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HEMT Simulations

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Department of ECE, NITC
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction:
High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) is also known as Heterostructure
Field Effect Transistor (HFET) or Modulation-doped Field Effect Transistor
(MODFET), is a Field Effect Transistor (FET) incorporating a junction between two
different materials with different band gaps (i.e. a heterojunction) as the channel
instead of a doped region, as is generally the case for Metal Oxide Field Effect
Transistor (MOSFET). It is a device that exploits the high electron mobility in an
undoped region to achieve high speed operation. Film deposition technique like
epitaxy is used to create undoped region, then narrow undoped region, when applied
a MBE electron well which forms the channel for current flow. Electrons from
suitable bias, work as a quantum mechanical surrounding doped regions of the device
are trapped in the quantum well resulting in a high concentration of electrons in the
channel. This channel is below the surface of the device and separated from surface
which reduces surface scattering. As the doping in the channel is uninitiated, lack of
scattering sites in the channel results in high electron mobility. In addition, the
channel itself is normally constructed from a material which possesses high mobility
such as InGaAs. A commonly used material combination is GaAs with AlGaAs, in
this work combination of GaAs (substrate), InGaAs (channel) with AlGaAs used.
This combination is known as pseudomorphic HEMT (PHEMT) [1]. InGaAs channel
is epitaxially grown on a GaAs substrate. Second variant is AlInAs/GaInAs HEMTS
grown lattice-matched on InP substrates. These two combinations used in
pseudomorphic HEMT.




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Department of ECE, NITC
CHAPTER 2
COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS
This chapter discusses the classification of Semiconductors and then
compound semiconductor properties are discussed. Hetero junction function is
discussed along with HEMT operation. Semiconductors can be broadly classified into
two categories.
1. Elemental semiconductors
2. Compound semiconductors.
Elemental semiconductors C, Si, Ge, Sn are widely used in VLSI application.
However, Due to their inferior properties of compound semiconductors are when both
electronic and mechanical properties are better when compared to elemental
semiconductors.
2.1 Types of Compound Semiconductors:
Compound semi conductors are semiconductor materials obtained by mixing
two or more elements. To get a compound semiconductor from different elements the
following criterions must be satisfied.
1. The average valence should be four.
2. Mole fraction contribution group should be same that of its complimentary
group.
3. There shouldnt be any chemical any chemical compound formation or
chemical reaction between different elements which are used in compound
semiconductor.
4. Band gap of resultant material should be in the range of semiconductor
band gap.
5. Conductivity modulation by doping.
6. The bonding should be of more covalent than ionic.
Depending up on the number of elements, compound semiconductors are classified
into three categories. They are
1. Binary
2. Ternary
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Department of ECE, NITC
3. Quaternary.
2.1.1 Binary Compound Semiconductors:
These are the alloys formed between two compatible elements of periodic
table. Binary compound result from II VI, III V and IV IV group conversions.
Group Element Compound semiconductor
II Zn, Cd ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe
CdTe VI S,Se,Te
III Al, Ga, In AlN, AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaN, GaP,
GaAs, GaSb, InN, InP, InAs, InSb V N, P, As, Sb
IV C, Si, Ge Si, SiGe
Table.2.1. Provides a comprehensive list of Binary compound
semiconductors
Band gap and lattice constant of a binary compound semiconductors is constant.
2.1.2 Ternary Compound Semiconductors:
Ternary compounds are generally an extension of binary compound
semiconductors, one of the elements replaced with two elements from the same group
and the atomic composition or mole fraction under consideration between those
elements is varied from 0 to 100%. Few examples of ternary compound
semiconductors are In
x
Ga
1-x
As and Al
x
Ga
1-x
As compounds. x is known as mole
fraction.
As the atomic composition in varied, the chemical composition varies as
electronic composition varies. This result is different electrical and mechanical
properties of the semiconductor. As a result the lattice constant, band gap, dielectric
constant and intrinsic carrier concentration variation. This unique property can be
used in designing and controlling field in a compound semiconductor.

HEMT Simulations

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Department of ECE, NITC
2.1.3 Quaternary Compound Semiconductors:
Quaternary compound semiconductors are made by combining from elements
generally from columns III and V are mixed to obtain compound semiconductor.
Widely used compound semiconductor is Ga
x
In
1-x
As
1-y
P
y
. As the mole fraction is
varies different properties can be varies. The In/Ga and As/P ratios may be varied
independently. GaInAsP is used for near-infrared laser diodes employed in optical
communication [2].
2.2 General Properties:
GaAs, In
x
Ga
1-x
As and Al
x
Ga
1-x
As are the semiconductors considered in this
study. So the properties of their semiconductors are studied in detail. Fig. 2.1 shows
energy band gap versus lattice constant for various semiconductors. It can be seen
that lattice constant of Si and GaAs are very close. In HEMT devices, generally GaAs
is used as substrate and InGaAs or GaAs is used as the channel region. In this work
mole fraction discusses In 0.15 and mole fraction of Al is 0.2.

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Department of ECE, NITC
Fig.2.1. Energy band gap Vs lattice constant [3]


2.2.1. Energy Band Gap:
The energy band gap as a function of In content x in In
x
Ga
1-x
As at room
temperature given by eqn. (2.1) [4]
E
g
( x) = 1.425 1.501x + 0.436x
2
(2.1)
Eqn. (2.1) is plotted for different mole fraction x and is shown in Fig.2.2.
Energy Band Gap of In
0.15
Ga
0.85
As is 1.209 eV.
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Department of ECE, NITC

Fig.2.2. variation of E
g
in In
x
Ga
1-x
As alloys
The energy band gap as a function of Al content x in Al
x
Ga
1-x
As at room
temperature is given by eqn. (2.2) and eqn. (2.3). [5]
E
g,dIr
( x) = 1.422 eV + x 1.2475 eV (x<0.45) (2.2)

E
g,IndIr
( x) = 1.9 eV + 0.125x eV + 0.143x
2
eV (x>0.45) (2.3)

In Fig.2.3 where eqn. (2.2) shows direct band gap and eqn. (2.3) shows indirect it is
worth to note that the semiconductor changes from direct to indirect band gap on the
Al mole fraction in curve beyond 0.45.
Energy Band Gap of Al
0.2
Ga
0.8
As is 1.675 eV.
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Department of ECE, NITC

Fig.2.3. variation of Eg in Al
x
Ga
1-x
As alloys
2.2.2 Lattice Constants:
Lattice constant of the binary compound semiconductors are fixed and ternary
compound semiconductors changes with a change in mole fraction. Lattice constant
(a) as a function of In content x in In
x
Ga
1-x
As given by eqn. (2.4)
a = 6.0583 0.405x (2.4)
Lattice Constant of In
0.15
Ga
0.85
As is 5.714.
Lattice Constant as a function of In content x in Al
x
Ga
1-x
As given by eqn. (2.5)
a = 5.6533 + 0.0078x (2.5)
Lattice Constant of Al
0.2
Ga
0.8
As is 5.65486 .
2.2.3 Dielectric Constant:
Dielectric constant of the binary compound semiconductors are fixed and
ternary compound semiconductors are varies with mole fraction. Dielectric constant
(e
r
) as a function of In content x in In
x
Ga
1-x
As given by eqn. (2.6)
e
r
= 15.1 2.87 x + 0.67 x
2
(2.6)
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Department of ECE, NITC
Dielectric Constant of In
0.15
Ga
0.85
As is 13.144.
Dielectric Constant as a function of In content x in Al
x
Ga
1-x
As given by eqn. (2.7)
e
r
= 12.90 2.84x (2.7)
Dielectric Constant of Al
0.2
Ga
0.8
As is 12.322.
2.2.4 Intrinsic Carrier Concentration:
Intrinsic carrier concentration (n
i
) of the binary compound semiconductors are
fixed and ternary compound semiconductors are varies with mole fraction. n
i
as a
function of In content x in In
x
Ga
1-x
As given by eqn. (2.8)
n
I
= 4.82 x 10
15
j( 0.41 0.09x)
3
2
+ ( 0.027 + 0.047x)
3
2
[
1
2
( 0.025 +
0.043x)
3/ 4
j T
3
2
exp
( -
v
2
)
[1 +
3.75
v
+
3.28
v
2

2.46
v
3

1
2
[ (2.8)
Where v =
E
g
2kT

Where it should be noted that E
g
varies as x.
Intrinsic carrier concentration of In
0.15
Ga
0.85
As is 6.99x10
7
/cm
3

Intrinsic carrier concentration as a function of Al
x
Ga
1-x
As given by eqn. (2.9) and
eqn. (2.10)
n
I
= 4.82 x 10
15
j( 0.3213 + 0.05808 + 0.02075x
2
)
3
2
[
1
2
_ T
3
2
exp
( -
E
g
2k T
)
_ x<0.41 (2.9)
Where it should be noted that E
g
varies as x.
n
I
= 4.82 x 10
15
( 0.85 o. 14x)
3
2
_ T
3
2
exp
( -
E
g
2k T
)
_ x>0.41 (2.10)
Where eqn. (2.9) is a direct band gap and eqn. (2.10) is an indirect.
Intrinsic carrier concentration of Al
0.2
Ga
0.8
As is 4.8806 x 10
4
/cm
3


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Department of ECE, NITC
Different semiconductors are formed between different materials, there
junctions will be discussed.
2.3 Hetero junctions:
Hetero junction is a junction formed by two dissimilar semiconductor
materials, across the junction, one semiconductor material will have larger band gap
(denoted by capital letter) and other material will have narrow band gap (denoted by
small letter). Depending upon the conductivity type across the junction, hetero
junction can be classified into iso type and aniso-type. Depending upon the band
alignment, Hetero junctions can be classified into three categories. They are
1. Type I
2. Type II
3. Type III
2.3.1 Type I:
Type I heterostructure is the most common. In type I hetero junction, both
conduction band and valence band of narrow band gap material lie completely
between conduction band and valence band of wide band gap material. Schematic
band gap diagram of type I hetero junction is shown in Fig.2.4. An important example
of a type I heterostructure is the GaAsAlGaAs materials system. In a type I
Heterostructure, the sum of the conduction band and valence band edge
discontinuities is equal to the energy gap difference,
E
g
= E
c
+ E
v
(2.11)


Fig.2.4. Type I hetero junction [6]
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Department of ECE, NITC

2.3.2 Type II:
In Type II hetero junction, only one of conduction band or valence band of
narrow band material is in between the conduction band and valence band of the wide
band gap material. Schematic band representation of type II material is shown in
Fig.2.5. The band gap discontinuity in this case is given as the difference between the
conduction band and valence band edge discontinuities. A type II Heterostructure is
formed by Al
0:48
In
0:52
As and InP.


Fig.2.5. Type II hetero junction

2.3.3 Type III:
Type III heterostructure, both conduction band and valence band of narrow
band material never lie between conduction band and valence band of wide band gap
material. Schematic band representation of type III is shown in Fig.2.7. Example of
type III hetero structure is GaSb and InAs.
As for the type II case, the band gap discontinuity is equal to the difference
between the conduction band and valence band edge discontinuities. Certainly, one of
the most important Heterostructure is that formed between GaAs and AlAs or its
related ternary compounds, AlGaAs. The GaAsAlGaAs heterostructure has the
additional feature of close lattice matching. Two materials that have nearly identical
lattice constants are when used to form a Heterostructure. If the materials are not
lattice matched, the lattice mismatch can be accommodated through strain or by the
formation of misfit dislocations.
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Department of ECE, NITC

Fig.2.6. Type III hetero junction
2.4 Band diagram and conduction band discontinuity:
Fig.2.7. n-p junction energy band diagram (equilibrium condition).

When the doping applied n
+
on n side, lightly doped on p type then apply a
gate voltage, Fermi level reach above the conduction band edge (E
c
). The
discontinuity and band bending takes place such that the charge at the n side interface
is a minimum. This forces the neutral levels E
0
on either side of the junction to align
and lineup and in-turn determines band offset.

E
0
that position may not exact but
close to each other. With respect to Donor level occupied is neutral and unoccupied is
positive.

Fig2.8. band diagram with neutral level
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Department of ECE, NITC

With respect to acceptor level, unoccupied is neutral and occupied is negative.
The neutral level lineup does not occur, charge transfer takes place between the states
on either side of the interface and this would create a dipole field. From the energy
considerations the system favors dipole minimization and therefore equalization of E
0

levels. In the hetero junction a band bending take place such that the conduction band
edge in the neutral region of InGaAs is raised by E
c
so that net electron flow in
thermal equilibrium is zero. Therefore the potential drop |
S
in InGaAs in thermal
equilibrium is higher than in the homogeneous junction by E
c
/q.
( ) ( )
c
E
Hetero Homo
S S
q

A
= +
(2.12)
Due to the discontinuity E
c
in the conduction band of InGaAs and GaAs, the
band bending in the undoped InGaAs is more in the GaAs homojunctions of similar
doping levels. Due to this effect, large concentrations of electrons are present at the
InGaAs surface adjacent to GaAs and they remain there due to notch in the
conduction band. The electrons have actually been supplied from GaAs layer which
has been doped. These electrons are in the In
0.2
Ga
0.8
As region where doping
concentration is low.
2.5 Strain at Heterointerfaces:
Bulk crystalline semiconductor is that it exhibits perfect or nearly perfect
translational symmetry. In other words, suitable translations of the basic unit cell of a
crystal restore the crystal back into itself. Atoms within the crystal are regularly
spaced throughout the entire bulk sample. This assumption is true for bulk materials.
However, two important exceptions can arise. The first is that a bulk crystal can
include impurities and dislocations such that the perfect periodicity of the material is
disrupted locally. The crystal can still retain its overall highly ordered structure, yet
contain local regions in which perfect periodicity is disrupted by impurities or
dislocations. These impurities and dislocations can significantly affect the properties
of the material. The second situation arises in multilayered structures. Crystal growth
technology has enabled the growth of thin layers of heterogeneous semiconductor
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Department of ECE, NITC
material called Heterostructure. Using exacting crystal growth procedures,
Heterostructure can be grown with atomic layer precision. A very thin layer of
material can be grown on top of or sandwiched between layers grown with a different
type of semiconductor material, even materials in which the lattice constant is
different. When a thin layer of material is grown either on or between layers of a
different semiconductor that has a significantly different lattice constant, the thin,
epitaxial layer will adopt the lattice constant of the neighboring layers provided that
the lattice mismatch is less than about 10% as can be seen from Figure 2.9, When the
thin, epitaxial layer adopts the lattice constant of the surrounding layers, it becomes
strained, i.e., it is either compressed or expanded from its usual bulk crystal shape.
There exists a maximum thickness of the thin layer below which the lattice mismatch
can be accommodated through strain. For layer thickness above the critical thickness,
the lattice mismatch cannot be accommodated through strain, dislocations are
produced and the strain relaxes as is seen in Fig.2.10.
The strain within the layer is homogeneous. The strained layer can be in either
compressive or tensile strain. If the lattice constant of the strained layer is less than
that of the surrounding layers the system is in tension. Conversely, if the lattice
constant of the strained layer is greater than that of the surrounding layers, the
strained layer is in compression. Heterojunctions may be comprised of
Pseudomorphic layers in which one of the layers is lattice mismatched and coherent,
or elastically strained. For a given strain, determined by the lattice mismatch, a
maximum thickness exists, called the critical thickness h
c
, for the strained layer to be
completely coherent with the substrate. The critical thickness has a minimum under
conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, but can be enhanced by the epitaxial
process. For thicknesses greater than the critical thickness, dislocations are created to
reduce the energy of the system. These dislocations can significantly degrade device
performance and reliability.
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Department of ECE, NITC

Fig.2.9. Thin epitaxial layer strained to accommodate the various lattice constants of
the underlying semiconductor layer

Fig.2.10. The epitaxial layer is thicker than the critical thickness and dislocations
appear at the interface




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Department of ECE, NITC
2.6 Pseudomorphic Growth on GaAs Substrate:
Pseudomorphic growth was first investegated by methews and
Blakeslee.he is experiments with alternating layers of GaAs and GaAsP to derive a
theoritical expression for critical layer thickness (h
c)
which canot be exceeded if
misfit dislocations must be avoided.the thickness hc upto which the mismatch of the
In
x
Ga
1-x
As layer can be accomodated by elastic strain is given by eqn. (2.13)
0.07x =
a[1-
o
4
[ In_h
c
2
a
]+1]
22 h
C
( 1+o)
(2.13)
Where x is the indium content, a is GaAs lattice constant (a=0.565nm), and o is
poissons ratio (0.23 for GaAs). For x=0, the growth is lattice matched, magnitude of
h
C
is infinite (same as AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT). For large x critical thickness is only a
few nanometers. Quantum wells that are too narrow contain only a small number of
charge carriers, and the transport properties of these carriers are degraded due to
excessive interface scatering. Transistor performnance is found x=0.2 and a thickness
12nm. Transsistor performnance is number of transistors in the channel and carrier
mobility.
2.7 Compound Semiconductor Properties:
Properties of compound semiconductors will be discussed below. In this work
I will discuss GaAs, Al
x
Ga
1-x
As, In
x
Ga
1-x
As material properties. Mole fraction of
Al
x
Ga
1-x
As is 0.2 and In
x
Ga
1-x
As is 0.15.





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Department of ECE, NITC
2.7.1 Basic parameters:
Property GaAs Al
0.2
Ga
0.8
As In
0.15
Ga
0.85
As
Crystal structure Zinc Blende Zinc Blende Zinc Blende,
Cubic
Group of symmetry T
d
2
-F43m T
d
2
-F43m T
d
2
-F43m
Number of atoms in (/cm
3
) 4.42x10
22
4.386x10
22
2.8845x10
22

Debye temperature(K) 360 381.68 373.5
Density(g/cm
3
) 5.32 5.008 5.3655
Dielectric constant (static ) 12.9 12.332 13.144
Dielectric constant (high frequency) 10.89 10.344 11.11
Effective electron mass m
e
0.063m
o
0.0796 m
o
0.0566 m
o

Effective hole masses m
h
0.51m
o
0.56m
o
0.495 m
o

Effective hole masses m
lp
0.082m
o
0.0956 m
o
0.0736 m
o

Electron affinity (eV) 4.07 3.85 4.1945
Lattice constant() 5.65325 5.65486 5.714
Optical phonon energy (eV) 0.035 0.03725 -
Table.2.2. Compound semiconductor basic parameters [4,7, 8]
2.7.2 Electrical properties:
Property GaAs Al
0.2
Ga
0.8
As In
0.15
Ga
0.85
As
Breakdown field (V/cm) 4x10
5
(4-6) x10
5
(2-4)x10
5

Mobility electrons (cm
2
/V.sec)

8500 4000 33,000
Mobility holes (cm
2
/V.sec) 400 205.6 ~300-400
Diffusion coefficient electrons (cm
2
/s) 200 100 171.6
Diffusion coefficient holes (cm
2
/s) 10 5.14 7-12
Electron thermal velocity (m/s) 4.4x10
5
3.98x10
5
4.56x10
5

Table.2.3. Compound semiconductor electrical parameters


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Department of ECE, NITC
2.8 Potential Well and Two Dimensional Electron Gas:
Different compound semiconductors are epitaxially grown on device their
Band gaps and electron affinity are different so that the interface forms a
discontinuity and potential well is created. AlGaAs and InGaAs forms Triangular
potential well. Electrons in the interface of two regions are confined in this well it
forms Two-Dimensional Electron Gas (2DEG). 2DEG is a gas of electrons free to
move in two dimensions, but tightly confined in the third. This tight confinement
leads to quantized energy levels for motion in that direction, which can then be
ignored for most problems. Thus the electrons appear to be a 2D sheet embedded in a
three dimensional (3D) world. Dopants placed in AlGaAs layer. Due to the energy
band structure, electrons from these dopants are confined to the channel layer where
they form 2DEG. The sheet carrier density of 2DEG and the electron mobility
measured at room temperature are 2.1x10
12
cm
2
and 8600 cm
2
/V s, respectively.
Electrons are confined in the channel device operated in inversion region.

2.9 HEMT Structure:
HEMT channel is undoped and physically removed from the ionized donors,
and because the electrons travel in the quantum well parallel to the heterointerface,
the HEMT electron mobilities are more typical of ultra-pure bulk semiconductors. It
should be noted that p-type modulation doping is also feasible though there is wide
variation, dependent on the application of the device. Devices incorporating more
indium generally show better high-frequency performance [9], while in recent years;
GaN HEMTs have attracted attention due to their high-power performance [10]. To
allow conduction, semiconductors are doped with impurities which donate mobile
electrons (or holes). However, these electrons are slowed down through collisions
with the impurities (dopants) used to generate them in the first place. HEMTs avoid
this through the use of high mobility electrons generated using the heterojunction of a
highly-doped wide-band gap n-type donor-supply layer (AlGaAs in our example) and
a non-doped narrow-band gap channel layer with no dopant impurities (InGaAs in
this case).
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Department of ECE, NITC
The electrons generated in the thin n-type AlGaAs layer drop completely into
the InGaAs layer to form a depleted AlGaAs layer, because the heterojunction created
by different band-gap materials forms a quantum well (a steep canyon) in the
conduction band on the InGaAs side where the electrons can move quickly without
colliding with any impurities because the InGaAs layer is undoped, and from which
they cannot escape. The effect of this is to create a very thin layer of highly mobile
conducting electrons with very high concentration, giving the channel very low
resistivity (or to put it another way, "high electron mobility"). This layer is called a
Two-Dimensional Electron Gas (2DEG). As with all the other types of FETs, a
voltage applied to the gate alters the conductivity of this layer. Ordinarily, the two
different materials used for a heterojunction must have the same lattice constant
(spacing between the atoms). In semiconductors, these discontinuities form deep-
level traps, and greatly reduce device performance. HEMT formed from different
components of elements are called compound semiconductors. Basic HEMT diagram
is shown in below fig.2.11.


Fig.2.11. HEMT basic block diagram
Different combinations of HEMT are as shown in Table.2.4.


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Department of ECE, NITC
Cap layer GaAs GaAs
In
y
Ga
1-y
As
(y=0.53)
In
y
Ga
1-y
As
(y=0.53)
Barrier
Al
x
Ga
1-x
As
(x<0.23)
Al
x
Ga
1-x
As
(x<0.23)
In
x
Al
1-x
As
(x=0.52)
In
x
Al
1-x
As
(x=0.52)
spacer Al
x
Ga
1-x
As Al
x
Ga
1-x
As In
x
Al
1-x
As In
x
Al
1-x
As
Channel
GaAs(lattice
matched)
In
y
Ga
1-y
As
(y<0.2)
In
y
Ga
1-y
As
(y=0.53)
In
y
Ga
1-y
As
(y>0.53)
Substrate GaAs GaAs InP InP
Conduction band
discontinuity (eV)
0.2 0.3 0.52 >0.52
Valence band
discontinuity (eV)
0 0.12 0.52 >0.52
Remarks
Historically first
HEMT
Single
Heterojunction
PHEMT on
GaAs
Standard HEMT
on InP
Advanced
HEMT on InP
Table.2.4. HEMT different combinations [1]

In this work single hetero junction pseudomorphic HEMT technique is used.
2.10 Working of HEMT:
In this topic Band diagram, Gate functionality, operation of HEMT discussed.
2.10.1 Band Diagram:
Two semiconductors with different energy band gaps are grown on each other,
discontinuities of the conduction and valence band edges arise at the heterointerface.
Two semiconductors with different band gap energies are joined together the
difference is divided up into a band gap offset in the valence band E
V
and a band
gap offset in the conduction band E
C
. In most cases conduction band offset between
adjacent layers E
C
is close to 2/3 of the total band gap difference E
g
. One of the
most common made assumptions for the AlGaAs/InGaAs material system is 40 %
valence band offset and 60 % conduction band offset. This is only valid for Al
contents below about 45 %. For higher Al contents the band gap of AlGaAs changes
from direct to indirect. Energy band diagram with gate voltage is -0.6 V as shown i n
Fi g.2.12. AlGaAs layer electron concentration increased from top to bottom. Sudden
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Department of ECE, NITC
discontinuity is due to change of compound semiconductors. The conduction band of
the channel relative to the Fermi level E
F
is determined by E
C
, the doping level N
D
,
the barrier height of the Schottky contact (qF
B
), the gate to channel separation, and
the applied voltage on the gate V
GS.
Gate voltage is 0 compare to -0.6 volts
conduction band discontinuity is more and more number of electrons are confined in
the channel. Up to 0.6 um AlGaAs layer there electron concentration increases and
later 0.6 to 0.7 um InGaAs channel where 2DEG formed and after GaAs substrate
region electron concentration decreases. InGaAs layer is to provide better electron
confinement and superior electron transport characteristics. In these devices, the sheet
concentration of 2DEG is increased over comparable AlGaAs /GaAs structures due to
the increase of the conduction band-edge discontinuities at the heterojunctions.
Electron mobility and steady state saturation velocity in InGaAs are intrinsically
higher than those in GaAs. There are only two controllable parameters that exert a
strong influence on the electron density: the donor density and the conduction-band
discontinuity. Band diagram of HEMT applied voltages -0.6 and 0 volts as shown in
Fig.2.12 and Fig.2.13.

Fig.2.12 Band Diagram applied gate voltage is -0.5 V
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Department of ECE, NITC

Fig.2.13. Band Diagram applied gate voltage is 0 volts
2.10.2 Gate Functionality:
A Schottky barrier is a rectifying metal semiconductor contact while ohmic
contact has linear relationship between the voltage and current, Schottky contact in
equilibrium. There is no current flow in equilibrium and that gradient of Fermi level
is zero. So Fermi level is flat everywhere in equilibrium. At the metal-semiconductor
in equilibrium the Fermi levels must align. Consider the behavior of metal first Fermi
level lies above the conduction band edge. The energy needed that an electron be
ionized, escape from the metal and enter the vacuum level, is called the work function
energy or q|
m
. Most of the conduction electrons within the metal are at energy
reasonably close to the Fermi level. Therefore Work function is the energy difference
between the vacuum level and Fermi level. In a nondegenerate semiconductor their
Fermi level doesnt lie above the conduction band edge but some is somewhere in the
forbidden gap. The semiconductor work function is also difference between the Fermi
level and vacuum level. Since most of the electrons in semiconductors are not at the
Fermi level, it is known as electron affinity.
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Department of ECE, NITC
2.10.3 HEMT Operation:
Current flowing through the device is depends on electron concentration in the
channel. Its controlled gate Schottky barrier diode formed on AlGaAs. Drain current
flow due to electron transport through the n-type AlGaAs layer should be avoided by
ensuring that this layer is fully depleted wider in gate region. This voltage is known
OFF-voltage. It is same as like threshold voltage in MOSFET. Voltage required to
turnoff the depletion. HEMT AlGaAs doped layer should not be use for conducting
otherwise current flows through it. Only channel layer is used for current transport.
Current flow in the device should take place only through electron in the notch. They
are high mobility electron. Electron concentration can be reduced by decreasing the
potential drop on the P-side. It is possible by forward bias the AlGaAs and InGaAs.
That voltage is AE
C
/q. OFF-voltage is the difference between voltage required to
depleted to entire region is Vbi-Vpo where Vpo is pinch of voltage, Vbi is the build
in potential and Remove charges in InGaAs(no conduction of electrons). voltage
required to depleted to entire region is Vbi-Vpo where Vpo is pinch of voltage, Vbi is
the build in potential. and Remove charges in InGaAs(no conduction of electrons) is
E
C
/q. Vpo is pinch of voltage depletes the channel completely.
V( OFF) = V
bI
V
p0
(
E
C
q
) (2.11)
V
bI
=
KT
q
l n
N
A
N
D
n

2
(2.12)

V
p0
=
qN
D
a
2
2

0
(2.13)
where a is GaAs layer thickness and N
D
is dopant density of AlGaAs. Whenever
reverse gate voltage is applied, the conducting channel between the source and drain
can be choked off completely, under these conditions, the device is said to be in
pinch-off.
Depends on OFF-voltage weather the device is depletion or enhancement decided.
Gate voltage is less than OFF-voltage device is depletion mode and gate voltage is
greater than OFF-voltage device in enhancement mode. ve voltage on gate will
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Department of ECE, NITC
widen the depletion layer belongs to schottky barrier and narrow down the depletion
layer width of heterojunction. So band bending in In
0.2
Ga
0.8
As layer reduces causing a
reduction in the electron concentration in the 2DEG channel. charge at the channel is
Cs(V
GS
-V(OFF))

Fig.2.14 Charge distribution and band diagram of fully depleted HEMT [11]
Drain current I
d
=

n
c
s
w
2L
( V
GS
V
OFF
)
2
(2.14)
Transconductance g
m
=

n
c
s
w
L
( V
GS
V
OFF
) (2.15)
C
S
=

r

s
u
(2.16)
Drain current and Trans conductance are depends on mole fraction and
AlGaAs layer thickness and doping concentration of barrier. To Fix the OFF-voltage
it is depends on pinch-off voltage. Pinch off voltage depend on AlGaAs layer doping
concentration. If increase the thickness AlGaAs layer doping is also increase then
only fix OFF-voltage. Doping is up to 10
18
/cm
3
maximum possible. Spacer layer
thickness increases their C
S
falls and g
m
also falls, so spacer layer thickness is

not
more increases 20 to 40. Conduction band discontinuity higher 2DEG
concentration increases so improves the mobility. It depends on Al content.
E
C
= 0.6( E
g1
E
g2
) (2.17)
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Department of ECE, NITC
E
g1
varies with Al content. Band gap increases with Al content. Al mole fraction
greater than 0.3 the layer defects increases. Dx centers are introduced, which are
electron traps. And also very difficult to form a ohmic contact to AlGaAs layer. Metal
work function is equal 0.67(E
g1
-E
g2
).
Finally spacer layer thickness is 20 to 40.
AlGaAs doping layer upper limit is 10
18
/Cm
3
, Al mole fraction is 0.2.
2.11 Comparisons of Compound Semiconductors:
Compound semiconductors Gallium Arsenide, Indium Phosphate and Gallium
Nitride compare with Silicon and Germanium. Mobility of Compound
semiconductors is high except silicon carbide. Mobility is high GaAs is
8500cm
2
/V.sec. Hole mobility is almost same for all materials except germanium
1900 cm
2
/V.sec. Saturation velocities and breakdown fields are more for compound
semiconductors. Energy gap of SiC is 3.26 electron volts is more and Ge is 0.66 is
least and also compound semi conductors band gaps are more. Structures of Si and
Ge are diamond lattice, InP and GaAs are zincblende, SiC and GaN are wurtzite
lattice structure. HEMT, MESFET, HBT are prepared from Compound
semiconductors while MOSFET and BJT prepare from Silicon and Germanium. Cost
prototype is high for GaN and SiC, low for silicon







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Department of ECE, NITC
Properties Si Sic Inp GaAs GaN Ge
Electron Mobility
(cm
2
/V-s)
1500 700 5400 8500
1000-
2000
3900
Hole Mobility
(cm
2
/V-s)
475 - 150 400 - 1900
Peak saturated
electron velocity
(10
7
cm/sec)
1 2 2 2.1 2.1 1
Energy Gap at
300K (eV)
1.12 3.26 1.35 1.424 3.49 0.66
Breakdown Field
(V/cm)
3 x 10
5
3 x 10
6
.5 10
5
4 x 10
5
3 x 10
6
1 x 10
5

Thermal
Conductivity at
300 K (W/cm.K)
1.5 4.5 0.7 0.5 >1.5 0.46
Dielectric
Constant
11.9 10 12.5 12.8 9 16.0
Substrate resi-
stance (ohm.cm)
1-20 1-20 >1000 >1000 >1000 1-20
Crystal Structure Diamond Wur t zi t e Zincblende Zincblende Wur t zi t e Diamond
Number of
transistors
>1 bilion <200 <500 <1000 <50 -
Transistors
MOSFET,
BJT,
HBT
MESFET
HEMT
MESFET
HEMT
HBT
MESFET
HEMT
HBT
MESFET
HEMT
MOSFET,
BJT,HBT
Cost prototype / high/low Very High/very Low/high Very high/low
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Department of ECE, NITC
mass prototype high/- high high/-
Ecological
compatibility
good good Bad bad bad bad
Lattice Constant
()
5.43095 3.086 5.8686 5.6533 3.1 5.64613
Table.2.5. Comparisons of compound semiconductors [12]

2.12 Comparisons of MOSFET and HEMT:
MOSFET(NMOS) HEMT
Substrate is p-type silicon Substrate is a semi insulated GaAs
Gate is a polysilicon Gate is a schoktty barrier
SiO
2
is insulating layer No insulating
it is a metal oxide semiconductor device It is a metal semiconductor device
Capacitance is less than HEMT for same
thickness because dielectric constant is
less
Capacitance is more than MOSFET for
same thickness because dielectric
constant is more
Drain current
I
d
=

n
c
ox
w
2L
( V
GS
V
th
)
2


Drain current
I
d
=

n
c
s
w
2L
( V
GS
V
OFF
)
2


Tr ansconduct ance
g
m
=

n
c
s
w
L
( V
GS
I
th
)

Tr ansconduct ance
g
m
=

n
c
s
w
L
( V
GS
V
OFF
)

Mobility is 5 times less than HEMT Mobility is 5times more than MOSFET
Drain current and gm are low Drain current and gm are high
More parasitic Less parasitic
Table.2.6. MOSFET and HEMT differences


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Department of ECE, NITC
2.13 Applications:
The HEMT was originally developed for high speed applications. It was only
when the first devices were fabricated that it was discovered they exhibited a very
low noise figure. This is related to the nature of the 2DEG and the fact that there are
less electron collisions. As a result of their noise performance they are widely used in
low noise small signal amplifiers [13], power amplifiers, oscillators [14] and mixers
operating at frequencies up to 60 GHz and more and it are anticipated that ultimately
devices will be widely available for frequencies up to about 100 GHz. In fact HEMT
devices are used in a wide range of RF design applications including cellular
telecommunications, direct broadcast receivers - DBS, radar, radio astronomy, and
any RF design application that requires a combination of low noise and very high
frequency performance. HEMTs are manufactured by many semiconductor device
manufacturers around the globe. They may be in the form of discrete transistors, but
now a days they are more usually incorporated into integrated circuits. These
Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chips (MMIC) are widely used for RF
design applications, and HEMT based MMICs are widely used to provide the
required level of performance in many areas.
The GaAs-based PHEMTs are used extensively for solid state power amplifier
[15] applications at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies.









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Department of ECE, NITC
CHAPTER 3
HEMT PROCESS AND DEVICE SIMULATIONS
3.1 SYNOPSYS TCAD Simulations:
In this section, brief overviews on the process and device simulations using
TCAD software from SYNOPSYS

are presented. TPROCESS or TSUPREM-4 used


for process simulation and MEDICI is used for device simulations are widely used to
develop and optimize the semiconductor processes. Both MEDICI and TPROCESS
are physical based simulators offering predictive capability and insight into the
viability of a device/process. Physical simulations are advantageous, because they are
faster and cheaper. They are
3.2 Process Simulation: [16]
Process simulation is a sequence of commands which describes the necessary
process steps to be performed in a given sequence to generate a given structure. For
example, in a HEMT, these are different semiconductor layers which are deposited
epitaxilly. The process sequence starts with initialization of a substrate of required
thickness, orientation and resistivity/conductivity along with the doping type. As
GaAs is the substrate which is commonly used, 50nm thick GaAs substrate doped
with selenium is initiated. Selenium is an n-type dopant in GaAs [17] and the doping
concentration is 10
2
/cm
3
. On top of the substrate, InGaAs layer of 10nm in thickness
is epitaxially deposited. This layer is p-type doped with Zinc [17] at a doping
concentration of 10
2
/cm
3
which works as channel. Next an n-type AlGaAs layer
which works as spacer is epitaxially deposited. The thickness of the layer is 10nm and
doping concentration is 10
2
/cm
3
. Above the spacer 25nm thick highly doped AlGaAs
layer is deposited. The doping concentration is 10
18
/cm
3
. This layer source electron in
to the potential well which is formed in the channel region. p-type InGaAs layer is
used to stop electron reaching the ground terminal, then stopping the leakage of
carriers from the potential well. Finally Two GaAs layers are used as source/drain
formed by implantation on the right and left side top of the AlGaAs layer. Si
3
N
4
is a
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Department of ECE, NITC
cap layer for implantation. Source and drain implants have a dose of 210
20
/cm
2
and
energy 15keV. After source or drain implantation, metallization and contact
formation finalizes the process. The ohmic contacts source and drain can be identified
by a rough metal/semiconductor interface or Schottky contact to the AlGaAs barrier.
Materials, type of doping, type of dopants, thickness and concentrations of various
layers are tabulated in table.3.1. The process simulated structure is shown in Fig.3.1.


Fig.3.1 Structure of HEMT




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Department of ECE, NITC
Region Material type
Dopant
name
Thickness
(nm)
Concentration
(/cm
3
)
Substrate GaAs n Selenium 50 10
2

Channel InGaAs p Zinc 10 10
2

Spacer AlGaAs n Selenium 10 10
2

Source of
electrons
AlGaAs n Selenium 25 10
18

Source/drain
regions
GaAs n Selenium 25
2x10
20
/cm
2
,
15keV
Table.3.1 Specifications of HEMT process simulations


3.3 Device Simulations:
The process simulated structure is then exported in to device simulator
MEDICI. The exported file consists region information, dopant information, contact
information and structure information of the process simulated structure. To
successfully simulate the electrical characteristics, one has to consider and choose
appropriate model. The following subsection discusses various models.
3.3.1 Mobility Models [18]
Carrier mobility in estimating the currents play an important role. There are
various mobility models which can be used in simulating the currents. The following
mobility models are considered in this study.
1. Constant mobility
2. Concentration dependent mobility
3. Analytical mobility
4. Arora mobility
5. Carrier-carrier mobility
3.3.1.1 Constant Mobility:
In the constant mobility model, mobility values are constant with respect to
doping concentration, temperature etc. Electron mobility for InGaAs layer (
on
) is
2.73x10
4
cm
2
/V.sec and hole mobility for InGaAs layer (
op
) is 480 cm
2
/V.sec.
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Department of ECE, NITC
We know that the mobility values changes when doping comes and
temperature are increased, the constant mobility model is not considered in the device
simulation.

3.3.1.2 Concentration Dependent Mobility:
In concentration dependent mobility model, the mobilities depend upon the
local total impurity concentrationN
totaI
( x, y) . The mobility values at a given
temperature (generally room temperature) are modeled by

on
=
on
( N
totaI
( x, y) ) [18] (3.1)

op
=
op
( N
totaI
( x, y) ) [18] (3.2)


3.3.3 Analytical Mobility:
Analytical mobility of an electron and hole are modeled by eqn. (3.3) and eqn.
(3.4)

0n
= MUN. MI N +
MUN.MAX[
T
300

NUN
-MUN.MIN
1+[
T
300

XIN
_[
N
tctcl
NREFN

ALPHAN
+[
N
tctcl
NREFN2

3
_
(3.3)

0p
= MUP. MI N +
MUP.MAX[
T
300

NUP
-MUP.MIN
1+[
T
300

XIP
_[
N
totaI
NREFP

ALPHAP
+[
N
totaI
NREFP2

3
_
(3.4)
Where the empherical value of N
total
is 2x10
20
/cm
3
in eqn. (3.3) and eqn. (3.4) for
Different parameters for GaAs, AlGaAs and InGaAs are listed in Table.3.2. [18]





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Department of ECE, NITC
Parameter GaAs AlGaAs InGaAs
MUN.MIN (cm
2
/V.sec) 0 2.37 x10
3
4x10
3

MUN.MAX (cm
2
/V.sec) 8.5x10
3
9.89 x10
3
2.73x10
4

MUP.MIN(cm
2
/V.sec) 0 0 0
MUP.MAX(cm
2
/V.sec) 400 400 480
NUN -1 0 0
NUP -2.1 0 0
XIN 0 0 0
XIP 0 0 0
NREFN(/cm
3
) 1.69x10
17
3.63x10
17
3.63x10
17

NREFN2(/cm
3
) 10
30
1.75x10
18
1.75x10
18

NREFP(/cm
3
) 2.75x10
17
2.75x10
17
10
30

NREFP2(/cm
3
) 10
30
10
30
10
30

ALPHAN 0.436 1 1
ALPHAP 0.395 0.395 1
Table.3.2 Analytical mobility parameters

By substitution various values, eqn. (3.3) and eqn. (3.4) can be re written as

0n
= MUN. MI N +
MUN.MAX-MUN.MIN
1+_[
N
tctcl
NREFN
+[
N
tctcl
NREFN2

3
_
(3.5)

0p
= MUP. MI N +
MUP.MAX
1+_[
N
totaI
NREFP
+[
N
totaI
NREFP2

3
_
(3.6)
3.3.4 Arora Mobility Model:
Using Arora mobility model, an electron and hole mobilities of an electron
and hole are given by

0n
= MUN1. AR0 [
T
300

EXN1.ARO
+
MUN2.AR0[
T
300

EXN2.AR0
1+_
N
totaI
( X,Y)
CN.ARORA[
T
300

EXN3.ARO
_
o
n
[18] (3.7)
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Department of ECE, NITC

0p
= MUP1. AR0 [
T
300

EXP1.ARO
+
MUP2.AR0[
T
300

EXP2.AR0
1+_
N
totaI
( X,Y)
CP.ARORA[
T
300

EXP3.ARO
_
o
n
[18] (3.8)

With
n
= AN. ARORA [
T
300

EXN4.AR0
(3.9)

p
= AP. ARORA [
T
300

EXP4.AR0
(3.10)
This model considers both temperature and doping concentration dependencies on
mobility. Different parameters are used in eqn. (3.7) to eqn. (3.10) for various
materials are listed in Table.3.3. [18]

Parameter GaAs AlGaAs InGaAs
MUN1.ARO(cm
2
/V.sec) 8.5x10
3
9.69x10
3
2.73x10
4

MUP1.ARO(cm
2
/V.sec) 400 400 480
MUN2.ARO(cm
2
/V.sec) 0 0 0
MUP2.ARO(cm
2
/V.sec) 0 0 0
EXN1.ARO -0.57 0 0
EXP1.ARO 0 0 0
EXN2.ARO 0 0 0
EXP2.ARO 0 0 0
AN.ARORA 1 1 1
AP.ARORA 1 1 1
EXN3.ARO 0 0 0
EXP3.ARO 0 0 0
CN.ARORA(/cm
3
) 1.26x10
17
10
20
10
20

CP.ARORA(/cm
3
) 2.35x10
17
10
20
10
20

EXN4.ARO 0 0 0
EXP4.ARO 0 0 0
Table.3.3 Arora mobility parameters

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Department of ECE, NITC

Values in to eqn. (3.7) to eqn. (3.10) the mobility model result is

0n
= MUN1. AR0 (3.11)

0p
= MUP1. AR0 (3.12)
Then from eq. (3.11) and eqn. (3.12) it can be observed that arora mobility
model transform in to constant mobility model for all temperature and doping
concentration. Then arora mobility model is not considered for device simulations.

3.3.5 Carrier-carrier mobility
The carrier-carrier consideration mobility model also takes carrier-carrier
scattering effects, in to this is based on work by Dorkel and Leturcq [19]. While
estimating mobility values the carrier-carrier scattering effects are important when
high concentrations of electrons and holes are present in a device. The model also
takes into account the effects of lattice scattering and ionized impurity scattering. The
electron hole mobilities are modeled by eqn. (3.13) and eqn. (3.14) respectively.

0n
=
n
L
(
A.LIC
1+_B.LIC_

n
L

n
IC
__
EX.LIC
C. LI C) (3.13)

0p
=
p
L
(
A.LIC
1+_B.LIC_

IC
__
EX.LIC
C. LI C) (3.14)
Where the superscripts L, I and C stand for lattice scattering, ionized impurity
scattering and carrier-carrier scattering, respectively; n and p stand for electron and
hole respectively.

n
IC
= j
1

C
+
1

n
I
[
-1
(3.15)

p
IC
= _
1

C
+
1

I
_
-1
(3.16)
Eqn. (3.14) and eqn. (3.15) is Effective mobility calculated using matthiessens rule.
The carrier-carrier scattering mobility given by
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Department of ECE, NITC

C
=
A.CCS[
T
300

1.5
npIn( 1+B.CCS[
T
300

2
( np)
-1/ 3
)
(3.17)
The ionized impurity scattering mobility term for electron and hole are given by eqn.
(3.17) and eqn. (3.18) respectively.

n
I
=
AN.IIS[
T
300

1.5
N
totaI
. g
B
[
BN.IIS[
T
300

2
n+p
] (3.18)

p
I
=
AP.IIS[
T
300

1.5
N
totaI
. g
B
[
BP.IIS[
T
300

2
n+p
] (3.19)

Where g
B
( x) = [ l n( 1 + x)
x
1+x
]
-1
(3.20)

And lattice scattering terms for electron and holes are given by eqn.

n
L
= MUN0. LAT [
T
300

EXN.LAT
(3.21)


p
L
= MUP0. LAT [
T
300

EXP.LAT
(3.22)
Different parameters are listed in Table.3.4











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Department of ECE, NITC
Parameter GaAs AlGaAs InGaAs
A.LIC 1 1 1
B.LIC 0 0 0
C.LIC 0 0 0
EX.LIC 0 0 0
A.CCS (/cm
3
) 1.04x10
21
10
22
10
22

B.CCS(/cm
3
) 7.45x10
13
10
22
10
22

AN.IIS(/cm
3
) 2.4x10
21
10
22
10
22

BN.IIS(/cm
3
) 1.37x10
20
10
22
10
22

AP.IIS(/cm
3
) 5.2x10
20
10
22
10
22

BP.IIS(/cm
3
) 5.63x10
19
10
22
10
22

MUN0.LAT(cm
2
/V.sec) 8.5x10
3
9.89x10
3
2.73x10
4

MUP0.LAT(cm
2
/V.sec) 400 400 480
EXN.LAT 0 0 0
EXP.LAT 0 0 0
Table.3.4 Carrier-carrier mobility parameters
After simplifying eqn. (3.13), various equations from eqn. (3.14) to eqn. (3.22), the
electron and hole mobilities can be simplified in to eqn. (3.23) and eqn. (3.24) and
further simplified in to eqn. (3.27) and eqn. (3.28) respectively.

0n
=
n
L
(3.23)

0p
=
p
L
(3.24)

n
L
= MUN0. LAT (3.25)

p
L
= MUP0. LAT (3.26)

0n
=
n
L
= MUN0. LAT (3.27)

0p
=
p
L
= MUP0. LAT (3.28)

Then carrier-carrier mobility model is simplified in to constant mobility
model. Hence carrier-carrier mobility model is not considered for device simulations.
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Department of ECE, NITC
In the above four mobility models, expect analytical model equation other
model gets simplified in to constant mobility model, which is constant with respect to
temperature and doping concentration. The mobility of carriers in the channel with
respect to doping can be treated as constant, as the doping levels are very low. But
when high currents are flowing and at elevated temperature, other scattering
mechanism cannot be neglected. This as analytical models depends on maximum,
minimum mobility, temperature and total concentrations, analytical mobility model
considered in this simulation work.
3.4 Device simulation results:
3.4.1 Channel electron concentration:
When a bias is applied on the gate, the metal semiconductor contact between the
spacer layer and gate metal contact is reverse biased. Then the electrons from the
electron source layer will be confined only in the channel region, as the depletion
region layer is extended fully in to the electron source layer. Thus a triangular
potential well formed. The electron concentration in the channel perpendicular to the
direction of potential well formation (i.e. electrons in various energy levels is shown
in Fig. 3.2.). Now applying suitable voltage between source and drain results in a
channel current. The contours of current flow in the device are shown in fig. 3.3.
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Department of ECE, NITC

Fig.3.2 Channel doping and electrons and device on

Fig.3.3 Current flow when the device is on
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Department of ECE, NITC
3.4.2 I (drain) vs. V (gate) characteristics:
In gate voltage, drain current characteristics simulation, voltage between drain
and source are fixed and the voltage between gate and source varied between -1V to
1V. When the gate voltage approach -1V, the transistor will be turned off. When gate
voltage exceeds 1V, metal semiconductor contact between the channel and gate will
be forward biased and the device looses its functionality. As this device conducts
when there is no bias applied on the gate and requires a gate bias to switch off the
device, this is a depletion mode HEMT. The gate voltage and drain current
characteristics of a HEMT with different channel length are shown in Fig.3.4. And
corresponding V
T
values are tabulated in Table.3.5.

Fig.3.4 Gate vs Drain characteristics


Gate length(um) OFF voltage (V)
Sub V
T

(mV/decay)
0.2 -0.2179V 107.6
0.15 -0.2582 113.81
0.13 -0.2790 118.2
Table.3.5 OFF voltage and Sub threshold for different Gate length
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Gate length scaling is to decrease the threshold voltage in short channel
devices due to two-dimensional electrostatic charge sharing between the gate and the
source, drain region. Short channel effect plays important role in deciding the lowest
acceptable threshold value. To scale down the effective gate length corresponding
gate controlled depletion width must also be scaled down by same factor. To reduce
depletion width one should increase the doping concentration. But increasing doping
concentration leads to higher depletion region charge in the AlGaAs layer. Due to this
potential across AlGaAs layer and hence threshold voltage rises. HEMT
psedomorphic devices have a doping concentration upper limit of 10
18
cm
-3
for 0.2
mole fraction. So reduction of depletion width is not possible. Halo doping in the
lateral direction gives the freedom of reduction of V
T
, but reduces the mobility
considerably.
3.4.3 Transconductance Characteristics:
The transconductance (G
m
) of a HEMT in linear and saturation region can be
using eqn. (3.29) and eqn. (3.30)
G
m
=
I( DRAIN)
V( GATE) -V( OFF) -V( DraIn)
(3.29)
G
m
=
2I( DRAIN)
V( GATE) -V( OFF)
( 3.30)
Transconductance depends on gate voltage and off voltage and drain bias. Fig.3.5.
shows the Transconductance characteristics of a HEMT. Trans conductance is
defined as
G
m
=
0I
D
0V
G
|
V
D
(3.31)

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Department of ECE, NITC

Fig.3.5. Transconductance vs. gate voltage

3.4.4 Drain current and drain voltage characteristics:
Drain current through HEMT in linear region can be modeled as modeled
using eqn. (3.31). Here V (OFF) is the threshold voltage.
I ( D) =
n
C
S
W
L
( V( D) (V( G) V( OFF) )
V( D)
2
2
) (3.31)
And V( D) < I( 0) I( 0FF) (3.32)
In Saturation region drain current is can be modeled as
I ( D) =
n
C
S
W
2L
(V( G) V( OFF) )
2
( 3.33)
And V( D) > V( G) V( OFF) (3.34)
The drain current characteristics of a HEMT with various channel lengths are
shown in Fig.3.6.
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Department of ECE, NITC

Fig.3.6. Drain current vs. drain voltage characteristics

3.5 Comparison between HEMT and MOSFET:
A comparison study between HEMT and MOSFET for following
characteristics is made.
1. Drain current
2. Mobility
3. Electron velocity
3.5.1 Drain Current:
It can be noted HEMT when compared to MOSFET, drain current for HEMT
is more. A comparison of drain current characteristics of a HEMT and MOSFET is
plotted in Fig.3.8.
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Department of ECE, NITC

Fig.3.8. current voltage characteristics for HEMT and MOSFET

3.5.2 Mobility:
Mobility of carriers in HEMT and MOSFET is shown in Fig.3.9. In HEMT
the mobility of carriers is 6 times more than MOSFET.

Fig.3.9. MOSFET and HEMT electron mobility Comparisons
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Department of ECE, NITC
3.5.3 Electron velocity:
Peak saturation velocity is more for HEMT devices compare MOSFET.
Electron velocity is as shown in Fig.3.10. HEMT peak saturation velocity is 15 to 20
times higher than MOSFET. Then resulting is high speed operation of device.

Fig.3.10. MOSFET and HEMT electron velocity Compressions







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Department of ECE, NITC
CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION

In this work, I studied and compare the materials of compound
semiconductors. These components are useful for my device. Study the different layer
structures, process of HEMT and device simulations are generated. This work has
been demonstrated that using an easily available two-dimensional device simulation
tool (MEDICI) can be easily carried out in order to realize the target device
performance. Current, voltage characteristics, threshold voltage for different channel
lengths, transconductance and band diagrams are investigated. Finally the
comparisons of HEMT and MOSFET are discussed.











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Department of ECE, NITC
[14] Kudszus, S. Haydl, W.H. Tessmann, A. Bronner, W. Schlechtweg, M.
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