,
(1).
6'
P',
Cor. The points on the auxiliary circle, corresponding to have as coordinates (a cos 0, a sin 0) and (a cos 0', a sin 0')
P and
The equation
X
a
them
2
is
(i>
+ (h' ^
=cos
r2
234
This straight major axis.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
line
and
(1) clearly
make
the
same
intercept
on the
Hence the straight line joining any two points on an ellipse, and the straight line joining the corresponding points on the auxiliary circle, meet the major axis in the same point.
EXAMPLES. XXXII.
Find the equation to the ellipses, whose centres are the whose axes are the axes of coordinates, and which pass through (a) the points (2, 2), and (3, 1), and (/3) the points (1, 4) and (6, 1). Find the equation of the ellipse referred to its centre
1.
origin,
2.
is
and whose
eccentricity is ,
and
(4,
0)
and
 4,
0)
and whose
Find the latus rectum, the eccentricity, 5. of the foci, of the ellipses
(1)
a:^
+ Sy^ = a^,
(2)
5x'^
+ 4y'^ = l,
and
(3)
5y^S0y = O.
6.
to
one half
7.
rectum be equal
(1,
8.
1),
Find the equation to the ellipse, whose focus is the point whose directrix is the straight line x y + S=0, and whose
Is the point
(4,
eccentricity is ^.
ellipse
lV?
to,
9.
to the point (4
Find the lengths of, and the equations ^3, 5) of the ellipse
25x2 + 162/2=1600.
drawn
10. Prove that the sum of the squares of the reciprocals of two perpendicular diameters of an ellipse is constant.
Find the inclination to the major axis of the diameter of the of whose length is (1) the arithmetical mean, (2) the geometrical mean, and (3) the harmonical mean, between the squares on the major and minor axes. 12. Find the locus of the middle points of chords of an ellipse which are drawn through the positive end of the minor axis.
11.
with the 13. Prove that the locus of the intersection of straight line through A' perpendicular to A'F is a straight line which is perpendicular to the major axis.
AP
[EXS. XXXII.]
235
Q is the point on the auxiliary circle corresponding to P on 14. the ellipse; is drawn parallel to CQ to meet the axes inL andilf prove that PL = b and PMa.
PLM
15.
an
ellipse,
^, 0,
.
and
\{/,
is
lab
Prove also that its area is to the area of the triangle formed by the corresponding points on the auxiliary circle as 6 a, and hence that its area is a maximum when the latter triangle is equilateral, i.e. when
27r 0^ = ^0 = .
of an ellipse is joined to the extremities of the Any point axis; prove that the portion of a directrix intercepted by them subtends a right angle at the corresponding focus.
16.
major
17. Shew that the perpendiculars from the centre upon all chords, which join the ends of perpendicular diameters, are of constant
length.
18. If a, j8, 7, and 5 be the eccentric angles of the four points of intersection of the ellipse and any circle, prove that
a + /3 + 7 +
of
IT
radians.
[See Trigonometry, Part II, Art. 31, and Page 37, Ex. 15.]
at any point of a circle meets the tangent at a in T, and T is joined to B, the other end of the diameter through A ; prove that the locus of the intersection of
19.
The tangent
fixed point
AP
and
BT is
an
ellipse
whose eccentricity
is
.drawn perpendicular
20.
From any
point
P on
the ellipse,
to the axis and produced to Q, so that equals PS, where ^ is a focus ; prove that the locus of Q is the two straight lines yex + a = 0.
PN is NQ
21. Given the base of a triangle and the sum of its sides, prove that the locus of the centre of its incircle is an ellipse.
22. With a given point and line as focus and directrix, a series of ellipses are described; prove that the locus of the extremities of their minor axes is a parabola.
23. A line of fixed length a + b moves so that its ends are always on two fixed perpendicular straight lines; prove that the locus of a point, which divides this line into portions of length a and b, is an
ellipse.
24. Prove that the extremities of the latera recta of all ellipses, having a given major axis 2a, lie on the parabola x^= a{y a).
236
COORDINATE GEOMETRY,
Tojind
the intersections
260.
the ellipse
of any straight
li7ie
with
T + I=1
Let the equation of the straight
line
(1).
be
(2).
y ^ TThx +
The coordinates
(2) satisfy
and
both equations and are therefore obtained by solving them as simultaneous equations.
Substituting for y in (1) from (2), the abscissae of the points of intersection are given by the equation
^
'^
(mx + cf
a'
i.e.
^ir~ "
'
x" {a^mP
b')
+ 2a^mcx + a'
(c"
 If) =
(3).
This
is
realj coincident, or
The The
real, coincident,
two points
imaginary according as
(2a^?7ic)^ 4 (b^+a^ni^) x a^ (d^lr) is positive, zero, or negative,
i.e.
i.e.
is
< =:
or
ellipse
261. on
To find
the length
y = mx +
As
in Art. 204,
X, f
we have
Marine
5
,
J
x^
^=
or {c^
=^
s 5
Ir)
7
Yh
^nci X1X2
so that
, ,
X,
Xo =
2a6 sjanr +
7,7,
a^mr +
b'
Th
o"
237
= J{x^  flJa)^ +
c^
262.
Let
To find
P and Q
y')
whose
coordi
The equation
PQ
is
y2/'=J^'(^*')
Since both
(!)
P and Q
lie
on the
10 ro
ellipse,
we have
a'='
,2
(2)'
^^+v=l
Hence, by subtraction,
x"'x'^
"^
(^>
y"^y''_^
6^
a^
(
'
**^'
^^'^^''"
+ y''
On
PQ
becomes
yyf
0''
T
577
,{x~x)
,v
.^
(4).
to
the tangent
limit,
we take Q we put
= X and
y"
=y
238
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
(4)
The equation
then becomes
/
ox,
.T 0"
>
i.e.
2 +
a"
=
is
2
c?
y^
h^
1'
% equation
(2).
therefore
"*
b2
"
Cor. The equation to the tangent is therefore obtained from the equation to the curve by the rule of Art. 152.
263. To find the equation to a tangent in terms of the tcmgent of its inclination to the major axis.
As
y = 7nx +
meets the
ellipse in points
(1)
af (62
ahn")
h'')
0,
and, by the same article, the roots of this equation are coincident if
c
\ja?m^
+ y^.
and
it
y = mx+ Va2m2 + b2
This
is
(2).
Since the radical sign on the righthand of (2) may have either + or prefixed to it, we see that there are two tangents to the ellipse having the same w^, i.e. there are two tangents parallel to any given direction.
The above form of the equation to the tangent may be deduced from the equation of Art. 262, as in the ease of the parabola It will be found that the point of contact is the point (Art. 206).
/
 c?'m
y^
'
239
p2
Similarly, it
= a2 cos2 a + b2 sin2 a.
be shewn that the straight line
Ix
may
my = n
touches the
ellipse, if
aH^
to
+ b^m^ = v?.
the
265.
Equation
<f>.
tangent at
the
point
whose
eccentric angle is
The coordinates
Substituting
of Art. 262,
(ft).
we
x' = a cos <^ and y' b sin <f> in the equation have, as the required equation,
X
This equation
 COS
3>
^ + ^ sin ^ = 1 D
also be
(1).
may
For the equation of the tangent at the point "<^" obtained by making cf>' = (ft in the result of that article.
Ex.
Find
the intersection of the tangents at the points
to the tangents are
<p
and
<p'.
The equations
 COS a
+V
sin
0'
= 0,
1
and
= 0.
We
X
sin
i.e.
obtain
y
b
a  sin 0'
5
1
sin 0' cos
cos
<p'
 cos <p
sin (0
0')
2a COS
(b
+ <b
(b
sin
d)'
2b sin
^,
y ^ + 0'. (b sm
1
<b
(h
2 sin
~^
d)
dt
cos
<b
240
Hence
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
^=a '=2iiM)
COS i{(f>^')
to the
and
j,
266.
Equation
normal
y').
a'y
Its equation is therefore
y'
m(x x')^
i.e.
where
ay /
^\ = l,
m ^ ^,
o'x
(Art. 69).
ft
The equation
^.e.
to the normal
is
therefore y
y' = ,
{x
 x),
X  X'
a2
yy
b2
267.
angle
is
<j>.
Equation
to the
normal
The coordinates
a cos
<^
and
b sin
(f>.
X
.
,
it
becomes
=:
cos
<p
sm <^
h
a
ax
cos
<p
by
sm ip
is
therefore
ax sec
^ by cosec ^ =
a2
b2.
241
# 268.
Equation
to the
The equation
to the
normal at
as in Art. 266,
a^u
^
Hence, since
the relation
^
y"^ =
^
62
1> ^^^
obtain
b^m
y
~ Ja^ + hHi^'
is
The equation
to the
normal
therefore
y=mx
f
^.
This is not as important an equation as the corresponding equation in the case of the parabola. (Art. 208.)
When
it is
in terms of
desired to have the equation to the normal expressed one independent parameter it is generally better to use
269.
normal.
To find
the
and
sub
Let the tangent and normal at P, the point (x', 3/'), meet the axis in T and G respectively, and let PN be the
ordinate of P,
L.
16
'
242
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
to the tangent at
The equation
P is
(Art. 262)
(!)
? + f^=l
y
we put
x=, ^
I.e.
i.e.
CT^
CN'(2).
GT.GN=a^=GA^
Hence the subtangent
NT
,
a? ^CTGN=^x'^ a^ X X
x'^
The equation
to the normal
is
(Art. 266)
XX x
~y
y'
'
To
find
where
it
meets the
axis,
y
we put
7
2/
0,
and have
^^^^~
x_
'a?
>
J
i.e.
Ga=^x = x'^,x'='^^x'=^eKx'^e\GN...{3).
CO
CO
^GNGG^{le^)GN,
i.e.
NG::NGv.l~e^'.l
::
h"
a\
(Art. 247.)
Cor. If the tangent meet the minor axis in t and be perpendicular to it, we may, similarly, prove that
Pn
Gt.Gn^h\
270.
(a)
external
the
By
Art. 269,
we have CG=e^x'.
243
Hence
251.
3,
SP and ST.
If SY and S'Y' be the perpendiculars from the foci upon the (/3) tangent at any point P of the ellipse, then Y and Y' lie on the auxiliary Also GY and S'P are parallel. circle, and SY S'Y' = b'^.
.
The equation
to
any tangent
is
(1),
X co^a + y Bva.a=p
where
a (Art. 264).
0)
The perpendicular SY to (1) passes through the point {ae, and its equation, by Art. 70, is therefore
(a;
+ ae)sin a
j/cos a
=
on both
(1)
(2).
If
be the point
{h, k)
then, since
lies
and
(2),
we
have
h cos a + k sin a sja^ cos^ a +
b^ sin^ a,
and
h sin a  ^ cos
a= ae sin a =
 ija^ 
b^ sin^ a.
h'^
Y lies
Squaring and adding these equations, we have on the auxihary circle x^ + y'^:= c^.
Similarly
it
+ k'^ = a'^,
so that
may
(1),
lies
on this
circle.
Again S
is
the point
 ae,
0)
and
Hence, from
SY=p\ae cos
a,
a.
(Art. 75.)
Thus
SY
S'Y' =^2
Also
CT=
ON
"'
GN'
and
therefore
CN
GT
''
^__CT
parallel.
Hence
parallel.
GY
GY' and
SF
are
162
244
(7)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
and
If the normal at any point P meet the major and minor axes g, and if GF he the perpendicular upon this normal, then
aj^^
in
FF.PG^ &2
The tangent
0")
is
ah
Hence Pi^= perpendicular from G upon
1
this tangent
ah
(1).
The normal
VP
at
cos^
sin^
(p
fjb^ cos^
a'^
sin^
is
^X=a^hcos sm
If
(2).
we put y = 0, we have GG =
a cos
cos 0.
cos
J
+ 62 sin3
PG^Jb^cos^(p + a^sin^(p. ^
a
From
If
this
and
(1),
we put
a;
in
^sin0j.
^
Hence
so that
sin
^^~h
this result
+ ^2 sin^ 0.
therefore have
From
and
we
PF. Pg = a\
271. To find the locus of the point of intersectio7i of tangents which meet at right angles.
Any
is
y 7nx +
sja^rri^
6'^,
is
yin''^\J'''{^3*^^
EXAMPLES.
245
we have
(1), (2).
mil
+A=
sjahii?
+ fe
and
If
ink
sjo?
+ Ir'nn?
between (1) and (2) we eliminate m, we shall have a between h and k. Squaring and adding these equations, we have
relation
(P + W)
i.e.
(1
+ W) h'' + k^ = a^ + h\
(^2
(Ji,
+ m^) =
(1
+ m%
Hence the
i.e.
k) is the circle
+ 2/^ =  +
h^,
a circle, whose centre is the centre of the ellipse, and whose radius is the length of the line joining the ends This circle is called the of the major and minor axis. Director Circle.
EXAMPLES. XXXIII.
Find the equation
1.
to the tangent
and normal
4a;2
+ Qt/^ = 20,
whose ordinate
is 2,
2.
= 137
3.
4.
at the ends of the latera recta of the ellipse ^x^ + 16?/2 = 144.
ellipse
Find the equations to the tangents to the ellipse 4j,' + 3?/^ = 5 5. which are parallel to the straight line y = Sx + 7. Find also the coordinates of the points of contact of the tangents which are inclined at 60 to the axis of x.
6.
T2 =^ '
and the
Find the points on the ellipse such that the tangents there 7. are equally inclined to the axes. Prove also that the length of the perpendicular from the centre on either of these tangents is
x/'
'
246
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[ExS.
In an ellipse, referred to its centre, the length of the sub8. tangent corresponding to the point (3, V) is V; prove that the eccentricity is f
Prove that the sum of the squares of the perpendiculars on any tangent from two points on the minor axis, each distant jja?'  fe^ from the centre, is ^a?.
9.
10.
recta,
e4
Find the equations to the normals at the ends of the latera and prove that each passes through an end of the minor axis if
If
+ e2 = l.
11.
any ordinate
are equal.
MP meet
the tangent at
.L
MQ
in Q, prove that
and
tangents to the ellipse intersect at right angles; prove 12. that the sum of the squares of the chords which the auxiliary circle intercepts on them is constant, and equal to the square on the line joining the foci.
13. If P be a point on the ellipse, whose ordinate is y', prove that the angle between the tangent at P and the focal distance of
is
SP Two
tan~i
14.
Ir
aey
'\.
a^
Shew
\.^ =
and the
.
+ y'^ = ab
a b
tan~^ ~7=? y/ab
15. A circle, of radius that the common tangent
r,
is
is concentric with the ellipse ; prove inclined to the major axis at an angle
tan~i X I ,
16.
and
common
y'^
_'ix
c
x^
/>
y^
a'^
2x _
c
a^
b^
Prove that
and
CG.CT= CS^.
.
The tangent
meets the axes in T and t, and CY is the from the centre; prove that (1) Tt PY=ab'^,
oiTtisa + b.
and the
Prove that the perpendicular from the focus upon any tangent line joining the centre to the point of contact meet on the corresponding directrix.
20. Prove that the straight lines, joining each focus to the foot of the perpendicular from the other focus upon the tangent at any point P, meet on the normal at P and bisect it.
XXXIIIJ
EXAMPLES.
247
21. Prove that the circle on any focal distance as diameter touches the auxiliary circle.
22.
CP and
the normal at
greatest value
is
^
lx
2a6
line
+ my=n
is
a normal to the
fillipse, if
+ 2 =
b'~
(a^
6^)2
9
24.
lines
two straight
  l+ = a
t
and a
^  1 = 0.
is
Prove also that they meet at the point whose eccentric angle
2tanii.
25. Prove that the locus of the middle points of the portions of tangents included between the axes is the curve
Q Q
26. Any ordinate NP of an ellipse meets the auxiliary circle in prove that the locus of the intersection of the normals at P and is the circle x^ + y^ = {a + h) ^.
27.
The normal
4^.2
loci of the
at P meets the axes in G and g ; shew that the middle points of PG and Gg are respectively the ellipses
4^,2
^2(1^,2)2
28.
 = 1,
anda%2 + 62^2^(,,2_62)2.
feet of
ellipse is
[
of ellipses be described, having the same major axis, prove that the tangents at the ends of their latera recta pass through one or other of two fixed points.
29.
If a
number
minor
30.
The normal
GP is produced to
Q
is
Q, so that
GQ = n.
GP.
+ ^o = 1.
n%^
31. If the straight line y = mx + c meet the ellipse, prove that the equation to the circle, described on the line joining the points of
intersection as diameter,
(a2m2 +
62) (a;2
is
{a^
32.
on the
MN
is
concentric ellipse.
248
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[EXS. XXXIII.]
33. Prove that the sum of the eccentric angles of the extremities of a chord, which is drawn in a given direction, is constant, and equal to twice the eccentric angle of the point at which the tangent is parallel to the given direction.
34.
+ fa
^
at
and Q are
at
272.
To prove
to
that through
two tangents
is
(cci,
3/1)
The equation
any tangent
y = mx + sja^m^ +
(1).
y^,
we have
mcci =
sjo^m?
IP,
i.e. i.e.
m^{x^a^)'imXjy^+{y{)^Q
(2).
For any given values of x^ and y^ this equation is in general a quadratic equation and gives two values of (real or imaginary).
Corresponding to each value of stituting in (1), a different tangent.
we
have,
by sub
The
and
different, if
( 2x^y^y  4
i. e. if
X
i.e. ii
^ +^a^
"
11
be positive,
0^
i.e. if
the point
{x^, y^
The
be
hx^^
a'^y^^
 a62
on the curve.
249
be negative,
(Art. 255).
i.e.
if
the point
(a?i,
y^
lie
273. Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point {x^, y^). The equation to the tangent at any point Q, whose
coordinates are x
and
y',
is
^ + ^'
x" and
=,
y\
is
H a^
It
Jy"
If these tangents meet at the point nates are x^ and y^, we have
57,
whose coordi
a^
62
^
l^^
and
^' + 2/_:^l
a^
0^
^2). ^
^
The equation
to
^^
is
then
(3)
^^^=^
For, since (1)
is true, is
y') lies
on
(3). (3).
on
Hence
(3)
must be the equation to the straight line y) and {x\ y"), i.e. it must be the equation to
{x^,
v/i)
274.
(''^1)
To find
the equation
of
the
2/i)
'^'^'i^t'
Tespect to the
ellip)se
SJ=l
[Art. 162.]
250
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Let Q and M be the points in which any chord drawn through the point (ccj, y^ meets the ellipse [Fig. Art. 214]. Let the tangents at coordinates are (A, h).
Q and
{Ji,
R
k).
meet
in the point
whose
QR
its
~^'^'^
Since this straight line passes through the point
(x^, ^j),
xh
yk
we have
hx^
ky^
+ a
(A, k) lies
^=
(!)
it
^^W=^
Hence
Cor.
(2)
is
(^)
The polar
X. ae
a^
i.e.
a
e
275. "When the point (iCj, y^ lies outside the ellipse, the equation to its polar is the same as the equation of the chord of contact of tangents from it.
When
(a^i,
y^
it.
is
on the
ellipse, its
polar
is
the same as
the tangent at
As in Art. 215 the polar of (x^^ y^ might have been defined as the chord of contact of the tangents, real or imaginary, drawn from it.
276. By a proof similar to that of Art. 217 it can be shewn that If the polar of P pass through T, then the polar
of
T passes
through P.
251
277.
Ixii/e
To find
the coordinates
of
the pole
of any given
(1).
Ax + By + C=0
Let
(x^, 2/i)
be
its pole.
Then
(1)
as
the polar of
^" + f'l=0
Comparing
is easily
..(2).
(1)
and
(2),
seen to be
can
to the
the point
y^.
Let (h, k) be any point on either of the tangents that can be drawn to the ellipse.
The equation
(fljj,
of
(A,
k) to
2/i)
is
^  Vl k y^ y=j
t.e.
^x+^
hy.
kx.
^\
must be
(
of the
form
y = mx + s]a^w? +
h^.
Art. 263.)
Hence
rnJ^, h x^
Hence
But
^^'
f \
" hx^
^Y = faV \hxj
^
and f^^lJl^V = \ h x^ J
J
W + Jl
6'.
may
(1).
lie
on the locus
{xy^
This equation
tangents.
252
It
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
would be found that
/^' ,2/'
(1) is
equivalent to
f^^i
i\
/^^i'
^3//
A_
of
the
2/2/1
279.
To Jind
the locus
chords of the
ellij)se.
Let the chords make with the axis an angle whose tangent is m, so that the equation to any one of them,
QR,
is
y = 7nx +
(1),
where
c is different for
This straight line meets the ellipse in points whose abscissae are given by the equation
x^ ai. e.
{mx + cY
1.
(2).
Let the roots of this equation, i.e. the abscissae of Q and H, be x^ and x^, and let F, the middle point of QB, be
the point
[h, k).
1,
t^o
we have
a^mc
C^Vl^
*T*
(3).
IP'
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
Also
253
lies
on the straight
k
If
between
(3)
we have
^"
a^TTb
(k
tnh)
+ }f
lies
'
a?rri'
i. e.
hVi
= ~ a^mk
always
(5).
(A, k)
on the straight
line
(6).
The required
locus
is
y 7n,x, where m,
=

^r
^'
I.e.
mm.
(7).
280. Equation to the chord ivhose middle point is {h, k). The required equation is (1) of the foregoing article, where are given by equations (4) and (5), so that
b^h a?k^ + m=^.andc = __^.
,
m and
yh'^
The
required equation
is
therefore
^~
i.e.
a'k''^
a?k
'
^^{yJc)+~{Xh)=0.
It is therefore parallel to
the polar of
{h, k).
281. Diameter. Def. The locus of the middle points of parallel chords of an ellipse is called a diameter, and the chords are called its double ordinates.
we
see that
any diameter
7/
Also, by equation (7), we see that the diameter bisects all chords parallel to the diameter y mx, if
m^x
mm
62
'a^
W
254
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
in this
But the symmetry of the result (1) shows that, case, the diameter y rax bisects all chords parallel diameter y m^x.
Such a pair of diameters are
to the
Hence
said to be conjugate to the other.
Conjugate Diameters. Def. Two diameters are when each bisects all chords parallel
Two
jugate,
diameters y
if
g ,
a*
282. The tangent at the extremity of parallel to the chords which it bisects.
In the Figure
the
ellipse,
any diameter
is
QBj
of Art. 279 let [x, y') be the point on the tangent at which is parallel to the chord whose equation is y inx + c (1).
(a;',
y)
is
^' + ^'=1
a'
o"
(2). '
^
we have
a'y
i.e.
the point
(cc',
y^
lies
on the straight
line
a^m,
and
But, by Art. 279, this is the diameter which bisects all chords which are parallel to it.
QR
It follows that two conjugate diameters CP and are such that each is parallel to the tangent at the Hence, given either of these, we extremity of the other. have a geometrical construction for the other.
Cor.
CD
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
283.
255
the
The tangents at the ends of any chord meet on diameter which bisects the chord. Let the equation to the chord
2/ = ma;+
QR
c
(Art. 279) be
(1).
Let T be the point of intersection of the tangents at and Rj and let its coordinates be x^ and y^.
Since QR is the chord of contact of tangents from T^ equation is, by Art. 273,
its
^V^^l
The equations
(1)
(2)
and
(2) therefore
i.e. {h^
k) lies
on the straight
line
am,
which, by Art. 279, is the equation to the diameter bisectHence T lies on the straight line GP. ing the chord QR.
284.
If
of the ends,
(f>',
P and D,
<^
of a
and
then
and
cf>'
differ
P is the point
[a cos ^, h sin
</>),
the equation to
CPis
y~x. tan
a
h
</>
(1).
So the equation
to
CD is
y X
.
 tan a
<^'
(2).
if
a^
i. e.
a^
if
tan
<^ ^^
cot
cf}'
tan
(<^'
90j,
i.e. if
^^'= + 90.
256
Cor.
ing to
1.
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
The points on the auxiliary
these points then,
circle correspond
P and D
if
For have
p and d be
by Art. 258, we
Cor.
then
2.
is
In the figure of Art. 286 if P be the point the point ^ + 90 and D' is the point <^  90.
<fi,
285.
From
+
if
<^),
it
follows that
if
P be
</>).
c(>,
then
is
i e.
the point
b sin (90
<^)}
( a sin
<^,
b cos
Hence,
PJ^ and
iTP
DM be
and
the ordinates of
CJSr
and
i),
we have
CM
a
MD
286.
If PCP' and
BCD'
is
CP^ + CD^
constant,
a pair of conjugate diaand (2) the area of tangents at the ends of these
be
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
Let
257
P be
<^.
and
h sin
the point ^, so that its coordinates are a cos ^ is the point 90 + </>, so that its coThen
ordinates are
<^),
a sin ^
(1)
and
h cos
<^.
We therefore have
CP^ = ' cos^ <^ + 6' sin^ <^, cos^ ^, CD'^  a? sin^ + CP^ + CB' = 0"+
cj>
and
b"^
b'^
be the parallelogram formed by the Let (2) tangents at P, D, P', and D'.
KLMN
36j
By
Euc.
I.
we have
area
KLMN = 4
area
where
at P.
CU
is
C upon
the tangent
Now
P is
 cos a
so that (Art. 75)
1
<l>
+T
sin
(i)
= 0,
we have
ab
sin2<^
ab
b^
C (J
^</) /cos^
J a" sin''
<f,
cos'
CD
<f>
CU.CI) = ab.
of the parallelogram
KLMN = iab,
which is equal to the rectangle formed by the tangents at the ends of the major and minor axes.
287.
equal at P.
If
to the
The product of the focal distances of a point P is square on the semidiameter parallel to the tangent
point
(p,
P be the
then,
tf),
SP = a + ae cos
L.
and S'P a
ae cos
^.
17
258
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Hence
= a^ sin^ <^+b'
cos^
<^
288.
(1)
(2)
Ex.
If
and
the locus of
the middle point of
PD,
P
(
and D,
upon PD.
and
(3)
P is the point
(1)
and
D is
a
If (x, y)
PD, we have
h sin
^=
If
2
d)
^' ^^^ ^ =
+ & cos
2
we eliminate
2
we
We obtain
^ + 2=i[(cos
+ cos 0)2] = ^.
The locus is therefore a concentric and similar ellipse. [N.B. Two ellipses are similar if the ratios of their axes are the same, so that they have the same eccentricity.]
(2)
The tangents
are
cos0 + vsin0=l,
a
b
and
 sin0 + rcos0 = l. ^
a
b
Both of these equations hold at the intersection of the tangents. we shall have the equation of the locus of their If we eliminate
intersections.
By
and concentric
ellipse.
By
Art. 259,
on putting
0'
= 9O + 0,
the equation to
PD is
make an
Let the length of the perpendicular from the centre be 2^ and let it angle w with the axis. Then this line must be equivalent to
xcosu + ysm(a=p.
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
Comparing the equations, we have
cos (45 + ^)
..^r.
X
259
= a cos
CO
cos 45
,
, ,
& sin
w cos
45
locus required
i.e.
the
and
be ex
CP^ =
CDK
P be
=
0,
we then have
(f}
b^ sin^
(f>
a^ sin^
h^
cos^ ^,
giving
i.e.
tan^
^ = Ij
or 135.
^ = 45,
The equation
to
CP is
then
h
y = x. tan
*.e.
2/
^,
= ^
(1)>
and that to
^.e.
CD is
y~ x cot <^,
a
2/
= + ^
and
(2).
If a rectangle be
directions of the equiconjugates are therefore along the diagonals of the circumscribing rectangle.
The
The length
of each equiconjugate
is,
by Art. 286,
290.
Supplemental chords.
Def.
The chords
and on an ellipse to the extremities, joining any point P'j of any diameter of the ellipse are called supplemental chords.
Supplemental chords are parallel
to
conjugate diatneters.
172
260
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
<f>,
Let P be the point whose eccentric angle is and E' the points whose eccentric angles are 180 + <^i.
The equations
^ oo^
to
*^
FB and
FE'
+ ^^ + ^
sin
iliicos ^^1
a^
2/
r
^
b
Sm
z:
2
^^ 2
^
'
*.e.
  sm ^Hr^ + 2 a
The m "
The " m "
y cos
6
= sm ^
cot
^\
..
(2). '
^
til
=  tan ^^^
CO
The product of
the lines
If
g
,
so that,
by Art. 281,
to conjugate diameters.
This proposition
V and V be the middle points of PJ2 and TR'. V and C are respectively the middle points of EP and J2E', Similarly CV is parallel to FB. the hne OF is parallel to FBI, Since GV bisects PE it bisects all chords parallel to PP, i.e. all
For
let
Since
chords parallel to
GV.
JPB,.,
So CF' bisects
all
Hence
therefore
CF and GV are in
PP' and
the direction of conjugate diameters and respectively, are being parallel to (7F and
GV
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
261
291. To find the equation to an ellipse referred to a pair of conjugate diameters. Let the conjugate diameters be CP and CD (Fig. Art.
286),
a'
and
h'
respectively.
If we transform the equation to the ellipse, referred to its principal axes, to CP and CD as axes of coordinates, then, since the origin is unaltered, it becomes, by Art. 134, of the form
Ax' + 2Hxy\By'=l
(1).
Now
0), lies
on
\
(1),
so that
(2).
Aa" =
So since Q, the point
Bh'^ =
1.
on
(1),
we have
Hence
A^jz, and
a^
B=
=f.
h^
bisects all chords parallel to CD, thereAlso, since fore for each value of x we have two equal and opposite This cannot be unless 11=0. values of y.
CP
^+^=1
Cor. If the axes be the equiconjugate diameters, the equation is x^ + y^ = a'^. The equation is thus the same in form as the equation to a circle. In the case of the ellipse however the axes are oblique.
when
It will be noted that the equation to the ellipse, referred to a pair of conjugate diameters, is of the same form as it is when referred to its principal axes. The latter are merely a particular case of a pair of conjugate diameters.
292.
Just as in Art. 262, it may be to the tangent at the point (x, y')
262
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Ex. If QVQ' be a double ordinate of the diameter CP, and if the tangent at Q meet CP in T, then CV CT=CP'^.
.
If
be the point
[x', y'),
the tangent at
it is
Putting y = 0, we have
^rj._a'^_GP^
I.e.
i.e.
CV.CT=GP^
EXAMPLES. XXXIV.
1.
In the
ellipse
qF
tt
= 1> ^^^
and
is
(2, 1)
+ 7y^=8,
 J,
1),
and
(2)
Tangents are drawn from the point {3, 2) to the ellipse 3. x^ + 4:y'^=9. Find the equation to their chord of contact and the equation of the straight line joining (3, 2) to the middle point of this chord of contact.
Write down 4. 2y^=5 ellipse Sx^
the equation of the pair of tangents drawn to the from the point (1, 2), and prove that the angle
between them
is
tan"^
a ^
5.
In the
ellipse s
+ ^=l,
write
down
xy = 0, x + y = 0,
6.
y = ^x, and
2/
= ^and
Shew
iyx O,
that the diameters whose equations are y + Sx = are conjugate diameters of the ellipse 3x^ + 4:y^=5.
If the product of the perpendiculars from the foci upon the 7. polar of P be constant and equal to c^, prove that the locus of P is the elHpSe 6%2 (^2 + ^2^2^ + g2^4^2^ ^4^4.
8.
Shew
and Q on an
ellipse all
that the four lines which join the foci to two points touch a circle whose centre is the pole of PQ.
[EXS.
EXAMPLES.
263
If the pole of the normal at P lie on the normal at Q, then 9. shew that the pole of the normal at Q lies on the normal at P.
CK is the perpendicular from the centre on the polar of any 10. is the perpendicular from P on the same polar and point P, and Shew that (1) CK PL = b^, is produced to meet the major axis in L. and (2) the product of the perpendiculars from the foci on the polar
PM
= CK.LM.
What do
these theorems become
when
is
on the
ellipse ?
11. In the previous question, if polar meet the axis in T, shew that
PN be
the ordinate of
.
and the
12. If tangents TP and TQ be drawn from a point T, whose coordinates are h and k, prove that the area of the triangle TPQ is
CPTQ
is
13.
ellipse
prove that they intercept on the ordinate through the nearer focus a distance equal to the major axis.
14. Prove that the angle between the tangents that can be drawn from any point [x^ y{) to the ellipse is
,
2ah
tan~i
x{^
/~^^yl
+ y^ a^b^
to the
15. If T be the point {x^, yy), straight lines joining it to the foci, S
{x^y
Prove that the bisector of the angle between these lines also bisects the angle between the tangents TP and TQ that can be drawn from T, and hence that
lSTP=lS'TQ.
16. If two tangents to an ellipse and one of that the locus of its centre is a straight line. 17.
its foci
be given, prove
inter
y=mx+ a/
conjugate diameters.
264
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
[Exs.
XXXIV.]
18. Any tangent to an ellipse meets the director circle in p and d ; prove that Cp and Gd are in the directions of conjugate diameters of the ellipse.
GQ
is
20. If a fixed straight line parallel to either axis meet a pair of and L, shew that the circle conjugate diameters in the points described on KL as diameter passes through two fixed points on the other axis.
21. Prove that a chord which joins the ends of a pair of conjugate diameters of an ellipse always touches a similar ellipse.
and Q on the ellipse are 22. The eccentric angles of two points 01 and 02 prove that the area of the parallelogram formed by the and Q is tangents at the ends of the diameters through
'
4a&cosec(0i02),
it is
least
when
pair
of
conjugate
diameters
24.
(1)
If the tangent at
any point
P meet in
.
two
prove that in each case the rectangle LP PL' is equal to the square on the semidiameter which is parallel to the tangent at P.
25. A. point is such that the perpendicular from the centre on its polar with respect to the ellipse is constant and equal to c shew that its locus is the elhpse
;
^2
2/2^1
26.
ellipse 3
'rg
=1
to the circle x'^ + y'^=r'^ prove that the chords of contact are tangents to the ellipse a^x^^ h^y'^ r^.
If
= 5 + s
r^
a^
0^
27. GP and CD are conjugate diameters of the ellipse prove that the locus of the orthocentre of the triangle GPD is the curve
;
{hh)'^
28. If circles be described on two semiconjugate diameters of the ellipse as diameters, prove that the locus of their second points of intersection is the curve 2{x^\y'^)'^=a^x^ + h^y'^.
FOUR NORMALS TO AN
ELLIPSE.
265
293. To prove that, in general, four normals can he drawn from any point to an ellipse, and that the sum of the eccentric angles of their feet is equal to an odd m/ultiple of
two right angles.
The normal
at
any
point,
is
^, is
cos
<p
sm
If this
(A, ^),
we have
(1). '
^
J!L_JL=v
COS
</)
sm
<jt>
For a given
through
{h,
eccentric angles of
h).
point (li, k) this equation gives the the feet of the normals which pass
<k
Let
tan
^=
^,
so that
cos
d>
=
,
:,
and
sni
cb
+ tan^t
(1),
lHt4
we have
'^*
ah ^
i.e.
\f
7,
ok
2t
2i5
a^e
(ah 
2/,2
hkf + Let
^1, ^2)
2^3
(ah +
aV) +
a^e^)
hk =
...
(2).
hi ^^(i
h ^6 the
^4
by Art.
2,
^X
+ ^2+^3 +
^1^3
a?e^
(3),
kk +
^2^3^4
^1^4
^2^3
+ kh =^0
^
(4),
, ,
+ 4^1 +
54^li^2
+ ^1^3 =  2
ah a^p}
TT
(5),
and
^j^2^o^4=:l
(6),
266
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
125),
we have
__ ^1
{h
^ + il + h\
^1^3
^3
_^
='''^+2'
</>4
and hence
<^i
+ ^2 + ^3 +
= (2n +
1)??
= an odd multiple
294.
amples of
Ex.
1.
of
two right
angles.
We
loci
shall conclude the chapter with some exconnected with the ellipse.
the locus of the intersection of tangents at the ends which are of constant length 2c.
Find
of chords of an
ellipse,
Let QR be any such chord, and let the tangents at in a point P, whose coordinates are {h, k).
Since
Q and R meet
QR
is
the polar of P,
its
equation
is
The
which
meets the
by
\^
x^
a^j
[W (^
h^
^y
,
'
Ti^
of this equation,
i.e.
the abscissae of
^l +
^2^2p:;^2;i;2'
+ ^2/^2
If
2/i
and
2/2
be the ordinates of
"^
Q and
62
R, we have from
(1)
^'
a2
and
so that, by subtraction,
2/2
2+^=1'
~ 2/1
i'h ^2^
V.^2
~ ^l/'
'
THE
The
ELLIPSE.
EXAMPLES.
267
{h, k)
always
&2
lies
on the curve
aP )
Ka'^y^Jy
"^
V^ + P~^j'
which
is
Ex. 2. Find the locus (1) of the middle points, and (2) of the poles, of normal chords of the ellipse. The chord, whose middle point is {h, k), is parallel to the polar of (h, k) and is therefore
,
i^h)^,+ {yk)^^=o
If this
(1).
be a normal,
it
aa^sec 6
= a^h^
a^b^
'
(2).
We therefore have
gsec 6
"T
a^
_  6 cosec 6
%
b^
/i2
k^
a^
b^
so that
cos^:
fh^
Jf\
'
h{a^b^)
\^ '^ by
and
sin^=
k (a2 d,
fc2)
y^'^by
@4:)(^^i='^^
The equation
to the required locus is therefore
fc2\2
e4:r(^3''^>=
Again, if (x^, yy) be the pole of the normal chord equation must be equivalent to the equation
(2),
the latter
^^ + ^^=1
Comparing
(2)
(3).
and
^
&2,
^1
vT'
a^ 1
so that
\x^
y^j
(a
62)2
268
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
is
Ex.
3.
Chords of the
ellipse
ellipse
2 +
^2
and coaxal
k
Any
yz=mx+
^Ja^m^ + p^
(1).
Let the tangents at the points where it meets the first ellipse meet in (h, k). Then (1) must be the same as the polar of {h, k) with
respect to the first ellipse,
i.e. it is
the same as
a^^b''
Since
(1)
^~"
^''^
and
(2) coincide,
we have
'h~
k~
Ti
Hence
m=^T, and a^ k
fja^m^ + jS^ ==
Eliminating m, we have
a4/c2
i.e.
+P
/^2'
^2
i.e.
ellipse
and
1)2
respectively.
EXAMPLES. XXXV.
The tangents drawn from a point P to the ellipse make angles and $2 with the major axis find the locus of P when
;
61
1.
^1
+ ^2
^1
i^
constant (=:2a).
is
[Compare Ex.
(
1,
Art. 235.]
2. tan 3.
^i + tan 62
constant
tan
 tan
d^ is
constant
is
= c). = d!).
(
4.
tan^
di
+ tan^ ^o
constant
= X).
[EXS.
XXXV.]
THE
ELLIPSE.
EXAMPLES.
269
which meet
if
at a given angle a.
the
sum
the
sum of
h.
of the
midSle points
of
is
chords of an ellipse
c.
= 2c).
16. Prove that the locus of the intersection of normals at the ends of conjugate diameters is the curve 2 {a?x^ + hhff= {o?  b^ {a^^^  b^yT17. Prove that the locus of the intersection of normals at the ends of chords, parallel to the tangent at the point whose eccentric angle is a, is the conic
2 [ax sin a
+ by cos a)
If the chords be parallel to an equiconjugate diameter, the locus is a diameter perpendicular to the other equiconjugate.
18. A parallelogram circumscribes the ellipse and two of its opposite angular points lie on the straight lines x'^ = h^; prove that the locus of the other two is the conic ^2 y2
(.:)
19. Circles of constant radius c are drawn to pass through the ends of a variable diameter of the ellipse. Prove that the locus of their centres is the curve
{x^
+ y"^)
[a^x^
{o?x^ +
b^y'^)
20.
The polar
of a point
is
P with
fixed circle,
whose centre
of the ellipse. Shew that the locus of P is a parabola, whose latus rectum is a third proportional to the diameter of the circle and the latus rectum of the ellipse.
Prove that the locus of the pole, with respect to the ellipse, of ^ X v^ 1 any tangent to the auxiliary circle is the curve 4 + n = ^
21.
270
22.
circle,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[EXS.
XXXV.]
whose
Shew that the locus of the pole, with respect to the auxiliary of a tangent to the ellipse is a similar concentric ellipse, major axis is at right angles to that of the original ellipse.
23. Chords of the ellipse touch the parabola ay^= 2b^x; prove that the locus of their poles is the parabola ay^ = 2b^x.
the angles that the four normals make with the axis is equal to the sum of the angles that the two tangents from the same point make with the axis.
24.
of
sum
to
an
ellipse
a2a;2
+ hY = {a^ + ^^f
to the ellipse g
+ p = 1,
and
about
through a right angle in its own plane prove that the locus of the point of ; intersection of a tangent to the ellipse in its original position with
26.
ellipse is rotated
its centre,
An
which
is fixed
its
new
position is
+ 2/2)
(a;2
27. If y and Z be the feet of the perpendiculars from the foci upon the tangent at any point P of an ellipse, prove that the tangents at Y and Z to the auxiliary circle meet on the ordinate of P and that
is
another
ellipse.
Prove that the directrices of the two parabolas that can be of the ellipse and to to have their foci at any given point pass through its foci meet at an angle which is equal to twice the eccentric angle of P.
drawn
Chords at right angles are drawn through any point P of the and the line joining their extremities meets the normal in the point Q. Prove that Q is the same for all such chords, its a2&e2sina ,. a^e2cosa , ^ coordinates being 5 717 and z^
29.
ellipse,
,
of
'
is
y^
_
\^^+by
CHAPTER
XIII.
THE HYPERBOLA.
295.
The hyperbola
is
is
eccentricity e
To find
a hyperbola.
Let be the directrix, 8 the focus, and let perpendicular to the directrix.
There will be a point
ZK
SZ
be
SA^e.AZ
272
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
A\ on
/S'^
Since e> 1, there will be another point duced, such that SA! = e.A'Z.
pro
(2).
called
2c&,
and
let
be the middle
i.e.
GZ=Adding
(1)
(3).
i,e.
and hence (4). Let G be the origin, GSX the axis of x, and a straight line GT, through G perpendicular to GX, the axis of y. Let P be any point on the curve, whose coordinates are be the perpendicular upon the directrix, X and y, and let and PiV the perpendicular on ^^^.
FM
is
The The
focus
aS'
the point
.
(ae, 0).
.
relation
gives
{x
i.e.
aef + y^ = e^\ x
x^
Hence
i.e.
2aex + a^e^ + 2/^ = &^x^ ^aex + a^. x" {e"  I)  y'^ = or {e"  \\
x^ v  ^
==1
(5).
1)
is positive.
Let
X2
it
y2
r2b2=^
where
b'^=^a'e^a^^GjS^GA'
(7),
and therefore
GS^ = a^ + b^
. . .
(8).
THE HYPERBOLA.
296.
PF^_AF.NA'
so that
If
points.
we put
::
b'
d\
(6),
we have
y'^
lf,
CZ
in imaginary
Def. The points A and A' are called the vertices of the hyperbola, C is the centre, 4^' is the transverse axis of the curve, whilst the line BB' is called the conjugate axis, where and B' are two points on the axis of y equidistant from C, as in the figure of Art. 315, and such that
B'G =
CB^h.
0),
297. Since S is the point (ae, focus as origin is, by Art. 128,
{x
+ ae)^
~"^2
i.e.
_ p1'
2/2
^'+2' + e2l = 0.
Similarly, the equations, referred to the vertex A respectively as origins, wUl be found to be
directrix
and
foot of the
x^
y^
2x
and
^
a;2
w2
1^
b'^
2a; +__=!_
^
1
e^
a^
ae
The equation
tricity are
to the hyperbola, whose focus, directrix, and eccenany given quantities, may be written down as in the case
298.
There
exist
to the curve.
On SO
such that
SG=CS'^ae,
and another point
such that
ZC = CZ' =
a
e
18
274
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
perpendicular to in M'
(5)
Draw Z'M'
duced to meet
AA^ and
may be
let
FM be
pro
it
The equation
form
tc^
of Art. 295
written in the
^^ + ^aex + a^,
,
i.e.
+ aef +
2/^
= e^(+a3j
.
i.e.
S'P^
= e" {Z'G +
CNf = e^ PM\
Hence any point F of the curve is such that its distance from S' is e times its distance from Z'K\ so that we should have obtained the same curve if we had started with S' as focus, Z'K^ as directrix, and the same eccentricity e.
299.
on
The
difference
For
(Fig.,
Hence
Art 295) we have SP = e.PM, and 8'P = e.PM'. S'P  SP = e{PM'  PM) = e MM'
.
and
where
SP = e.PM^e. ZN ^ e.CNe. CZ^ ex'  a, 8'P^e. PM' = e Z'N =e C]^+ e .Z'C^bk' + a.,
.
x' is
P referred to
the centre
as origin.
300.
of the curve
By the
=
e
SL
from
the directrix
^e.SZ=e{CSCZ)
= e CS eCZ=ae^ ~a =
.
by equations
(3), (4),
and
THE HYPERBOLA.
301.
To
trace the curve
275
^=1
The equation may be written in
(1)
^=**\/5^
,2
(^)'
or
a!
= fli
/^ +
if
(3).
From
and
(X,
(2), it
follows that,
^<
cf?^
i.e. if
lie
between a
is
therefore no part
values of oi? > o? the equation (2) shews that there are two equal and opposite values of y^ so that the curve is symmetrical with respect to the axis of x. Also, as the value of x increases, the corresponding values of y increase, until, corresponding to an infinite value of x^ we have an infinite value of y.
For
all
For all values of y^ the equation (3) gives two equal and opposite values to cc, so that the curve is symmetrical
with respect to the axis of
y.
If a number of values in succession be given to x^ and the corresponding values of y be determined, we shall obtain a series of points, which will all be found to lie on a curve of the shape given in the figure of Art. 295.
The curve
consists of
two
portions, one of
which extends
in an infinite direction towards the positive direction of the axis of c, and the other in an infinite direction towards the neofative end of this axis. ^C5"
302.
The quantity
'^^
positive,
zero^
or
y'),
and
let
the ordinate
QW
182
276
through
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Q meet
Art. 295,
^ _ FIP_ _
and hence
If
Pi\^,
to~
= ^
1
i.e.
QN,
is less
than
sothat
^<_^, ^.e.<__l.
case,
Hence, in this
Similarly,
if
j>0, a
^
1
i.e. is
positive.
y'
we have
303.
a given
negative.
To find
the length
direction.
(6) of Art. 295,
The equation
when tran^rred
to polar
coordinates, becomes
(cos e _Biv? e\
t.e
i5=^^^=j.(;?ten^^j
COS 6
sin^e
cose/b'
,\
,,,
(1).
This is the equation giving the value of any central radius of the curve drawn at an inclination 6 to the transverse axis.
52
So long as tan^
^<
^,
of r corresponding to
52
any value
of
0.
of tan^
0> ^,
a
are negative,
Any
radius
drawn
277
does not therefore meet the curve in any real points, so that all the curve is included within two straight lines
inclined at an angle
tan~^
to
CX.
the form
7*
cos2^(^tan2(9^
is
least
is greatest, i.e.
CA
is
when tan
of
=a
the value of r
For values
between
of the curve (Fig., the corresponding negative values give the Art. 295) and portion A'R'.
^^
the positive a values of R give the portion AR^, and the negative values give the portion A'R^.
of 6
For values
between
and tan~^ 
The ellipse and the hyperbola since they both have a centre (7, such that all chords of the conic passing through it are bisected at it, are together called Central Conics.
304. In the hyperbola any ordinate of the curve does not meet the circle on A A' as diameter in real points.
There
the
is
ellipse.
desirable to express the coordinates of any point of the curve in terms of one variable, the substitutions
"When
it is
X = a sec
may be
equation
(6) of
and
y = b tan <f>
The angle ^ can be easily defined geometrically. On AA! describe the auxiliary circle, (Fig., Art. 306)
278
and from the
a tangent
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
foot iV of
NU to this circle,
CU=CNco^NCU,
i.e.
x = GN=:a^QGNCU.
The angle
Also
so that
<^.
JV^F
JSFU
::
a.
The ordinate of the hyperbola is therefore in a constant ratio to the length of the tangent drawn from its foot to
the auxiliary
circle.
This angle eft is not so important an angle for the hyperbola as the eccentric angle is for the ellipse.
Since the fundamental equation to the hyperfrom that to the ellipse in having b^ bola only will be found that many propositions for instead of b% it the hyperbola are derived from those for the ellipse by changing the sign of b^.
305.
differs
Thus, as in Art. 260, the straight line y mx + c meets the hyperbola in points which are real, coincident, or imaginary, according as
c^> <
a^Tn^
b^.
As
As
y = mx +
is
sJa^TYi^
b^
always a tangent.
The
is
straight line
X cos a + y
a tangent,
if
sin a
= j^
sin^
a.
p^ = a^ cos^ a b^
Ix
?i^
The
is
straight line
if
my = n
[Art. 264.]
a tangent,
aH^  m^.
279
The normal
is,
as in Art. 266,
306.
With some
269 and 270 are true for the hyperbola corresponding figure be drawn.
interior,
In the case of the hyperbola the tangent bisects the and the normal the exterior, angle between the focal distances SP and S'P.
if an ellipse and a hyperbola have the and S', they cut at right angles at any common point P. For the tangents in the two cases are respectively the internal and external bisectors of the angle SPS', and are therefore at right angles.
It follows that,
foci
aS'
same
307.
points
The equation
h
{a sec ^,
tan
(j>)
to the straight lines joining the and {a sec <^\ h tan ^') can be
shewn
to be
X a
4>'
cos
^ y 7 sm ^
.
ct>
+ ^
2
c{i
4>
cos
+
^ 2
<h'
.
280
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
it
sin
</)
= cos d).
to
a
It could easily be
the
normal
is
ax sin
<^
+ b^) tan
^.
308.
hyperbola.
The proposition
Art.
is
As
from
in
273,
the
^^1
(iTj, 2/i)
y^j
1
As
any point
__
(x^,
2/1) is
^^
a^
y^i
52
As in Arts. 279 and 281, the locus of the middle points of chords, which are parallel to the diameter y = 7nx, is the diameter y = m^x, where
b^
a^
The proposition
also, if
of Art.
278
is
we
replace b^
by b\
locus of the intersection
309.
which are at right angles is, as in Art. 271, found to be the circle x^ + y'^ = a^ b% i. e. a circle whose centre is the origin and whose radius is Ja^ b\
of tangents If 5^
If the radius of the circle is zero, and it reduces In this case the centre is to a point circle at the origin. the only point from which tangents at right angles can be drawn to the curve.
the radius of the circle is imaginary, so that there is no such circle, and so no tangents at right angles can be drawn to the curve.
If y^
a^,
>
281
310. Equilateral^ or Rectangular^ Hyperbola. The particular kind of hyperbola in which the lengths o the transverse and conjugate axes are equal is called an The reason for the equilateral, or rectangular, hyperbola.
name "rectangular"
will
a, the equation to the equilateral Since, in this case, b hyperbola, referred to its centre and axes, is x^ y^ = a\
The
For,
eccentricity
is
^2.
a^
so that
J2.
the centre
311.
Ex.
=l
Q and R.
As
is
X cos a + y sin a =p
a tangent,
if
p^ a^ cos^
ah^ sin^
a.
But p and a are the polar coordinates of Q, the foot of the perpendicular on this straight line from C. The polar equation to the locus of is therefore
r2
i.e.,
= a2cos2^62sin2
6',
in Cartesian coordinates,
(x^ + y^f^a^x^h^y^
If the hyperbola
equation
is
r2
The equation
If
to the perpendicular
on
it
is
(2).
hxayB\n
we eliminate
(2),
0,
we
shall
From
and then
we have
tan
(1)
sind>=
ay'
sin
:=r
>/ 1 
j
hx
sin^
is
^Ja^y^ h^x^
Substituting in
the locus
{x^
282
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
EXAMPLES. XXXVI.
Find the equation to the hyperbola, referred to its axes as axes of coordinates,
1.
4,
2.
is 13^
is
foci
3.
(3,
is
2),
4.
is^/2.
In the hyperbola 4a;2 9i/^ = 36, find the axes, the coordinates 5. of the foci, the eccentricity, and the latus rectum.
Find the equation to the hyperbola of given transverse axis 6. whose vertex bisects the distance between the centre and the focus. Find the equation to the hyperbola, whose eccentricity is , 7. whose focus is {a, 0), and whose directrix is 4:Xdy = a. Find also the coordinates of the centre and the equation to the
other directrix.
Find the points common to the hyperbola 25a;2 9^/^=225 8. and the straight line 25a; + 12?/ 45 = 0.
9.
which
4x'^
 9y^=l
10. Prove that a circle can be drawn through the foci of a hyperbola and the points in which any tangent meets the tangents at the vertices.
11. An ellipse and a hyperbola have the same principal axes. Shew that the polar of any point on either curve with respect to the
first
curve.
12. In both an ellipse and a hyperbola, prove that the focal distance of any point and the perpendicular from the centre upon the tangent at it meet on a circle whose centre is the focus and whose radius is the semitransverse axis.
13 ^^'
=m ah
CC
j
and 
5/
+^=m
'?/
always
to,
of,
the
common
tangent
p = l and ^
t^=1
15. In the hyperbola 16^29^2 144^ find the equation to the diameter which is conjugate to the diameter whose equation is x=2,y.
[EXS.
16.
XXXVI.]
THE HYPERBOLA.
25a;216t/2=400
EXAMPLES.
283
which
17.
(5, 3).
SF.S'P=GF^.
18. the distance of any point from the centre varies inversely as the perpendicular from the centre upon its polar.
19.
if
the normal at
then PG=Pg=PC.
angle subtended by any chord at the centre is the 20. supplement of the angle between the tangents at the ends of the chord.
*lie
21. the angles subtended at its vertices by any chord parallel to its conjugate axis are supplementary.
which
is
22.
The normal
to the hyperbola ,
^=1
MP
NP are
drawn
prove
magnitude
and position, prove that the locus of the point of contact of a tangent drawn to it from a fixed point on the other axis is a parabola.
24. If the ordinate MP of a hyperbola be produced to Q, so that MQ is equal to either of the focal distances of P, prove that the locus
of
is
lines.
25. Shew that the locus of the centre of a circle which touches externally two given circles is a hyperbola.
26. On a level plain the crack of the rifle and the thud of the ball striking the target are heard at the same instant; prove that the locus of the hearer is a hyperbola. 27. Given the base of a triangle and the ratio of the tangents of half the base angles, prove that the vertex moves on a hyperbola whose foci are the extremities of the base.
28.
a^
'^ b^
=1
is
the curve
29. Find the locus of the pole of a chord of the hyperbola which subtends a right angle at (1) the centre, (2) the vertex, and (3) the focus of the curve.
y^=^ax
locus of poles with respect to the parabola of tangents to the hyperbola x^y^=a^ is the ellipse 4a;2 + 2/2=4a2.
30.
284
31.
a?
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[EXS.
XXXVI.l
Prove that the locus of the pole with respect to the hyperbola
W
=\
of
circle,
11
whose diameter
1
is
the line
ng the
foci,
is
the ellipse
4 + ri = a^
a^+b^
32. Prove that the locus of the intersection of tangents to a hyperbola, which meet at a constant angle /3, is the curve
33. From points on the circle x^ + y^=a^ tangents are drawn to the hyperbola x^  y'^=a^; prove that the locus of the middle points of the chords of contact is the curve
(a;2
34.
all passing through the prove that the locus of their middle points is a
is
the point
and which
is
similar to
line,
Asymptote. Def. An asymptote is a straight which meets the conic in two points both of which are situated at an infinite distance, but which is itself not alto312.
gether at infinity.
313.
To find
the asymptotes
of the hyperbola
As
y = 7nx +
the equation
x"
(1)
2a^mcx  a^
(c^
6^)
=Q
(2).
(2)
must be
x^
infinite.
Hence
(C. Smith's
it
and X in
must both be
We therefcwre have
h^
a^jn^ = 0, and
a^mc
0.
ASYMPTOTES.
285
Hence
m = =*=, a
and
= 0.
we
have, as
(1),
the^fc
^^
W =: =fc
 aj.
a
There are therefore two asymptotes both passing through the centre and equally inclined to the axis of x, the inclination being
tan"^
The equation
tion, is
Cor.
infinite if
For
7?2
all
.
values of
(2) is
is
Hence any
which
parallel to
infinity
an asymptote, meets the curve in one point at and in one finite point.
That the asymptote passes through two coincident points i. e. touches the curve at infinity, may be seen by finding the equations to the tangents to the curve which pass through any
at infinity,
314.
point
f rcj
ajj^
As
y = mx + Ja^m^ where
i.e.
b^^
 ar, = mx, a ^
surds,
a2)
{
Ja^m^  6^ ^
on clearing of
m2 {x^^ 
One
m = ,
the asymptote
286
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Geometrical construction fo7' the asymptotes.
315.
Let A' A be the transverse axis, and along the conjugate axis measure off CB and CB\ each equal to h. Through B and B' draw parallels to the transverse axis and through A and A' parallels to the conjugate axis, and let these meet respectively in K^, K^^ K^, and K^, as in the
figure.
are
y= a
b
x,
x,
'
'
of the asymptotes.
Let any double ordinate FlSfP' of the hyperbola be produced both ways to meet the asymptotes in Q and Q\ and let the abscissa CN be x.
316.
Since
P lies
NP^slx'^a''
a
ASYMPTOTES.
Since
287
is
is
3/
=  x,
we have
Hence
and
Therefore
NQ = a
PQ = NQ  NP =
QP' ^^a
(x' ^
^
(x'
slx'^
 a\
sj^a\
'
PQ .QP' = ^
jcc'^
 (x'^  a')} = h\
Hence, if from any point on an asymptote a straight be drawn perpendicular to the transverse axis, the product of the segments of this line, intercepted between the point and the curve, is always equal to the square on
line
Again,
PQj{^^W^r^) =
ah
x'
ax' +
Jx'''a''
+ \/x^ a^
PQ is therefore always positive, and therefore the part of the curve, for which the coordinates are positive, between the asymptote and the transverse is altogether
axis.
Also as X increases, i. e. as the point P is taken further and further from the centre C, it is clear that PQ continually decreases is infinitely small.
;
finally,
when
PQ
The curve therefore continually approaches the asymptote but never actually reaches
distance, the curve
it,
asymptote.
is
317. If SF be the perpendicular from asymptote, the point lies on the auxiliary
^S'
upon an
This
circle.
288
COORDINATE GEOMETRY,
follows from the fact that the asymptote is a tangent, whose point of contact happens to lie at infinity, or it may
be proved
directly.
For
Also
we have
(Art. 295)
:
and hence
i.e.
CS CF
:
Euc. YI. 6, it follows that l lies on the directrix. angle, and hence that
By
right
the foci on either asymptote points as the corresponding directrix, meet it in the sam,e and the common points of intersection lie on the auxiliary
circle.
318.
In this curve (Art. 310) the quantities a and b are equal. The equations to the asymptotes are therefore y=.^x, i.e. they are inclined at angles =t 45 to the axis of x, and hence they are at right angles. Hence the hyperbola is generally called a rectangular hyperbola.
319.
has
as its transverse axis, and A A' as its conjugate axis, is said to be the conjugate hyperbola of the hyperbola whose transverse and conjugate axes are respectively AA'
BB'
is
a'~^
^'
^^ = 1
a'
b'
11^
ex?
(2). ^
^
F~a'
THE HYPERBOLA.
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
is
289
its
is
320.
The
straight line
y = m^x
a^
b'
by
i.e.
by the equation ^
a^
0^
a^m^
<
or
The
i.e.
>
6^,
according as
m^
i.e.
is
numerically
<
or >
(1),
according as the inclination of the straight line to the axis of X is less or greater than the inclination of the asymptotes.
^1^2
=^
(2).
Hence one
of the quantities
m^ and m^ must be
less
Let mj be < , so
that,
by
(1),
y = m^x
19
290
Then, by
line
(2),
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY.
m^ must be > CL
,
so that,
by
(1),
the straight
points.
y = m^x
will
It follows therefore that only one of a pair of conjugate diameters meets a hyperbola in real points.
to
321. If a pair of diameters he conjugate with respect a hyperbola, they will he conjugate with respect to its con
jugate hyperhola.
Eor the straight lines y = tyi^ and y with respect to the hyperbola
a^
= m^
are conjugate
y"
a
if
.1
Cv
(1).
^i'^2==2
(2).
equation to the conjugate hyperbola only differs (1) in having a^ instead of a^ and  h^ instead of h% so that the above pair of straight lines will be conjugate with respect to it, if
the
Now
from
'^= = l^ =
(^)
a^
as
(2).
322. If a pair of diameters he conjugate with respect a hyperhola, one of them meets the hyperhola in real points and the other meets the conjugate hyperhola in real points.
Let the diameters be
3/
so that
m^m^ =
a^
As
straight line
so that the ' a' m^x meets the hyperbola in real points.
,
,
line
a
(
the equation x^
zj
A \y
i.e.
by
.t^
a^y
ra^ a^ h"^'
THE HYPERBOLA.
Since mo > "
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
291
Hence the
323.
its
proposition.
If aiKiir of conjugate diameters meet the hyperbola conjugate in and D, then (1) CP^ CD^ = a^ 6^, and the other ends of the (2) the tangents at P, diameters passing through them form a 'parallelogram whose vertices lie on the asymptotes and whose area is constant.
and and
Let
^=1
whose
tan ^).
The equation
to the diameter
CP is
^
therefore
I
y=
tan
4>
 sm <p. a
is
line,
Avhich
^x
sm
b
.
<fi
192
'
292
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
<^,
that
a tan
(j>,
h sec
^) so
and
</,,
(sec2
^  tan^
</>)
= c*2 
51
and Z> to the hyperbola and Again, the tangents at the conjugate hyperbola are easily seen to be
a
If
f sind)
Q^
=^cos d), ^
(1). /'
\
and
sind)
= cosd)
(2). '
^
X
a
This point
lies
y
h
1
^ sin ^
cos
lies
Similarly, the intersection of the tangents at and on CL[^ that of tangents at D' and F' on GL' ^ and
those at
If tangents be therefore drawn at the points where a pair of conjugate diameters meet a hyperbola and its conjugate, they form a parallelogram whose angular points are on the asymptotes.
C on
^
1
.
ah cos
,
,
a6
sJhHec^<j>
ah
+ d'tQ.n^4>
CD
FK'
THE CONJUGATE HYPERBOLA.
SO that
i.e.
293
Also the areas of the parallelograms CP'K'D', and CB'K;P are all equal.
The area
4a6.
CD = D'C = K^P, so that the portion of a Cor. tangent to a hyperbola intercepted between the asymptotes
is
PK^
Relation hefweert the equation to the hyperhola, the equation to its asymptotes, and the equation to the conjugate hyperbola.
324.
The equations to the hyperbola, the asymptotes, and the conjugate hyperbola are respectively
5F =
W(2)
%%'
and^^ = l
a^
0"
(3).
notice that the equation (2) differs from equation (1) by a constant, and that the equation (3) differs from (2) by exactly the same quantity that (2) differs from (1).
We
If
the equations in any way we please by changing the origin and directions of the axes by the most general substitutions of Art. 132 and by multiplying the equations by any the same constant, we shall alter the lefthand members of (1), (2), and (3) in exactly the same way, and the righthand constants in the equations will still be constants, and differ in the same way
now we transform
as before.
Hence, whatever be the form of the equation to a hyperbola, the equation to the asymptotes only differs from by a constant, and the equation to the conjugate it hyperbola differs from that to the asymptotes by the same constant.
294
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
it
325. As an example of the foregoing article, let to find the asymptotes of the hyperbola
be required
Sx^5xy2y^ + 5x+ny8 =
constant,
...(1).
Since the equation to the asymptotes only differs it must be of the form
from
it
by a
(2).
Since
lines.
(2)
straight
i.e.
c=12.
The equation
to the asymptotes is therefore
3a;2
326. As another example we see that the equation to any hyperbola whose asymptotes are the straight lines
is
(1),
where X For
any constant.
(1) only differs by a constant from the equation to the asymptotes, which is
G^)
(2).
we
substitute
 A^
for X^
^e
shall
its
conjugate hyperbola.
It follows that
= X^
{x cot
X cot
ay = 0,
327. It would follow from the preceding articles that the equation to any hyperbola whose asymptotes are x = and ?/ = is
a;2/
= const.
THE HYPERBOLA.
EXAMPLES.
295
The constant could be easily determined in terms of the semitransverse and semiconjugate axes.
In Art. 328 we shall obtain this equation by direct transformation from the equation referred to the principal axes.
EXAMPLES. XXXVII.
1.
Through the
it
prove that
_ + _=!.
Prove that chords of a hyperbola, which touch the conjugate 3. hyperbola, are bisected at the point of contact.
Shew that the chord, which joins the points in which a pair of 4. conjugate diameters meets the hyperbola and its conjugate, is parallel to one asymptote and is bisected by the other.
Tangents are drawn to a hyperbola from any point on one of 5. the branches of the conjugate hyperbola; shew that their chord of contact will touch the other branch of the conjugate hyperbola.
A straight line is drawn parallel to the conjugate axis of a 6. hyperbola to meet it and the conjugate hyperbola in the points P and Q shew that the tangents at P and Q meet on the curve
;
6^'
296
11.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
C is
the centre of the hyperbola 3
[ExS.
XXXVII.]
at
t2 = 1
any point
in the points Q and R. Prove that the equation to the locus of the centre of the circle circumscribing the triangle CQB is 4 {a^x^  b^) (a^ + b^f.
series of hyperbolas is drawn having a common transverse 12. axis of length 2a. Prove that the locus of a point on each hyperbola, such that its distance from the transverse axis is equal to its distance from an asymptote, is the curve {x^y^)'^=4:X^{x^a^).
328.
asymptotes.
To jind
the equation to
a hyperbola referred
to its
Let
,2 a"
'" 52
.(1).
Draw
other
PH
parallel to one
let
CH
and
HP
P referred
to
sm a
,
cos a
,
Draw I{]V
the point
PM
ASYMPTOTES AS AXES.
Then, since
297
PH and HR are
parallel respectively to
CL
Hence
and
and
MP
"we
have
Hence, since
(A,
is
^) is
required equation
xy =
4
is,
This is often written in the form xy c^, where 4c^ equals the sum of the squares of the semiaxes of the hyperbola.
Similarly, the equation to the conjugate hyperbola
when
^y =
J.
to the
329.
of the Let
{x", y")
y')
be any point
a point
Q on
it,
so that
we have
(1),
^y = c2
and
x"y" =
to the line
0^ is
(2).
The equation
PQ
then
(3).
2/
y'=fc^
(=')
298
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
(2),
c'
we have
y"v'
"
ASYMPTOTES AS AXES.
331.
299
in Art. 274, the polar of any point (x^, with respect to the curve can be shewn to be
As
y^
Since, in general, the point (aj^, y^ does not lie on the curve the equation to the polar cannot be put into the form (6) of Art. 329.
is
332. The equation to the normal at the point yy' =^m{x x'), where m is chosen so that this
{x\ y')
line is
y ^
If
0)
= ,x + r'
X
y X
2c
we then
obtain,
by Art.
cos
,
0)
,
cos
0)
is
(if'
cos w)
X (x y
cos w)
=r
y"^
x'.
6
0^
L
equation to the normal becomes xx
co
One
tion
The equation xy = c^
x = ct and y = all
clearly satisfied
Hence, for
are
ict, j
values of
t,
lies
may be
The tangent
is
by Art. 329,
300
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
is,
by the
last article,
c
y
or,
(l
when
the hyperbola
rectangular,
The equations
are
and
" t"
and  + yt^= 2c, h and hence the tangents meet at the point
+yt^=. h
2c,
'
^1 + tj Vi + ^2 The line joining " t^" and " ^2/' which is the polar of point, is therefore, by Art. 331,
'
this
down
the equation
and
(ct,,
Q
its
334.
it also
Ex. 1. If a rectangular hyperbola circumscribe a triangle, passes through the orthocentre of the triangle.
asymptotes be
(1).
a:y
c'^
let their
jespectively.
As
QR
is
x + yt2ts=c{t^ + ts).
The equation
is
P perpendicular
to
QR^
therefore
h
I.e.
y + ctihh=hh[f + jjj]
(2)
ASYMPTOTES AS AXES.
Similarly, the equation to the straight line through
to
301
Q perpendicular
(^)
RP is
2/
+ ciU3=ir^ + j7T]
(2)
of
and
(3) is clearly
{~4j^
"'''''')
^'^'
and this is therefore the orthocentre. But the coordinates (4) satisfy (1).
Also "
ig,"
if
(
Hence the
proposition.
ij," "
t^" and
we have
1.
Ex. 2. If a circle and the rectangular hyperbola (xy the four points "ti," "f2>" "^3>" ^nd ^^t^^" prove that
(1)
= c^
meet in
ti2^34=l,
(2) the centre of mean position of the four points bisects the distance between the centres of the two curves,
and
(3)
the centre of the circle through the points "ij," "f2" "^g" ^^
circle
be
x^ + y^2gx^y
+ k = 0,
Any
we have
so that
If
t^
is
(ct,jj.
If this lie
on the
circle,
cH^ + ^2gct2f + k = 0,
i4
 2^ t^+t^^t +1 =
c
c^
(1). '
^
fg, *3,
and
^4
2,
hhhh='^
(2),
h + h + t, + t,=^
and
Dividing
(4)
(3),
2f
(4).
by
(2),
we have
11112/
302
The
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
centre of the
i. e.
mean

(
j
the point
{t^
is
k ^
^^^
tliis is
joining
and
i^
Also, since
= ^^^ we have
,
(^,/) 1
iicgi's
EXAMPLES. XXXVIII.
1.
foci of the
hyperbola
a^ + b^ xy= j

are given by
2.
Shew
meet at an angle
that two concentric rectangular hyperbolas, whose axes of 45, cut orthogonally.
A straight line always passes through a fixed point; prove 3. that the locus of the middle point of the portion of it, which is intercepted between two given straight lines, is a hyperbola whose asymptotes are parallel to the given lines.
at any point P of an ellipse be produced to If the ordinate 4. is equal to the subtangent at P, prove that the locus of Q, so that ^ is a hyperbola.
NP
NQ
From a point perpendiculars 5. and ON. If the area straight lines is a hyperbola. that the locus of
OM
PM
A variable line has its ends on two lines given in position awd 6. passes through a given point ; prove that the locus of a point which divides it in any given ratio is a hyperbola.
7.
The coordinates
is
where 6
variable
of a point are a tan (^ + a) and 6tan(^ + j8), prove that the locus of the point is a hyperbola.
A series of circles touch a given straight line at a given point. 8. Prove that the locus of the pole of a given straight line with regard to these circles is a hyperbola whose asymptotes are respectively a parallel to the first given straight line and a perpendicular to the
second.
"
[EXS. XXXVIII.]
THE HYPEKBOLA.
EXAMPLES.
303
If a rightangled triangle be inscribed in a rectangular hyper9. bola, prove that the tangent at the right angle is the perpendicular
11. Chords of a rectangular hyperbola are at right angles, and they subtend a right angle at a fixed point prove that they inter; sect on the polar of 0. 12. Prove that any chord of a rectangular hyperbola subtends angles which are equal or supplementary (1) at the ends of a perpendicular chord, and (2) at the ends of any diameter.
13. In a rectangular hyperbola, shew that the angle between a chord PQ and the tangent at P is equal to the angle which PQ subtends at the other end of the diameter through P.
14. Show that the normal to the rectangular hyperbola xy c at the point "t" meets the curve again at a point "t"' such that
i=l.
15. If Pj, P25 ^^cl P3 be three points on the rectangular hyperbola x^ and x^ prove that the area of the xy = c^, whose abscissae are triangle P^P^P^ is
x,^,
,
,
^i
J;o
wo
at these points
is
16. Find the coordinates of the points of contact of tangents to the two hyperbolas
common
Shew that the straight lines drawn from a variable point on 19. the curve to any two fixed points on it intercept a constant distance on either asymptote.
20.
Shew
xy = c^is
21.
1cy
are
x = k and y = h.
304
22.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Shew that the
straight line
[EXS.
always touches the
y = mx + c\/ is
m
I
/
of  711
fall
23. Prove that the locus of the foot of the perpendicular let from' the centre upon chords of the rectangular hyperbola xy which subtend half a right angle at the origin is the curve
= c^
24. A tangent to the parabola x^ = 4a?/ meets the hyperbola xy = k^ in two points P and Q. Prove that the middle point of PQ hes on a parabola. 25. If a hyperbola be rectangular, and its equation be xy = c^, prove that the locus of the middle points of chords of constant length
is
{x'^
+ 2/^)
{xy
 c^) = d^xy.
26. Shew that the pole of any tangent to the rectangular hyperbola xy^c^, with respect to the circle x^ + y^ = a^, lies on a concentric and similarly placed rectangular hyperbola.
27. Prove that the locus of the poles of rectangular hyperbola xy = c^ is the curve
{a;22/2)2
all
+ 4c2^i/ = 0.
28.
ellipse
Any tangent
o
= ah
meets the
+ = 1 in the points P and Q prove that the normals at P ^ h^ a?" and Q to the ellipse meet on a fixed diameter of the ellipse. 29. Prove that triangles can be inscribed in the hyperbola xy = c^, whose sides touch the parabola y^=4iax.
30. A. point moves on the given straight line y=mx; prove that the locus of the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the centre upon
its
ellipse
2
+ ^=
'^
is
a rectangular
hyperbola, one of whose asymptotes is the diameter of the ellipse which is conjugate to the given straight line.
quadrilateral circumscribes a hyperbola; prove that the 31. straight line joining the middle points of its diagonals passes through the centre of the curve.
are the points of intersection of a circle and a 32. A, B, C, and rectangular hyperbola. If AB pass through the centre of the hyperbola, prove that CD passes through the centre of the circle.
If a circle and a rectangular hyperbola meet in four points P, and S, shew that the orthocentres of the triangles QRS, RSP^ SPQ, and PQR^iiso lie on a circle. Prove also that the tangents to the hyperbola at R and S meet in a point which lies on the diameter of the hyperbola which is at right angles to PQ.
33. Q, r]
XXXVIII.]
THE HYPERBOLA.
EXAMPLES.
305
series of hyperbolas is drawn, having for asymptotes the 34. principal axes of an ellipse; shew that the common chords of the hyperbolas and the ellipse are all parallel to one of the conjugate diameters of the ellipse.
35. A circle, passing through the centre of a rectangular hyperbola, cuts the curve in the points A, B, G, and prove that the circum; circle of the triangle formed by the tangents at A, B, and C goes through the centre of the hyperbola, and has its centre at the point of the hyperbola which is diametrically opposite to D.
36. Given five points on a circle of radius a; prove that the centres of the rectangular hyperbolas, each passing through four of
these points,
all lie
on a
circle of radius
If a rectangular hyperbola circumscribe a triangle, shew that circle circumscribing the triangle in a fourth point, which is at the other end of the diameter of the hyperbola which passes through the orthocentre of the triangle.
37.
it
meets the
Hence prove that the locus of the centre of a rectangular hyperbola which circumscribes a triangle is the ninepoint circle of the
triangle.
38. Two rectangular hyperbolas are such that the asymptotes of one are parallel to the axes of the other and the centre of each lies on the other. If any circle through the centre of one cut the other again in the points P, Q, and jR, prove that PQR is a triangle such that each side is the polar of the opposite vertex with respect to the first
hyperbola.
20
CHAPTER
XIV.
ITS
FOCUS
Let
draw
and
ZM the
Let
ZS
initial line,
and produce
on the
we have
SP = r,
Draw
and
iXSP^O.
perpendicular
PN
PM
SL = e
SZ^
we have
szJ,
e
Hence
r=
SP = e.PM=e,ZN
= e{ZS + SN)
= ei + SP. cosO = l + e.r.
I
cos
0.
Therefore
r=
6 008 6^
.(1).
307
This, being the relation holding between the polar coordinates of any point on the curve, is, by Art. 42, the required polar equation.
Cor. If SZ be taken as the positive direction of the initial line and the vectorial angle measured clockwise, the equation to the curve is
r=
336.
IS
1 + e cos d
we have
I
= l, and
^e
2
the equation
=z
1cos^
^ 2
^ = ^d
I
cosec^ 
sm^ .
is
If the initial line, instead of being the axis, be such that the axis inclined at an angle y to it, then, in the previous article, instead of 6 we must substitute d y.
The equation
=lecos(^7).
337.
To
I.
= \e cos 6.
r
Case
= 1^
 cos
6.
When
is zero,
we have 
r
0,
so that r is infinite.
1
As
to 0,
and hence
infinity to
 increases
from
to 1,
i.e.
r
I.
r decreases from
As
to
to
2, i.e.
r decreases
from
to
Similarly, as
changes from 180 to 270, r increases changes from 270 to 360, r increases
from  to
from
^
I,
and, as
.
to
CO
is
co
FPLAL'P'F' oo
of
202
308
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
II.
Case
i.e.
e<l.
When
is zero,
we have  = 1 e,
r
r
As
247.
0,
e
to
1, i.e.
increases from
1 e
to
1,
i.e.
r decreases from
to
e
I.
"We thus obtain the portion A'PBL. As 6 increases from 90 to 180, cos^ decreases from increases from 1 to 1 + e, to 1, and therefore 1e cos
i.e.
 increases from
r
to
e,
i.e.r decreases
from
to
+e
of the curve,
where
^.
and then
is
increases from 180 to 270 Similarly, as 360, we have the portions AL' and L'B'P'A'.
to
Since cos 6 = cos ( 6) = cos (360 metrical about the line SA'.
6),
the curve
sym
Case
III.
(e 1), and
is zero, 1 e cos 6 is equal therefore a negative quantity, gives r = I (e 1). This zero value of
e > 1.
When
is
0 to cos~^
")
Thus 1e cos
(e 1)
to
0,
1) to
(e
0,
.
i.e.
to
cc
is
therefore
to oo
.
309
For
We
A'P^R oo
of the curve.
 then
,
cos 6 is
than is
so that
e cos
is
and therefore r
is positive.
Hence, as 6
from cx) to +
00
As
from
tt,
1 ecos^
increases
to 1
+ e and hence r
<
decreases from oo to
Now
to
6^
is is
of
+e
= TT,
such that
9
ao
SA < SA'.
between cos~^ and
e
tt
For values
r
positive.
we
therefore
RPA^
tt
of the curve.
For
this portion
As
from
e
increases from
to
1,
to 27r
cos~^ e
cos 9 increases
1
so that
ecos^
decreases from
+e
to 0,
to oo
Corresponding
AL'R^
oo of
the
27r,
ecos^
increases from
ally
to
1
e,
so that
e,
e cos 6
is
decreases algebraic
from
to
i.e.
negative
and
is
increases
numerically from
to
1,
and therefore r
negative and
decreases from go to
of 6
we have
is
portion r
R{A\
of the curve.
For
this
'
310
r
is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
therefore always positive for the righthand branch and negative for the lefthand branch.
is
of the curve
A'P^R'
00 00
RPAL'R^
oo oo
R^A'.
338. In Case III. of the last article, let any straight line be dravm through S to meet the nearer branch in ^, and the further
branch in
q.
The
and we have
I
^
*^*
lecos{XSqf^7r)
+ ecosXSq'
^^^~l + ecosXSq'
This is the relation connecting the distance, Sq, of any point on the further branch of the hyperbola with the angle XSq that it makes with the initial line.
339.
Equation
to the directrices.
SZ and
e
I.e.
 and e
+2
e(e2l)'
[Art. 300.]
since
^^=e^^)'
to the
The equations
two
r cos o =
.
e
]
and
r cos
c^
rl
\je
+ 
21
e(e^
le^+1
e
1)J
e^l
311
Equation
to the
asymptotes.
= OS sin ACK^ = as
Also the asymptote
axis.
^
.
.
= h.
s/a"
+ }p
CQ makes
it
The perpendicular on
from
therefore
makes an
angle
^+
cosi
CQ
is
= r cos
^ 9 cos~^ y^
= r sin
6 cos~^ is
similarly
r cos 6Ex.
1.
cos "^
)
= r sin
{d + cos~*  j
341.
(1) the sum of the reciprocals of the segments of is constant, and (2)
the
sum of the
constant.
Let PSP' be any focal chord, and let the vectorial angle of so that the vectorial angle of P' is ir + a.
(1)
P be a,
By
equation
(1)
.312
(2)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Let QSQ' be the focal chord perpendicular to PSP', so that the
vectorial angles of
Q and
7^7^
Q' are
 + a and ^ + a.
(
We then have
= 1 e cos
+ a = l + esina,

and
Hence
+
e
27
cos a
Z
+ e cos a
Z
e^
cos^ a
'
21
+ esma
"^
1e sin a
1
1e^ sm^ a
a
1e^ cos^ a
2Z
e^ sin^
_2e^
and
is
21
~ ^2F'
jioints of focal chords
for all
Ex.
a conic
Let
section is
PSQ
PSX being
I
'
d,
so that
SP
I
1e cos d
and
Let
r and
iJ
+ 6)
+ e cos
let its
'
polar coordinates be
Then
.=SPBP=SP_^+^=
^
^
2
ecos^
Llcos^
+ e COS ^J
?'cos0.
1
e'^
cos 20'
i.e.
r^eVcos^^rrZe.
latusrectum
I.
may
(i')[ir^J+'/=4(^j
and
therefore represents an ellipse or a hyperbola according as the original conic is an ellipse or a hyperbola.
313
To find
P of the
P be
conic section 
\~e cos B.
the point (rj, a), and let Q be another point on the curve, whose coordinates are (r^, /?), so that we have
Let
ecosa
(1),
and
 = 1  e cos i3 By
Art. 89, the polar equation of the line
(2).
PQ
'
is
sin(;ga)
r
sin(6>a)
r^
sin
(j8
 6)
^1
By means
 sin (^
of equations (1)
{1
and
(2) this
equation becomes
 a) = sin (^ a)
e cos /3} +
sin
{(i6){\e
cos a}
= {sin(^ a) + sin {(30)} e {sin (^ a) cos^ + sin (/3^) cos a}
^ = 2 sm ^
.
Ba
^r
cos 20aB
e{(sin^ cos a  cos ^ sin a) cos ^ + (sin /5 cos ^ cos ^ sin ^) cos a}
2 sin ^^
I
cos [B
Ba
cos
'
e cos
J
sin
ifi
 a),
.e.
= sec 
A
..,(3).
This
points,
is
and
the equation to the straight line joining two Q^ on the curve whose vectorial angles, a and
of the tangent at
/5
^, are given.
we put
= a, and
then becomes
 =cos
This point a.
is
(^
a) ecos^
(4).
314
343.
If
COOKDINATE GEOMETKY.
we assume a suitable form for the equation to the we can more easily obtain the required equation.
joining chord
=Lcos(^7) ecos^
(1).
[On transformation to Cartesian coordinates this equation is easily seen to represent a straight line ; also since it contains two
arbitrary constants, points.]
If it pass
L and 7,
it
we have
i.e.
cos (a
7) = !
{r^, /3)
(2).
Similarly,
if it
Lcos(/37) = l
Solving these,
we
(3),
we obtam
i = sec
The equation
(1) is
then
=sec
As
then
(^0^ ecos^.
COS
(
=QOS{da)eGosd.
r
^344.
point
(r^
,
To find
the
^1)
with respect
\e cos 0.
Let the tangents at the points v^hose vectorial angles are a and /? meet in the point (r^, ^1).
The coordinates
r^
and
61
must therefore
satisfy equation
cos(^i a)ecos^i
Similarly,
(1).
(2).
315
and therefore
^1
 a = (^1 /?),
[since a
and
/?
t.e
2
Substituting this value in
= ^1
(1),
we have
= COS \ 2 n
[
^r
ay
)
e cos
di
%.e.
cos
^^r
= hecos^,
and
fi is
(4).
Also,
by equation
(3) of Art.
T
%,e.
(
+
+
e cos d
= sec 
2
\
cos
'
"
cos
ij
cos
 = cos (6^
^
J
(
(5).
This therefore
of the point
(r^, 6^.
to the
normal
at the point
is
= cos (0 a) e cos 0,
i.e.,
in Cartesian coordinates,
a?
(cos a
e) + yBina = l
(1).
(2),
(3).
Ax + Bi/ = l
'
316
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
we have
(4).
(cos
ae) + Bs>ma =
(
^"^
we have
(5).
A A=
cos a
(5),
+ ^ sin a =
e cos a
we have
,
1 ecosa
,
and
B = (1
ecosa) (e cosa) /^ e sm a
Zesina
The equation
(2)
then becomes
r(l
e
sm a cos + {e cos a) sm =
I.e.
e cos a)
I
sui(0
^
a)~esuid = ^
^
le
sin a
..
r
cos a
346.
If
the axis of the conic be inclined at an angle y to the equation to the conic is
the equation to the tangent at the point a is obtained by substituting a  7 and ^  7 for a and 6 in the equation of Art. 342.
The tangent
is
therefore
and p
is,
by the
 = sec^^r cos
r 2
to the polar of the point {i\
,
Ba
The equation
6^) is,
by Art. 344,
j + gcos(^7)l j
, sm ^  7 + sin 1/
V
.
a 6)} 'i
^x>
elsm(ay) lecos(a7)
,
,
and Q of a 347. Ex. 1. If the tangents at any two points meet the directrix conic meet in a point T, and if the straight line is a right angle. corresponding to S in a point K, then the angle
PQ KST
POLAR EQUATION.
EXAMPLES.
/3
3l7
If the vectorial angles of P and Q be a and equation to PQ is, by equation (3) of Art. 342,
I
respectively, the
 = sec^ ^cosT^'^Vgcos^
r
^2
(1).
is,
by Art. 339,
(2).
= ecos^
r
If we solve the equations coordinates of K.
(1)
and
(2),
we
But, by subtracting
(2)
from
(1),
we have
so that
SK bisects
^
2
, '
SP and
SQ.
Also,
by equation
i.e.
we have the
vectorial angle of
equal to
TSX=
2 z
Hence
KST= L KSX 
TSX='^
Ex.
2.
is the
is
the angle
PSQ
focus constant
and P and Q tioo points on a conic such that and equal to 25; prove that
P and Q is
is S.
a conic
and
(1)
(2)
the line
PQ
7  S,
By
P and Q are
therefore
 = cos(6*75)ecos^
(1),
and
If,
 = cos(6'7 + 5)ecos^
.(2).
7,
we
between these two equations, we eliminate the variable quantity shall have the locus of the point of intersection of the two
(2)
tangents.
Subtracting
from
(1),
we have
7 + 8).
Hence, (since 5
is
not zero)
we have 7=^.
318
Substituting for
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
7
in
(1),
we have
=cos5gcos^,
r
Isead
i e.
^ =1  esec ocos^.
rectum
Hence the required locus is a conic whose focus is 8, whose latus is 21 sec 5, and whose eccentricity is e sec 5. It is therefore an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, according as e sec 5 is < = >1, i.e. according as cos 8> = <:e. The equation to PQ is, by equation (3) of Art. 342, (2)
 = sec5cos(^T
i,e.
7)
ecos^,
(3).
Comparing this with equation (4) of Art. 342, we see that it always touches a conic whose latus rectum is 21 cos 5 and whose eccentricity is ecosS. Also the directrix is in each case the same as that of the original
conic.
^ For
both
^,
sec 5
r
and
cos 5
^ are equal to 
e sec 8
e cos 5
Ex. 3. A circle passes through the focus S of a conic and meets it in four points ivhose distances from S are r^, ?2, r^, and r^. Prove that
(1)
r^r^r^r^
= ^
1
dH^
,
lohere
21
and
are the
latus
rectum and
and d
2
I
is the
diameter of the
circle,
(2)
 +  +  +  = 7.
Ji
r^
rg
74
pole,
initial line, so
equation
is
(1).
at
an angle 7
If,
If the diameter of the circle, which passes through S, to the axis, its equation is, by Art. 172,
be inclined
(2).
between
(1)
and
(2),
r=dcos{dy) we eliminate 6, we
and
l
,
shall
have an equation
in
r,
r^.
From
and then
i.e.
we have
cos
6=
\/ ^~\
(r 1\^
)
(2) gives
i.e.
r=d cos 7 cos 9 + d sin 7 sin 6, dco8y{r  l)}^=d^ sin2 7 [eV _ (^ _ 1^2^^ eV 2edcos7 r3+r2 {d^ + 2eldGosy e2d2sin27) 2ld^r+dH^=sO.
{er^
.
POLAR EQUATION.
Hence, by Art.
2,
EXAMPLES.
319
we have
'V2^3^4 =
^
(%
(4).
and
Dividing
(4)
'2''3''4
by
(3),
we have
rj
++ +  = 7.
ra
r.
11112
r^
I
EXAMPLES. XXXIX.
In a parabola, prove that the length of a focal chord which is 1. incHned at 30 to the axis is four times the length of the latusrectum. The tangents at two points, P and Q, of a conic meet in T, and S is the focus ; prove that
2. 3.
if
ST^=SP

SQ.
if
^7^;^
= ^
where
b is
The
vectorial angle of
is
angles of
and Q be on to Art. 338, prove that, if different branches of a hyperbola, then ST bisects the supplement of the angle PSQ, and that in other cases, whatever be the conic,
bisects the angle
5.
ST
PSQ.
;
straight line drawn through the common focus *S of a on it is taken of conies meets them in the points Pj, P^, ... a point Q such that the reciprocal of SQ is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of /SPj, SP^,.... Prove that the locus of Q is a conic section whose focus is 0, and shew that the reciprocal of its latusrectum is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the latera recta of the
number
given conies.
Prove that perpendicular focal chords of a rectangular hyper6. bola are equal.
7.
prove that
^^
+ ^^^^
constant.
Shew that the length of any focal chord of a conic is a third 8. proportional to the transverse axis and the diameter parallel to the chord.
9. If a straight line drawn through the focus S oi a. hyperbola, parallel to an asymptote, meet the curve in P, prove that SP is one quarter of the latus rectum.
320
10
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Prove that the equations  = lecos6 and
r
tExS.
=ecos0l
r
represent the
same
conic.
Two conies have a common focus; prove that two of their 11. common chords pass through the intersection of their directrices.
line is
P is any point on a conic, whose focus is S, and a straight drawn through 5^ at a given angle with SP to meet the tangent prove that the locus of T is a conic whose focus and at P in T directrix are the same as those of the original conic.
12.
;
13. If a chord of a conic section subtend a constant angle at the focus, prove that the locus of the point where it meets the internal bisector of the angle 2a is the conic section
ZC0S5
r
them
conic sections have a common focus about which one of prove that the common chord is always a tangent to another conic, having the same focus, and whose eccentricity is the ratio of the eccentricities of the given conies.
14.
Two
is
turned
15. Two ellipses have a common focus ; two radii vectores, one to each ellipse, are drawn from the focus at right angles to one another and tangents are drawn at their extremities prove that these tangents meet on a fixed conic, and find when it is a parabola.
;
16. Prove that the sum of the distances from the focus of the points in which a conic is intersected by any circle, whose centre is at a fixed point on the transverse axis, is constant.
17.
the triangle
to the parabola r
a,
.
=z
1
2a
 cos d
drawn
at
j3,
and
'
y, is
fa+B+y sm
it
)
18. If tangents be drawn to the same parabola at points whose vectorial angles are a, /3, y, and 8, shew that the centres of the circles circumscribing the four triangles formed by these four Hnes all lie on
is
r=
a + ^ + y + SP+y 8\
19. The circle circumscribing the triangle formed by three tangents to a parabola is drawn; prove that the tangent to it at the focus makes with the axis an angle equal to the sum of the angles made with the axis by the three tangents.
XXXIX.]
20.
POLAR EQUATION.
EXAMPLES.
321
Shew
{9
2a).
21. A given circle, whose centre is on the axis of a parabola, passes through the focus S and is cut in four points A, B, C, and by any conic, of given latusrectum, having S as focus and a tangent tothe parabola for directrix ; prove that the sum of the distances of the points A, B, G, and from S is constant.
22.
Prove that the locus of the vertices of all parabolas that can be circle of radius a and having a fixed point on
is
r=2acos^, the
it
Shew 23. Two conic sections have the same focus and directrix. that any tangent from the outer curve to the inner one subtends a constant angle at the focus.
Two equal ellipses, of eccentricity e, are placed with their .24. axes at right angles and they have one focus S in common if PQ be
;
common
25.
tangent,
PSQ
g
is
equal to 2 sin^ p,
will
(1
_ e^^) + 1^
(1
 e^^)
+ ^l^l^e^e^ cos a = 0.
;
and a hyperbola have the same focus S and two on each branch of the hyperbola if rj and r^ be the distances from S of the two points of intersection on the nearer branch, and r^ and r^^ be those of the two points on the further branch, and if I and V be the semilaterarecta of the two
26.
ellipse
An
+r)(Ui)+(z.)(i + i)=4.
[Make use of Art.
27.
angle
If the
338.]
a
r=a cosec^,
vectorial
prove that
25=a + /3 + 77r.
L.
21
CHAPTER
XV.
The
general definition of a Conic Section in Art. 196 was that it is the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from a given point S is in a constant ratio to its perpendicular distance from a given straight line ZK.
FM
not lie on the straight line ZK, we have found that the locus is an ellipse, a parabola, or a hyperbola
according as the eccentricity
e is
When S does
<=
or
>
1.
The Circle is a subcase of the Ellipse. For the equation of Art. 139 is the same as the equation (6) of Art. 247 when h^ = a^, i.e. when e = 0. In this case
The
Circle
is
therefore a
direc
is zero,
and whose
S lie on
S and Z
In
SF=e.FM,
we have
.
t\H
^,,
FM
/oF
1
e
If e > 1, then lies on one or other of the two straight lines and SU' inclined to KK' at an angle
SU
323
If e = 1, then PSM is a right angle, and the locus becomes two coincident straight lines coinciding with SX.
If
of
e< 1,
the
PSM is imaginary,
lines.
consists
KK\
KK' and S
and SU'
be at infinity and
infinity,
i.e.
be on
SU
two straight
Finally, it
lines
meeting at
will
be be two
may happen
may
both be
include
of a conic section
we must
and a
therefore
An
point).
(2) (3)
(4)
A Parabola. A Hyperbola.
Two
straight
lines,
real
or
imaginary, inter
349.
degree
To shew
aoi?
of
the second
+ 2hxy +
hy^
+ 2gx +
2/?/
(1)
section.
Let the axes of coordinates be turned through an angle so that, as in Art. 129, we substitute for x and y the quantities x cos 6 y sin 6 and x sin 6 + y cos 9 respec6,
tively.
The equation
a (x cos
(1)
then becomes
cos
(x cos
y sin Oy + 2h (x
+y
cos
y sin 0)
{x sin
6)
+ y cos
cos 6)
6)
+ h(x
sin
Oy + 2g
y sin
+
+ 2/{x
i. e.
sin 6
+y
= 0,
x^ (a cos^
+ 2h cos
+ 2xy
sin
b sin^ 0)
{h (cos^
 sin^ 0)(a h)
+ 2x
(g cos
cos 6 sin 6]
+ 2/^ {a sin^
6  2h cos
OsinB +
h cos^ 6)
+/sin
(2)
0)
+ 2y{fcosOgsine) + c =
212
324
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
choose the angle 6 so that the coefficient of xy in
Now
i. e. i. e.
this equation
may
h
vanish,
so that
(cos^ 6
^,
i. e.
so that
2h
,
between
of a, b, and h, there is always satisfying this equation and such that it lies 45 and + 45. The values of sin and cos are
therefore known.
On
(2), let it
become
(3).
First,
let neither
(3)
nor
B be zero.
The equation
,/ A[x^)^B[y^j^)=^^^c.
may then be written in the form ry ^' r' Gy / i<^V g' ^'
7
n)
+^c = K
F^
(say)
(4),
Tr^^,^ K K
'
(5).
B
If
ellipse.
If J
K K An
and
it
If they represents a hyperbola (Art. 295). negative, the locus is an imaginary ellipse.
be both
If be zero, then (4) represents two straight lines, which are real or imaginary according as A and B have opposite or the same signs.
325
let it
be
zero,
and
be ^.
in the form
G
(3
are
F\2
F^
"^
2G
2BG
0.
_F ~2G'^2M' ~B y
__c_
J^
By^+2Gx^0, 2G
^.e.
r^^^'
(Art. 197.)
we
also
have
zero, the
By^ + 2Fy +
= 0,
F F^ G '^^B^^\/wr
this represents two parallel straight imaginary.
and
lines,
real
or
350.
Def.
The
centre of a conic section is a point such that all chords of the conic which pass through it are bisected there.
When
the origin
is
in the form
(1),
+ 2hxy +
by'^
+ g0
(1), so
the centre.
that
For
let (x,
we have
(2).
This equation
may be
a ( ^f + 2A ( a;') ( y') +
yj + c = 0,
also lies
on
(1).
326
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
{x\ y) lie on the same and are at equal distances
But the points {x\ y) and straight line through the origin,
from the
origin.
The chord of the conic which passes through the origin and any point {x, y) of the curve is therefore bisected at
the origin.
The
origin
is
351.
form
When
aa?
is
given in the
(1),
the origin
is
zero.
For, if the origin be the centre, then corresponding to each point {x, y) on (1), there must be also a point (a;', y') lying on the curve.
hy'^
hy'^^
+ 2gx
+'ify'\c
(2),
and
ax'^
Ihx'y'
2gx' 2fy'
+ c=^0
(3).
Subtracting
(3)
from
we have gx +fy'  0.
(2),
which
This relation is to be true for all the points {og\ y') But this can only be the case lie on the curve (1).
when g
and
f= 0.
352. To obtain the coordinates of the centre of the conic given hy the general equation, and to obtain the equation to the curve referred to axes through the centre parallel to the original axes.
Transform the origin to the point (S, y)j so that for x The equation to substitute x + x and y + y. becomes then
and y we have
y)
b (y
+ yY + 2g(x + x)
ax^
+ 2hxy + by^ + 2x (ax + hy + g) + 2y (Jix + by +f) + ax^'}2hxy + by'^ + 2gx + 2fy + c=^0 (2).
327
must vanish, so
(3),
that
we have
hx + hy
(4),
and
Solving (3) and
+f =
(4).
we
have, in general,
With
Ify +
(6),
bi/^
ch^
,
by equations
,.
_,
(5),
A
~ab^^^'
where
is
(Art. 118).
The equation
(2)
aaf
+ 2hxy +
7
^ =
0.
This
is
new axes
~xiy + Q = 0,
The
The equation
where
2x^5xySy^ + c' = 0,
c'= . S2.?7 + 6 = ^+f + 6 = 7.
is
(Art. 352.)
thus
2x^5xy3y^ + 7 = 0.
328
353.
article
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Sometimes the equations (3) and do not give suitable values for x and
if
(4) of
y.
the last
For,
ah
1^
be
zero,
both
infinite.
When
ah h^
parabola.
The
centre of a parabola
if
therefore at infinity.
is
Again,
of the
=  =^
viz.,
and
(4)
reduce to the
same
ax + hy + g = 0. We then have only one equation to determine the centre, and there is therefore an infinite number of centres all lying on the straight line ax
{hy {g
O.
In
section consists of a
pair
of
354.
is
from equations
(3)
and
(4)
of Art. 352, that the coordinates of the centre satisfy the equations that are obtained by difierentiating, with regard
to
x and
y,
It will also be observed that the coefficients of x, y, and unity in the equations (3), (4), and (6) of Art. 352 are the quantities (in the order in which they occur) which make up the determinant of Art. 118.
This determinant being easy to write down, the student thence recollect the equations for the centre and the value of c.
may
from the
355.
Ex.
Find
second degree
may
the condition that the general equation of the represent two straight lines.
The
and
centre
{x, y)
(1),
hx + by+f=0
(2).
329
becomes
ax^+2hx7j + hif + c' =
(3),
where
c'
= gx+fy + c.
if c'
Now
i.e. if
the equation
(3)
be zero,
(4).
gx+fy + cQ
therefore represents two straight lines
if
The equation
(1), (2),
the relations
and
12,
(4)
be simultaneously true.
by Art.
a, h,
h,
b,
f =0.
This
is
356.
To find
of the conic
+ 2hxy +
hy'^
(1).
Since the equation to the asymptotes has been shewn to differ from the equation to the curve only in its constant term, the required equation must be
ax^
'2hxy
+ A, =
(2).
Also
ah
(2) is to
be a pair of straight
lines.
116.)
ao
a^
ab A"
^
j^.
+ 2hxy +
hy^
+ 2gx + 2/y + c
7^=
. .
.(2).
Cor. Since the equation to the hyperbola, which is conjugate to a given hyperbola, differs as much from the equation to the common asymptotes as the original equation does, it follows that the equation to the hyperbola, which is conjugate to the hyperbola (1), is
ax^
+ 2hxy +
hy"^
+ 2gx + 2fy + c
y^
= 0.
330
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
357. To determine hy an examination of the general equation what hind of conic section it represents. [On applying the method of Art. 313 to the ellipse and parabola, it would be found that the asymptotes of the ellipse are imaginary, and that a parabola only has one asymptote, which is at an infinite distance and perpendicular to its axis.]
The
straight lines
as(?
+ Ihxy +
hy'^
(1)
are parallel to the lines (2) of the last article, and hence represent straight lines parallel to the asymptotes.
Now
imaginary straight lines according as J^ is >= or <a6, i.e. the asymptotes are real, coincident, or imaginary, according as A^ > = or < ab^ i. e. the conic section is a hyperbola, parabola, or ellipse, according as 1^
>=
or
<
ah.
is
i.e.
the curve
Also,
circle if
by Art. 143, the general equation represents a h, and h = 0. Finally, by Art. 116, the equation represents a pair of
a=
straight lines if A = also these straight lines are parallel ; if the terms of the second degree form a perfect square, i.e.
if
h^
ah.
358.
The
ao(?
+ 2hxy +
hy^
+ 2gx + 2fy +
are collected in the following table, the axes of coordinates being rectangular.
Curve.
Ellipse.
Parabola.
Hyperbola.
Circle.
a=
h,
and A =
h
0.
Rectangular hyperbola.
a +
i.e.
0.
Two
AO,
ahc+2fghaf^hg''ch''^0. A = 0, and h^ ~ ah.
imaginary.
Two
EXAMPLES.
331
If the axes of coordinates be oblique, the lines (1) of Art. 356 are at right angles if a + 6 2/icos a;=0 (Art. 93); so that the conic section is a rectangular hyperbola ii a + b2h cos w 0.
Also,
is
la.
a circle
if
= &= a
and
h= a cos
The conditions for the other cases in the previous same for both oblique and rectangular axes.
EXAMPLES. XL.
What
conies
do
the
following
equations
represent?
"When
and
2. 3.
lSx^18xy + S7y^ + 2x + Uy 2 = 0.
4.
5.
6.
+ 5y + 4:=0.
Sx^8xySy^ + 10xlSy + 8 = 0.
8x^\10xySy^2x + 4:y = 2.
8.
10. 11.
f{x, y) = ax^ + 2hxy + hij'^ + 2gx 4 2fy + c = 0, prove that the equation to the asymptotes is/ (a;, y)=f[x,
If
t
y).
{x,
y)
when
12. 13.
=a
+
and ?/=
*)
14.
If ^
{x,
y)
when
15.
16.
a;
= a tan (^ + a) = acos(^ + a)
and
?/
= &cos (^ + i8).
18.
What
17.
are represented
{xy)^ + (xa)^=0.
332
19.
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY.
x^7f = {ya){x'^ 2/2).
x^ + y^xy{x + y) x^ +
{r
y'^
[Exs. XL.]
20.
22.
24. 26.
+ a^{yx) = Q.
21.
(a;2a2)2_ 2/4=0.
a;2
+ {x + y)
{xyaxay) = 0.
23.
25.
+ a;r/ + 2/2=0.
cos
6a){ra cos 6) = 0.
27.
rsin2^ = 2acos^.
r+=3cos^ + sin0.
r
r (4
28.
3
sin'^
d)
= 8a cos d.
parabola given by the general equa
359.
To
trace the
a^ +
and
to
2hxy +
b'lf'
2^cc
yy + c =
(1),
find
its latus
rectum.
First Method. Since the curve is a parabola we have A^ = ab, so that the terms of the second degree form
a perfect square.
= yS^,
so that
becomes
{ax
+ Py = 0,
i.e.
an angle
= and
,
therefore
=
Va2 + ^2
and
cos 6
/8
sJa^
+ P"'
TRACING OF PARABOLAS.
For X we have to substitute
JT cos
333
Fsin
0,
i. e.
Ja' + ft'
and
for
y the quantity
JTsin^ + Tcos^,
"^+1^
i.e.
(Art. 129.)
Y \J{a? +
y8^).
The equation
T' (a? + yS') +
(2)
then becomes
= 0,
^.e.
<^^)^^'(^f^^j
/i
(^)'
where
=  ~^
Bl
(4)
and
I.e.
H=
The equation
(3)
,
,
rectum
of
is
2
(a'
whose axis
is
parallel to the
new
is
axis
+ JS'f
referred to the
new axes
the
360.
Equation of
the
axis,
and
coordinates
of the
Since the axis of the curve is parallel to the new axis of makes an angle 9 with the old axis of x, and hence the perpendicular on it from the origin makes an angle 90 + ^.
X,
it
is
K.
384
The equation
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
to the axis of the parabola is therefore
i.e.
i.e.
ax^Py = Kj^TW=^"^^
(6).
Again, the vertex is the point in which the axis meets the curve (2). We have therefore to solve (6) and (2), i.e. (6) and
(6)
^ilT^+^^^+^^2/
+ =
'^
(7).
The solution of (6) and (7) therefore gives the required coordinates of the vertex.
be a 361. It was proved in Art. 224 that if diameter of the parabola and Q V the ordinate to it drawn through any point Q of the curve, so that ^ F is parallel to the tangent at P, and if 6 be the angle between the diameter P V and the tangent at P, then
PK
^F2 = 4acosec2^.PF
If QL be perpendicular to to the tangent at P, we have
(1).
P F and
^i:'
.
QL' be perpendicular
QL^QVBm.e, and
so that (1)
is
= PFsin6i,
QL'.
QL^  ia cosec
Hence the square of the perpendicular distance of any point Q on the parabola from any diameter varies as the perpendicular distance of Q from the tangent at the end of the diameter.
Hence, if Ax + By + C be the equation of any diameter and A'x + B'y + be the equation of the tangent at its end, the equation to the parabola is
(2),
some constant.
Conversely, if the equation to a parabola can be reduced to the form (2), then
Ax\By+G^O
(3)
TRACING OF PARABOLAS.
is
335
is
parallel to (3).
362. To trace the parabola given hy the general equation of the second degree
ax^+ ^hxy +
hy"^
(1).
Second Method. Since the curve is a parabola, the terms of the second degree must form a perfect square
and
A^
ah.
~ /3^,
so that
h=
ayS,
and the
c)
(2).
As in the last article the straight line ax + jSy = is a diameter, and the axis of the parabola is therefore parallel to it, and so its equation is of the form
ax +
/3y
+\=
(3).
The equation
{ax
(2)
may
therefore be written
(4).
ax +
/3y
+\=
(5)
and
2x{Xag) + 2y(j3Xf)+X^G =
i.e.
(6)
so that
0,
a{Xag) + pH3X/) =
i.e.
so that
X=
a?
+ ^^
(7). '
^
The lines (5) and (6) are now, by the last article, a diameter and a tangent at its extremity also, since they are at right angles, they must be the axis and the tangent at the vertex.
;
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
(4)
may now, by
(7),
be written
z e.
where PiV is the perpendicular from any point F of the curve on the axis, and A is the vertex. Hence the axis and tangent at the vertex are the lines (5) and (6), where X. has the value (7), and the latus rectum
=
363.
Ex.
2
(a?
+ 13^) f

 'iixy + 16r/2 
18a;
101?/
+ 19 = 0.
(1).
The equation
is
(3a;42/)218a;101^ + 19 =
First Method. Take ^x^y = as the new axis of x, i.e. turn the axes through an angle ^, where tan^ = , and therefore sin^ = 
and cos^=.
i.e.
=
;
for
3X + 4Y =
and hence
for
^xAy
the
The equation
(1)
therefore becomes
2572_i[72Z54Y]i[303Z+404r + 19 = 0,
i.e.
25r275Z70r+19=0
This
is
(2)
(2).
OX and
OY.
But
r2_i_=3Z^,
147
i.e.
(7^)2=3Zi + f=3(Z+f).
TRACING OF PARABOLAS.
337
Take a point A whose coordinates referred to OX and OY are  and I, and draw AL and AM parallel to OX and OY respectively.
lA
Referred to
It is therefore
the equation to the parabola is Y^=SX. AL and a parabola, whose vertex is A, whose latua rectum is 3,
AM
and whose
axis is
AL.
Second Metliod.
(3a;4?/
The equation
(1)
can be written
(3).
and
(6X + 18)a; + y
19 =
may
be at right angles.
is
Hence X
given by
8X)
3 (6X + 18)  4 (101 and therefore X = 7. The equation (3) then becomes
(8a;
(Art. 69),
4:y + If = 15
{4.x
+ 3i/ + 2),
<^)
Let
AL
(^^r^^^
be the straight line
3a;4^ + 7 =
(5),
and blithe straight line 4a; + 3z/ + 2 = (6). right angles. These are at If P be any point on the parabola and FN be perpendicular to AL, the equation (4) gives PN^=S AN. Hence, as in the first method, we have the parabola. The vertex is found by solving (5) and (6) and is therefore the point (If, ft).
.
L.
22
338
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
In drawing curves it is often advisable, as a verification, to find whether they cut the original axes of coordinates. Thus the points in which the given parabola cuts the axis of x The resulting in the original equation. are found by putting 2/ = equation is Occ^ 18a; + 19 = 0, which has imaginary roots.
in points given by 16?/2 101i/ + 19 = 0, the roots of which are nearly %\ and y\. The values of OQ and OQ' should therefore be nearly ^^ and 6^.
364. To find the direction and magnitude of the axes of the central conic section
aQ(?
+ 2Axy +
hy"^
=1
when
(1).
the equation to a central conic section has no term containing xy and the axes are rectangular, the axes of coordinates are the axes of the curve.
First
Method.
We know that,
Now in Art. 349 we shewed that, to get rid of the term involving xy^ we must turn the axes through an angle 6 given by
tan2^^
a
(2). '
^
The axes
of coordinates at
Now
(2)
(2).
ltan^^"^^6X^'^^^'
tan2^ + 2A.tan(9l
=0
(3).
This, being a quadratic equation, gives two values for ^, which differ by a right angle, since the product of the two
values of tan ^ is 1. Let these values be 6^ and 6^, which are therefore the inclinations of the required axes of the curve to the axis of x.
Again, in polar coordinates, equation (1) may be written r"" (a cos2 e + 2h cos (9 sin ^ + 6 sin' $)=! = cos^ 6 + sin' (9,
i.e.
^''
=
a
cos^
cos2(9 4sin2^
sin^
1+tan'^
a + 2h tan 6 +
(4)..
+ 2h cos
sin $
+b
b tan^ 6
839
we
from
(3)
we
obtain
semiaxis.
The
directions
and magnitudes
both found.
Second Method.
conic are, as in the
first
The
method, given by
tan
2^=.^.
a
When
axes of coordinates,
 + ^1
change of axes without a change of
1 1
rm
Since the equation (1) has become equation (5) by a origin, we have, by Art. 135,
2
+ ^2 = ^ +
(6),
and
l^^ahh'
arp'
(7).
and
These two equations easily determine the semiaxes a [For if from the square of (6) we subtract four /5.
we have
1
(^
02)
and hence ^
^^'j
hence by
(6)
we
get ^
and
In
.
The
difficulty of this
method
lies
we
cannot always easily determine to which direction for an axis the value a belongs and to which the value yS.
If the original axes be inchned at tions (6) and (7) are, by Art. 137,
1 1
an angle
w,
the equa
a+
\
2h cos w
and
ah //

~7yi=
'
222
340
Cor.
axes are,
1.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
The reciprocals of the squares of the semiby (3) and (4), the roots of the equation
2^
{ci
h)
Z + ah h^ = 0.
we have
\lah
Cor. 2.
From
Area
of
equation (4)
an
ellipse
= 7ra/5 =
h^
365.
Ex.
1.
(1).
Since
 2)^  14 11
.
[Art. 358.]
By
the curve
is
The equation
therefore
l^x^  ^xy +
c'
lly'^
+ c' = 0,
60,
where
so that the equation
is
(2).
The
by
2h
4
*"^2^=^36=i43ri=so that
2tan^ ltan2^
2 tan^ ^  3 tan
^'
and hence
 2 = 0.
(2) is
 4 cos ^ sin ^ + 11
r''^
sin^ d)
= 60
+ tan2^
144tan6' + lltan2
When
When
tan
^1
= 2,
'i'
= 60x ^^^^=6.
j^j:j:^_
tan
6^=^
r^^=GO x
=4.
341
Through it draw A'CA inan angle tan~i 2 to the and mark off A'C = GA=>J6.
Draw BCB'
to
at right angles
ACA'
It
does not meet the original axis of x, and that it meets the axis of y at distances from the origin equal to about 2 and 3 J respectively.
fication, that the curve
Ex.
2.
+ if + 10x10y + 21 =
.(1).
Since
(^7
The
3_
and
so that
x + y 5 = 0,
^=2, and
^ = 2.
to the curve, referred to parallel axes
a;2
The equation
centre, is then
through the
3a;i/
i.e.
(2).
The
by
tan 20 =
so that
2h
ab
3 11
:0O,
20=90
0^= 45
(2)
or 270,
and hence
and 02=135.
is
The equation
r2 (cos2
in polar coordinates
sin
03 cos
+ sin^ 0) =
l
(sin^
+ cos^ 0),
I.e.
342
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
^1
When
= 45,
>
r^^^ 
^^ =2,
2
1
so that i\ = sl'^
2
,
+ 3 + 1"
so that
To construct the curve take the point G whose coordinates are and 2. Through G draw a straight line AGA' inclined at 45 to axis of X and mark off A'C=GA = J2. Also through A draw a straight line KAK' perpendicular to and take AK=^K'A = ^^. By Art. 315, GK and GK' are then
asymptotes.
^v
2
5
2 the
GA
the
The curve
transverse axis
is is
therefore a hyperbola whose centre is G, whose ^'^, and whose asymptotes are GK and GK'.
On
putting a;=0
it
will
he found that the curve meets the axis of ?/ = 0, that it meets the axis of x
Hence
0*3=3,
0(9'
= 7,
366.
First,
Tojind
2hxy \hy'^=
(1). is
let
7i^
ah
343
to
and
let
ellipse, referred
its axes,
be
By
we have
(2),
^^+^
=^+
and
Also,
if e
a^^"''^"'^''
(^)'
be the eccentricity,
^
we
have,
if
a be > ^,
=
a.
2<2'
" 26"
But, from (2) and
(3),
a'
ZS^
we have
Hence
ab
e"
h^
^^^'
_
'
2e^ Secondly^
let hlet
s/(abf + a+b
e^.
4:h^
^ _ ^^ =
so that in this case
2Hence
so that
a^
o2
a^
B^ = T^
'
/r
r ab
snd a^B^
= r^
hr
j ab
+ /3^ = +
x/(a^
 ^J + 4a^/3^ ^ +
^^'^
h?]l
'
344
In
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
this case, if e
'"^
j:^^~a''^'~~
e^.
a+
^^'
e is
N2
^abY + 4:h^
(a
\2e')
i.e.
+ hf
ih'}
'
of the equation
e^
{ab
 h')
+ {{abY +
(e^
 1 )  0.
367.
To
+ Ihxy + by^
1.
Let the direction of the axes of the conic be obtained as in Art. 364, and let 6^ be the inclination of the major axis in the case of the ellipse, and the transverse axis in the case
of the hyperbola, to the axis of x.
of the radius corresponding to ^i, of the radius corresponding to the [In the case of the hyperbola r^ perpendicular direction.
The distance of the focus from the centre is ^jr^ r^ One focus will therefore be the point (Arts. 247 and 295).
(vri^
will
be
6^
,
( sjr^ ri cos
"Ex..
Here
Also
the foci of the ellipse traced in Art. 365. 1 2 tan 6^ 2, so that sin 6^=j^ and cos ^j ^
Find
ri2
= 6,
and
722=4, so that
sjrf^=^2.
through
The coordinates
are therefore
FOCI OF A CONIC.
Their coordinates referred to the original axes
345
OX and OY are
2V2\
2 V2
x/5'
368. The method of obtaining the coordinates of the focus of a parabola given by the general equation may be exemplified by taking the example of Art. 363.
Here
so that, It
it
latus rectum
is
equal to
3,
if
aS'
^aS' is J.
was also shewn that the coordinates of A referred to OX and Y are ^ and ^. The coordinates of S referred to the same axes are + f and I, ^.e. 2V and I
Its coordinates referred to the original axes are therefore
_7_ W
20 COS
7
Z
sin 6
2 J)
i.e.
and Jpr sin + ~ cos 5 7 3 and 20*5 + I. 1 5*5' ii ^* a nd 1^3 100' 2 5
7_
^,
any conic
369.
In Art. 393 equations will be found to give the foci of section directly, so that the conic need not first
Ex.
be traced.
1.
Now the straight lines 3a; 2?/ 4 right angles. Let them be C3I and GN, intersecting in C which is the
point (t\, H)If P be any point on the curve and and the perpendiculars upon these lines, the lengths of P3I
(^^^TK'^^TSy5 = + = and +
2x
<^'
are at
PM
PN
4:
and
PN are
3x2y +
^w
I.e.
^^^
2x + 3y5
^wPM^
PN^
346
The
along
locus of
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
is
therefore
an
ellipse
Ex.
What
is
{x'^a^f + iy^a^)^=a*?
i.e.
i.e.
i.e.
+ y^f2a^{x^ + y^)+a*=2xY, {x^ + y^a^)^{^2xyf=0, {x^ + y/^^y +y^ ^) (^^  fj^^y +y^ ^^) = O{x^
The
These
and
would be found to be
The major axis of the first is inclined at an angle axis of X, and that of the second at an angle of 45.
of 135 to the
EXAMPLES.
Trace the parabolas
1.
XLI.
{x4:ij)^=51y.
2.
{xy)^=x + y + l.
3. 4.
5.
6. 7. 8. 9.
+ 24a;2/ + 92/25a;10?/ + l = O. 9x^+24^y + 16y^4:yx + 7 = 0. 144a;2  120xy + 25y^ + 619a;  272^ + 663 = 0, and 16a;224a;2/ + 9?/2 + 32a; + 86?/39 = 0. 4a;24a;2/ + 2/212a; + 62/ + 9 = 0.
16a;2
+ 7?/2=48.
11.
3a;2+2a;?/
+ 32/2=8.
x'^xy~6y^=Q.
a;22a;2/cos2a + ^2 2a2.
a;22a;2/cosec2af2/^ = a2.
14.
16.
15.
17.
xy = a{x + y).
2/^2a;?/
xyy^ = a^.
18.
x'^
2a;2
2a;22/
= 0.
+ xy + y^ + x+y = l.
LEXS. XLI.]
19.
2x^ + Zxii2y'^lx
40a;2
20.
21.
22. 23.
24.
25.
26. 27.
x^%xy + y^ + 10xl(iy + 21=^0. x'^xy + 2^2 _ 2ax  Qay + 7a^ 0. 10a;2  ASxy  lOif + dSx + Uy  5^ = 0. 4:x^ + 27xy + S5y^~14MBly&:=0. {3x4y + a){4:X + Sy + a) = a\
3
3^ + 4)2 + 2 (3a; + 2?/ 5)2 = 78. 2 (3a; 4^/ + 5)2 3 (4a; + 3?/ 10)2 = 150.
(2a;
(4a;3t/
+ 9)2=3.
Find the
31.
and the
a;23a;i/
+ 4aa; = 2a2. 32. 5a;2 + 6a;?/ + 5?/ + 12a; + 4?/ + 6 = 0. a;2 + 4a;?/ + ?/22a; + 2/y6 = 0.
Shew
(a2
 3a;2 
2a?/
= 0.
+ 62)
(^^2
is
2abhs/a^~+^.
36.
+ 2hxy + ay^ = d
and
are
respectively,
\/ r
and that
37.
are
where
is
the discriminant.
38. If X be a variable parameter, prove that the locus of the a^ is vertices of the hyperbolas given by the equation x^y'^ + \xy
oot(*l^i^A.
Prove also that if two parabolas meet in four points the distances of the centroid of the four points from the axes are proportional to the
latera recta.
348
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[ExS. XLI.]
40. If the product of the axes of the conic x^ + 2xy + ny'^=8 be unity, shew that the axes of coordinates are inclined at an angle sini 1.
41. Sketch the curve Qx^7xy5y^~4:X inclined at an angle of 30.
+ lly = 2,
42. Prove that the eccentricity of the conic given by the general equation satisfies the relation
e^
h e^
4="
(a
(a6
where w
43.
origin,
is
The axes being changed in any way, without any change of prove that in the general equation of the second degree the
c,
quantities
P + 9^  2fg cos ^^
''
0}
,
sm^w
^
and
.^sin^w
are
[On making the most general substitutions of Art. 132 it is clear that c is unaltered; proceed as in Art, 137, but introduce the condition that the resulting expressions are equal to the product of two linear quantities (Art. 116); the results will then follow.]
CHAPTER XVL
THE GENERAL CONIC.
370.
In the present chapter we shall consider properwhich are given by the general equation
aoi?
'2Jnxy
hy^
+ Igx + ^fy + c =
(1).
^ (tc,
3/),
^ (a;,
Similarly,
<^(aj',
y)
= 0.
side of (1)
when x and y
The equation
371.
On
dividing by
,
independent constants c
and c
these five constants, we shall therefore require five conditions. Conversely, if five independent conditions be given, the constants can be determined. Only one conic, or, at any rate, only a finite number of conies, can be drawn to satisfy five independent conditions.
To determine
372.
cf>
To find
{x,
any foint
.
Let
{x",
= ax^ +
2hxy +
hy"^
.(1).
350
The equation y) is
"
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
to the straight line joining this point to
(x\
2/2/'
= ^(^^')
(2).
Since both
and
and (a?", 2/") lie on (1), we have aaj'2 + "Ihxy' + hy'^ + 2^cc' + 2/2/' + c (3), ac"2 + 2^a;'y + hy'"" + 2^c" + Ify" + c = (4).
(ic',
3/')
'
5 {y""
 3/"^;
(5).
+ 2^(x'a.") + But
2 (o^y
2/(2/'2/'')
 x"y") = {x' +
[a {x'
x") {y'
 y")
{x'
 x")
{y'
+ y"\
{^  x")
* ^'
+ x") + h(y'+ y") + 2^] + ky'  y") [h {^' + x") + h{y' + y") + 2/] = y"y' ^ a{x' + x") + h(y' + y") + 2g k {x' + x") + b{y' + y") + 2/ x" x' The equation to any secant is therefore y
0,
y~
h{x'
a:;...^
To obtain the equation to the tangent at {x', y'), x" = x' and y" = y' in this equation, and it becomes
+ 1^, yy = 77 +hy ^ ^ hx
,
we put
ax
hy'
+ > +f^
<7
(^
 ^\ '
,,
i. e.
{ax
therefore
(x
Cor. 1. The equation (7) may be written down, from the general equation of the second degree, by substituting
XX
foi a^,
yy' for
3/^,
xy'
xy
for 2xy,
for
2a?,
and
yvy iovly.
351
Cor. 2. If the conic pass through the origin we have = 0, and then the tangent at the origin (where x =0 and gx +fy = 0, y = 0) is
c
i. e.
the equation to the tangent at the origin is obtained by equating to zero the terms of the lowest degree in the equation to the conic.
373. The equation of the previous article may also be obtained as follows If {x', y') and {x", y") be two points on the conic section, the equation to the line joining them is
;
a{xxf){xx") + hl{xx'){yy") + {xx"){ijy')] + h{yy'){yy") = ax^ + 2hxy + by^ + 2gx + 2fy + c (1).
For the terms of the second degree on the two sides of (1) cancel, and the equation reduces to one of the first degree, thus representing
a straight
putting
line.
{x', y') lies
Also, since
is satisfied
by
Hence
So
a point lying on
on
(1).
them.
Putting x" x' and y" =y' we have, as the equation to the tangent
at
{x', y'),
[y
 if) + &
{y
 y'f
= ax^ + ^hxy +
2axx' + 2}i {x'y
on the
conic.
374.
To find
any straight
line
(1),
+n=
may
(2).
Substituting for y in (2) from (1), we have for the equation giving the abscissae of the points of intersection of (1) and (2),
x^ {am?
If (1)
 2hlm + hP)  2x (hmn  bin  gm^ +flm) + bn^2fmn + cm^=0 be a tangent, the values of x given by (3) must be
{bn^
(3).
equal.
The condition for this is, (Art. 1,) {hmn  bin  gm^+fhrif={am?  2hlm + bl^)
 2fmn + cm^).
352
On
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
simplifying, we have, after division by iii^, p {jic p) + m2 {ca  p2) + n^ [ah  li') + 2mn [gh  af) + 2wZ
{lif
 hg)
+ 2lm{fgch) = 0.
Ex.
Find
the equations to the tangents to the conic
x^
(1),
Tlie equation to
+ 4^ + c =
(2),
where c is to be determined. This straight line meets (1) in points given by 3x2 _ 2x (5c + 28) + 3c2 + 24c + 48 = 0.
The
if
{2(5c
roots of this equation are equal, i.e. the line (2) is a tangent, or 8. + 28)}2 = 4. 3.(3c2 + 24c+48), i.e. if
c=5
are therefore
+ 4?/5 = 0, and
x + iij
Q 0.
it
(cc,
375.
{ax'
As
may be proved
y)
that
=
is
is
+ hy
{
g)
X + {hx +
by'
+/) y + gx +/y' +
0.
therefore the
Just as in Art. 217 it may now be shewn that, if the polar of F passes through T, the polar of T passes through P. The chord of the conic which is bisected at {x\ y), being parallel to the polar of (x, y) [Arts. 221 and 280], has as equation
{ax
+ hy +g){x x) +
To find
{hx'
+ by +/){y
y = mx.
y) = 0.
376.
Any
such chord
ax^
is
y = 7nx>rK
by"^
(1).
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = in points whose abscissae are given by ax^ + ^hx {mx + K) + b {mx + Kf + 2gx + 2f{mx + K)+ g=^0, i. e. by x^ {a + 2hm + bm^) + 2x {hK + bmK + ^ + fm) + blO + 2fK\c = 0. + 2hxy +
THE GENERAL
If
fl?i
CONIC.
and
x^
have
X^ ^x ^
X1
+ X2
2
lies
(h
'
^'
on
we have
(3).
Y^mX+K
If
relation
we have a
This relation
is
(a
i. e.
The
is
therefore the
== 0.
to
we
have
m
i.e.
a+
Am
w,
(5).
h + bm
a + h (m + m')
This
+ bmm' =
is therefore the condition that the two straight y tnx and y m!x may be parallel to conjugate diameters of the conic given by the general equation.
lines
377.
equation
is
To find
whose
(1),
2Hxy+By^=0
.'.
may
(2).
(1)
hey = mx
(1) is
B
and hence
L.
 mx)
[y
 m'x) = 0,
m\m'=
, and mm
=^
23
'
354
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
By the condition of the last article it therefore follows that the lines (1) are parallel to conjugate diameters if
i.e. if
Ah2Hh + Ba = 0.
To prove that tioo concentric conic sections always have a and only one pair, of common conjugate diameters and to find
378.
pair,
their equation.
+ hy'^=l
(1), (2).
and
a'x^^2h'xy
straight lines
+ l)Y = l
The
(3),
and
(2) if
and
A
ha'
h'a
we
x^ha'h'a)xy{ab'a'b)4y^{bh'b'h) =
are always conjugate diameters of both
(1)
and
(2).
always a pair of conjugate diameters, real, coincident, or imaginary, which are common to any two concentric conic
there
is
Hence
sections.
EXAMPLES.
1.
XLII.
we
How many other conditions can a conic section satisfy when are given (1) its centre, (2) its focus, (3) its eccentricity, (4) its axes, (5) a tangent, (6) a tangent and its point of contact, (7) the position of one of its asymptotes?
touch the parabola {axbijf2 {a^ + &) (ax + by) + {a^ + b'^f = 0, and shew that if this straight line meet the axes in P and Q, then PQ will, when it is a tangent, subtend a right angle at the point {a, b).
3.
2.
straight line
lx
+ niy = l may
Two
parabolas have a
common
[EXS. XLII.]
355
4.
Shew
cos a
i:,
6^,
a.
a conic meets two fixed tangents in two 5. the locus of the middle point of PQ is a points, ; conic which becomes a straight line when the given conic is a parabola.
Prove that the chord of contact of tangents, drawn from an 6. external point to the conic ax^ + 2hxy + hy'^=l, subtends a right angle at the centre if the point lie on the conic
a;2
(a2
+ 7i2) + 2h {a + h) xy+y'^
{h'^
+ h^) = a + b.
Given the focus and directrix of a conic, prove that the polar 7. of a given point with respect to it passes through another fixed point.
Prove that the locus of the centres of conies which touch the 8. axes at distances a and b from the origin is the straight line ay = bx.
9.
ax'^
+ 2hocy + by^=l
Prove that the locus of the poles of tangents to the conic with respect to the conic a'x"^ + 2h'xy + b'y^ = l is
27i [a'x
+ h'y)
{h'x
10. Find the equations to the straight lines which are conjugate to the coordinate axes with respect to the conic Ax^{2Hxy + By^ = l.
coincide,
and
interpret the
11. Find the equation to the common conjugate diameters of the conies (1) a;2 + 4a;y + 6!/2=l and 2x'^ + &xy + ^y^ l,
and
12.
(2)
2x'^
+ ^xy ^y^=l.
+ by^=l and
a'x^ + 2h'xy\b'y'^
=l
first conic, if
ab'{a'b2hh' = 2{ahU'^).
Prove that the equation to the equiconjugate diameters of 2(x^ y'^) ^. ax^ + 2hxy + by^ ^, , = ^ + the conic ax^ + 2kxy + by"^ = 1 is rf^ rr^ ^ ^ ablva+b
13.
379.
Two
conies,
real or imaginary.
For the general equation to two conies can be written in the form aay^ + 2x Qiy + g) + hy^ + 2fy + c = 0,
and
a'x^
0.
232
356
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Eliminating x from these equations, we find that the result is an equation of the fourth degree in y, giving Also, by therefore four values, real or imaginary, for y. eliminating x^ from these two equations, we see that there There are thereis only one value of x for each value of y. fore only four points of intersection.
380.
section
Equation
to
the inter
Let
=
c'
(1),
and
ax" + 2h'xy +
h'y^
+ 2g'x + If'y +
(2)
Then
is
^_X.S" =
(3)
sections of (1)
and
of the second degree in x the equation (3) is of the second degree, and hence represents a conic section.
when both ^S' and S' are zero, points (real or imaginary) which are it is satisfied by the common to (1) and (2).
Also, since (3)
is satisfied
Hence
(3) is a conic
intersec
tions of (1)
and
(2).
381. To find the equations to the straight lines passing through the intersections of two conies given hy the general
equations.
As
{a
 \a)
2 (A
 Xh') xy
+
(h
 \h') ^ +
2 (^
 Xg') x
=
(1),
2(f\r)y +
{cXc')
{a
if
Xc')
+ 2 (f  Xf)
357
Now
(2)
is
found from
it
will,
give the three pairs of straight lines which can be drawn through the (real or imaginary) intersections of the two
conies.
Also, since a cubic equation always has one real root, one value of A. is real, and it could be shown that there can always be drawn one pair of real straight lines through the
intersections of
two
conies.
382. All conies tvhich pass through the intersections of two rectangular hyperbolas are themselves rectangular hyperbolas.
In
hyperbolas,
S = and S' be the two rectangular we have + 6 = 0, and a +b' = 0. (Art. 358.) Hence, in the conic S X;S" 0, the sum of the cothis case, \i
efficients of x^
=:(a
S ~ XS' ^ 0,
rectangular hyperbola.
Cor. If two rectangular hyperbolas intersect in four points A, B, G, and D, the two straight lines AD and BC, which are a conic through the intersection of the two hyperbolas, must be a rectangular hyperbola. Hence AD and BC must be at right angles. Similarly, BD and GA, and GD and AB, must be at right angles. Hence is the orthocentre of the triangle ABG.
Therefore,
if
each point
three.
is
two rectangular hyperbolas intersect in four points, the orthocentre of the triangle formed by the other
383.
to
7/*
Z = 0,
i/==
0,
^= 0, and 11 =
be the equations
four sides of a quadrilateral taken in order, the equation to any conic passing through its angular points is
the
LN=X.MR
For L = passes through one pair of and N=0 passes through the other pair.
its
(1).
angular points
Hence
LN =
is
the equation to a conic (viz. a pair of straight lines) passing through the four angular points.
358
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
MR
another conic
N=0
i!I=0 and
E = 0.
conic circumscribe a quadrilateral^ the ratio of the p7'oduct of the perpendiculars from any point of the conic upon two opposite sides of the quadrilateral to the product of the perpendiculars upon the other tioo sides is the same for all positions of P. from
Hence If a
384.
Let
Let
*S'
given conic.
u0
tions to the
where
and
u = ax + hy V = ax + Vy
c' ^^
meet the conic = in the meet it in the points Q and T. P The equation to any conic which passes through the points P, Q^ R, and T will be of the form
/S'
S^X.u.v
(1).
For (1) is satisfied by the coordinates of any point which lies both on S and on uO] for its coordinates on being substituted in (1) make both its members zero. But the points P and R are the only points which lie both on S and on u = 0.
therefore
= 0,
i. e.
^S'
and
359
Thus (1) represents some conic going through the four points P, Q, B, and T.
any conic going through these four For the quantity A. may be so chosen that it shall go through any fifth point, or to make it satisfy any fifth
Also
(1) represents
points.
(1, 1)
Find the equation to the conic which passes through and also through the intersections of the conic
the point
2xy  5 =
Find
also
The equation to the required conic must by the last article be of the form
x^ + 2xy + 5y^7x8y + Q = X {2x y This passes through the point (1, 1) if
l
5) {Sx
+ y 11)
...
{1).
+ 2 + 578 + 6=X{2l5)
(3
+ 111),
i.e. i{
\=^\.
The required equation then becomes 28{x^+2xy + 5y^7x8y + 6) + {2xy5) {3x + y 11) = 0, i.e. 34x2 + 55xy + l'62if  233a;  218y + 223 = 0. The equation to the required parabola will also be of the form
i.e.
(1),
is
(5
+ X),
we have
385.
I.
S = Xuv.
Let
^t
i.e.
in
The
conic
figure.
II.
Let
^6
and v =
coincide, so that v
= u.
360
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
In this case the point T also moves up to coincidence with R and the second conic ^^''" touches the original conic at both \
~^
the points
conic
P and
B,.
The equation
to
the second
When a conic touches a second conic at each of two points, the two conies are said to have double contact with one another.
The two conies S = \v? and /S' = therefore have double contact with one another, the straight line 16 = passing through the two points of contact.
we see that if ?// 0, v  0, and the equations to three straight lines then the equation vw = \v? represents a conic touching the conic
^f;
As a = be
=
particular case
'DW
it
.u
is
contact.
III.
In this case the two points P and P coincide, and the conic S=Xuv touches S=0 where u=0 touches it, and v = is the equation to the straight line joining the other points of intersection of
tl=rO
the point of contact of u = ; also the straight line joining to the other point of intersection of the two conies is v = 0.
IV. Finally, let v = coincide and be and u = tangents at P. The equation S = Xu^ now represents a conic section passing through four coincident points at the point where u0 touches S = 0.
LINE AT INFINITY.
861
386.
Line at
infinity.
().x
is
+ 0.y + G =
altogether at an infinite distance. This straight line is The Line at Infinity. Its equation may for brevity be written in the form C = 0.
called
We
infinity.
lines
Ax + By + C =0
and
(1),
(2).
Ax + By+G' =
Now
(2)
may be
Ax + By + C + ^
~^ (0
a;
3/
(7)
0,
and hence, by Art. 97, we see that it passes through the intersection of (1) and the straight line
0.x + 0.y + C =
Hence
(1), (2),
0.
and the
line at infinity
meet in a
point.
387.
S=Xu
where X
line.
is
(1),
constant^ ayid
u=
is the
equation of a straight
The equation
(1)
/S'
= Xz*
2/
1),
S^
+
u=
Hence
Since
^ and 0.c
0.2/
0.
(1) passes
and
S = \u
362
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
two conies have
Particular Case.
Let
S = x^ + y^ a^,
so that
circle.
+ y^ 2gx
2ft/
= 0,
a^
i.e.
x^
+ y^ a^=2gx+2f'i/
is
c,
of the
form
*S'
= Xil
upon
It therefore follows that any two circles must be looked as intersecting the line at infinity in the same two These imaginary points are called the (imaginary) points.
is
S^\{0.x + 0.y+lY,
and therefore, by Art. 385, has double contact with S = where the straight line .x + Q .y +1 =0 meets it, i.e. the tangents to the two conies at the points where they meet
the line at infinity are the same.
The
(real or
conies
S=0
imaginary) asymptotes.
Particular Case.
S =^0
denote a
circle.
Then
(being an equation which differs from S 0 only in its constant term) represents a concentric circle.
SX
Two concentric circles must therefore be looked upon as touching one another at the imaginary points where they meet the Line at Infinity.
Two concentric circles thus have double contact at the Circular Points at Infinity.
EXAMPLES.
363
EXAMPLES.
1.
XLIII.
the geometrical meaning of the equations S \. T, is the ;S = is the equation of a conic, T = equation of a tangent to it, and w = is the equation of any straight
What
is
If the major axes of two conies be parallel, prove that the 2. four points in which they meet are concyclic.
Prove that in general two parabolas can be drawn to pass 3. through the intersections of the conies ax^ + ^hxy + ly^^^gx+^fy+c^Q
a'x
 V) = h' (ab).
focal chords of an ellipse a described if this conic pass through the centre of the ellipse, prove that it will cut the major axis in another fixed point.
conic
is
a normal chord of an ellipse a passes through the centre of the ellipse. Prove that the locus of the intersection of these common chords is an elHpse similar to the given ellipse. If the
common chord

1),
If two rectangular hyperbolas intersect in four points A, B, G, 6. and D, prove that the circles described on AB and CD as diameters
A circle is drawn through the centre of the rectangular 7. hyperbola xy = c^ to touch the curve and meet it again in two points ; prove that the locus of the feet of the perpendicular let fall from the centre upon the common chord is the hyperbola 4^xy = c'^.
If a circle touch an ellipse and pass through its centre, prove 8. that the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the centre of the ellipse upon the common tangent and the common chord is constant for all points of contact.
From a point T whose coordinates are {x', y') a pair of 9. tangents TP and TQ are drawn to the parabola y'^ = 4:ax; prove that the liae joining the other pair of points in which the circumcircle of the triangle TPQ meets the parabola is the polar of the point (2a a;', y'), and hence that, if the circle touch the parabola, the line FQ touches an equal parabola.
10.
circle,
+ ^ = 1
at the
x^ + i/2ae^x
= a^{le^e^).
SQ"^
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[EXS. XLIII.]
Two circles have double contact "with a conic, their chords of 11. contact being parallel. Prove that the radical axis of the two circles is midway between the two chords of contact.
12. If a circle and an ellipse have double contact with one another, prove that the length of the tangent drawn from any point of the ellipse to the circle varies as the distance of that point from the chord of contact.
Two conies, A and B, have double contact with a third conic Prove that two of the common chords of A and B, and their chords of contact with G, meet in a point.
13.
C.
14. Prove that the general equation to the ellipse, having double contact with the circle x^ + y^=a^ and touching the axis of x at the
origin, is
c^x^
rectangular hyperbola has double contact with a fixed 15. central conic. If the chord of contact always passes through a fixed point, prove that the locus of the centre of the hyperbola is a circle passing through the centre of the fixed conic.
16. A rectangular hyperbola has double contact with a parabola prove that the centre of the hyperbola and the pole of the chord of contact are equidistant from the directrix of the parabola.
389. To find the equation of the jyair of tangents that can he drawn from any 'point {x, y') to the general conic
<l>
(x,
y)
ao(f
+ 2hxy +
hy"^
Let be the given point (x, points where the tangents from touch the conic.
The equation
fore
^^
to
0,
PR
is
there
where
u=
S=\u\
^. e.
(Art. 385),
'^gx
ao(?
+ ^hxy + hy^ +
f
X \{chx + hy + ^) cc
c]^
(!)
Now
TP
and
TR
is
a conic
DIRECTOR CIRCLE.
section
365
which touches the given conic at which also goes through the point T.
Also
and
and
points, viz. T^
it
only draw one conic to go through five two points at P, and two points at R. If then we find X so that (1) goes through the point T^ must represent the two tangents TP and TR. The equation (1) is satisfied by od and y' if ax"^ + Ihxy' + hy"^ + ^gx + ^fy + c  X \ax'' + IJixy + hij"' + 2^a^' + 2fy + c]^,
^'=irr'>
we can
i.e. if
^\
The required equation (1) then becomes ^ (x, y) [ax^ + 2hxy + by^ + 2gx + 2fy f c] = [(ax + hy' +g)x+ {hx +hy' \f)y + gx +fy' +
i.e.
cf,
^
tt
(x, y) X
(x',
y) = u2,
where
is
390. Director circle of a conic given hy the general equation of the second degree. The equation to the two tangents from {x y) to the conic are, by the last article,
^
+ gY] + 2xy [hcj) (x, y') (ax' + hy + g) (hx + by' +/)] + 2/' [b4> (x, y)  (hx + by' +fY\ + other terms =
^f?
\a^
[x', y')
(ax + hy'
0...(1).
be a point on the director circle of the conic, the two tangents from it to the conic are at right angles.
If
(x', y')
Now
the
sum
(a
(1) represents two straight lines at right angles if of the coefficients of x^ and y^ in it be zero,
i.e. if
i.e.
+ gf  (hx' + by' +ff = Hence the locus of the point (x', y) is (a + b) (ax^ + 2hxy + by^ + 2gx + 2fy + c) (ax + hy + gf (hx + by +fY the circle whose equation is (x' + f) (ab  A^) + 2x (bg fh) + 2y (af gh)
+
b)<t> (x',y')
(ax + hy'
0.
0,
366
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Cor. If the given conic be a parabola, then ah = h^, and the locus becomes a straight line, viz. the directrix of
the parabola.
(Art. 211.)
391. The equation to the director circle may also be obtained in another manner. For it is a circle, whose centre is at the centre of the conic, and the square of whose radius is equal to the sum of the squares of the semiaxes of the conic.
The
centre
is,
ax^ + 2hxy
+ hy^ + c' = 0,
(Art. 364,)
and
if
a and
/3
be
its
semiaxes,
we have,
A ^"^^
1
l^il^ i + ^^ _c"
so that, by division, o?^p^ =
_ ahli'^ ^2^^2'
.1.1
^o
{a + 
h) g'
^2
The equation
{"w^^'^iy
{a + h) (abc
{ab
ghafY_
ah ~ h^J
hPf
{a
+ b)c'
(Art. 352).
ab  h^
Take the focus of the conic as origin, and let the axis X be perpendicular to its directrix, so that the equation
the latter
therefore
i.e.
may be
0. is
The equation
+ 2/22e'^xe2P^0. The equation to the pair of tangents drawn from the origin is therefore, by Art. 389,
jK2(le2)
[x^ (1
i.e.
 e^) + _ 2e%x  e^P] [= [ e^kx  e'^JcJ, 2e^kx e^k^  e^[x + k]^, a^ (1 e^) +
2^2
e'k''']
2/^
i.e.
x'
Here the
coefficient of
coefficients
+ y^ = of x^ and
(1).
y"^
xy
is
zero.
367
it follows,
However the axes and origin of coordinates be changed, on making the substitutions of Art. 129, that in
o(?
and
y"^
will still
Hence, whatever be the conic and however its equation written, the equation to the tangents from the focus always satisfies the analytical conditions for being a circle.
may be
393. To find the foci of the conic given hy the general equation of the second degree
ax^
+ ^hxy +
hy'^
"Igx
+ ^fy +
0.
Let
(aj',
2/')
be a focus.
By
drawn
The equation
is
^ (^', y) [^ + ^hxy + hy'^ + Igx + Ify + c] = \x {ax' + hy' + g) + y (hx' + by' +/) +
(gx'
+fy +
c)]^.
In this equation the coefficients of xF and y^ must be equal and the coefficient of xy must be zero.
We therefore have
acf>
(x\ y')
(ax + hy'
and
i.e.
7i0
(a?',
+y* )^,
{ax'
+ hy' + gf  {hx +
a
+ff _
=
{ax'
<!>,&;)
wfoci.
Cor.
foci,
we
394. The equations (4) of the previous article give, in general, four values for x' and four corresponding values for y'. Two of these would be found to be real and two imaginary.
In the case of the ellipse the two imaginary foci lie on the minor That these imaginary foci exist follows from Art. 247, by writing the standard equation in the form
axis.
368
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
{0,
sj^^o^]
is
a focus, the
imaginary line y
ing eccentricity
is
=0 is
/&2_a2
Similarly for the hyperbola, except that, in this case, the eccentricity is real.
and are
and
395.
Ex.
1.
Find
16a;2
 2ixy + %2  80a; 
100=0.
The
focus
is
{IQx'
1 2y'
 40)^  ( rj
12a;^
+ 9y'  70 )^
 40) ( 12a;^
_ ~
{16x'  12y ^
+ 9y'  70)
(1).
12
 12y'  40)2 + 7
(ig^/
_ i2y' _
40)
12a;'
+ 9i/  70)
12
i.e.
12a;'
9y'
 70)}
12ic' h
X
i.e.
{ 3 (16a;'
12^/'
 40) 4 4 ( 
%'  70) } = 0,
(100a;'75?/' +
50)x(400) = 0,
.
so that
y
then have
16a;'
= ^
We
and
 12^'  40 =  48,
12a;'
[V 70 =64.
The second
48 X 64 _ ^ox^ ^ ^, ^^g^, _
40)
2/' (
12a;'
70^' + 100
^^n 256=
88a;'
00
536a;'
I~o
268
,^^
t100,
so that
a;' =1, and then 2/' =2. The focua is therefore the point
(1, 2).
369
In the case of a parabola, we may also find the equation to the by Art. 390, and then find the coordinates of the focus, which is the pole of the directrix.
Ex.
2.
Find
55a;2
40a;
 24^/  464=0.
The
(55a;^
15y'
 20)^  ( 16
+ S9t/  12)2
15y'
_ {55c(/
20)
 15x' + 39?/^ 
12)
15
(1).
pair of equations
(1)
gives
(55a;'
 15^' 
i.e.
_ 15^' _ 20) (  15a;' + 39?/'  12)  15 (  15a;' + S9y'  12)2 ^ q, (55a;'  15y'  20)  3 (  15a;' + 39^'  12) {5 {3 (55a;'  15?/'  20) + 5 (  15a;' + 39?/'  12)} = 0,
20)2 + ig (55^/
i.e.
(5a;'3?/'l)(3a;' + 5?/'4)
= 0.
(2)'
^3"
,
5a;' 
or
y'=
Substituting this
first
3a;'
5
4
(3).
(1),
we obtain
 o/;/o  1X2 25 (2a;' 1)2=
/
1355
,
giving
a;'
=2
or 
1,
Hence from
(2) y'
or 
2.
On
(1),
same
pair of equation
we
have
2a;'22a;'
+ 13 = 0,
We
to lie on the minor axis of the conic section. therefore the points (2, 3) and (  1,  2).
The
396. conic.
By
(ax + hy + gf
(hx + by +fy _
b
+/)
(1)
a
represents
L.
h
foci.
24
370
But, since
give
7
ihoc
"T"
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
it
ax + hy + a
j^ oy
J
~r
^,
it
represents
two
straight lines.
The equation
general conic.
axes of the
397. To find the length of the straight lines drawn through a given point in a given direction to vieet a given
conic.
y)
= ax^ + 2hxy +
(a;',
hy
Let
F be
any point
y')^
drawn a
The coordinates
on
are
c^
of
this
line
distant r
y'
+ r cos Q and
+ r sin 0.
(Art. 86.)
If
this point be
on
(1),
we
have
a{x'
+ r cos &f + 2A {x + r cos 0) [y' + r sin 0) + b (y' + r sin 0)^ + 2g {x + r cos 0) + 2/ {y + r sin ^) + c = 0,
e
i.e.
r^ [a cos2
+ 2h
cos ^ sin
6*
& sin^ 0]
+ 2r [(ax + hy' + g)
cos d
+ {hx + by +/)
sin ^]
+
^
;(2).
For any given value of this is a quadratic equation in and therefore for any straight line drawn at an inclinait gives the values of FQ and PQ'. tion If the two values of r given by equation (2) be of opposite sign, the points Q and Q' lie on opposite sides
r,
of P.
If
P be on the
curve, then
(2) is zero.
<f)
(x,
y)
is
zero
of T obtained from
INTERCEPTS ON LINES.
371
398.
directions through
If two chords PQQ' and PRR' he drawn in given any pohit P to meet the curve in Q, Q' and
PQ PQ'
.
to the
PR
PR'
is the
same for
equal to the ratio of the squares of the diameters of which are drawn in the given directions.
the conic
The values
the last
article,
.
of
of
PQ PQ' = product
^
a
So,
if
^
cos^ 6
{^\
y)
sin ^
/jx
+ 2h cos
6 sin^
6'"^
''
PRR'
be drawn at an angle
PR pp'=
On
9
a cos^
0'
{^^
0'
y)
sin
sin^
+ 2A
cos
0'"'^
^'
dividing (1) by
(2),
6'
we have
1}
PQ PR
x'
PQ' _ a cos^ + 2h cos 0' sin 0' + PR' ~ a cos^ e\2h cos ^ sin ^ + 6
sin^ 6'
sin^ 6
'
The righthand member of this equation does not contain or y', i. e. it does not depend on the position of but only on the directions and $\
The quantity
positions of P.
'
p>
is
therefore the
same
for
all
is
OR
,^
where
CQ'
parallel to the
two given
Cor.
lines
If
Q and
Q' coincide,
PQQ' and
PRR
and also R and R', the two become the tangents from P, and the
PQ^C(r'
PR' ~
OR'"'
'
PQ _ CQ"
^'
""
PR ~ CR"
be
to
conic,
the parallel
242
372
399.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
If PQQ' and P^QiQi
^^ ^'^^ chords drawn in two points P aiid F^ to meet a conic parcdlel directions from, in Q and Q', and Q^ and Qi, resjyectively, then the ratio of the rectangles PQ PQ' and PiQi PiQi is independent of the direction of the chords. and P^ be respectively the points (x', y') and For, if {x", y")y and 6 be the angle that each chord makes with the axis, we have, as in the last article,
. .
PQ.PQ'=^
and
^
a
<i>
(^',
6'
y)
sin
(9
+6 +
sin^
'
P^Q,,P^Q;^
K,
y")
6 sin^
'
cos^ 6
\'2ih
cos 6 sin ^
so that
PQ.PQ'
PiQiP^Qi
<i>{x,y')
^{x",y"y
400. If a circle and a conic section cut one another in four 'points, the straight line joining one pair of points of intersection and the straight line joining the other pair are equally inclined to the axis of the conic.
For (Fig. Art. 397) let the circle and conic intersect in the four points Q, Q' and B, B' and let QQ' and RB' meet in P.
But, since Q,
Q',
.
PQ
B, and B' are four points on a circle, we have PQ' = PB PB'. [Euc. III. 36, Cor.]
.
..
CQ" = CB".
Also in any conic equal radii from the centre are equally inclined to the axis of the conic. Hence GQ" and CB", and therefore PQQ' and PBB\ are equally inclined to the axis of the conic.
401. To shew that any chord of a conic monically by the curve, any point on the chord^ and the pjolar of this point with respect to the conic.
Take the point
ao(?
is
cut har
as origin,
and
let
2/3/
+c(!)>
'
373
polar coordinates,
r^ {a cos^
i.e.
+ 2h cos ^ sin ^ +
6 sin^ 6)
c.
0)
+ a cos^
+ 2h cos
at
sin
+b
sin^O=^ 0.
we
Hence, have
TT^i OF
if
the chord
OFF' be drawn
an angle
to
OX,
OF
ycT^,
sum
g cos 6
+y sin 6
c
Let
ff
OF ~
Then,
if
2___1_
have
of"" OF'
OR = p, we
2 P
^cos^+ysin^
^
F is
+/.
p sin
g p cos
or, in
Oj
Cartesian coordinates,
gx+/y + G^O
But
conic
(2) is
(1), so
(2).
the polar of the origin with respect to the that the locus of is the polar of 0.
The straight line FF' is therefore cut harmonically by and the point in which it cuts the polar of 0.
Ex. Through any point is draion a straight line to cut a conic in P and P' and on it is taken a point R such that OR is (1) the arithmetic mean, and (2) the geometric mean, betioeen OP and OP'. Find in each case the locus of R. Using the same notation as in the last article, we have
0P+0P'=2
and
a cos2
OP.OP'=
374
(1)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
If
be the point
(p, 6)
we have
g COB
i.e.
i(np,oP'\p^[^ujrtLjjr )
d+f sine
i.e.,
in Cartesian coordinates,
ax^ + 2 7ia;i/
+ by^+gx +fy = 0.
and the interThe locus is therefore a conic passing through section of the conic and the polar of 0, i.e. through the points T and T', and having its asymptotes parallel to those of the given
conic.
(2)
If
R
^
be the point
{p, 6),
we have
in this case
/
np OP' ^^.^
i.e. i.e.
= c,
+ 2/ia;^ + 6?/2 = c.
The locus is therefore a conic, having its centre at and passing through T and T', and having its asymptotes parallel to those of the
given conic.
402.
conic.
To find
The lengths
{x\ y') at 397.
an angle 6
of the segments of the chord drawn through the point to the axis of x is given by equation (2) of Art.
If {x', y') be the middle point of the chord the roots of this equation are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, so that their
algebraic
sum
is zero.
The
sin ^
= 0.
The locus of the middle point of chords inclined at an angle 6 to the axis of x is therefore the straight line
(ax + hy
is
This
if
m=
,
J
a + hm ^ h + bm
i.e. if
a + h{m + m')
is
+ bmm' = 0.
and y m'x should be
This
EXAMPLES.
403.
375
Equation to the pair of tangents drawn from a given point a given conic, [Cf. Art. 389.] If a straight line be drawn through [x', y'), the point P, to meet the conic in Q and Q\ the lengths of PQ and PQ' are given by the
{x', y') to
equation
r2 (a cos^ ^
+ 2/4 cos ^ sin ^ + 6 sin^ 6) + 2r l{ax' + hy' + g) cos 6 + {hx' + 5?/' +/) sin ^] +
i.e. if
(x', ?/')
= 0.
The
I.e. if
+ 2/i cos ^ sin ^ + & sin^ ^) x <^ {x', y') = [{ax' + hy' + f) cos 6 + {hx' + by'+f) sin ^p, (a + 27i tan ^ + & tan^ ^) x (a;', y') = [{ax' + hy' + g) + {hx' + by'+f) tan ef...{l).
roots of this equation give the corresponding directions of the
The
tangents through P.
P inclined
at
an angle 6 to
^^ = tan0 xx
If we substitute for tan 6 in (1) to the pair of tangents from P.
(2).
from
(2)
we
On
substitution
we have
{aixx')^ + 2h{xx'){yy')
+ b{yy'y~}<t>{x',y')
EXAMPLES. XLIV.
points
tangents are drawn to in which these tangents concyclic, prove that the locus of
1.
Two
P is
pair of tangents to the conic Ax^ + By^=l intercept a constant distance 2 A; on the axis of x ; prove that the locus of their point of intersection is the curve
2.
7;
376
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[Exs.
Prove that the director circles of all conies which touch two 4. given straight lines at given points have a common radical axis.
parabola circumscribes a rightangled triangle. Taking its 5. sides as the axes of coordinates, prove that the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the right angle upon the directrix is the curve
whose equation
is
2xy
{x^
m^h  k
K
,
where
m is
sides of the
triangle.
Find the
6.
300a;2
7.
8.
9.
10a;
 lOy 19 =
ax'^
and
10.
+ 2hxy + hy^ =
ah ~
~~
a^b^'
11. Prove that the locus of the foci of all conies which touch the is the hyperbola x^y^=a^ h^. four lines x= ^a and
y=b
Then
13. A given ellipse, of semiaxes a and h, slides between two perpendicular lines prove that the locus of its focus is the curve
;
(a;2
+ ^2)
^^^2^2
_j.
54)
^ 4aPx^y\
14. Conies are drawn touching both the axes, supposed oblique, at the same given distance a from the origin. Prove that the foci lie
either
on the
straight line
x^ +
y'^
15.
and a common
XLIV.]
16.
377
diameter of which
Find the locus of the focus of a rectangular hyperbola a is given in magnitude and position.
chords POP' and QOQ' are drawn at 17. Through a fixed point right angles to one another to meet a given conic in P, P' Q, and Q'.
,
Prove that
^^, + QO^'
^'
^on^i^ni.
is
point is taken on the major axis of an ellipse whose abscissa 18. ae ~ fj2 e^ ; prove that the sum of the squares of the reciprocals of the segments of any chord through it is constant.
19. in
Through a fixed point is drawn a line OPP' to meet a conic and P' prove that the locus of a point Q on OPP', such that
;
OQ^
7rs
= Tvvio +
OP^
y^T^
OP^
is
is
O.
Prove Carnot's theorem, viz. If a conic section cut the side a triangle ABC in the points A' and A'\ and, similarly, the and C'% then side CA in B' and B", and AB in
20.
BC of
.
making use
Obtain the equations giving the foci of the general conic by of the fact that, if be a focus and PSP' any chord of
>Sf
it,
then
^^^
oP
+ ^, hP
is
all direc
22 Obtain the equations for the foci also from the fact that the product of the perpendiculars drawn from them upon any tangent is the same for all tangents.
404. To find the equation to a conic, the axes of coordinates being a tangent and normal to the conic.
Since the origin is on the curve, the equation to the curve must be satisfied by the coordinates (0, 0) so that the equation has no constant term and therefore is of the form
ax^
+ 2hxy +
h'lf
+ 2gx +
yy 0.
when
2/
0,
we must have
(1).
is
if point on the
PQ
any point on a conic and PQ a chord ; prove that subtend a right angle at O, it passes through a fixed normal at O, and
378
(2)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
if
OP and OQ be equally inclined to the normal at 0, then through a fixed point on the tangent at 0. Take the tangent and normal at as axes, so that the equation to the conic is (1). Let the equation to PQ be y = mx + c (2).
PQ passes
Then, by Art. 122, the equation to the lines OP and OQ is c {ax'^ + 2hxy + by^) + 2fy {y mx) = If the lines OP and OQ be at right angles then (Art. (1)
(3).
66),
we
have
I.e.
ac
+ bc + 2/= 0,
a+b
=a
constant for all positions of PQ. But c is the intercept of PQ on the axis of
y, i.e.
on the normal
at 0.
The
normal
straight line
at
PQ
on the
which
is
is
distant
v from O. a+b
2/
This point
(2)
again OP and OQ be equally inclined to the axis of y then, in equation (3), the coefficient of xy must be zero, and hence
If
2;ic2/m = 0,
I.e.
m

= I= constant. ^
h
But
at 0.
m
c
is
PQ.
on the tangent
Hence, in this
through four
let
Let A, B, C, and D be the four points, and meet in 0. Take OAB and ODC as the axes, and
BA
and
CD
let
OA = \,0B = V, OD 
ix,
B.ndOC^fx\
Let any conic passing through the four points be
ax^i2h'xi/ + by^
+ 2gx+2/y+c=0...{l).
in this If we put y = equation the roots of the resulting equation must be A and
A,'.
POINTS.
379
=a
(X
X')
and
aX\\
Similarly
and %f
y
On
fijULof
substituting in (1)
2hxi/
we have
XX'fifx'
(1),
where
^^
G
This is the required equation, h being a constant as yet undetermined and depending on which of the conies through A, B, C, and D we are considering.
have proved in Art. 383 that the 406. Aliter. equation hLN=MR^ ^ being any constant, represents any conic circumscribing the quadrilateral formed by the four
straight lines order.
We
taken in this
With the notation of the previous article the equations to the four lines AB, BC, CD, and are
DA
2/=0,
l+y,l=0,
fx
x=
0,
and
%^_1 = A
fJi
0.
The equation
lateral
A BCD
is
^K^^O(^^o
i.e.
w,
/xfxx"^
+ xy (X/jl' +
X'/ji
 hXX'ixii) +
nix!
XX'
y"^
On
2h we
(X
X')
x~ XX'
(fji
fx)
y +
XX'fjbfji
0.
putting Xfx + X'jx  kXX'ixfji' equal to another constant have the equation (1) of the previous article.
380 407.
points.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Only one conic can
he
Jive
Art. 405.
If we wish it to pass through a fifth point, we substitute the coordinates of this fifth point in this equation, and thus obtain the corresponding value of h. Except when three of the five points lie on a straight line a value of h will always be found, and only one.
Ex. Find the equation to the conic section which passes through the five points A, B, C, D, and E, whose coordinates are (1, 2), (3, 4),
(1,
3),
(2, S),and{5,
to
6).
The equations
y + 3x5 = 0,
DA
4:y
The equation
is
to
and
(1).
therefore
{y
If this
conic pass through the point E, the equation satisfied by the values x = 5 and y = &.
must be
We thus have X = V ^^^i on substitution in (1), the required equation is 223a;2  38xy  123?/  171a; + 8Sy + 350 = 0,
which represents a hyperbola.
4:03. To find the general equation to a conic section which touches four given straight lines, i.e. which is inscribed in a given quadrilateral.
THE CONIC LM =
lateral
R~.
381
Let the four straight lines form the sides of the quadriABCD. Let BA and CD meet in 0, and take OAB and ODC as the axes of x and y, and let the equations to the other two sides BG and DA be
l^x
l^x
+ m^y 1 =
0.
of contact of
Let the equation to the straight line joining the points any conic touching the axes at P and Q be
ax + hy 1 =
0. is
By
then
(1).
2Xxy = (ax + hy Vf
BG
should touch
= 2(aZi)(6mi)
touched by
(2).
if
Similarly,
it
will be
AD
X = 2{al){hm^)
(3).
The required conic has therefore (1) as its equation, the values of a and h being given in terms of the quantity A. by
means
of (2)
and
(3).
Also X is any quantity we may choose. Hence the system of conies touching the four given lines.
If
we have
we
solve (2)
and
)
(3),
we obtain
2&  (mi
+ W2 _ _
~~
2a(Zi +
y_^
~
m^ 7112
h~h
2\
^
(^1 ~
^2) ("*i
~ ^^2)
409.
R
lines.
= 0, M=0, and
two straight
conic, viz.
equation
(1),
LM=R'
M=
Z=
0,
and
where
R=
meets them.
382
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
are a pair of tangents and jS Thus L and the corresponding chord of contact.
M=0
B [xL
M jx^L and
M
fx.
may
intersection of the straight lines on the conic (1) for all values of be called the point "ju.."
of
lies
410.
two
jyoints
To find the equation to the straight line joining "/x" and "/x"' and the equation to the tangent at
aL + hM\R^O
Since
it is of
(1).
the
first
a and
6,
at our disposal,
it
straight line.
If it pass through the point " /x " it = fxL and fxL. the substitutions
must be
satisfied
by
Hence
Similarly,
if it
a+
6/x^
/x
=
/x'
(2).
"
we have
(3).
a +
Solving (2) and
(3),
bfx''
fM'
we have
,
a
/X/X
fX
1
fX
On
By
substitution in
Lfxfx'
(1),
is
+ M(ix +
0.
putting fx' = fx we have, as the equation to the tangent at the point "/x,"
Lfx^
M 2fxE =
0,
'
EXAMPLES.
383
EXAMPLES. XLV.
Prove that the locus of the foot of the perpendicular let fall 1. from the origin upon tangents to the conic ax^ + 2hxy + by' = 2x is the curve {h^  ah) {x^ + y'^f + 2 {x^ + ^2) {p^ _ /j^) +^f = Q,
2.
In the conic
ax'^
ao h^
Tangents are drawn to the conic ax^ + 2hxy + by'^ = 2x from 3. two points on the axis of x equidistant from the origin; prove that their four points of intersection lie on the conic hy^ + hxy=x.
If the tangents be drawn from two points on the axis of y equidistant from the origin, prove that the points of intersection are on a straight Hne.
is
drawn
and
5.
(2)
a conic section.
the points
Find the equation to the conic passing through the origin and 1, 1), (2, 0), and (3, 2). Determine its species. (1, 1),
(
Prove that the locus of the centre of all conies circumscribing 6. the quadrilateral formed by the straight lines ^ = 0, x = 0, x{y = l, and 2/  a;= 2 is the conic 2x^  2y^ + Axy + 5?/  2 = 0.
Prove that the locus of the centres of all conies, which pass 7. through the centres of the inscribed and escribed circles of a triangle,
is
all conies,
(0,
Prove that the locus of the extremities of the principal axes of which can be described through the four points ( =t a, 0) and
is
h),
the curve
($.t)(''^^y')=^'yare four fixed points and and meet in straight line passing through O meets and in and jR' respectively, and any conic passing through the four given points in S and S' ; prove that
9.
A, B, C, and
O any
;
AB AD
CD BC R
J^ "^ OR
OR'
J^_ ~
J^
OS
''"
OS'
10. Prove that, in general, two parabolas can be drawn through four points, and that either two, or none, can be drawn.
^JXK'fxfx'.]
384
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[ExS.
XLV.
11. Prove that the locus of the centres of the conies ch'cumseribing a quadrilateral ABGD (Fig. Art. 405) is a conic passing through the vertices 0, L, and of the quadrilateral and through the middle points of AB, AC, AD, BG, BD, and CD.
Prove also that its asymptotes are parallel to the axes of the parabolas through the four points.
tions
[The required locus is obtained by eliminating h from the equa2fjufjL'x + 2hy  fifx,' {\ + \')=0, and 2hx + 2X\'y XV + fM') = 0.]
{fjt.
12. By taking the case when XX'= /">' and when AB and CD is a triangle having are perpendicular (in which case as its orthocentre and AL, BM, and CO are the perpendiculars on its sides), prove that all conies passing through the vertices of a triangle and its orthocentre are rectangular hyperbolas.
ABC
From Ex, 11 prove also that the locus of point circle of the triangle.
its
13. Prove that the triangle OML (Fig. Art. 405) is such that each angular point is the pole of the opposite side with respect to any conic passing through the angular points A, B, C, and D of the
quadrilateral.
[Such a triangle
is
called a Self
Conjugate Triangle.]
14. Prove that only one rectangular hjrperbola can be drawn through four given points. Prove also that the nine point circles of the four triangles that can be formed by four given points meet in a point, viz. the centre of the rectangular hyperbola passing through
,
A
that
system of conies
is
inscribed in the
same quadrilateral
prove
this
16. the locus of the pole of a given straight line with respect to system is a straight line.
17. the locus of their centres is a straight line passing through the middle points of the diagonals of the quadrilateral.
AC, and
Prove that the triangle formed by the three diagonals OL, BD (Fig. Art. 408) is such that each of its angular points is the pole of the opposite side with respect to any conic inscribed in the
18.
quadrilateral.
19. Prove that only one parabola can be drawn to touch any four given lines.
Hence prove that, if the four triangles that can be made by four lines be drawn, the orthocentres of these four straight lines lie on a straight line, and their circumcircles meet in a point.
CHAPTER
XYII.
MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.
On
the four normals that can be drawn from any point in the plane of a central conic to the conic.
411,
[If
(1).
;
A and
be both positive,
to the normal at
it is
an
ellipse
if
one be
positive
it is
a hyperbola.]
(x, y') of the
The equation
curve
is
any point
y'
XX
(/,,
k),
we
have h
y'
(2).
i.e.
(A)x'y' + hy'Akx'=:0
This is an equation to determine the point (cc', y') such that the normal at it goes through the point (h, k). It shews that the point (x, y') lies on the rectangular hyperbola
{AJB)xy + hyAkx =
The point
(x', y')
(3).
is therefore both on the curve (3) and Also these two conies intersect in four points, real or imaginary. There are therefore four points,
on the curve
L.
(1).
25
386
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
them pass
in general, lying on (1), such that the normals at through the given point (A, k).
and
its
(3) passes through the origin and asymptotes are parallel to the axes.
Hence From a given point four normals can in drawn to a given central conic, and their feet all
general
lie
on a
rectangular hyperbola, which jjasses through the given point and the centre of the conic, and has its asym^ptotes parallel to the axes of the given conic.
certain
To find the conditions that the normals at the where two given straight lines meet a central conic points may m,eet in a p)oint.
412.
A^\By''^\
(1),
it
at the points
\
1
where
it is
met by
(2),
l^ + m,^
l^x
(h, k).
+ m^y =
(3)
By
and
(3) is
+X
{l^x
+ m^y
1) (^2^
m.^y
1)
0...(4).
these
intersections are the feet of the four (A, k), then, by the last article, the
(5)
same four
of
points.
it
and
(5)
efficients of a^
Comparing these equations, we have, since the and y^ and the constant term in (5) are
coall
zero,
A + Xl^l^ = 0, B + Xm^m^ ~ 0,
Therefore X
=^ 1,
and 
+X = 0.
(6).
and hence
lih
CONCURRENT NORMALS.
The
relations (6) are the required conditions.
387
and
(5),
we have
AB
so that
Ak
h=
7
"
m,
Bh
'
AB y^mo + j^ ^
B
L^m^
,^.
(7),
t^^frix
and
],_.^lz1
h^
be an
ellipse,
(8).
Cor.
1.
we have
4
= 5 and B = j^.
The
cH^^
IP'm^^
(9),
m^ + m,
^^
5^??^l^
and
=
2.
7^
^
 m^
(a^
 O'') j.
75
^.
Cor.
be given
in the form
y = m^c +
^,
and
3/
= m'x +
c',
we have
c
m
The
c=
mi
7/^1
mg
and
ma
77iy/i'
= and
cc'
6^.
413. If f/ie normals at four points P, Q, R, and S of an ellipse meet in a point, the sum of their eccentric angles is equal to an odd multiple of two Hght angles.
252
388
If a,
/3,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
7,
and
BS
are
cos
.y=.a..cot^+
sm^
& cos
'^
and
2/
 a^  cot a
^ + 2
7+0 sm^.
i
[Art. 259.]
we have, by
^hr2
*.
tan
a + iS
^=
,.
cot
7+5
a
(tt_
tan
_ 7+l5\
V2
TT
"27
*.e.
a + /3 + 7 + 5=(2w + l)7r.
414.
ellipse
is
XSx. 1. I/' i/ie normals at the points A, B, C, and D of an meet in a point O, prove that SA SB SO. SD = \^ SO^y where one of the foci and X is a constant.
. .
ellipse be
^i+f:=i a^
0'^
(1),
and
let
be the point
{h, k).
As
drawn from

lie
on the
hyperbola
hy
\a^
i.e.
kx
b^J
a^e^xy = aViy
b^kx
(2).
by solving
G,
and
D are
therefore found
From
we have
(1)
Substituting in
a;4a2g4
(3).
CONCURRENT NORMALS.
If
a?!,
EXAMPLES.
we have
389
(Art. 2),
x^, x^,
of this equation,
_
If
2ha^
a^h^
S be
:.
the point
 ae,
0)
Art. 251,
'
= ^ {(^ + ae)2 +
/c2},
on substitution and
simplification,
= k.SOK
Aliter.
If p
*S^^,
SB, SG, or
SD
we have
i.e.
p=a + ex,
x={pa).
(3)
we obtain an equation
in the fourth
and
easily
have
^%
^3 before.
Ex. 2. If the normals at four points P, Q, B, and S of a central pass through a fixed point, find the conic meet in a point, and if lotus of the middle point of BS.
PQ
PQ
be
y = m^x + Cj^
(1),
and that
to
BS
y = m^\C2
(2).
If the
mim2=g
and
If (/, g) be the fixed point
c^c^=.
1^ 
(3),
(4).
through which
PQ
passes,
we have
(5).
it,
g=m^f+Cj^
Now the
i.e.
middle point of BS lies on the diameter conjugate to by Art. 376, on the diameter
A
Bm,
i.e.,
by
(3),
ym^x
(6).
890
Now, from
(4)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
and
(5),
c= so that, by
(3),
the equation to
B{gM)' BS is
y=mr,''B{gfm,)
Eliminating m^ between
to the required locus,
(6)
^'^^
and
(7),
we
{Ax^ + By^){gx+fy)+xy = 0.
ES
From equation (6) it follows that the diameter conjugate to equally inclined with PQ to the axis, and hence that the points and Q and the ends of the diameter conjugate to BS are coney clic
Cor.
is
(Art. 400),
EXAMPLES. XLVI.
1.
If
the
sum
point
to
an
ellipse be constant,
of the squares of the four normals drawn from a prove that the locus of is a conic.
If the sum of the reciprocals of the distances from a focus of 2. the feet of the four normals drawn from a point to an ellipse be
4
^r
focus.
>
is
If four normals be drawn from a point to an ellipse and if 3. the sum of the squares of the reciprocals of perpendiculars from the centre upon the tangents drawn at their feet be constant, prove that the locus of is a hyperbola. 4.
The normals
at four points of
G^a,
C(?i
If
CG^
"^
GG^'^CG^~ GG^+GG^+GG^+GG^'
the normals to a central conic at four points L, M, N, and 5. P be concurrent, and if the circle through L, 31, and meet the curve again in P', prove that PP' is a diameter.
6.
Shew
which pass through the four points in which the normals drawn from any point on a given straight line meet an ellipse is a pair of conies.
7.
If the
j8,
are a,
and
y,
normals at points of an ellipse, whose eccentric angles meet in a point, prove that
sin
(j8
+ 7) + sin (7 + a) + sin
an
(a
+ iS)=0.
PQB
maximum
are
concurrent.
[EXS. XLVI.]
8.
CONCURRENT NORMALS.
EXAMPLES.
391
Prove that the normals at the points where the straight line x^ v^ y + i~? = 1 meets the ellipse ^ + ^ =1 meet at the point ^ a cos a &sma a^ b^
 ae^ cos* a,
J sin** a
Prove that the loci of the point of intersection of normals at 9. the ends of focal chords of an ellipse are the two ellipses
aY
10.
{x
t ae^) = 0.
Tangents to the
ellipse 2
j^
=^
on the
+ f^=^;
Any
ellipse g
+ j=l
P and
and Q meet on a
12.
fixed diameter.
ellipse
is
Chords of an
a \/
a+b
its
ends meet on a
circle.
13. From any point on the normal to the ellipse at the point whose eccentric angle is a two other normals are drawn to it prove
;
that the locus of the point of intersection of the corresponding tangents is the curve
xy + bxsina + ay cosa = 0.
that the locus of the intersection of two perpendicular 14. normals to an ellipse is the curve
(a2
Shew
(^2^2
nj2
15.
ABC
+ 72=1
;
having
each side parallel to the tangent at the opposite angular point prove that the normals at A, B, and G meet at a point which lies on the
eUipse
16.
a2a;2
The normals
at four points of
2 tani  and that they are parallel to one or other of the equiconjugates of the ellipse.
892
17.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[EXS. XLVI.]
le the ellipse o 2
+ o ^ I2
=
(a, /3), is
the point
18. Prove that the product of the three normals drawn from any point to a parabola, divided by the product of the two tangents from the same point, is equal to one quarter of the latus rectum.
19. Prove that the conic 2aky = {2ah)y^ + 4:ax^ intersects the parabola y^=4:ax at the feet of the normals drawn to it from the point
{h, k).
20.
From
a point
{h, k)
drawn
to the rectangular
hyperbola xy = c^; prove that the centre of mean position of their feet (h k\ aiid that the four feet are such that each is the ) J
,
Confocal Conies.
415.
Def.
Two
when
To find
the elli2^se
All conies having the same foci have the same centre
and
axes.
The equation to any conic having the same centre and axes as the given conic is
?4=i
The The
foci of (2) are at the points
foci are the
;;;;;;
(^)
h^^
0).
{^sJA  B^
0).
These
same
if
AB = a^h%
i.e.ii
.*.
CONFOCAL CONICS.
The equation
(2)
393
then becomes
^
which
is
19
^5
A,
416.
For
different values
of X
to trace the
conic given
hy the equation
^=1
;
(1).
then a^ + X and 6^ + X are First, let X be very great both very great and, the greater that X is, the more nearly circle of do these quantities approach to equality.
infinitely
great
radius
is
therefore
confocal
of
the
system.
Let X gradually decrease from infinity to zero ; the semimajor axis \J a'^ + X gradually decreases from infinity When X to a, and the semiminor axis from infinity to h. is positive, the equation (1) therefore represents an ellipse gradually decreasing in size from an infinite circle to the standard ellipse
a"
b^
is
marked /
in the figure.
to
b^,
X gradually decrease from semimajor axis decreases from a to \/a^ minor axis from b to 0.
Next,
let
For these values of X the confocal is still an ellipse, which always lies within the ellipse /; it gradually decreases in size until, when X is a quantity very slightly greater than b^, it is an extremely narrow ellipse very nearly coinciding with the line SH, which joins the two
foci of all curves of the system.
X be less than b^ ; the semiminor axis \/b^ + X now becomes imaginary and the curve is a hyperbola ; when X is very slightly less than b^ the curve is a
Next,
let
394
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY.
and SX'.
SX
[As X passes through the value h^ it will be noted that the confocal instantaneously changes from the lineellipse and HX'.^ to the linehyperbola
SH
SX
becomes
the semitransverse axis Ja^ + \ that the ends of the transverse axis of the hyperbola gradually approach to C, and the hyperbola widens out as in the figure.
gets less
less,
As X
and
less
and
less, so
X = a^, the transverse axis of the hyperbola and the hyperbola degenerates into the infinite double line TOY'. When X is less than a% both semiaxes of the conic become imaginary, and therefore the confocal becomes
When
vanishes,
wholly imaginary.
417.
there
these
Through any point in the plane of a given conic can he drawn two conies confocal with it; also one of is an ellipse and the other a hyperbola.
t + t^l
and
let
(f
g).
CONFOCAL CONICS.
395
is
Any
we have
(2).
+^^ =
This
is
fore gives
two values
of X.
Put
b^
+ X = fi + a^b^ =
then becomes
fjL
+ aV.
The equation
(2)
i.e.
/>c2
+ /x(aV/2/)^2^iV =
(3).
On applying the criterion of Art. 1 the roots of this equation are both real.
we
Also, since its last term is negative, the product of these roots is negative, and therefore one value of ju, is positive and the other is negative.
The two values of b^ + X are therefore one positive and the other negative. Similarly, the two values of a^ + X can
be shewn to be both positive.
we thus
+
Xi
70
b'^
+ X^
.
1, '
and
let
them meet
The equations
xx'
Cc'
yy'
396
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
if
(Art 69)
+ 7JJ^vT^^v^ = ^
But, since (x\
2/) is
common point of
1
we have
^
2
^^
+ +
^
52
+ x,~''
and ^'^"^
a'
4
^
h'
'
X,
+ X,~
By
subtraction,
we have
/2/_i
a;
l_Vv'^^^
/2
^A=o
(6^
**^'
(a^
+ X^
*"
{a\\ X,)
(F+ Aj)
X,)
"
^*
The condition (1) is therefore satisfied and hence the two confocals cut at right angles.
Cor. From equation (2) it is clear that the quantities for otherwise we b^ + Ai and b^ + X^ have opposite signs ; should, have the sum of two positive quantities equal to zero. Two confocals, therefore, which intersect, are one an ellipse and the other a hyperbola.
419.
2
conic,
confocal
12
= I5
X cos a + y sin a =p
(1)
Any confocal
of the system
x^
is
+ ./:^ = l
,
(2).
The
if
+ (&2 + X)
X =_p2 _ a? cos^ a 
This only gives one value for X and therefore there is only one conic of the form (2) which touches the straight line (1).
Also X + a,2=^2^^^2_
therefore real.
j2^ gin2
jj_a
j.gal
quantity.
The
conic
is
CONFOCAL CONICS.
EXAMPLES.
397
EXAMPLES. XLVII
1.
Prove that the difference of the squares of the perpendiculars parallel tangents to two given confocal
Prove that the equation to the hyperbola drawn through the 2. point of the ellipse, whose eccentric angle is a, and which is confocal with the elhpse, is
cos^ a
3.
sin^ a
Prove that the locus of the points lying on a system of confocal which have the same eccentric angle a, is a confocal hyperbola whose asymptotes are inclined at an angle 2a.
eUipses,
Shew that the locus of the point of contact of tangents drawn 4. from a given point to a system of confocal conies is a cubic curve, which passes through the given point and the foci. If the given point be on the major axis, prove that the cubic
reduces to a
circle.
5. Prove that the locus of the feet of the normals fixed point to a series of confocals is a cubic curve through the given point and the foci of the confocals.
6.
drawn from a
which passes
point
P is taken
is
it
P lies
on the curve
1
k
= hykx xh
?
Two tangents at right angles to one another are drawn from 7. a point P, one to each of two confocal ellipses prove that P Hes on a fixed circle. Shew also that the line joining the points of contact is bisected by the line joining P to the common centre.
;
From a given point a pair of tangents is drawn to each of a 8. given system of confocals prove that the normals at the points of contact meet on a straight Une.
;
9.
each
is
Tangents are drawn to the parabola y^=4iXs/oPh^, and on taken the point at which it touches one of the confocals
a^ + \
b^+\
is
a straight line.
398
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[Exs. XLVII.]
10. Normals are drawn from a given point to each of a system of eonfocal conies, and tangents at the feet of these normals prove that the locus of the middle points of the portions of these tangents intercepted between the axes of the confocals is a straight line.
;
11. Prove that the locus of the pole of a given straight line with respect to a series of confocals is a straight line which is the normal to that eonfocal which the straight line touches.
12. A series of parallel tangents is drawn to a system of eonfocal conies prove that the locus of the points of contact is a rectangular hyperbola.
;
Shew also that the locus of the vertices of these rectangular hyperbolas, for different directions of the tangents, is the curve where 2c is the distance between the foci of the r'^ = c^eos2d,
confocals.
to
locus of the pole of any tangent to a eonfocal with respect whose centre is one of the foci, is obtained and found to be a circle ; prove that, if the circle corresponding to each eonfocal be taken, they are all coaxal.
13.
The
any
circle,
14.
Prove that the two conies ax^ + 2hxy + by^=l and a'x^ + 2h'xy + b'y^=l
if
(ahh?f
{a'b'h'Y
'
Curvature.
420. Circle of Curvature. Def. If F, Q, and R any three points on a conic section, one circle and only be one circle can be drawn to pass through them. Also this circle is completely determined by the three points. Let now the points Q and R move up to, and ultimately
; then the limiting position of also ; the above circle is called the circle of curvature at the radius of this circle is called the radius of curvature at Pj and its centre is called the centre of curvature at P.
meets the 421, Since the circle of curvature at conic in three coincident points at P, it will cut the curve The line PP' which is the line in one other point P'. to the other point of intersection of the conic and joining the circle of curvature is called the common chord of
curvature.
CIRCLES OF CURVATURE.
399
shewed, in Art. 400, that, if a circle and a conic intersect in four points, the line joining one pair of points of intersection and the line joining the other pair are equally inclined to the axis. In our case, one pair of
points is two of the coincident points at P, and the line joining them therefore the tangent at ; the other pair of points is the third point at and the point P', and the line joining them the chord of curvature PP'. Hence the tangent at and the chord of curvature PP' are, in any conic, equally inclined to the axis.
We
To find the equation to the circle of curvature and of the radius of curvature at any point (af, 2at) of the parabola y"^ = 4:ax.
4t^2i,
the length
If be the equation to a conic, the equation to the tangent at the point P, whose coordinates are at^ and 2at, and L = the equation to any straight line passing through P, we know, by Art. 384, that jS + is the equation to the conic section passing through three coincident points at and through the other point in which
S=0
T=0
\.L.T=0
X=
If
meets aS^0.
A.
and
L be
be the
circle of
so chosen that this conic is a circle, it will curvature at P, and, by the last article, we will be equally inclined to the axis with
of a parabola
S=
2/2
(Art. 229.)
Also the equation to a line through {af, 2at) equally inclined with :Z' = to the axis is
t(y
so that
2at)
+ x at'~0,
Sat^.
is
L ^ ty + X
y^
The equation
therefore
0,
4ax {
1
\(ty
Xi^
X af)
A.,
{ty
+ x ^af) =
where
i.e.
\ = ^
I
+f
400
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
A,,
we
The circle of curvature has therefore its centre at the point (2a + ^af, 2af) and its radius equal to
2a
(1
+ ff.
Cor.
If
SP equal
2
.
to a + at\ so
equal to
SP^
Va
of curvature at
423.
the 'point
To find
P (a cos
<^,
of the
ellipse 3
rg
1
The tangent
at the point
P is
It
cos
<f>
+T
sin
d)
1.
The
cos<^.
a
i. e.
(x
a cos
</>
,.
sin<^
ch)
,\ I ^ (y o sm d>) = n 0,
X
a
 cos
1/
The equation
the form
therefore of
,2
y^
+X
 cos
 cos
^ + f sin ^
</)
(1).
Since
it is
circle,
the coefficients of
cos^
and
y^
must be
equal, so that
1
g
+A
^=
1
77;
sin^ <^
and therefore
X=
6^ cos^
cf>
a^ sin^
CIRCLES OF CURVATURE.
401
On
substitution in
is
(1),
curvature
(^
b')
<l>
^^
(1
(1
+ cos
2cf>)
2,^)
cos
cos
2(j>\
= 0,
+ ^2 (cos^ <^  2 sin^ <^)  &2 (2 cos^  sin^ The equation to the circle of curvature is then
</,
</>)
 0.
^x
 cos^ ^1
+ h/+
~y sm^ ^1
+ &^{2cos2<^sin2^}
(a^ sin^
(i)
6^ cos^
6Y
,
^7^
alter
i,
some reduction.
The centre
cos^ ^,
is
sin^
^ j and whose
+
radius
is
(g^ sin^
<j>
cos^
^
<j!>)
Cor. 1. If Ci) be the semidiameter which is conjugate to CP, then is the point (90 + <^), so that its coordinates are a sin ^ and b cos <^. (Art. 285.)
Hence
CD^ =
a^ sin^
<^
cos^ ^,
=
of curvature p
5 ao
and
3/'
Cor. 2. If the point then, since x' =^a cos <^ and circle of curvature is
P have
2/'
as coordinates x'
<^,
5 sin
\^^rn
L.
^[y^wy)
^^^
26
402
Cor. 3.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
In a similar manner
9
%)C
that the point {x\ y') of equation to the circle of curvature at any
it
9
II
may be shewn
the hyperbola
1 is
^aW
424. If a circle and an ellipse intersect in four points, the sum of their eccentric angles is equal to an even [Page 235, Ex. 18.] multiple of tt.
If then the circle of curvature at a point P, whose eccentric angle is 6, meet the curve again in Q^ whose eccentric angle is ^, three of these four points coincide at P, so that three of these eccentric angles are equal to 0, therefore have whilst the fourth is equal to ^.
We
3^ +
<^
= an even
multiple of
i.e.
tt
=:::
2mr.
Hence,
u have
if
<^
be supposed given,
^
tf
if
be given, we
2mrcf>
o
1, 2,
cj>
and
3,
we
see
27r  d> ^^
4:7rdi ^
27r
or
^
whose
</)
Qtt 
Hence the
eccentric
^
circles
angles
are
cf)
4:7r
d>
and
Gtt
is
cf).
all
Also since
27r
d)
3
r +
J + 
47r
d)
Gtt
d) i
3
, .
o
,
+^=
27r

4r7r
= an even
4^7r
multiple ot
Gtt
,,.
tt,
we
d)
,
(b
d)
j
and
</>
all lie
on a
circle.
EVOLUTE OF A CURVE.
Hence through any point Q on an
three
circles
/*2>
403
circles
points Pj,
and
all lie
on another
circle.
425. volute of a Curve. The locus of the centres of curvature at different points of a curve is called the evolute of the curve.
426.
2a^)
Then
i.e.
ic
422.)
is
the curve
21ay^
= i{x~2ay.
(20, 0).
meets
the
parabola
where
27a2aj
i. e.
= (a;2a)^
^a,
where
x=
and therefore
y = ^4.J2a.
Hence
the points
it
(8a,
4^2).
The curve is called a semicubical parabola and could be shewn to be of the shape of the dotted curve in the figure. 427.
If
{x,
{ct,
XT
Evolute of the
ellipse
+ ^= 1.
a^
11
point
y) be the centre of curvature corresponding to the cos ^, b sin ^) of the ellipse, we have
x=
a'b^
cos^
<fi
and y =
a'

sin^
<fi.
262
404
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Hence
{axf + (hyf =
{a?
 h'f
{cos^
/,
+ sin^
is
</>}
= {a'  h'f.
Hence the
the curve
{axf\(hyf = {a?h'f. This curve could be shewn to be of the shape shewn in the figure
where
CL =
and
CL'
a^
a
CM^CM'^ a'
The equation
{axf{hyf=^{a? +
h'f.
428.
If
two
conies,
or curves, touch, i.e. have two coincident points in common The they are said to have contact of the first order. tangent to a conic therefore has contact of the first order
with
it.
If two conies have three coincident points in common, they are said to have contact of the second order. The circle of curvature of a conic therefore has contact of the second order with it.
If two conies have four coincident points in common, they are said to have contact of the third order. No conies, which are not coincident, can have more than four coincident points for a conic is completely determined if Contact of the third order is five points on it be given. therefore all that two conies can have, and then they are said to osculate one another.
;
Since a circle is completely determined when three points on it are given we cannot, in general, obtain a circle to have contact of a higher order than the second with a given conic. The circle of curvature is therefore often called
the osculating
circle.
405
In general, one curve osculates another when it has the highest possible order of contact with the second curve.
429.
Equation
to
conic.
If S0 be the equation to a conic and T=0 the tangent at any point of it, the conic S = \T^ passes through
four coincident points of S=0 at the point where (Art. 385, lY.) touches it.
T0
Hence
conic.
S= \T^
is
Ex.
The equation
of
ax^ + 2hxy
+ b7f2fy + \y^=0
iay = 0.
its
(2).
equation
is
be a rectangular hyperbola, we have a + b + \ = 0, and the equation to the osculating rectangular hyperbola is
If (2)
EXAMPLES. XLVIII.
If the normal at a point P of a parabola meet the directrix in 1. L, prove that the radius of curvature at P is equal to 2PL.
If ft and P2 be the radii of curvature at the ends of a focal 2. chord of the parabola, prove that
PQ is the common chord of the parabola and its centre of 3. curvature at P prove that the ordinate of Q is three times that of P, and that the locus of the middle point of PQ is another parabola.
;
4. If p and p' be the radii of curvature at the ends, conjugate diameters of the ellipse, prove that
and D, of
and that the locus of the middle point of the of curvature at P and D is
{ax + hy)^ + (aa;  hy)^ = (a^
406
5.
is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[Exs.
and
R are the
the centre of curvature at any point of an ellipse, and Q prove that the feet of the other normals drawn from ;
Q and B
is
3+
X
2 y = 1
^.nd
QR
is
normal
x^
to the ellipse
a^j)^
a2^
&2(a2_ft2)2
If four normals be drawn to an ellipse from any point on the 6. evolute, prove that the locus of the centre of the rectangular hyperbola through their feet is the curve
*(!)*
In general, prove that there are six points on an ellipse the 7. circles of curvature at which pass through a given point O, not on the be on the ellipse, why is the number of circles of If ellipse.
curvature passing through
it
only four?
The circles of curvature at three points of an ellipse meet in a 8. point P on the curve. Prove that (1) the normals at these three points meet on the normal drawn at the other end of the diameter through P, and (2) the locus of these points of intersection for different positions of P is the ellipse
4(a%2 + &2^2)^(^2_62)2,
9.
{x', y')
Prove that the equation to the circle of curvature at a^ is of the rectangular hyperbola x^y^
any point
a^
(a;2
10. Shew that the equation to the chord of curvature of the rectangular hyperbola xy = c^ at the point "" is ty + t^x = c{l + t'^), and that the centre of curvature is the point
V^2^'
the curve
r^
'^'
is
Prove also that the locus of the .pole of the chord of curvature
11. PQ is the normal at any point of a rectangular hyperbola and meets the curve again in Q the diameter through Q meets the curve again in R shew that FR is the chord of curvature at P, and that PQ is equal to the diameter of curvature at P.
;
12. Prove that the equation to the ax^+'2hxy + by^=i2y at the origin is
a{x'^
circle of
+ y^) = 2y.
13. If two confocal conies intersect, prove that the centre of curvature of either curve at a point of intersection is the pole of the tangent at that point with regard to the other curve.
XLVIIIJ
ENVELOPES.
407
14. Shew that the equation to the parabola, having contact of the third order with the rectangular hyperbola icy = c^ at the point
(.
is
i)
{xyt^)^4ct{x + yt^)
+ 8cH^ = 0.
and is perpendicular to, the radius vector of the hyperbola from the centre to the point of contact.
its directrix bisects,
15. Prove that the equation to the parabola, which passes through the origin and has contact of the second order with the parabola y'^^ax at the point (at^^ 2ai), is
^
(4a;
"Ity)
= 0.
16. Prove that the equation to the rectangular hyperbola, having contact of the third order with the parabola y^ = 4cax at the point
{at^^ 2af), is
x^  2txy 
2/2
Prove also that the locus of the centres of these hyperbolas is an equal parabola having the same axis and directrix as the original
parabola.
17. Through every point of a circle is drawn the rectangular hyperbola of closest contact; prove that the centres of all these hyperbolas lie on a concentric circle of twice its radius.
A rectangular hyperbola is drawn to have contact of the third 7/2 X^ order with the ellipse ^ + ^2 = ^ ^^^ i*^ equation and prove that the
18.
5
locus of
its
+ i/2y
"^
"^
'
&2
Envelopes.
430. Consider any point P on a circle whose centre and whose radius is a. The straight line through P
is
is
a tangent to the circle at P. straight line OP oi length a, and if through the end we draw a straight line perpendicular to OP^ this latter straight line touches, or envelopes, a circle of radius a and centre 0, and this circle is said to be the envelope of the straight lines drawn in this manner.
we draw any
Again, if S be the focus of a parabola, and be the tangent at any point P of it meeting the tangent at the
PY
408
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
vertex in the point Y, then we know (Art. 211, 8) that STP is a right angle. Conversely, if S be joined to any point J' on a given line, and a straight line be drawn through Y perpendicular to SY, this line, so drawn, always touches, or envelopes, a parabola whose focus is S and such that the given line is the tangent at its vertex.
431. Envelope. Def. The curve which is touched each of a series of lines, which are all drawn to satisfy by some given condition, is called the Envelope of these
lines.
As an example, consider the series of straight lines which are drawn so that each of them cuts off from a pair
of fixed straight lines a triangle of constant area.
We
totes.
know
always cuts
off
(Art. 330) that any tangent to a hyperbola a triangle of constant area from its asymp
Conversely, we conclude that, if a variable straight line cut off a constant area from two given straight lines, it always touches a hyperbola whose asymptotes are the two given straight lines, i. e. that its envelope is a hyperbola.
432. If the equatio7i to any curve involve a variable parameter, in the first degree only, the curve always passes through a fixed point or points.
For if X be the variable parameter, the equation to the curve can be written in the form S + \S' 0, and this equation is always satisfied by the points which satisfy S = and S' = 0, i.e. the curve always passes through the [compare point, or points, of intersection oi SQ and S' = Art. 97].
Curve touched hy a variable straight line whose equation involves, in the second degree, a variable parameter. As an example, let us find the envelope of the straight
433.
lines given
(1),
where is a quantity which, by its variation, gives the series of straight lines.
ENVELOPES.
If (1) pass through the fixed point (A, ^),
409
we have
(2).
w^h
mk + a =
This is an equation giving the values of corresponding to the straight lines of the series which pass through the point (A, li). There can therefore be drawn two straight lines from (A, ^) to touch the required envelope.
As (A, Aj) moves nearer and nearer to the required envelope these two tangents approach more and more nearly to coincidence, until, when (A, h) is taken on the envelope, the two tangents coincide.
Conversely, the point (A, U)
if
lies
Now the
l?
4:ah,
is
the
Hence, more simply, the envelope of the straight line (1 the curve whose equation is obtained by writing down the condition that the equation (1), considered as a quadratic equation in m, may have equal roots.
is
By
y = mx H
it is clear
a m
that
it
= ^ax.
to the
we
method
434. To find the envelope of a straight line whose equation involves^ in the second degree, a variable parameter.
The equation
where X
to the straight line is of the
form
(1),
X^P{\Q +
R=
are
Equation (1) may be looked upon as an equation giving the two values of X corresponding to any given point T.
410
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
Through this given point two straight lines to touch the required envelope may therefore be drawn.
If the point
T be
if
T to
two straight
lines
given by
(1)
(1) shall
is
Q^ = 4.PR
is
(2).
are all expressions of the first degree, Since P, Q, and the equation (2) is, in general, an equation of the second degree, and hence, in general, represents a conic section.
The envelope of any straight line, whose equation contains an arbitrary parameter and square thereof, is therefore always a conic.
of the previous article holds even if be not necessarily linear expressions. It follows that the envelope of any family of curves, whose equation contains a variable parameter X, in the second degree, is found by writing down the condition that the equation, considered as an equation in X, may have equal
435.
The method
P,
Q, and
roots.
436. Ex. 1. Find the envelope of the straight line which from two given straight lines a triangle of constant area.
let
cuts off
Let the given straight lines be taken as the axes of coordinates and
off intercepts
/ and
g from
the axes is
rl='
If
<^>
off
be constant,
we have
(2).
i.e,
\f .g fg=zconst.=K^
sin w = const.,
On
substitution for g in
(1),
becomes
ENVELOPES.
By the
/, is given
EXAMPLES.
411
by the equation
I.e.
xy=^.
The result is therefore a hyperbola whose asymptotes coincide with the axes of coordinates.
Ex. 2. Find the envelope of the straight line ivhich is such that the product of the perpendiculars draiun to it from two fixed points is constant.
Take the middle point of the line joining the two fixed points as the origin, the line joining them as the axis of x, and let the two points be {d, 0) and {d, 0).
Let the variable straight line have as equation
y=mx + c.
The condition then
gives
md + c jjl + m^
so that
c^
The equation
then
By
[2xyf = 4
(a;2
This
is
of coordinates
and whose
Ex.
3.
Find
an
be
+
a^
^r,
= 1.
0^
P must lie
the form
(c
on the director circle, and hence its coordinates must be of cos ^, c sin 6), where c = Ja'^+ h^.
The chord
hence
its
ellipse,
and
c cos 6
.c sin d
412
a
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
.
Let t^tan 
Then
since
l*an21
^_^2
2(
+ tan^
is
ex 1t'^
cy
2t
_^
The envelope
^2g2
^2g2
^2
2/^
_i
Since
:;
a^ + b^
r,
a^ + b^
r^
= a^  &2
this equation
represents a conic
Ex. 4. The normals at four points of an ellipse meet in a point if the line joining one pair of these points pass through a fixed point, prove that the line joining the other pair envelopes a parabola which touches the axes.
Let the equation to the
ellipse be
%*t=^
and
and
let
W'
(2), (3).
lx+m7j = l
lj^x
+ miy = l
^^^
By
(1),
we then have
11^=
*^%=~i^
(/, g),
W*
we have
BO that, by
(4),
X_^_=l,
1=
and therefore
r^
ENVELOPES.
If this value of
I
EXAMPLES.
(2), it
413
be substituted in
Wfx
becomes
 a^ft^)  d^g = 0,
 ^a?g a^&s^
.
 hjx 
a%Y =
{a^gy
(5)
This is a parabola since the terms of the second degree form a perfect square. Also, putting in succession x and y equal to zero, we get perfect squares, so that the parabola touches both axes.
437.
where the
relation
To find
the envelope
lx
quantities
I,
+ TYiy + n ^ m, and n
are
connected hy the
(2).
aP + hm? +
[Equation
cn^
+ Ifmn +
"Ignl
+ Vilm =
(1) contains
and
whilst (2)
is
We
on sub
stituting in (1)
should then have an equation containing one independent parameter and its envelope could then be found.
It
is easier,
we
Eliminating n between (1) and (2), we see that the equation to the straight line may be written in the form
aV'
htn^ \g(}x\
(Ix
+ my) + 2hlm =
I
0,
i. e.
(a
/ 2gx + cx^)
2 {cxy
gy fx + h)
^{h2fy + cf) = 0.
The envelope
{cxy  gy
i.e.,
of this
is,
by Art. 435,
(b
 2fy + cy\
on reduction,
x^ (be
D +
+ 2x{fhbg)^2y{ghaf) + abh'' = 0.
414
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
is
The envelope
Cor.
The envelope
a parabola
if
i. e.
if
0,
or
if
abc
%fgh
438.
Ex.
lohich subtend
Find the envelope of all chords of the parabola y^ = 4aa; a given angle a at the vertex.
Za3
Any
The
straight line is
+ m7/ + w =
{Ix
(1).
ny^ =  4:ax
+ my)
tana=
i.e.
2/J'ia^m^4aln
^^
n+4:al
jz
16a2Z2
With
a;2 (
by the
last article,
+ 2x
i.e.
the ellipse
[a;
EXAMPLES. XLIX.
Find the envelope of the
1.
straight line 
+ ^=1 when
p
aa + b^=c.
b^
2.
a + ^+s/aF+^=c.
a^
^'
^2
+ ^2=1
Find the envelope of a straight hne which moves so that the sum of the intercepts made by it on two given straight 4.
lines is constant.
5.
the
sum
drawn
to
it
from
constant.
is
Find the envelope of the straight line whose equation ax cos 9 + by sin 6 = c^.
; ;
[EXS. XLIX.]
ENVELOPES.
EXAMPLES.
415
Circles are described touching each of two given straight lines 8. prove that the polars of a given point with respect to these circles all touch a parabola.
From any point on a parabola perpendiculars P3I and 9. are drawn to the axis and tangent at the vertex; prove that the envelope of is another parabola.
FN
MN
10. Shew that the envelope of the chord which is common to the parabola y^=:4:ax and its circle of curvature is the parabola
y^ + 12ax = 0.
11. Perpendiculars are drawn to the tangents to the parabola y^=4:ax at the points where they meet the straight line x = b; prove that they envelope another parabola having the same focus.
12. A variable tangent to a given parabola cuts a fixed tangent in the point A ; prove that the envelope of the straight line through A perpendicular to the variable tangent is another parabola. 13. Shew that the envelope of chords of a parabola the tangents at the ends of which meet at a constant angle is, in general an ellipse.
14. A given parabola slides between two axes at right angles prove that the envelope of its latus rectum is a fixed circle. 15. Prove that the envelope of chords of an ellipse which subtend a right angle at its centre is a concentric circle. 16. If the lines joining any point P on an ellipse to the foci meet the curve again in Q and R, prove that the envelope of the line QE is the concentric and coaxal ellipse
x^ y^ fl
+ ey_
Prove that the envelope of chords of the rectangular hyperbola at the point (a?', y') on the curve, is the hyperbola
17.
18. Chords of a conic are drawn subtending a right angle at a fixed point 0. Prove that their envelope is a conic whose focus is and whose directrix is the polar of with respect to the original conic.
with 19. Shew that the envelope of the polars of a fixed point respect to a system of confocal conies, whose centre is 0, is a parabola having GO as directrix.
in
A given straight line meets one of a system of confocal conies and Q, and BS is the line joining the feet of the other two normals drawn from the point of intersection of the normals at P and
20.
RS
is
416
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
[ExS.
XLIX.]
is a rectangular sheet of paper, and it is folded over so 21. that G lies on the side AB ; prove that the envelope of the crease so formed is a parabola, whose focus is the initial position of G.
ABGD
whose centre is A, is traced on a sheet of paper and taken on the paper. If the paper be folded so that the circumference of the circle passes through B, prove that the envelope of the crease so formed is a conic whose foci are A and B.
22.
A circle,
any point
is
23.
In the conic
=lecos^
r
which
{x
+ a).
25. Prove that the envelope of the polar of any point on the circle {x\af+{y + hf=h'^ with respect to the circle x^+y^=c^ is the conic
h^
(a;2
26.
are
the origin and on these circles as diameters circles are described. Shew that the envelope of these circles is the two circles
h r \r
ecoBd
= le.
ANSWERS.,
I.
(Pages
3.
14, 15.)
4.
6.
1. 5.
5.
2.
13.
3V7.
s/aJ+b\
2a sin ^^.
9.
7.
15.
32^15.
(1,
17.
19.
18. 20.
34).
16).
2).
I).
^^
^+&
'
7'
h
l
V^
J'
'
abj'
^^\^
/c
+ Z+m
+ +m
(Pages
3.
II.'
18, 19.)
4. 2ac.
1.
5.
10.
a?.
2.
1.
29.
6.
2fl& sin
7.
8.
a2(w2n3)(m3mi)(miW2). la^im^m^im^m^ivi^m^. la'^ (mg  W3) (wig  wij) (m^  mg) f mjin^m^
201.
13.
14,
96.
III.
(Pages
22, 23.)
12.
17.
2^5.
13.
x/79.
14.
s/7a.
16.
1(83^3).
26.
'^.
r=2acose.
18.
iV3r cos 2^
25.
r^=ci\
29.
^=a.
^.
27.
28.
30.
33.
31.
= 2a sin ^. x^ + 2f = a^.
34.
{x^
r cos ^ = 2a sin^
32.
y = mx.
35.
38.
2/2
+ + 4flx = 4a2.
2/2)2z=a2(a;22/2).
35, 39.
a;i/
x'^if = a\
40.
^^  3x^2 L.
27
11
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
IV.
(Page
30.)
8.
2ax + k^=^0.
10.
12. 15. 18.
20. 22.
Oi2l)(a;2 + ?/+a2) + 2aa;{w2 + l) = 0. 9. + 4cV = c2(c24a2). H. {Qa2c) x = a^c\ + 5 = 0. 13. ^y + 2x + S = 0. 14. x + y = l. ^fi^J2x = 3.r. = x. 16. 17. 15a;22/2 + 2aa; = a2. y 19. .r2 + 2/2 = 3. + ^2^4y^ = 3?/2. 8a:2 + 8?/2 + 6;r36;c + 27=:0. 21.
4a;2(c24a2)
?/
fl^2
.'c2
X'\2ay =
a'^.
23.
(1) 4a;2+3?/2
+ 2a2/ = a2;
V.
(2) x''
(Pages
1.
y=x + l.
52/3a; + 9=:0.
(1)
a;^'
a;
2.
a;2/5 = 0.
5.
2a;
4.
7.
9.
+ 3y = 6.
8.
20?/
+ 2/ = ll;
(2)
2/a;=l.
10.
16.
18.
9a; = 96.
17.
15.
x\y=0.
19.
(2&) a;
20. 22.
23.
21. ^j(i + i2)2a;=:2fl^if2. X cos 1 (01 + 02) + 2/ sin i (01 + 02) = a cps J ^ 2/ 01 + 02 01 + 02 01 ~ 02 cos?^+sin^^=cos'^^^.
02).
24.
25.
26.
x + Sy
27.
28.
2/ sin J (0i + 02) = ab cos i (0i + 02). + 7 = 0; y3x=l; y + 7x = ll. 2xSy = 4:; ySx=l; x + 2y = 2. (a' a)x {V b) = a'b  ah' y {a'  a) J^x{b'b) = a'b'  ab. 1/ 2ay2b'x = aba'b'. 29. y = ^x\ 2?/ = 3x.
&a;
VI.
1.
(Pages
48, 49.)
3.
90.
2.
taniff.
tanif.
4.
60.
8.
4y + 3a; = 18.
a;
9.
7?/8rc = 118.
10.
a.r
4i/
+ lla;=10.
11.
+ 4?/ + 16 = 0.
(a  a')
12.
(6
ftr/
= a\
yy' = x'y'^.
13.
2a;
+ 2?/
15.
16.
17.
yx' xy' = 0;
xx'
121y88a; = 371;
a;
2/
33?/
24a; =1043.
19.
a;
20.
= 3; = ^;
2/
= 4;
4i.
2/
+ x/3a; = 0.
(lm2)(?/7f) = 2m(a;/i).
9a;7i/ = l;
7a;
21.
taniH;
+ 9?/ = 73.
ANSWEES.
VII.
1.
m
a^ 4.
(Pages
3.
53, 54.)
^.
2.
2f.
5^.
8.
+ abb^
b'^
Ja^ +
5.
a cos J (a /S).
^1 + m^
4(2 + ^3).
9.
^(&V^MT^), ol.
VIII.
/
11.
(Pages 6165.)
_a&_ a+6
 11
29"
41\
a& \
'
'297*
' + &;
,4.
^"
{a cos i (01 + 02) sec i (01 0o), asini (01 + 0^)860 i(0i 0^)}. / a{bb') 2bb' \ 130
\
b
+ b'
8.
= a',
^'
9.
17^29'
(1,1); 45.
10.
12. 14.
11.
13.
19.
45; (5, 3)
a; 3^ = 9; 2.r?/ = 8.
20.
and  f (4,3).
w?! (2
^3)
21.
(h/!^)25.
2/
43.i;29y = 71.
24.
27.
xy=ii.
a^yb^x=ab{ab).
28.
y = x.
a;
+ ?/ + 2 = 0.
30.
33.
(1)
 23?/ = 64.
is
'?/
+ C) = where A
^,,
(2)
;g7,
(3)
^,^, and
38.
99a;
(4)
^.^.^^y^ ^..
37.
y = 2', x = 6.
+ 77?/ + 71 = 0; 7a;9y37=0.
39.
40.
41.
x2y + = 0;
l
2x + y=:S.
^(2V23)+?/(x/2l) = 4V25;
42. 43.
44.
45.
+ ?/(V2 + l) = 4^2 + 5. {yb){m + m') + {xa){lmm') = 0; [y  6) (1  ?u7?i') {x a) (m + ?/t') = 0. 33a; + 9?/ = 31; 112ic 64?/ + 141 = 0; 7yx = 18. a;(3+V17)+2/(5 + V17) = 15 + 4^17; a;(4 + V10) + ?/(2 + ^10) = 4VlO + 12; a; (2 V34  3 V5) +2/ V34  5V5) = 6 V34  5 V5. A{yk)B{xh)=^{Ax + By + C).
a;(2V2 + 3)
(
x.
272
IV
COORDINATE GEOMETRY.
IX.
(Pages
72, 73.)
2.
I.
(1)
tani^;
(2)
15.
tan"!^^.
3.
7,
tani^^^tancj.
y = 0, y = xa, x = 2a, y = 2a, y = x + a, x = 0, y = x, x = a, and y = a, where a is the length of a side.
10. 12.
11.
11a;
+1=
^^
^IH(Pages 7880.)
5.
X.
4.
^
(7,3).
(ii, If);
mn^.^.^. ^^'S'^*'"^?lo
'
/85 + 7V5
\
(6
120"""'
2
'
7V527 \
357^5
120"
W^'J'
]
'
+ ^/10
2
+ VlO
2
/ 6^10
2
(
'
2V10\
3)
;
/8VlO
+ ^lO N
I
9.
j'V
and
11.
2"y'V
12.
 3, 4.
10.
(13^,194).
13.
f.
14.
^.
^ (w^a
15.
M&c)(ca)(a&).
(CiCo)2] iL ^ + (CsCi)2 + U 2^1
i3
16.
17.
^'^3)
{>^h
 ''^h)
(^'h
" 'm2)^2m^m^m^.
i(CiCo)2f
(f,f)10i/
Kwi225a;
,
18.
lf(C2Cs)^
oV^
23. 24.
26.
+ 32 + 43 = 0; (4 + iv/3, f + v/3)
52a;
+ 80i/ = 47.
XI.
1. 3.
5.
a;2 + 2a;?/cota2/2 = a2,
(7?i
(Pages 8587.)
2.
4.
?/2
?/''
+ l)a;=(ml)a.
2/
(w + ?i)
(a;2
7,
9.
10.
II.
12.
6. a;?/ = <icosec2. + = csec2. = 2ccosecw. j; + 8. 2/^ = 2ccosecw, a:2 + 2a;i/cosw + 2/^=4c2cosec2w. (& cos w + a). (^^ + y^) cos w + a;?/ (1 + cos^ w) = a; [a cos w + &) + a;(m + cosw)+i/(l+?cosw) = 0. ai/2 + &a;2+(a + &)ic?/a?/(a + 2&)&a;(2rt + 6) + a&(a + 6) = 0; (i)
.T ?/ 2/
(ii)
y=a;.
centre 0.
19.
straight line.
20.
circle,
27.
If
P he the
point
[h, k),
h a;
, +  = 1.
2/
ANSWERS.
XII.
1.
V
94.)
(Page
3.
5.
{xSy){x'iy) = 0;ta.n'^^\. 2. {2.t ll?/)(2a;?/) = 0; tani J. x = l ; x = 2', x = 3. (lla; + 2y)(3a;7i/)=0; taniff. 4. 6. {y + ^x){y2x){ySx) = 0;ia.n^{^);t&n^{}). 2/= 4.
7.
a;(lsin^)+?/cos^ = 0;
r/siii^
a;
{l
+ sin^) + ^cos^ = 0;
0.
8. 9.
+ a;cos^= a;^/cos2^; tan^ (cosec^ Aycos2^). x^y"^0', Ux^ + Hxy 71y^ = 0\ 12x^7xy12y^ = 0;
x^y^=0.
XIII.
(Pages
(2, 1);
98, 99.)
3.
2.
1,
(I,
);45.
2. 6.
tanif.
7.
4.
9.
15.
11.
(i)
8.
6.
12.
14.
{ii)
3.
14. 17.
+ e.'c^se;
16. 5?/6a;=14.
c{a + h) = 0;
= 0,
ox ae
= bd.
1.
(1) i/'2=4a;';
(2)
112.)
2.
3.
(1)
4.
5.
+ 2/'2=:2ca;'; (2) x'^ + y'^=2cy\ (a&)2(a;'2 + ^'2) = a262. y'^ = l. (1) 2x'y' + a^=0; 9x'^ + 25y'^ = 225', x'^ + 6. x"^ + 2j"^ = r^', x'^y'^=a^cos2a.
a;'2
a;'^
 4?/'2 = ^2.
8.
tanij;
C^^^M^a,
XVI.
(Page 117.) a;'2 + ^3a;y = l.
x'^
1.
2x'^Qy' + l=::0.
?/'2=4a;'cosec2a.
2.
3.
+ y'^=8.
4.
XVII.
I
3^
5.
(Pages 123125.)
2.
a;2 a;^
x^ + y^ + 2x4:y
4.
l);ix/l3.
9.
(^
o)
^
'
^
8.
{o,f);Jp+g'15a;2 &(a;2
(7^. 7tT=0
a:2
'"
13.
14.
21.
+ 15?/2 94.^ + 18^ + 55=0. ^5^ + 2/2a2) = a;(&2 + ;i2_^2), a;2 + 7/222a;4?/ + 25 = 0. 17. 3a;2 + 3?/229a;19?/ + 56 = 0. & (a;2 + 7/2) _ (a2 + &2) ^ + (a _ 6) (a2 + 1) = 0. a;2 + ?/2_3a;_42/=0.
VI
COORDINATE GEOMETKY.
23.
25. 27.
28. 30.
31.
33. 36.
+ y^hxky = 0. 24. x^ + if2ijja^b^=b'^. + 2/2_iOa;10?/ + 25 = 0. 26. a;2 + 2/22aa;2a?/ + a2=0. ^2 + 2/2 + 2(5^^12) + 2/) + 3710Vl2 = 0. x^ + y^ex + 4y + 9 = 0. 29. 6 (a;2 + 2/2)=a; (ft^ + c^). a;2 + i/2+6V22/6a; + 9 = 0. x^ + y^3x + 2 = 0; 2x^ + 2y^5x ^Sy + S = 0; 2x^ + 2y^7xjSy + Q = 0. {a;+21)2 + + 13)2=652. 34. 8a;2 + 8y2  25a; 3^/ + 18=0. a;2 + i/2=a2 + &2; x'^ + y^2{a + b)x + 2{ab)y + a'^ + h^ = 0.
cc'^
a;2
{a;
(i/
XVin.
1. 3. 5.
5a;
a;
12^ = 152.
+ 2i/=2V5.
;j2)'
x + 2y
c
[^^
fc
= a;(0,
7.
Yes.
8.
= 40or10.
9.
10. 11.
(2)
m?/
a;
(4)
+ = a ^/f+m^ + = aV2.
a;
i/
12.
13.
a;2
+ ,/V2aa; = 0;
a;2
+ 2/2V2?/ = 0.
14.
15. 16. 17.
19.
aj^
a:2
5a;2
{xifV{yhY=r''.
20.
XIX.
1.
(Pages 144,
8a;2y = ll.
145.)
3. 6.
9.
x + 2y = 7.
23a;
(I.
2. 5.
x = 0.
(5,10).
(i,
4.
7.
+ 5?/ = 57.
byax = a\
(1,2).
(6,
tU
8.
i).
10.
(2a, 26).
11.
V).
12.
18. 23.
3?/2a;=13; (W,W)
13.
(2,1).
14. 21.
a;'2
+ ^'23,2a2.
2)
;
iV46.