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HE JEWISH SABBATH
by

SAMSON

Translated by

BEN

JOSEPHUSSORO.

California

.

LIMITKD. NEWPORT MULLOCK AND SONS. : ign . PRINTERS. Translated by BEN JOSEPHUSSORO.THE JEWISH SABBATH by SAMSON RAPHAEL H1RSCH.

upwards for the better class of binding. To bring it within the reach of all. and 2s.NOTICE. irrespective of creed. . The whole of the PROCEEDS of the SALE of the book. for ordinary binding. may be forthcoming. it is intended to publish it both in ordinary and elegant binding. etc. 6d. so that subscriptions varying from 6d. WITHOUT DEDUCTING COST for PRINTING and PUBLISHING. according to the means and good-will of the pnrrhaser. is to be DEVOTED to the benefit of certain CHARITIES. such as the HOSPITALS. to Is.

" ("Dies sous") cannot properly be accepted as -a synonym of the original " Sabbath." etc. and which." Domingo. The reformers at first advocated the observance of Sunday solely on the ground of practical expediency. The early Christians originally observed Sunday as a day of sanctincation side by side with the Sabbath. such as Lord's Day. should take a far more serious view of the observance of Sunday as a holy day." Dimanche. It was not until the 8th century that formal prohibition of all worldly occupation not of immediate urgency. than the other branches of that communion." Domenica. the observance of rest. Thus among Protestants more especially hi England. it is .Although certain antiquated interference with laws have had to be abandoned owing to their the individual liberty of conscience. the strictest form of Sunday observance has been preserved to this day ." its real significance as a day of rest from worldly toil and labour.PREFACE. It is therefore remarkable. Although the designation of "Sunday. although at the same time explicable on psychological grounds. even in those days. Scotland and North America. is of society. that just that very section of the church. in this as in several other respects. rejects all human or sacerdotal intervention between God and man. It is of the Sabbath was abandoned by them." Dies " " " Dominicus. and a day of subordination to the Divine will. Beza insisted. is ra" " dicated by other designations. but. was deter- mined upon. one which all civilised all classes is honoured in observed by countries. perhaps most widely that of the weekly holiday or is and day a generally accepted fact that the origin of this institution is to be traced back to the Jewish Sabbath. were transferred to the Sunday observance. which on the ground of one of its funda- mental principles. many of the notions and principles connected therewith. that Sunday was a divine ordinance having taken the place of the Jewish Sabbath. but when later on. approaches Judaism very closely. One of the most ancient religious institutions.

nevertheless

well-known fact that our most modern and have been actively engaged in devising progressive legislators the best means for regulating the observance of the Sabbath, the
a
principles of

which were

laid

down more than

thirty-four centuries

8-11 and Deuteronomy v., 12-15 (especially ago in Exodus xx., For many decades the latter portion of verse 14 and v., 16). states have set the example, not civilized already the most transactions and other work on by prohibiting all official only but also by Sunday in their governmental departments, servants and factory workmen endeavouring to protect labourers,

from the more or
It

less

justified

demands

of their employers.

cannot be denied, that in other civilised countries as well, a more rigorous observance of the weekly day of rest has been few decades. spreading during the last
In spite of the great revolutions which occurred in the sphere of religious thought, towards the end of the 18th and during the first half of the 19th century, in spite of the Atheism which then

became

fashionable,

in

spite of

Positivism,

Materialism,

and

Darwinism, and notwithstanding the enormous advances made in science, industry and commerce in recent times, Sunday observance

becoming more general from year to year, even among the And though the Catholic populations of Continental Europe^ ) as widely as the of such observance vary external forms spiritual interpretations and the ethical conceptions which are bound up with them, this does not by any means do away with
is
1

the undeniable fact, that the fundamental idea
institutions
is

underlying these

steadily gaining ground.

If only for this reason, some analysis of the historical and symbolical significance of the weekly day of rest which has been received by the world at large as a gift from Judaism mi^ht

be of interest

an analysis that shall discuss the

"

Sabbath

"

in

(l)It is noteworthy that even France quite recently, by the law of 1906, established a weekly day of rest for every workman or employee, of 24 consecutive hours. In Belgium the laws regulating the Sunday rest were established in 1905 and 1907, in Spain in 1904 and 1905, in Italy in 1907 and in Switzerland in 1906. In Germany the present regulations have been in force since 1900, in Denmark since 1904. In Austria the law of 1895 was amended in 1905 and in Hungary that of 1891 was amended in 1903 and 1908.

relation to the creation of the world,

to the period of legal

$$%&$&. the Jewish nation, to its educational influence

to the building of the Temple,

also

and

its social

and

political aspects.

Among modern
we might

contributions to this class of religious literature

than a treatise entitled

search in vain for a more thorough and valuable " "

The Jewish Sabbath

Hirsch, republished two or three years ago, " Verein der Sabbathof the Centenary of the Author's birth, by the "

work by Samson Raphael in commemoration

freunde

in Frankfort-on-Main.

Every Jew in German speaking countries, knows how much the writings of this man, with their vivid freshness of colour, their modernness, their almost unrivalled thoroughness, relieved by flashes of bright humour, have contributed towards a clearer
conception of the mission of Judaism, and hence, also

towards

stimulating and elevating Jewish effort for its realisation. These " " fanciful writings, in spite of their sometimes decried exegesis have become to hundreds and thousands of his disciples and fol" " on their path of life, and they have enabled lowers a viaticum them to demonstrate to the world that it is possible to accomplish eminent achievements, in art and science, commerce and industry, nay, that it is possible even to be hard-working, poor and much harassed, and yet to remain a Jew faithful to the old Law, and devoted to the observance of the Sabbath. They have created ideals which have been instrumental in training the wealthy to charity and humility, and the poor to that unwavering trust in God and that cheerful spirit which is so often admired.

Unfortunately, translation into a foreign tongue, more especially in the case of an author whose train of thought was not of the commonplace order, presents no mean difficulties. But for
the fact that certain friends, more particularly Rev. D. Wasserzug of the Dalston Synagogue (to whom we gladly take this opportunity of expressing our sincere thanks) afforded us the invaluable advantage of their most generous assistance, these pages would never

have seen the

light of publicity.

Nevertheless we cannot refrain from soliciting the kind indulgence of our esteemed readers as regards any imperfections that

may have
to
its

escaped attention.

Any

suggestion

with regard

to

'correction will be

most gratefully accepted, and noted with a view considered in any future revised edition that may be being

published.

the publication of the first issue of this booklet we have found the following notice in a recent number of the " Israelit " we think, will interest some ) which, (Frankfort
Since

/.

of our readers

:

t

THE SABBATH and HYGINE.
and
their

In an article on
"

'

(

manifestations

" Sabbath " the writer 1911) quoting from the last number of makes the following observations :

in History

Hygienic thoughts (Deutsche Revue, Oct.

"

What

a fulness of blessing, both spiritual

and physical,

has been conferred on the Jewish people by this their holy day, their day of rest More than any other institution the Sabbath
!

has given them the power to hold their own among other people, and the benefits of this day of rest they have transmitted to
the Christian

and

Islamitic

faiths.

Thus they have given
beyond
as one

its

immeasurable hygienic blessings to the greater part Had the Jewish race given to mankind nothing registration of every seventh day as a day of rest, bound, already on this score alone, to regard them
the greatest hygienic benefactors of mankind."

of the iworld.
this

we should be

among

The
Carl

writer of this

paragraph^

is

Geheimer Medizinalrat
Medicine
at

Sudhoff,

Professor of
1 /

History and

Leipzig

University and

a Christian.

THE JEWISH SABBATH. the heavenly gifts which Judaism has bestowed upon none surely is so holy. She raises up the fallen and to the . Take from the Jew his Sabbath. delight of other enjoyments fades bliss of the Sabbath joy. to dry all tears. she will prove his most loyal comShe knows how to transform the poorest cottage into panion. With her hand strong in love. to sooth all pains. and to the wise she points out the true foundation of their wisdom. to heal all wounds. Take from the Jew his Sabbath. as the gift of the oldest earthly institution. and to extinguish all cares. away before the sweet. the Jew to the Sabbath in has introduced to him this most excellent of If all holy wedlock. and you rob him of his richest jewel. in self-sacrifice. and you empty his life of friendship and happiness. and to turn his darkest night into fairest day. God has bound as a loving bride. and however much his friends may throng round him and crown him with ever so many wreaths of joy. and the rich she teaches to become the true masters of their wealth and their pleasures. ibid. a paradise for him. the gift of the Sabbath. so full of blessing. THE LOVELY PEARL. " See that God has given you the Sabbath. she knows how to guide him devotion and safely along the most slippery paths. given you !" Ex. with his heart. He His institutions all he remains true to her. 29." " Behold the lovely pearl " which I have Yalkut. quiet For the Sabbath is the pearl and friend of the Jew. She makes the poorest rich. to level all mountains. 16. The simple she makes wise. The Among all its followers. and nothing that you may offer him in exchange can replace it. he will never again find such a friend as the Sabbath. the Jewish Sabbath.

but a few features of its rich store of precious teaching. of peace and joy. more. and you will have secured permanence for their riches. turn their back upon this friend of their soul. their cleverfail. their intelligence prove inadequate.she gives the very soul of their purity. one Jewish soul shall be induced to save uninjured and unimpaired. however. make them good. Give them EVERYTHING. You may enjoy your ness fade away. the Jewish Sabbath. for even though your children's wealth should disappear. learned. one cottage. . intelligent. their wisdom. true value and significance. Happy indeed shall we be. who fail to leave them this pearl. a shining light for their cleverness. of light and balm. even though you will have to leave them and you cannot remain with them for ever even though they are far away and deserted and poor and degraded. a support for their virtues. Little the very who do they know what a treasure they are casting away. but if you neglect to wed their souls to the peace. give it to them by your your earnest. them the Sabbath. impressively and truthfully. pure and strong essence of their strength. your self-sacrificing example. you give over their happiness and and joy. nay. of sublime and exalted feeling. the Sabbath will remain with them and will at all times provide them with an inexhaustible store of comfort and strength. their health rest in peace. their Judaism to the ! incalculable vicissitudes of fortune to set down in these pages a few Judaism. vigour for their strength and for their knowledge. forsake them. their education and their honour. Little do those know how poor they leave their children. strong. their science. educated. honoured. their bliss Sabbath. this eternal treasure of life from the influence of the time. you will have secured their very pith and essence. and give in addition give it to make them clever. the old Jewish Sabbath them by your teaching. this reason For we venture reflections on this pearl of . their virtue falter. their joyous. if our feeble pen succeeds in drawing. if only one family. Make your children rich. yet the Sabbath will not their friends untrue.

blessing it would even then bring in its train you had not this Sabbath. look joyously once. He who : labour " . irresistibly does not go forward. and caln." And were rest ordained itself in its nothing more than this. brow. THAT is TO BE " into the " blissful world of BEING. without the Sabbath. goes backwards. would you dare to cry halt to your stand still marches on. this day of rest.ly at the hope which you cherished. when would you come to your self. rest. recurring every seventh day. arena of life ? But dare you once stop even to look forward with earnest intent to the goal which you have to gain to gaze back for look around you and down into your inner self. your head. The thistles cumber the way our bread is gained in the sweat of the and is eaten with sorrow and sighing. when would you DARE to have time to spare ? Incessantly rests. your mind smooth your forehead.1 THE SABBATH. when would you attend to your mind and spirit. halt " to your cares for your daily existence ? You could. . A DAY OF REST ORDAINFD BY GOD. without . the ideals which you strove after and partly realised. it is unceasingly it the material world around you at work. without man is fated but to toil. " When you had the time to spare ? " to your heaven upon earth ? but WHEN would you have time. it never struggles for its material existence. when would you rest. ." into the enjoyment of a paradise on earth ' ? Paradise " ? Who dares still to speak of a paradise on earth The gates of paradise were closed behind us long ago. he who stands still is trodden down " by day and by night they never " " " and could you. nothing more than a day of by God. shakt from you the dust of the piration. Without the Sabbath. " When the Sabbath comes. ordained by God. as it presents it ! what a If outward appearance ti the most superficial observer. comes rent. Thorns and . tree of life blossoms of itself now for no one. you might dare once in the way to proclaim a rest for your once in the way wipe away the pershand. come to your wife and child. and for once in the way step out " from the restless and afflicted world of.

such gigantic proportions that earning this existence. The father had but his village to look round. And man. The word " existence has assumed trange OF . this rest. OF wife and child and the cares for the house es" him from the home. and no longer " hears the Where art thou ? " of God's voice wandering up and down in search of him. that he has no time to think himself. the exploration of the heavens and the earth. at the uttermost charge on his time. this power would " or ease. so much FOR his wife and child. Have you no mind. and almost even charity and benevolence. have to provide themselves with the industrial hall-mark of economic utility in order to obtain recognition and notice from a bread-earning humanity. " the Sabbath approaches him and no In the name of God says. but with flashes of lightning the son sets about to explore the whole world. further !" You must not only care for earthly bread for yourself : and your family. at the highest output of his nervous force. more action. bring him no greater freedom " the more inventions. even virtue and morality. But then appears the messenger from Eden. in his work. The word existence has become so immense a problem that the sum total of all human wisdom. of countries and seas. if your hand is always busy only to procure food. sweat of his brow. Numberless possessions and pleasures unknown to the simple father. And though a thousand minds were thinking day by day how to increase knowledge though a man's thousand inventions were day by day adding to power. He has to provide so much FOR himself. the wiser son must win for himself and his fanrly in the strength. if your head is always meditating only how to gain. yoke pants of the earth. The father had to contend only with his but on the wings of the clouds the son has to battle neighbour with the whole world. You sin against yourself. aye. the angel of God. the more the more care . created to be God's image in wisdom and kindness. your wife and child. no heart. of the toil under the . if your foot is always moving only to find. like God.10 he is tormented by worry. The more knowledge. its value and meaning. the more wants. in love and justice created to rejoice. dripping with sweat. no soul which in this life are to blossom forth into temporal . the . seeking for food. life is entirely absorbed in the task of and no time is left to enquire into its purpose " " and aim. : knowledge would make him no richer or happier. the means of a livelihood.

you must not mourn The Sabbath has balm and comfort for all. who knows your troubles and feels your cares. you must not weep " Sabbath has come. and enter your home with me. flavours the Sabbath meal tears. doubles the brightness of the Sabbath-light . Not all are successful in ! . light that shines in you. and the panting breast ebbs and flows more calmly " the pulse of life beats more placidly. you home to the delightful attractions of to the cheering side of wife and children. and dare you let your souls starve and wither while you keep on only feeding and decking your bodies ? Enough of labour! Your God commands that you SHALL no longer labour. your dripping forehead regains its smoothness. And now you hear the searching voice from You down Eden calling . makes all rich and equal. The Sabbath ! ! says to each one : Place upon God the burden of " and He will accomplish it If you have done your your way." stand still. T by 5U. which God's splendour does not enter with the Sabbath the peace that dwells in you. duty. you raise your eyes. ! " The Sabbath makes all rich and EQUAL The gains for which the battle of the week is fought. grief and sorrow. It your family circle and your introduces the Sabbath to your souls. or poor. would you but wish and entrust it to Him. that you have If you done enough when you have honestly worked for six days. This the Sabbath guarantees you. " " ! The . to your home dwelling becomes transfigured. shows heaven. separate men according to the amount which each one acquires.. you look above and around you smile. care. and that is a guarantee that you NEED not labour. you wipe the sweat from your lay brow. God will do the rest. eternal self. in . do not wish to deny your better. in His name to cry a halt to your cares and troubles and labours. the yoke of labour. Him to you as your God. all these the Sabbath banishes the poorest home. No house is so small. and your God. because it bids you. It shows Him to you as your Father in the omnipotent Ruler and Guide of the times. and you return to yourself. from " Sabbath has come. and shake off the dust from your garments.11 eternal salvation. then You now desist from working. and would gladly take from you the greater and heavier part of your life's burden. who fights your battles with and for you.

But how . is charmed by the bloom and fragrance of the flowers. and there is infinite variety in the results achieved. earth. it would mean redemption for all. is able to bestow upon us. and the less we are content to contemplate God's commandments merely on their surface. only when GOD bids you pause in your labour. your hand may be idle. 7). THE SABBATH OF THE CREATION. In vain do you choose for yourself another day of rest during the week. It enshrines yet a far richer treasure of light and truth. your foot may rest. of holiness and blessing. but it is only God who calms the mind. soothes But it is ONLY to the heart. the repose. But the Sabbath is much more. and then only as a day of rest ORDAINED BY GOD. " if all of us would but once keep rich abundance. your body may feast. revives the soul. and find in God the consummation of your life.*' We have considered the Jewish Sabbath in its widest aspect and have seen the abundance of blessings which it. GOD'S SABBATH that such a wonderful result is vouchsafed. even the is uplifted by a nature. the deeper we enter into its spirit. can you gain rest. 2. is elevated by the brilliancy of the starry sky.12 the struggle. But the treasures of paradise which the Sabbath dispenses the these are granted to all in peace. like His works Even the man most nature delights in the sight of heaven and earth. (Yalkut on Psalm 95. " Finished were the heavens and the. which reveals itself to us the more. and equally the Sabbath truly. the life and might of the host ! For are not God's laws ignorant of of living things careless walk most unschooled through God's lovely garden of . ONLY you have the assurance that you WHEN GOD ORDAINS the repose may repose. the divine bliss. Only God's Sabbath brings you rest. and it alone.

13 D'JW into its own to enter smallest thing a source of life. the more will the voice of the . their parts and the more will they become for you an inexhaustible their purposes source of instruction and blessing. the aim and corn] Micm of CREATION. the fruit. and if anything seems to us to be vain and purposeless. or small indeed just in the very smallest thing do you admire the Divine their parts. their shapes. mean and insignificant. because we do meaning. pronouncement concerning the Sabbath is the first It shows this institution to us as the keystone and crown. or trivial. as we find them preserved in Holy Writ. it is now proper for us to review the Divine utterances concerning it. its outward appearance. and you will recognise that even in this kingdom of God "Ql N*? 3 S Kin pi. With quite another and deeper delight do you contemplate the flower. when you are familiar with the laws which are expressed in their forms. the reason for it is to be found in our not trouble 13 DDK pNSP HO^. their vascular system. . and Thus informed you wander thoughtfully through God's great workshop. the beast. D2Q Kin pi OKI. how different when you have acquired the most elementary knowledge of the laws by which we believe them to be guided in their orbits. Kin TID^K D3"PI Kin 'D pyjP DHKtP nyBO DS^n. their sap.13 different becomes your delight when you have learnt to name a few of the stars that greet you from the sky. oldest The to arrest our attention. or else we would perceive even in the nature. thoughts of the Master greet you everywhere. the animal. blessing and salvation. " But the more you ponder are for everyone who clings to them A ! over them. their development. there is nothing without value or purpose. . Even to the most ignorant " tree of life they their fulfilment brings the richest blessing. skill which is true to itself even in the finest fibre. the more intimate you become with the ideas which God Himself has expressed in them. highest wisdom of life speak to you even from the smallest organism. Having therefore first of all considered the Sabbath in its general. nothing that you find there is insignificant. Thus is it also with the laws of God. nothing small or unimportant. the more clearly you perceive the relations that exist between their ordinance. their structure.

Every work is rON^D. : calls your attention to the conception of the conception DN2V 93 of the whole great host of jnKfTi. message. which inform every action. so varied and yet so uniform the fulfilment of His idea stands before you. with blessing and sanctifica! ! ! ! tion points to Him who completed them. For with it He had ceased from all His work. so the work is called in the spirit of Holy Writ.14 " earth and Completed were heaven and all the host of them. So long as it exists and operates. the realisation of an They were completed ! " " idea of Him who The did not rest till He had carried out and completed His idea. of all the innumerable warring beings and contending elements and forces which compose this N3Y. originated the life and motion. Which God had created in order to complete it. and the directs your attention to Him. mission. God comphted His work blessed the seventh day and sanctified it." Gen. the executor of the Master's idea. in its They not only arose in but the smallest as well as the greatest thing. the embodiment. gauged and measured the force and material. task. of discord and peace. which fill heaven and earth. "VDHbD.. because He it . " " " They are one WORK. who conceived the idea of And therefore irDK^D JN'JD : Angel. : ! exists and operates only by the Master's and though injunction you do not see the Master. this world of strife (as the Rabbis ingeniously explain the expression) : ! and utters the pregnant and significant words "l^l. they are They were COMPLETED " " God " and pronouncing "D^K/. whether totality or in part. their time. the greatest and the smallest thing is His messenger. to Him who called heaven and earth His work. Sabbath OK3Y 731 fulfilment of His idea stands before you. He . the name of His WORK throughout the spaces of the universe. 2. has placed has said : Let this be. which He had made. was the expression. of this world so full of contrast and harmony. it there it works and operates because He has determined the form. messenger. of hatred and love. . let this effect and create ! ! for the laws of nature which you descry are but His ordinances . the realiser. Then with And Ood the seventh day. The Sabbath viz. His message tfOKte. . 1-4. It stands there.

And if all the world " even at this. the ideas. its life. His what He has prepared for you and sent you. Fools its makei. Even the more exalted of His ideas. servants. THE VERY FIRST BEGINNING OF A LIVJNG ORGANISM. the Moulder of the form. to pieces to find You take the watch under your knives. the forms are your world ! ceiver of the idea. His masterpieces. powers given to them by the Master they espy wonder after wonder and hold His works in their crucibles or before their glasses imagine that it is the MASTER himself whom they hold and survey. because through the expanse in their distant vision . component laws of their evolution their combination. truth ! " ning of life your brain reels and your sight fails. its free movement. and in the minuteness of almost imper. and yet you imagined you had captured Him. the saying of the old Rabbis still expresses a and if all the world and the wisdom of the whole world were to combine. HE is not. but you are fools if you fancy that you ceptible things have the Master Himself in your furnaces. the spirit.15 night over their the analytical and synthetic proscientific experiments. you cut up the picture to discover the painterBut HE. in your scales. before your glasses. are not to be found there. the Propounder of the laws which you . the Originator of the forces which you study. the Creator of the work. you turn over the pages of the book in ! search for its author. the Moulder of the forms which you measure. to be found in your retorts. the unassisted Creator of the world in which you live. the Conthe work. You ARE NOT EVEN CAPABLE OF CONSTRUCTING THE BEGINNING. they would not be able to form the tiniest " gnat Only inanimate matter and the forces which operate At the first beginin inanimate matter are your kingdom. these you may analyse and divide ascertain the results of their into parts. the proudest moment of modern science. watching cesses which are at work in the subject of their investigation. Fools are those wise men who ponder day and who with the magnifying glasses of their short-sightedness discover the smallest forms and with the telescope explore the boundless and now. the Selecter of the materials which you weigh. and fathom the and more the great you may learn to admire more Master's wisdom and power in the immeasurable expanse of the universe.

exists. (R. becomes joined to a form that is instinct with organised thought. a form whose creative energy and omnipotence meet you at every and hypothesis. organic structure. shall no longer rob them of God . on the . who plans and fixes the limit. when. AND WHATSOEVER HE HAS ENDOWED Spell WITH A SHARE OF HIS FREEDOM. total susceptible of calculation smallest fibre of a form is not sufficient to create even the which reveals a THOUGHT. therefore. form. and you are inevitably' driven to seek the ONE. at most a standard criterion may be found. : of the century. their glasses and knives. i. when to each latest the spirit of the old Sabbath shall have been joined. HaVevi). what bliss. measured and count. And to this day. counted and have not found God when only the mortal leaders into nature shall . when the Architect shall no longer be forgotten and eclipsed by the building. but how even the smallest atom " How of the simplest substance unites with even the simplest kind of a specific purpose. when "cosmos" : of science while disclosing new vistas of " nature " to their con- temporaries. since the sum step. shaking their heads and saying in presumptuous blindness only what we feel and melt and weigh and see and measure and but we have melted and weighed. the Creator by the forces.e. and for all future time. the science of nature.16 which you marvel at. the Law-giver by the laws. how form is developed from form and rounded off "for this. wherever a purpose and tendency are revealed. all THIS eludes every calculation of all BLINDLY working forces which are. the Thinker by the thought when the mortal leaders of science shall no longer be here with their alembics and scales. the despised wisdom of the Rabbis still " remains true Wherever. all the elements : and substances together with their forces are insufficient to explain them. dimension. the wise omnipotent Creator. and to conform to a organic vesicle to serve how a substance void of thought idea definite pre-conceived . ARE BEYOND YOUR ENUMERATION of the life investigate. matter separates from and combines with matter. Yehuda Oh. what glory will one day be promoted by the pearl an insight no longer obscure the recognition of the Creator. the Conwhose alphabet you are only beginning to ceiver of the thoughts HE IN HIS FREEDOM. the Giver ! AND MEASUREMENT.

He dust from he belongs to unconscious matter that acts and is acted upon will. and just as each one of the six days the end designed for it. all contradictions hna and the created world achieves its purpose. be the most devoted Sabbath-priest in the glorification of God. But not merely as the arena for unconscious strife for MAN was and involuntary conflict did God create this world . The whole world originating in God is brought back again to God he fulfils his vocation. and. its founda- and SURETY THE SABBATH OF THE and the whole host CREATION. and each newly-discovered marvel shall only heighten the longing for communion with the Master when the most devoted explorer of the cosmos shall.17 contrary. He and at the feet of is laid. and for a moral itself in the free worship of God. each fresh draught from nature's well of thought shall increase the thirst for the km wledge of the Conceiver of these thoughts. The completion of His works rtirON'-B ! was fulfils the Sabbath. Heaven arid earth of the elements that won harmony from discord were completed. " was not yet completed. with the spirit of the old proclaim to the spirits word : iroN^D " ! Sabbath shall go forth as its herald. and and minds of men the old Sabbath watchBehold HIS WORK ! This time tion is indeed coming. filled . a true crown be set to the prethis seventh day and solemnly and inviolably SANCTIFIED Heaven and earth. solution in him. is destined without for a communion that activity is expresses God's image on earth that sees and recognises God. the Sabbath Indeed only by the attainment fulfil ITS appropriate end. so also will the seventh. this creature among creatures the whole terrestrial world If their then joy. in himself. and because of this Divine spirit. the dust. God has BLESSED it. His GOD COMPLETE day WITH THE SEVENTH DAY ONLY DID WORK. the whole world as perceived by the senses was created. and each newly-ascertained law shall only increase the reverence for the Law-giver. . is : Its herald and priest. at the same time. but God's work of creation. of the purpose of the Sabbath will ceding creations.. already highest uniting contradictions here in this world of is contradictions. yet he carries within himself the invisible. for behold. and eternally free spirit of God.

grow from God. "irOtf'ja/.do by him. the completion and condition to the six preceding days. they The MEDIATOR AND PRIEST is MAN. if IF to doubt his God. and man's moral and divinely inspired vocation " is found after all to be no dream. so long ! as in the execution of his Sabbath so long as he lives work he is filled with the spirit of the and toils on earth with earnest moral . stability are all ultimately founded on the Sabbath. out of whose unassisted thought and world came into being. whose messenger. SERVANT THE SERVANT WHO FULFILS HIS TASK WITH FREE SELFSURRENDERING DEVOTION IS TO BE MAN HIMSELF. the six preceding days revolving round the seventh day. this Sabbath which was added as the seventh day of creation was made the crown and coping stone. HIS PRIEST ON to lift it EARTH. in the intercourse with this sensuous world he loses the consciousness of the if this sensuous world becomes everything and free God and he forgets God. And behold. and if. innermost nature . whose agent in carrying out his injunctions is to be the whole of creation. whose angel. to invisible . its is up again and to show him the One whose. the consciousness of his own free and Divine nature becomes obscured. but whose HIGHEST whose most ENLIGHTENED angel. man's moral nature. to him. And this Sabbath was introduced into the creation. The whole material welfare of man on earth has also been linked " with the Sabbath blessing and holiness. BUT HOW. and not only all things on earth grow and mature in Him too. and with the abanwill-power this sensuous donment of his belief in God's supreme power. whose HIGHEST messenger. no Heaven and earth fairy tale ! are witnesses of his spiritual destiny and guarantees of its realisa" tion Heaven and earth smile kindly upon his labours. LET HIM CONTEMPLATE THE SABBATH This his shall IN THE CREATION six for ! institution is for ever destined to career of toil and struggle on earth. in his conflict HE BEGINS TO GO ASTRAY in his mission and thus to doubt his own. the whole world of sense being bound up with the Sabbath. despair of himself. and he learns to despair of God. progress and cosmic . with this sensuous world. he loses faith also in his own free divine nature. accompany and after function man on days ever have drawn his glance down to earth.

It is not the mere output ot perspiring toil that wrings the fruit out of the ground. that was to be his paradise. so long as the world of man languisheth and fadeth away. The consciousness of God and the moral aim of the toiler are no less indispensable conditions of blessing." (Is. The first Sabbath greeted humanity already at the threshold of paradise. thousand years the Sabbath . 23. give him wings to soar through the air. MAKE HIM THE LORD AND MASTER OF THE WHOLE OF THE SIX DAYS' WORLD. and with every new moon. make lightning the messenger of his thoughts. THE SABBATH IN THE WILDERNESS for two had been banished from human life. the earth fadeth away PARADISE on EARTH. WITHOUT the SABBATH. and trembled before the numberless forces and material powers which everywhere hampered his existence and clogged his efforts on earth. For the SABBATH. which made history only a panorama of human strife and contention. BUT IF YOU STRIKE THE SABBATH OUT OF HIS WORLD you cause him to deny his God and his own spiritual destiny and the earth. blessing departed from nature too." were his watch-words on earth. 4 . *' To be and to enjoy. is a part of the WORLD'S CREATION. man's creative genius creative spirit to cunning and craft.) 3. harness clouds to his triumphal car. saith the Lord. and in this THE SABBATH HAD DISAPPEARED FROM THE EARTH.humanity. his earth. and the WHOLE HISTORY of the WORLD became NOTHING MORE than the RECORD of the VAIN ENDEAVOUR TO REGAIN. becomes his grave. let his acknowledge embrace the universal conquests of all the secrets of nature. Ixvi. Man felt himself at war with nature and every fragment snatched from nature only became in his hand a weapon. But God brings back the new heaven and earth when the spirit of the " Sabbath shall have asserted itself victoriously. Man knelt before a creature of sense. and with every Sabbath all flesh. shall come to worship before Me. selfishness and love of pleasure. War was upon was turned to violence. xxiv. the LOST " The earth mourneth. And as the spirit of the Sabbath continued more and more to depart from.endeavour according to the Divine will. a part of the WORLD'S ORDER..

whose thought and will alone are active as well in the infinite in the whole The Sabbath had disappeared and as in the minutest fragment. How to earth. how to make her powers subservient. before a terror his BLING MAN. . the sum and substance of man's wisdom for the Sabbath . but His FIRST FREE SERVANT in a divinely governed world to whom He and entrusted the promotion of liberty. that One and only Master of the world had promised His His assistance. himself became slightest quiver MAN TREMBLED BEFORE TREMfellow-man. war of the had become meaning of life on and greed. War of humanity with nature. SCIOUSNESS OF THE THE SABBATH HAD DISAPPEARED AND WITH IT THE CONONE AND ONLY MASTER and Lord. speech and life. ONE free God-pleasing human word. ONE free God-pleasing human act possessed of more power than all the mighty thunder of the chained and imprisoned forces of nature.20 watchword each one had thought only MEN TREMBLED TO NATURE. there disappeared too the faith man's divine nature. and the this man trembling before the smallest worm. and His covenant. fear and hatred its levers. REGARD powers ruling therein. how to save oneself from the rivalry of a competing brother. into whom He has breathed a spark of His own free and eternal nature. and that man need only be GOOD to see the earth at his feet. in man's moral freedom. was had vanished from the earth. for himself. of truth and justice. too the consciousness that ONE free God-pleasing emotion in the human heart. and how man man this to turn a brother's competition to one's own advantage. of love With the passing of the Sabbath there went blessing. and with this breath has it destined him. WITH dark before the The mysterious essence of the living of the smallest fibre worm. The belief had ffone. not to be a slave of nature or a tyrant of his brother. with of nature. blessing to Man's free moral choice and only to man's free moral choice and that it is not the the . passion save oneself from nature. terrified the mysterious properties of wood him to . Man is the one being with whom the One and only Master of the universe is bound by a special covenant. in the divine empire over his moral thought. with TINCTION WHICH went the consciousness of the only DIGNITY AND DISMAN POSSESSED in this great divine universe. With the in passing of faith in God's Sabbath.

21 knowledge which comprehends. and the deed which emulates Him and sheds it is these which are able to secure man's blessing on mankind will that holds man realises . there to begint he redemption of mankind there to make them FIND THE SABBATH. only I stand without a friend. The Sabbath was lacking. it is not the art that overcomes nature. it is not man's calculating cleverness. when supported by a free and untrammelled faith in God was more powerful than all the power that denied Him. and before the pure God-adoring spirit which swayed the heart of a slave. without an upholder. and for two thousand years the " Sabbath stood by God's throne To everything Thou hast assigned a friend and an upholder. it is not man's which in but the subjection knowledge the art which serves Him. the wisdom which God. forgotten. heaven for you the people shall go out and gather the daily requirements every day. comprehends Him. He had SHOWN that the most abject slave. He made them experience the utter misery. welfare on earth. that I may prove them. and was armed with all the terrors that are wielded by the forces of nature and of man. without any possession or rights whatsoever. He had burst chains and had divided the sea's waves for Israel and had now led them into the wilderness. the infinite woe. was cast by Him into the iron crucible of an Egypt that had forgotten God. whether they will am here : " ! said God unto " . the absolute curse of a tyranny that inherent in a nature-cult which is without the humanising influence of the taught the gods and tyrants of Egypt to tremble before His finger." : Then it was that a human family in whose bosom a spark of God's pure consciousness had taken refuge. Would that we had died by the hand of God in the land of Egypt where we sat by the flesh pots and did eat bread to the full You have brought us into the wilderness to let this whole ! " assembly die of hunger " I " ! I will rain bread from Moses. disdained. for whose deliverance and Sabbath. At last He had redemption the hand of the world's Master was to be uplifted. During a long night lasting for centuries.

And they kept it till the morning as Moses bade them. He giveth you on the sixth day the . what you want to boil. and : ! Sabbath to everything that remaineth keep it for to-morrow. But when Then they gathered. Then Moses said Eat it to-day for to-day is God's holy Sabbath.- " This is is the bread which that But this the word man according to his souls let every man take for God has given you for food God has commanded Gather of it every needs. See for that God hath given : you the Sabbath. It mouldered not. needs So they gathered every morning. some more. And all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses. But on the seventh day some of the people went to gather and they found none. they did measure it with a measure.- gathered according to his need of food. on : it there shall be none. According to the number of your : 1 them that are in his tents a measure for each head. Six days you shall gather but on the seventh day is the Sabbath. some less.22 walk in My law or not." . it shall be twice as much as what they otherwise gather daily. But on the sixth day when they shall prepare what they have brought home. had no less. Then God said to Moses How long do you refuse to keep My commandments and My teachings. to-day you will not find it in the field. Let no one leave of it till the morning ! then it bred Some of them left of it till the morning worms and became rotten. Then it was that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much two measures for each one. bake it to-day. and he that gathered little. boil it to-day. . therefore. had no more. he that gathered much. : bread. But he answered them That is what God has said The rest. But each one had .. and no worm was in it. God's holy Sabbath is to-morrow! What you want bake. and Moses was wroth with them. each one according to his When the sun grew hot it melted.

They ate manna until they came to the borders of the land of Canaan. the whole fulness of His worldthe poorest. He giveth length of days to every meek human soul. chap. fulness of His world-swaying power. is near in love to them that fear Him.) Thus you see the Sabbath given to every cottage. why do you court her favour the Sabbath tears you from her altars. Let every man abide in his place on the seventh So the people kept the Sabbath on the seventh day. and throws you into the arms of Him who begat you shows you nature's one and only Lord and Master. Who prepareth rain for the earth. gives the stars their names.23 bread of two days. That hope in His mercy. He He He delighteth not to trust in the strength of horses. to every soul. 8-11). Who giveth to the beast their food. 4-6 . ! He who He who The young ravens what they cry for. and the life of a whole generation pledged and promised two thousand times over human ! Why do you tremble before the forces of NATURE. As near as He is to the whole great universe So NEAR is HE He poureth out the whole TO EACH INDIVIDUAL SOUL. . The great all-powerful Lord. 33H. the Director of the heavenly paths Sabbath assigns you a position above and outside nature in the covenant which she has established with her God and yours. Who maketh herbs to grow upon the mountains. The yet near you with the most fervent love. the all prevading. But the children of Israel ate manna for forty years. human soul that worships soul. Even to count every single person not too insignificant for Him. And casteth the wicked to the ground Who covereth the heaven with clouds. . even human in a human He makes heaven and habitation is earth revolve in order to feed ONE starving human creature day by even ONE day. day.. for with God heaven and earth do not outweigh Him and inclines towards Him in love. until they came to an inhabited land. the all-powerful. 16. desirethhim not to trust the strength of his legs. fixes the number of stars. all over-ruling who is shows you by your "l"njO D'DB> side. Encompasseth the infinite with His spirit. (Ex. (Psalm 147. sustaining love for the benefit of each individual.

in words. the world around you were to become a desert not to tremble if. is NOT JUDAISM. or not. to beautify altars Him. strength and life. but not to have the courage to forego the smallest or to give up the smallest enjoyment for that the sake of name this is not the essential thing. to sing trust in God. in poems. to declare one's to have His name in in hymns. in order to fulfil His word you had to forfeit the favour of nature and man. EDUCATED by this PROBATION to realise your faith To build temples to God. for this the Sabbath was sent you. profit in life. self in this Judaism. and your knowledge of '. . But to show IN and THROUGHOUT your life. one's mouth. to regard as rottenness and corruption that which the God-denying narrow-hearted man gathers and enjoys. Halleluiah to God. to test yourself again and again whether you are strong enough for such Judaism. for His sake. to be prepared for His sake to renounce and chattels. this is not the essential thing . that is the corner stone of the whole divine teaching. gain and pleasure. not to tremgoods ble if.K ? DK 1 and trust in God are CALL YOURSELF NO LONGER A JEW IF YOU DO NOT KEEP THE SABBATH. laws in stands supreme before tion The SABBATH therefore the aim to establish this recogni- and trust in God on a firm foundation. may you BECAUSE WITH THE SABBATH JUDAISM . By the Sabbath your God wishes to see whether He still count among His people STANDS OR FALLS. that is not the Jewish freedom that has been sent to redeem and bless mankind. no longer call yourself a Jew if your knowledge of and trust in God do not stand the test of the Sabbath. To serve GOD THAT SURELY IN TEMPLES while IN LIFE you serve the CREATURE. gladly to retreat into a desert with wife and child if God's word you there. to prove yourcalls . so that you in may be for God.24 But to RECOGNISE God and all to TRUST in God. to reject the flesh pots of Egypt and the bread made by man. your knowledge of and trust in God. your Judaism. On the Sabbath you are to bo tested again and again whether genuine. but cheerthe smallest thing that He fully to await His blessing from bestows upon you as a reward for your efforts to please Him THIS is JUDAISM And to train for this Judaism. and to accept it only from God's hands not to tremble even if know not to-day whence your bread may you come to-morrow. THE SABBATH is THE TOUCH-STONE OF THE JEW.

For FORTY YEARS the Sabbath had in Israel. struggle for a subsistence. again and again arose solely from the fact that the Sabbath spirit had not completely penetrated their minds. IN GOD WOULD ENSURE MAINTENANCE AND BLESSING. people. Just as the first institution to greet Israel on his entering the desert was the Sabbath.25 God's holy institutions none. and trusting in God. you go through the whole history you will find that every misfortune which befel Israel. therefore. : For FORTY YEARS the people were taught that God desires man's industry. was so carefully none subjected to so long and continuous a trial. No child in Israel could be in '"6 DVfl B>np. so we may say that the whole of his journey in the wilderness was nothing more forty years' than an education for the Sabbath Hence every complaint all : Of and murmuring in the wilderness against the Father was nothing more than a sin against Indeed. and every Sabbath stood forth. because the Sabbath manna was not the day was to be holy unto to be found in the field. sanctified by God. might rest on the seventh day. that he should not turn his week days into holidays. but that on the other hand he must not be utterly absorbed in this must not sacrifice the present for the certain to-morrow as rejoice The people were taught that God's blessing would be as it was to-day. if long-suffering the Sabbath of spirit. BUT THAT MATERIAL POSSESSIONS GAINED THROUGH THAT ONLY TRUST . they could every day. and proclaimed as a day on which man was to refrain from going forth to seek his food. that. he future. every Sabbath was announced already on the Friday by the two-fold measure of the manna. none so prepared. your its pledge and guarantee doubt as to which was the Lord's day )03 IBHpl |03 1D13. God ! On For FORTY YEARS the people were taught UT\bn by *b O DINn rrfP r\$b tha* it was not only the bread gained from nature by human art which nourishes man DIKH PPPP '1 'fi NY10 bl by "O but the favour of God which man had to seek. trusting in God. as the SABBATH. repeatedly attuned to human consciousness and human recognition. In none of God's holy institutions was Israel so expressly and continuously trained and educated as in the Sabbath.

Just as he feels himself bound up with God. yet it heritage. what can man do to him ? the meanest are of as man. He looks upon nature and his relations to He his knee before the does not crawl or tremble before nature. And this lesson and it alone bears within it the possibilities of holiness and happi- ness. is to remain Israel's everlasting however simple the lesson may seem. and " to protect in the saving service of Him who it and to perfect " ! granted to him only has placed him in nature's garden. him in his quiet pure labour. from hatred and emnity. free . as He is to the most magnificient mansion cradle . and beside Him he needs nothing on earth " ! He him does not lord it over nature.26 THE DENIAL OF GOD. The name of GOD has made him FREE. and the worship of man. "Because. WITH THE SABBATH BEGINS THE TRANSFORMATION OF MAN. for which our forefathers were trained for forty years. " in heaven he has but Him. he does not bend " " the name of God has groves and bats . God is as near to the humble cottage. WOULD BEAR PUTREFACTION. rules nature. and history. free from the terrors of nature's forces covenant with God uplifts his soul above all nature's empire. peace and blessing for humanity. himself nature and to God and to his fellow creatures with different eyes. his made him FREE. God and humanity. the souls of His children in much account as the scions of things swathed in silk. IN THEMSELVES THE GERM OF which seems so simple. all The name the of God has made HUMBLE. The name of God has from envy and arrogance. Notwithstanding he humbly bows his head before the one higher Creator desires to use the strength power with which he and Master. The Sabbatli man is a new man. so he sees God's name stamped upon everyone of his is He no enemy in the family of made him free. humble and if God is with calling as He is to the much trumpeted hero. from revenge and violence. free from the fear of man. God is as near to the man of quiet. He does not crawl and tremble before the power of man.

man upon every fellow-worker. no one his share of the possessions. into a will o' the wisp of " " which has transfalsehood. . for the Sabbath observer has lost its baneful power. . this word of blessing and of curse which without a Sabbath into the sweat and dust of the race after fortune. } ation cannot hinder him. he who gathers little has in his eyes no less than the measure allotted by God to each person. which God has conferred upon him. And as the bitter poison of envy is driven out of the breast of man who keeps the Sabbath. which transforms the friendly eye that was made drives the to smile genially . nor envies the richest. with the locks of envy. He neither looks disdainfully upon the poorest of his brethren. ." brethren. as to a and teaches him to regard every one's circle as a divinely hallowed place. " COMPETITION ". like worms that have no . man That DELUSION of the SABBATH-DESECRATOR which teaches " " " worwhich makes man to have his god only in his hand his net of violence and drag of cunning because by them ship his portion is a fat one and his food savoury. pleasures and honours. His God is rich enough to maintain with blessing the millions of homes striving in purity. " He who gathers much has in his eyes no more. malice and hatred which dwarfs the spirit." howHe is ever." THAT delusion makes " man like the fish of the sea. into a killing look of envy which clenches in violence and cruel treachery the hand that was made to grasp every fellow-man's hand in frank and hearty and sympathetic grip which locks up the heart. that divine spirit which was destined to be a torch of truth and justice and redeeming wisdom. His brother's cannot raise him his brother's elev. injustice and violence competition formed society from a brotherhood that rejoiced in the blessing of God into a horde of endless fratricidal strife " competition. . that divine human heart in which mercy and love that are for ever aspiring unto God should dwell. He grudges no one his blessing. brother. the paradise blossoms of LOVE and CHARITY grow up in its place inspiring him with their gracious perfume to realise his greatest blessing in the blessing which he lovingly prepares for his fellow mortals.27 Hence this name draws everyone near to him. not here to build his house on the ruins of his neighbour's fortune heis not here to put his proud and domineering foot upon his brother's neck.

master because under it humanity has lost its only hold.) Sabbath found visibly In the wilderness. THE SABBATH OF THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. Six days thou ahalt labour and do all thy work . In it thou shalt do no work. With this and every soul truly reposes.28 " . and to God sum in this of unique situation so full of Israel was Israel's mission. the Creator and Lord. home and heart by the Sabbath. . his idea of ENTER the COMITY OF NATIONS with on his own soil. 8-11. recognises in God not only the God of the universe. 20. the Father. to forget God. God matured unity and The pillar of a political life in all its cloud and the pillar of . and all that is in and upon them. dwelling and peace to every every knowledge salvation is brought to and Give the world the Sabbath and you will break the fetters heal the wounds of mankind. and the Israel. its God. human being. thou. and rested on the seventh day Therefore God has blessed the seventh day and hallowed it. but THE TO EVERY HUMAN ETERNALLY EXALTED GOD WHO IS EVER NEAR under Whose care and DWELLING and to EVERY HUMAN HEART. it was diffi- But the wilderness was not proclaim the knowledge of miracles was not the whole to Israel's final destination. But the seventh day it the Sabbath of the Lord thy Ood. For in six days Ood created heaven and earth. in the wilderness cult not to it was difficult remember the Sabbath. guidance every dwelling On the contrary. nor thy maidservant. and God was so evidently everything . In the wilderness where the life of man was manna was where every crumb of by divine mercy a reminder of God. thy manservant. Protector.t hy cattle and also the stranger within thy gates. 4. nor thy daughter. Israel found the Sabbath again. of every human heart in the wilderness where man was so absolutely nothing. every human and this HOLY aspiration soul. (Ex. and Sustainer of every maintained . He was to develop diversity. the sea. Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. of God. the Ruler and Disposer. nor thy son.

where his man seems to be everything. who is nature's and his own Creator and Master. to whom he owes his strength.29 fire remained Israel in the wilderness. and order to be there fields time forth were be established." that he might say. like all other human societies. of morality. Israel was sent for the very purpose of averting . inventions. flocks to be tended. his this . the privilege of ownerand by the exercise of human intelligence and . is effaced. which has made nature his servant. who has given him his intellect. 1 1 his art. to wring from nature Henceforth. claims which bring human life into harmony with God. and crown it with dignity and importance. Israel was by the exercise of human intelligence and human ship and happiness strength the means of a livelihood. meadows to be looked after. this danger It ! was not without purpose then that God had delivered them . ceased as soon that as set on an inhabited to land From vineyards to be planted. strength to bind the community to the individual and to adjust the liberty of the individual to the law established by the com- munity. of holiness and of love. with salvation and blessing. power. my strength forget. his strength. and often do not get even that fragment. justice to be administered. and all the claims of truth and justice. where his intellect. the latter either subordinate to or master of the mind of man in this POLITICAL LIFE. In this PRESENT THAT ECONOMY political life THE DANGER is EVER AND POLITICS BECOME THE TWO GODS OF MAN. and GOD who should be the beginning and the end of all human effort. . foot the manna tilled. The danger is so imminent. have at most to be satisfied with only a fragment of the incense-laden feast. crafts to be practised. institutions appear life was political " and always is near at hand the danger that the idea of " God that man might might recede more and more into the background " H* D^iyi TD and my power. h*n fllPy ? PIS ~}b pun Kin ^3. In this political STATE where man and nature show themselves in all respects and effects. and it should not befall Israel indeed. his to be predominating factors in where man rules like a creator there . in whose service and for whose satisfaction he is to exercise his strength. but on the contrary frequently require sacrifices of strength and power. because they add nothing to wealth that is purely industrial and political.

and in which the worship of the Creator should not pale before the self-worship of the creature.30 out of Egypt. and no slave under his load are too high or too low that He should not be near to them. in which science and art. and not only the God of earth but the God also of states before His finger. saving it was not without purpose that He made them pass through this great and unique experience when bringing them into the domain of human . judging. and political room for the denial of God On to be built the basis of this experience a national and political life was up in which science and art. the teachings of truth and justice. it not only the God of nature. force and power should not erect. so that he should no longer see the one and only God. On the basis of this experience a national and political life was to be evolved in which the sun of God's greatness need not set in order that the stars of human greatness might shine . history. how all . morality and love. was not without purlife. for self adoration. made them pose that God state of nature or organised. were not to blind man's eyes. but also the God of earth. or imprison his heart in an iron casement. industry and commerce. not only the God of heaven. no room for a and a human tyranny so characteristic of Egypt. but also the God of history. that it should no feel its own divine longer dignity or be sensible of the influence of the guardian angels of mankind. of cottages and houses and that no prince on his throne. out of the house of bondage it . which realise the is full curse of a whether in a at war with God and would deny Him was not without purpose that God had shown them. in which . and the gods of the earth tremble through them all mankind. industry and commerce. helping. the golden-iron-clay idol of glorified human grandeur. force and power. how He is and cities. punishing. in which man's smallest political life greatest activities were to and and be developed in contact with God. On the ccntary on the basis of this experience a national was rather to be evolved. On life was the basis of this experience a whole national to be evolved in which there was to be no Egyptian worship of nature and man.

nation or state f< '33K. you know in what manner I am God. had therefore said to Israel. whom you know from Egypt. for I do not lightly esteem even the smallest thing I am near to the simplest word. in the study of the schoin which every moment lar. God in nature. for levity shall never remain p^ n3B>n DV free. and forsaken of men. with every word and action private and public life the service of the one and only God was to be performed AND THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE NATION. however. the nation and the state. YOUR God claim the WHOLE man. I make heaven and earth the executors of man's least and most transient utterance's. . to Me you shall dedicate yourselves and Me you shall serve in all your relations. DK IIO TOT ! Therefore take heed that your . and who so mentions My name for deception.31 science craft. with all your powers. THE HOME AND THE STATE WERE TO FIND THEIR OWN GLORIFICATION SOLELY IN THE GLORIFICATION OF THE ONE AND ONLY GOD ! I. hood. of the day. agriculture and stateALL OF HUMAN POWER AND ASPECTS SHORT. God in social life. You shall erect no idols beside Me. efforts and aims. build no altars to them or devote your strength to them. whether with the plough or the needle. hour. and IN GREATNESS art. complete. in the laboratory of the scientist . whether in private or public life. I. the whole life of the family. FICATION OF THE ONE AND ONLY GOD in were to be made to God and His precepts which fulfilled sacrifices in the palace of the ruler. I SHALL BE YOUR GOD. I am in the centre of all and am witness of and surety to men's truthfulness. the sword or the anvil." God. with every thought and feeling. from the home of slavery. happiness of all mankind to the thousandth genHence. withholds from their children My and services affects their happiness. you should not lightly esteem the simplest word you utter. and the fulfilment then I lay the foundation eration. For I God. The smallest thing which man. the surrender of of to My will shall be My commandments perfect. the least shaped thought of the the . Wherever My name is mentioned there I am. for false- most insignificant human intercourse. in the hut of the peasant. WERE TO JOIN FORCES SOLELY FOR THE GLORI. When. at every. and that of children's children. the pen or the spade at all times. industry and commerce.

the husbandman man his fire. your of manna. IT HOLY" and make the Sabbath AN ETERNAL MONUMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND SANCTIFICATION OF GOD." master and mould and shape the things of the earth for your ends. weave and sew. the weaver his spool. and messengers and executors of your will servants. On the seventh do no manner of work On the seventh day let ! the quit his plough. from WHOM he derives the intellect and strength. in its corporate capacity. but in your organised social life. the tanner his the furnacepit. and make them Melachthecha.32 does not banish God from your heart. that to imagine that God sends manna for every soul you do not come whether young or old. the sculptor his chisel. tan and shear. mutual the of purposes. individual to For that to of the days carry from the sphere of community. reap and gather. For six days administer ! ! the affairs of state. your strength. bake and cook. the seventh is THE SABBATH OF THE LORD THY GOD. laid down use own human intellect turns to account to its Let him remember. impress upon them the stamp " of your intellect. only in the wilderness. wash and bleach. the trader his business. of your will. and practise every art and craft. the spinner his spindle. thresh and grind. IN THE MIDST OF mastery of life. For six days wield the hammer and chisel. till and plough. the miller his mill. For six days labour For six days work the earth and rule it " and do your work.. the community of that of the and extend the welfare But community.'* For six days. For six days hunt and kill. forces. your Melachah. and let every one remember HIM WHO has given him this world. HIM in WHOSE service he is working the laws which . THE MOST WONDERFUL DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN " REMEMBER THE SABBATH DAY TO KEEP HISTORY ^AND EFFORT. paint and sketch. are the provider political and economic life THE BUSIEST. the insight and skill. sow and plant. to master it WHO has formed the created the . from the sphere individual. the hunter his net. you alone. materials. For six days cut and spin. the reaper his scythe. For six days write and draw. the baker his oven. with your intellect.the relations of the of the individual to the six community to the individual community and promote their . both in the centre of your busy public life and the peaceful retreat of your domestic hearth.

and the sunbeams colours. and Tl^ in . who is the Author of it. but for immediately practical OUR purposes. to see how man uses or abuses the world lent to him and the forces bestowed him. the wellbeing of the community and of the individual. not as is said. but what is still more. WHOSE Thus it has been for thousands of years and can we in our time dispense with the Sabbath ? invention and art has exalted OUR TIME in which the spirit of imman greatness to an unimagined height . AND THAT HE is THE SOLE ARCHITECT TO WHOM upon EVERY MAN HAS TO RENDER AN ACCOUNT OF HIS DOINGS OF THE WEEK. for aimless scientific amusements. who watches every man and every human effort. the Sabbath were a recognised institution. in which the clouds have become our steeds. And finally let him therefore realise THAT THE CREATOR OF OLD is THE LIVING GOD OF TODAY. WE SHOULD HAVE TO IT IMPLORE HIM FOR ON OUR BENDED KNEES. save us and our children. which every newly discovered marval of nature is utilised. not only to the secrets of heaven. OUR HAD THE SABBATH NOT BEEN GIVEN TO US LONG SINCE BY MERCIFUL FATHER IN HEAVEN. And let him lay his productions and materials. on WHOSE goodwill and help and blessing. the lightning our messengers. and purposes he must seek to further. for the increase of man's wealth and pleasure TIME in which the conquest of nature by man's INDUSTRY is revered as the only saving God whose altars never lack for worshippers OUR TIME INDEED CAN IT DISPENSE WITH THE SABBATH? . from self -deification and the denial of God.33 and producing. under WHOSE eye he is dealing and trading. the danger of which has never been greater than in our days. SO that it might save us from ourselves. who ha rojceived the . every newly discovered marvel of nature would only increase our reverence for If the great Master. and pencils^ for our painters ? OUR TIME which is getting nearer and nearer. to the secrets of the earth and life which is beginning to discover the laws of nature and to find the magic [mula which her forces obey. Let him remember. his world and himself as holy sacrifices on the altar of HIM who created heaven and earth. moreover. of the prince and of the peasant in the last resort depends. and who rested on the seventh day and blessed and sanctified it.

every new invention would not only add to our wealth and pleasure.34 ideas. mind and body which has been called by God to such high authority in His kingdom become. HOLINESS AND LOVE. and our gratitude still further kindled for having vouchsafed us a spark of His spirit and a portion of His creative energy whereby we are able to follow and calculated and determined the laws which we discover. and the more would we at all times . art pales like a vision is and compared with whose radiant crown his own lustre \Vould that with ever glory. the Sabbath were a recognised institution. and in meek devotion place himself and the world he rules at the feet of Him before whose vation for the whole of mankind. from all work in the frenzied hurry-scurry of our time ! ! . that under God's protection and blessing it may be made to contribute to His great scheme of sal- Our God-like UNDERSTANDING would even be surpassed by our God-like COMPASSION. would embrace on the first but like a single pearl of increasing devoutness civilized man day of the week a world that is being . the more holy would we ourselves become. the smallest as well as the greatest for the purpose only of our salvation. endeavour to use everything. reveals God's creative wisdom the more holy would we consider every little speck of dust which we gratefully use in God's great household. the more ingenious our inventions. as well as every human being toiling along and near us the more holy would every faculty of our intellect. the deeper our insight. the more modest would we become. in the operation of His mind and will. full grandeur and blessing of a Sabbath in that on every seventh day civilized man would descend from his throne of cloud and lightning. would be investigate and fathom. constantly rejuvenated by the spirit of Sabbath and that there would be but ONE AIM. and every new discovery. with ever-growing splendour. . SOLELY IN THE SERVICE OF TRUTH AND JUSTICE. and the more reverently would we walk across the stage of nature and of human activity which. towards HIM Him. the more extensive If our discoveries. namely to use his power a thousand times multiplied and his insight a thousand times quickened. but be a source of ever new BLESSING and SALVATION. Who can fathom the our time ? Would creative grandeur all human. Sabbath in our time To cease for a whole dayyfrom all business.

the more precious. The greater the Sabbath-sacrifice the more zealously must you grasp the CUP of the Sabbath-sanctification. the more you must Therefore im:3t ! pn by. knows how to bless the work of ! ! the week with a twofold measure of manna. It is soul. /no^aa pn by ima? wiph naw/w n -o. and that you may lose in it your God and the whole dignity of your calling as a man. and if only you would reverently lay at His feet on the Sabbathi the sacrifice of your labour. the more you yourself feel the pressure of the industrial current.^1 narn DV n 'I 70 The GOD who sanctified the Sabbath. wife and child and all the members of your household around you and hallow the Sabbath. not your assiduous industry. the workshops and factories. and the more devoutly must you gather IDDKl "pay ~[r\3) "p3. The more significant the industrial factor becomes to you. but only God's blessing which is assured to everyone who surrenders himself to Him ir . He has BLESSED IT TOO |03 13"D1 |03 lanp. the may finally be comsubmerged in it. it is only God's mercy that knows and numbers every roof. of salvation and blessing. not only in the desert did God know how to compensate for the keeping of the Sabbath by a two-fold blessing of the week. to stop all railway services great heavens how would it be possible? The pulse of life would stop beating and the world perish !" ! The world perish ? On the contrary. extolling it and returning fervent thanks for You must teach them through its saving and sanctifying gift. old and young under your not your strength. granule of did every dwelling and every soul desert depend on God's mercy. The more your profit or loss depends on days. not your cleverness. it would be saved. that not only in the desert was your self-sacrificing example tremble at the thought that you and your child pletely the dew-covered in the not only manna a message of God.35 To close the. hours and minutes. He who withholds the manna on the Sabbath day. exchanges. every human concern. the stronger becomes the industrial fetter. as you say. He would bless its fruits with the fulness of peace and joy. more you see how labour in your time swallows up every circumstance. p by 1PW 1. but that even in the midst of the city's boisterous traffic it is only God's mercy that protects your dwellings and sustains its inhabitants. becomes your time.

Joy and gladness. to and retain TlOtP. " THEY WILL BE so AND REMAIN so. of A DOUBLE the Sabbath will mean not a loss. from the time of Egypt downward. and teach them by the solemnity of your Sabbathcelebration that not your industry. but to take it with you into your week-day life and gladly do you refer to the . MEASURE OF BREAD. He feeds you and JOYOUSLY Gather your wife and child and all the members of your household around you. vanish indeed with the departure of the Sabbath. of THESE God He makes you joyous and glad. He will give you and all who belong to you His blessing in the future. and before you once more make use of "Fire. and to yon too. brightness and honour WERE the Jewish heritage. raise on you the cup of salvation " and consecrate high yourself to God. You thus testify that GOD it Sabbath is the God the of your salvation . evidence which celebration : gives of your having fulfilled your Tljttt^ b run. gather wife and child and the members of your household you. that He ever and \fc ever. too. you . you raise the cup again with the same joyousness as when you received it. twoout what upon you may your springs of have lost material and you household to salvation ! drink joy is and your gladness strength. but the provision BE THE MORE BLESSED. but Lord even now. manifesting your desire. THE MORE faithfulness. may remain your and your children's God for in sanctity into Just as you greet the Sabbath on its entry and usher it in " " thinking your domestic hearth with the cup of so when the Sabbath departs you and "remembering" TOt . " " as you bow the Sabbath out. and governs it with blessing. AND YOU WILL AND CONSCIENTIOUSLY YOU KEEP THE SABBATH. and Who. who . . but that God who not only created the world. has taught you to realise His almighty power and His blessed and sheltering providence. the God Who rules it with omnipotence.36 your family." the of around symbol man's conquest over nature. your trade. ci your profession is still your is your god and the centre of your life. preserve the sanctifying influence which it has brought you not to let it . Therefore. testify this and again fold call trustful repose and enter upon the week faith to you by the assurance with which you once you in have gained traffic. He has hitherto helped you.

azure and purple. make golden hangings and stretch over them . Israel from the rest of mankind. in order means " holiness and light and the " Jewish spirit by may be preserved and secured for your productive work on earth. " Only keep My Sabbaths ! "Ex. yet the whole earth was full of His glory and before this exclamation the pillars of the temple trembled and the halls of the sanctuary were filled with smoke. crimson and byssus. whose symbol fire. and his eyes were opened so that he was able clearly to realise the condition of his people." which the Sabbath has brought you. and you brace yourself to take with " you the fragrant spice of recreation. he heard the angels' choir praising holy. . the lamp. You brace yourself to display your activity in God's world. that its has also separated the Sabbath from the six working days. The little word a "-|X /( only" with which God in the beginning secured the holiness of the Sabbath whilst building THE Temple. God had said : take gold and silver and copper." in the spirit of Him who has ordained this activity."|K" ONLY KEEP MY SABBATH FOR THAT is THE SIGN BETWEEN ME AND YOU THROUGHOUT ALL YOUR GENERATIONS THAT YOU MAY KNOW THAT I. 31. holy God : with the exclamation : that though holy. oil and spices and precious stones. MAKE YOU HOLY. the light from darkness. 15. and make the ark and the table. When the prophet Isaiah was consecrated to his high calling as God's messenger. GOD. and the altars. was the Lord of hosts. " " THE SABBATH AND THE TEMPLE. Build me a Temple and I will dwell among you. and has given you the power to assert this For He who has separated the holy from the unconauthority. cedar-wood. carpets with cherubim /. into your working and producing days.37 mixes the cup of your destiny. has grown in our time into a word of thunder that causes the very pillars of our temples to shake. you hold up to view in the " secrated.

THEN BUILD HIM TEMPLES. whether great or small. temples and altars are not the everlasting covenant . but seek Him fcj the full round of your time. seek Him your home. you desecrate the TO SING SONGS OF HALLELUIAH BLASPHEMY. and director of your pleasures. sustenance. guide of your actions. your fortune. whether you between God and the tibiy are His or not Israel is SABBATH God wishes D^yb KM niK Sritf' ^ to test you pi T3. THAT GOD IS TO YOU A GOD OF LIFE. your strength. BY THE SABBATH. THAT YOU COMMIT TO HIM YOUR HOME.g Do not seek or Him for merely for the fleeting moment of the brightly decked hours of ritual devctkn. not only by the hope of profit. . our the You will then sanctification.38 Temple and all altar. life your business. youi aspirations.^ the SABBATH is the covenant to be preserved throughout all generations. FIRST OF ALL. your family. your happiness. swift speedir. service. at youi business. ! outside the Temple. or pastime. of youi possessions. THAT YOU HAVE NOT THE COURAGE EVEN TO TRUST HIM FOR ONE DAY IN THE WEEK. themost insignificant practice. table and lamp. IF SABBATH. PROVE. the least and most transient to trample pleasure. your that you are ready to devote your to Him. ma the Sabbath is DrnTH ? rOPn. find God in the Temple. to sacrifice it for His sake. by it the . 3 for then the Temple it \\il) holy ovill be helpful to you in your pursuit of help you to effect the atonement. in your education. if. jest. the glorification of your whole life. C^b N'n BTlp "O. WORSHIPPERS AND SINGERS DO NOT KEEP THE For temples and altars are not the signs of recognition between God and Israel. sanctuary of every Jew DK niPj. temples and altars are not the sanctuary which has been committed to every Jew. |^ But if you desecrate the Sabbath in your life. in your joys. To VISIT THE TEMPLE. incense and sacrifice Sabbath IS these are meaningless. YOUR ONLY SUPPORT. because you seek Him there as He wishes to be sought. as master of owner in your thoughts. but even by the slightest attraction. if yOU care so little about your divine uplifting which the temple is to secure for you. IF YOU so LITTLE WORSHIP GOD. that when you take a single step outside the temple you can be induced. ideals . ccntiollei of your feelings. 1 the everlasting sign.

denies the sanctuary. God's sanctuary." You may ! " You may wish to glorify God by the temples whichjjyou . do sanctify you. For YOUR GOD is a dead idol. God. it snaps outside its very threshold. to be celebrated by abstaining from work. his soul shall be cut off from among his people. 13-17. THEN DO NOT CALL UNTO GOD Temple is to rivet. is a prison. destroys the covenant. for it is your sanctuary. You cannot " erase these words from God's book for it is : ONLY keep My Sabbath the sign between Me and you. for the build temples. BUT keep my Sabbaths. He who denies it. and if in the mode of your life you wilfully destroy your covenant with God and blasphemously throw into His face the tattered fragments of His compact. 31. do " " It is a perpetual sign that God created heaven sanctify you and earth." (Ex. he who does work on the Sabbath has deserved death The children of Israel ! shall keep the Sabbath as generations. but on the seventh is the Sabbath. by which you may know that I. the sign which God has established as a token between you and Him if the bond which the .39 under foot. his sanctuary and covenant. And the Jew who desecrates the Sabbath rejects the sign. Keep the Sabbath. deserves death. a PERPETUAL COVENANT throughout Between Me and the children of Israel it is in six days God created heaven and earth and only on the seventh day ceased to create and retired all their a PERPETUAL SIGN that unto Himself. Sabbath alone is the sign. is such a feeble thread that BY NAME AND DO NOT BUILD TLMPLES UNTO HIM. Foi* he who does any work on the Sabbath. throughout your generations. the temple. The Sabbath remains the hall-mark of the Jew. that you may know that I God. is not this God . frivolously and publicly. The living Jewish God who made the covenant of the in spirit with you for to life. is \v!rch you seek arise drug your dead -God wits the opiate of life incense lest He and angrily destroy the that withheld from him.) All our levity and all our false teaching cannot blot out or explain away these divine declarations. On six days shall work be done.

It is only by the The name of God is Sabbath that you can demonstrate that your God.40 build. From the sacredness of the Sabbath the sacredness of Israel and his festivals. to whom you build your temples. Temples and altars may even fall into ruin and decay. where is the house that you would build unto Me. and only him will I regard with love. " God's temples Man himself shall be the temple of God ' : ' " ! ! foer.) according to My word. and the temples which you build. 4) In regard to time and importance the Sabbath takes precedence of the whole system of Jewish Laws and Commandments nay it is just from the Sabbath that all Jewish institutions derive their true . Abolish the Sabbath and you root out the fundamental Even the principle of Israel and his religion. The name of God which you have in your mouth. proceeds arwn BnpD D^Cim tonm. but only by the Sabbath can you testify that God sanctifies you. saying Temples of God. used by men in many languages and in many meanings. as our wise men ingeniously remind us. and the earth my footstool. when the universe into existence. is the one and only God. mean nothing in themselves. You. and every nation has built temples to ITS god. but the . says God. who created heaven and earth and only then sealed and crowned his work of creation when with therefore. the seventh day He had established this monument It is of the absolute holiness of His relations with mankind. 7. seal of the covenant on the flesh is not made on the Jewish body until. who. and where is the place of My rest ? My hand has created the universe. who wants is in the first place. though poor and bruised in spirit. the first Sabbath has been greeted. not He. 1-3. 66. yet lives conscientiously (Is. have to demonstrate through the Sabbath that who spoke of Himself in these words : Heaven is My throne. but You who want it. connection with the pure idea of the living God. your God " He the temple." came You have to demonstrate through God who made His prophet say : the Sabbath that it is your Trust ye not in lying words.

by which yourself is " is He seeks to prove you whether you still call His. the sign. belong to His service. that you are sanctified through Him and that you sign anew as it were the letter of your covenant with God. that all your powers are His. The consecration or the desecration of the Sabbath must be something visible. that he builds ever anew every seventh day DSlJ? JVi3 DnTVPl^ rOPn DK mtPJ^." a is it. the executor of . y Sabbath D3 ? KYI 1 It It is a perpetual covenant that he has to ratify ever anew every seventh day. accompanies the Jew always and everywhere. But what Whether you have preached missed it. are holy umo Him Datnpa For six 'n ^N "D nyfo. days the world belongs to you. that He is also your Creator and that you too. you keep the Sabbath. nw means of recognition "Hjn'v sign. therefore resting from work means keeping the Sabbath. listened to the sermon or your prayers* unsaid. are consecrated to Him. " Issur m'lachlah the sign which your abstinence from work ABSTINENCE FROM WORK. you testify and prove ever and anon God that you are His. belong to Him. this is God expects from you on every Sabbath. you may stamp your creative impress it the agent of your will. or sing on the Sabbath. who so works on the Sabbath forfeits his life. . has transgressed it but it says.you have neither consecrated or desecrated the Sabbath by these acts or omissions. If to your to God's by which the Sabbath is to be kept according commandment. The Law does not say that he who does not attend to the sermon or say his prayers. or not. 4< " Sabbath Sabbathon says your God There must be rest from prayed or Ijfeft ! work on the Sabbath. or by which it is violated.41 Emp is a sanctuary that can never be destroyed. on this point you cannot be in doubt. Abstinence from work strate that God is the sign by which you are to demonthe Creator of heaven and earth. and perform M'lachah on everything and make exercise your dominion over everything that your " " . doing work means desecrating it. For your God calls it a " " " "KT. for six days you may God has created.

To this you shall testify by giving on this day. the fish. God's grace. neither the love of comfort nor can to in frivolity tempt engage productive activity on the Sabbath has. or cutting these facts are just so homage your God. THE WORLD is NOT YOURS. so as nowhere in God's world to stamp and impress of your human authority. The bird. or preparing. are just so many tokens of the consecration and hallowing of your thinking least of and creative life in the service of God. expressions of to all . after all. so as not to make the smallest creature. the and work by Lord and Master of the smallest as of the greatest creature within the world its freedom your ken. by this self-restraint and by the consecration of his thoughts and forces to the service of God. the plant tliat you refrain from tearing up. that He 'is YOUR Lord and Master. the animal that you refrain from seizing on the Sabbath. from catching the butterfly. But are not its lord THAT. in Every idea and every faculty which stimulates thought held check on the Sabbath in God's world. every idea and every faculty which stimulates\hought held in check on the Sabbath. but merely God's vassal on earth. or moulding. by abstinence from work on the Sabbath and your work reverently on God's holy altar. by retiring into that sphere of creation which is on any work of God subject to you and by not exerting your powers to bend it to your purpose. the material that you refrain from fashioning or chiselling. By Issur m'lachah you make the twenty-four hours on the Sabbath a continual sacrifice of the world unto your God and a consecration of yourself. that you that you only live and master. proclaiming HIM Creator many and Master and Lord of the world and the Jewish child which reor mixing. sanctified and elevated himself more truly and lastingly. so many renewed tokens of your wish to fulfil your covenant with your God and the Jew whom neither the desire of pleasure nor the hope of profit.42 ON THE SEVENTH DAY YOU SHALL TESTIFY your purpose. than if he had shed . or plucking the blossom on the Sabbath has glorified the Almighty God more effectively than the frains most brilliant orators and poets glorify Him by their words and songs . you place yourself By Issur m'lachah. the tiniest fibre of material into a servant of the your purposes.

Neither an arbitrary will nor necessity is to the factor which led appear to you as the originator of the human state. God has instituted a sign nimo nwsn . and of the community to the individual. and for this consecration to God also of your thinking and creative life between in the social sphere. are equally holy before God. you must perpetually prove ever anew. as to win His favour. tears in the temple before God and then hurried to And not only in respect to nature does God require on the Sabbath these tokens of the subjection and consecration of your thoughts and faculties to His service. YOU AFFIRM THAT THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL ORDER ARE LIKEWISE ORDAINED BY GOD. on the Sabbath.Trrn rntr6 o^in these are the symbols of recognition which your God has instituted for the sanctification and glorification of your activity in your relations more enter into the sphere of to human society on the Sabbath.D'3in man^ Trrn mano nsnrr you and Him. of Society to itself. our the foundation on which alone you can attain to the fulfilment of human destiny.43 most devoutly his business. He indicates society as activity. the subordination and consecration of your creative ideas and faculties to the service of God. Ihey are as much the scene cf divine governance and . that His they must. has committed to you. and the salvation of the individual is made the goal of the corporate GOD associates you with the state. The conditions of society. the relation further. It is just in these relations of life that God seeks to be glorified . BY CARRYING NOTHING ON THE SABBATH FROM A PRIVATE AREA INTO THE PUBLIC AREA AND VICE VERSA. be so ordered kingdom and His glory may once of these relations human life. Hence also for the sake which you hold to society. and above all the political conditions and activities of men are His concern too.D^nn niena men jmx ^ote . in which alone you can accomplish the task which He. therefore. God is God also of history. as the man to man and founded society where the individual can find his salvation only in co-operation with the many. the relations of the individual to the community. your Creator and Lord and Master. . AND BY CARRYING NOTHING FOUR YARDS OUTSIDE THE PUBLIC AREA. "V our relations to society and the relations of society to you. a God of human society.more.

recognise you the thoughts and faculties which operate also must consecrate and dedicate them to God. Thus has God spoken to me Go and station thyself in the by which the kings of Judah come in and by which they go out. kings and princes. and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem that enter by these gates Thus God has spoken For the sake of own good take heed your and carry nothing on the Sabbath day and bring nothing in by the gates of Jerusalem. Judah. but sanctify the Sabbath day. and this city shall remain undisturbed for ever. ye princes of and all Judah. om the low land. . the affairs of the community shall be directed .44 It. therefore. of the relations of society that He caused it to be set forth by His prophet Jeremiah. . God is to providence as the entire realm of nature. when the fall of the Jewish state was already impending. THAT THE BOND OF THE COMMUNITY SHALL NOT DESTROY THE LIBERTY OF THE INDIVIDUAL and that in the corporate life. with wisdom and justice to their that TFPn DIBH and D^IH Dim and divinely approved end O^in nifcna "TIB^O may be preserved and safeguarded each according to its ordinance. and from the mountains. of lovingkindness and mercy. Judah. . And they shall come from the cities of Judah and from the places about Jerusalem. as I commanded your fathers Then shall there enter by the gates of this city. : ! : . and from the land of Benjamin. in your social life. you His to the service of kingdom on earth. and from the South. they and their the men : " gates of the people. And so highly does God esteem this consecration of the Sabbath. so that in your social relations you refrain from violence and lavi lessness. tgmg burnt offerings and meal and of offerings incense and sacrifice thanksgiving unto the house of God. as His. . the inhabitants of Jerusalem. who with trustful devotion shape your relations " to society in a manner so pleasing to God lhat the LIBERTY OF THE INDIVIDUAL SHALL NOT DISTURB THE ORDER OF THE COMMUNITY. sitting upon the throne of David riding in chariots and on horses. you must subordinate to Him on the Sabbath. and on the contrary you endeavour to become a messenger of justice and order. and in all the gates of and say to Jerusalem them Hear the word of God. hatred and injustice. and do not work. princes. and carry nothing out of your houses on the Sabbath day.

let us observe the Sabbath as an everlasting covenant for our children and let us. which God said "Build Me a sanctuary and I will dwell among you " ? Is there a higher aim to which of this And behold the building sanctuary man can em Codies his aspire ? all the characteristic activites which man exercises. And surely you are not to believe that work is forbidden on the lower purpcses of business or the earning of a livelihood. but that it is no desecration of the Sabbath to do work for the sake of pleasure. God. bear children's children witness among our fellow men to God's supremacy in nature and . do sanctify you. only in regard to the so-called cultivation of the arts and sciences." (Jer. and it shall not be quenched. THE SYMBOL NAMELY OF THE SUBJECTION TO GOD OF ALL THE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS OF THE COMMUNITY AS A CONDITION OF ITS SALVATION AND ITS UNDISTURBED PROSPERITY FOR ALL FUTURE TIME. then I will kindle a fire in the gates thereof. in conquest of nature as in his social relations. : God Well. This you are not to believe. which in the constitution of the Temple. and it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem. nnp mp . or amusement. for the promotion of education or religion. GOD MADE THE KEEPING OF THE SABBATH AND PARTICULARLY THE HALLOWING OF THE nowm PJKVin. for the Sabbath. It was men never- placed the Sabbath above the building of the temple " and said ONLY keep My Sabbath. then. Is there a higher or holier purpose to which man's creative energy could have been dedicated than the building of the first temple of God on earth than the work concerning. by our celebration of the Sabbath. 25-27. for THIS only is the sign of recognition that I. let us prove ourselves true sons of Israel. society.) Thus even IN THE HOUR WHEN THE FALL OF THE STATE OF JERUSALEM WAS AT HAND. became the symbol of Israel's national in itself a consecration of the collective activities of theless life. from the first cut of the upturned sod to the transfer of the finished work. 17. fied Then eveiy Jew and every Jewess may stand : forth sancti- by sage may the celebration of the Sabbath and the word of the Jewish n30n TJO Dlh ton hvTNrb be verified V. 19-22.45 But if you will not hearken unto Me to sanctify the Sabbathday and to carry nothing in or out by the gates of Jerusalem on the Sabbath day.

run INTD vai IDS ^ 3). THE SABBATH AND EDUCATION. why " is Kintf. Mankind would undoubtedly be lost.46 the Sabbath this is Israel's sanctification nSlJtf inurw *nh& HO. and I am God." -IOK* <D ty T^D and every one that keeps the ^JT3P3 nil PtP2 ID^V Nl3ff D^iyn . none nobler and yet more generally accessible than the influence of education. there is none more hidden and yet more patent. heaven and earth would be unable to save the future of mankind. by educating it. Among all the forces with which the blessing or curse of humanity is bound up." 6. keeping man's shop closed ? n:}tfn HX K^M 11? 6l PK ICtfO* 'D the Sabbath. earthly powers. and mothers excluded this work of salvation from yet their educational system. all . none more tender and yet more powerful.TIT). yet if the fathers and mothers of the new-born generaif all tion pledged themselves to save the future future would be saved. " Le/ ewery man honour and fear his mother and father. of blessing and joy. and keep My Sabbaths !" (Lev 19. Even human the forces of darkness were to unite to destroy the race. who by His word does rested on' the seventh. more the experience of wise the spell exercised on the child's mind by the mother's eye. says the Lord. for created the world in six days and it not say 'K <JK1 '1 DKi n? DPiO " You are my witnesses. the And on earth if if heaven and earth were to combine finally to establish kingdom of salvation and peace. is by the father's word. before God to the highest conception of Sabbath bears witness is 1D0 H3n because he ^ salvation. the fathers Stronger than the united strength of powerful than the united force of all men. by the teaching and example of parents in moulding the coming generation.

but for thousands of years. slavery. nor out of thy children's mouths. sion. the force of an overwhelming disintegration caused by the most widespread disper1fl said God. ON THE MOTHER'S KNEES is THE FATE OF NATIONS DECIDED. Four hundred years torture. NOT IN THE FIELD OF BATTLE. on the knees of Jewish fathers. faith. the spirit that rests upon thee. shall you " entrusted His holiest work 33^ ~\fcb Dnjnim bequeath to your children and to your childrens God children that which this is you learnt in Hor^b " Om W13 HKT JW and 'T 1CN My covenant with them. "'i have known him that he will command his children and his " house after him that they shall keep the way of God said God and He entrusted the seed of salvation folded in the Abrahamic I " -pi nean V-IPIK lira nro vaa n mv IBM jyo? vnjrr <| 3" to the overmastering power of education triumphantly preserved in the bosom of one single family in the face of the antagonism of a whole erring world. . shall not depart out of thy mouth. vb of sojourning p3 -|jn? '\T 1J O jnn JttT.. "I will scatter you among the nations" again and once more He trusted to the power of education to fasten the bonds of religious teaching and of life with so firm a rivet. and nowhere has education achieved more triumphs than in brilliantly conspicuous Jewish houses. not only for decades. of the most divers times and crises. would be powerless to sunder the bonds which education had forged. were to the among strangers. not only for centuries. would be powerless to destroy the seed which education had sown. and the words which I have put into thy mouth. BUT IN THE NURSERIES. and calmly imposed upon this family by God. said God. of the most divers customs and conditions.47 NOT IN THE CABINETS OF PRINCES. To " education. AT THE CHILDREN'S CRADLE. the shock of the most hostile attacks. in the bosom of Jewish mothers. who trusted power of education to plant the ancestral faith with so firm a root that all the terrors of tyranny and degradation would be powerless to destroy it. from henceforth and for ever ''thus He spoke. that the influence of the most divers nations and countries. said God.

and next to the veneration and reverence that we owe to God." Was kind ? Yet with regard not the building of the temple the holiest work of manto the building of the temple God said . He placed the veneration and between children we owe to our parents." And to the child He has said : : px nxi l'3K " DX "OS " mother " and lID^n WQP " Reverently obey your father nxi IXTTl VJ3X1 1DK P-'X and your ' Let everyone honour and fear his father and mother BUT keep My Sabbaths word " " ! How full of meaning is this little But " ! The deepest pain and the noblest comfort. And indeed." and He has said to the parents " " here you have ""T HPyO the noblest work of My hands educate " it IKfinn? for my glorification. the whole force and blessedness of education are contained in this " but. hopes education is to form the connecting link between the latest generareverence that and those ancestors who. our nurseries. out of the mouths of children and babes." With these words he fastened the bonds and parents in the community of Israel as strongly as the bond that links mankind to God. as the seed is in the hands of the sower " or to use the simile of the author of the Psalm like the arrow in the hands of the archer. the . become prophets and God may bestow His spirit upon all our cradles. the essence.48 Kl T^K DK "!32 y therefore. the fear. love of God. all Israel's Since are based on the pure and holy keeping of this bond. since our stronghold of God's kingdom on earth is to be built fathers and mothers are called to that holiest of priesthoods which our little ones the is to kindle in the pure hearts and souls of out their lives. our homes are the holiest places in which since education is ! D'p3Vl tfbbw ""BO. and at the same time the only right foundation. sacred flame of the knowledge. throughGod has therefore placed the child's soul into the hands of its parents. and thy mother!" his father God spoke: "Honour thy father 1KTTI V3K1 10K ff"K "let everyone revere and mother. at the feet of flaming Horeb. and pledged themselves to the ever" " Naasseh Venishma of deed and thought lasting covenant of the tion filled . were with divine enthusiasm. thus ever progressively to lead the descendants of the Jewish race to that height on which the desire of the greatest " that the whole of the nation may of the prophets is to be fulfilled " Since.

And just as God with regard to education father and mother. where parents themselves have broken with . this is the meaning of honouring father and mother and all your caresses and gifts. His holy book has already pictured parents. your whole mode of living and striving." honour thy father and thy " mother " means to the Jewish child in the OBEY thy father and thy mother To live as father " community of Israel ! and mother desire. communiand generations.49 " n"]K" but keep My Sabbath " and raised it the Sabbath temple and divine service. so " ! He says here Let every man honour and fear his " My Sabbaths father first. Not only as boy and girl. have not become a Jew. if your plants thorns of grief in your father's and mother's heart. families. and you have not become of what avail to them valiant. all presents. in your " Educate this human soul to become case. your work and your recreation. Yet His holy book adds My Sabbaths ". indeed He made the foundation above and root of temple and divine services. said God when He first bade you a valiant Jew. but even as man and woman. the most important. your greetings and formal expressions of reverence are empty and meaningless so long as you cause grief to father and mother by your mode of living. your your thoughts sayings and doings. to rejoice their hearts with and feelings. But keep . With indissoluble bonds God has attached the infant's mind to and mother hence obedience. is " Honour father and mother " means " obey father and mother" and on the obedience of the child to his parents God has based " : all hope of Israel's salvation. even should this rare fortune fall to your lot as an old man or woman. a valiant Jewess smile into your parent's enraptured face. their great and holy task. the most essential tribute of honour which the Jewish child has to pay to father and mother throughout life. ties. but keep : said with regard to the temple. not only as young man and maiden. your sentiments and opinions. there lies the deepest pain. they see the perpetual reproach of having failed to perform. or Jewess ! " then life the wreath with which you celebrate their birthday. absolute obedience is the . In this cause for grief they see the work of their education frustrated. .

but they have the influence of the spirit Judaism." Honour father and mother. through and places the ripening powers of their child to God's service devotes Against this sad his whole life under God's care and guidance. and though they may and fame. they cannot material wealth and possessions. passing sometimes through the medium of alienated . painful duty. honour alone gives a true value to all leave them the glory of Horeb. but earnest resolution. there ever. must be prepared to withstand the hardest task. Tl00n TirDP JINI. which all other splendours. Korah was So deep are the roots which a training in the fear of God strikes in the hearts of the parents that. a descendant of the third in glorious triumvirate with Moses and Aaron. their education for no place in for art and science. They other possessions. even though the Not only was an parents' hearts have long been closed to it. to fulfil the most you With meek. have renounced obedience which has come the vessel of the Jewish sanctuary have spurned from their ancestors. the grandsons of him whom the earth swallowed up because of his disobedience swept their inspired harps beside God's altar. the Sabbath.50 to THEIR father's teaching. a true glory to know how for commerce. and absolutely submissive in all good and and even ordinary circumstances. Where." show thyself docile. with bleeding. phenomenon " " reverence father and mother. quite unconsciously the seed of goodness and nobleness. which. just as Josiah was descended from Menasheh and Amon. howpraiseworthylactions. and led follow His injunctions. The sons of Korah returned to God. because God's word counts upon finding see ! ready admittance into the children's hearts. Abraham born under Terah's roof. to educate their children for agriculture. your parents are opposed to God's will. even when your parents' teaching has you astray. D37O but unflinching heart you must refer your parents to God much more to God m33S D^"Pl Then as you owe obedience so ! do at least remain faithful to God. Hezekiah too was the son of Achaz. which says to the child the word of God : of the Sabbath protests. faithful to His holy will. and who then have to face their to down them children with leave them empty hands. And cult this what surpassing comfort there dwells in this hard diffiWhat a glorious triumph there springs just from situation embarassing position. and Samuel.

for His sake. his opinions. how can you expect your child to give up his inclinations. and most suitable soil for the cultivation of that very seed which the parents' infatuation tried to deny to it. you honestly wish to train them for God. then you must train them yourself to keep the Sabbath you must hand them the sacred book and show them God as your and their father. So much faith has God in good education that the triumphant progress towards the eventual realisation of His kingdom on earth which education is to accomplish cannot be hindered even by period* of neglected education. And what a completeness. is -discovers there the transmitted into the hearts of the grandchildren. God first and then yourself. Jewish you are earnest with regard to your children's education. What will you appeal to. what a vital force and hallowing power does mother. your intractable intentions and opinions. and understanding. your education receive. expect obedience from your child. show them that the Sabbath is your and their educator. and you must teach them to obej.51 children. if it to your Father in heaven ? How can your child remain faithful to you ilyou break faith with your Father in heaven ? If the will and guidance of your Father in heaven means so little to you that you hesitate to give up. To such extent has God made man's heart susceptible to all that is good and pure that even the most danger- ous enemy of man's salvation. and by your observance of the Sabbath. if if . what a foundation. Do you refuse you. to ruin completely the human is unable utterly heart in the later But not only to a system of education that is totally divorced from the Sabbath does God oppose His Sabbath here as the Saviour of future generations. the most insignificant comfort. his desires. manifest your obedience to God by your own example. you yourself. his comfort. Jewish father. your human as the loadstar of your home. You yourself. in order to submit to your will ? By will down from banishing the Sabbath from your family life. the slightest pleasure. a corrupt education and irrevocably generations. the most trifling profit. the weakness. you cast God the altar of your hearth and set yourself up. his habit. the confusion to which EVERY education is subject. when you bow down with your child before God. The Sabbath is further designed to counteract the error. the most unimportant custom. Jewish father. if your son .

if they wish to go their own way.. by giving up their material profit. of soul and heart for your children. strengthening and eninfluence which its holiness has on every Jewish soul will nobling crown the work of your education. .52 or your daughter. and you will stamp the name of God upon your whole life. forego material show by your actions. wed them is ever anew hcly. Jong after you have been removed frcm this earth and returned to youi heaverJ) Father to that \\i)l beyond where the whole lite is identified with the one everlasting Sabbath. and your children. upon your whole upbringing. Keep the Sabbath. In His life name you will perform the parental His name you will expect from your children not priestly office of education. in what is in accord- ance with your will. ritual celebration. The sanctifying. your faithful children. you fathers and mothers. SEEK BY YOUR EXAMPLE TO MAKE THE CELEBRATION OF THE SABBATH A NECESSITY OF LIFE. Keep the Sabbath. their inclinations. and the Sabbath your remembrance of your celebration of the Sabbath in the home of your parents your own celebration of life it in your own will all later and in- dependent will is uplift your children. on their part oppose their will to yours. inspiring. that you are faithful children of your heavenly Father. comfort. what a faithful helpmeet. what a teacher and guide. an educator and friend you lob yourselves and children of. when you desecrate the Sabbath ! Keep the Sabbath. just as you have gone and are going yours ? Oh. you do not know what a treasure. and the Sabbath will complete what your training has failed to do. inclination. and in His name you will be able to claim and you will receive obedience. their comfort. long after you have left them. With every Sabbath place your whole and endeavour at the feet of God. will prove themselves by their actions. but what is in accordance with His will. not by an empty profit. to all It that divire and good to that pure and compkte jour education and will transfigure you and your children in your united glorification of God.

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