EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Embedded systems are increasingly becoming integral parts of almost all technology-oriented applications.

Embedded systems are the unsung her oes of much of the technology we use today- video games, washing machines etc. T he appliances using embedded systems are pre programmed to perform a dedicated o r narrow range of functions as part of a large system, usually with minimal end user interaction and optimum performance. Embedded systems are used in navigatio n tools like global positioning systems (GPS), automated teller machines(ATM s), n etworking equipments such as Echo cancellation, facsimile etc. the coming togeth er of embedded systems and the internet, which made possible the networking of s everal embedded systems to operate as part of a large system across networks- be it a LAN, WAN, or the Internet. This convergence of embedded systems with the I nternet is going to transfer the way we live. The Embedded systems are fast achieving ubiquity, blurring the lines between sci ence fiction and hard reality. 2.2 INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, there has been a steady increase in the number of applications that demand customized computer systems that offer hi gh performance at low cost. These applications are, more often than not, charact erized by the need to process large amounts of data in real time. Examples inclu de consumer electronics, scientific computing, and signal processing systems. Co nstraints on performance, cost and power make software implementations of data p rocessing algorithms for such systems infeasible. Non-programmable hardware, how ever, does not support modifications of algorithms. The solution to this dilemma has been to develop application-specific hardware that is flexible programmable these systems are commonly referred to as embedded systems An embedded system is a "behind the scenes" computer which, when combined with r esident software applications, provides functionality typically focused on a sin gle, specialized purpose. Embedded systems typically include embedded software that is burned into Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM) or resident in me mory, special-purpose hardware, and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs); ofte n there are stringent requirements on power consumption, performance, and cost. Embedded systems cannot be redesigned or removed easily once the device that inc orporates the system has been built. Embedded systems development thus requires concurrent work on both hardware and software components. 2.3 THE DESIGN A system can be defined as a group of devices or artificial objects or an organization forming a network especially for distributing someth ing or serving a common purpose. To embed a system into some object means to mak e that system and integral part of the object. When an engineer talks about an e mbedded system, he or she is usually referring to a system that satisfies a well -defined need at a specific instant in time. The system is usually dedicated to that need, and its operational limits are clearly defined: lifetime, power consu mption, performance, and so on. The system usually has limited capabilities for future development, simply because it is permanently installed in a device that provides a certain service to its user. Examples include DSP processors in handheld communication devices, programmable controllers installed in robots or cars , and video signal processors in television sets. Because these systems cannot b e redesigned or removed easily once the device that incorporates the embedded sy stem is built, the development procedure must produce a correct system that meet s all of its operational requirements. First a need or opportunity to deploy new technology is identified. Then a product concept is developed. This is followed by concurrent product and manufacturing process design, production, and deployment. But in man y embedded systems, the designer must see past deployment and take into account support, maintenance, upgrades, and system retirement issues in order to actuall y create a profitable design. Some of the issues affecting this life-cycle prof itability are discussed below. 2.3.1 Component acquisition

another likely strategy is to partition the system in such a way as to minimize the number of subsystems that need to be recertifie d when changes occurs. video conferencing. A fast repair time may also imply that extensive diagnosis and data collection capabilities must be built into the system. there may be more l eeway in component selection. channel multiplexing. sonar. security access. telephones.4. proliferation of design variations can cause significant logistics expenses. numeric control. missile guidance 2. facsimile. and maintenance training. Therefore. each design change should be tes ted for compatibility with various system configurations.3 Logistics and repair Whenever an embedded computer design is created or chang ed. visual inspection. brake control.Because an embedded system may be more application-driv en than a typical technology-driven desktop computer design. cellular tele phones. data encryption. air bags. Furthermore. music synthesizers. any special behaviors.4. ultrasound equipment. I n many cases embedded systems must be repairable in a few minutes to a few hours . interfac es. image processing.2 System certification Embedded computers can affect the safety as well as th e performance the system.4 Telecommunications Echo cancellation.6 Industrial Robotics. pa ging 2. For example. upgrades may be subject to recertification requirements. it is important to realize that the rest of the system will remain unchanged. vibration analysis.3. digital Radio.4 Upgrades Because of the long life of many embedded systems.4. One strategy to minimize the cost of system recertification is to delay all desi gn changes until major system upgrades occur.4. driver navigation systems 2.4.3 Medical Hearing aids.4. Topography 2. Thus. and accommodated by th e configuration management database 2. speaker phones. patient monitoring. video games. APPLICATIONS 2. 2. rigorous qualification procedures are neces sary in some systems after any design change in order to assess and reduce the r isk of malfunction or unanticipated sys system failure. Because of the long system lifetimes of many embedded systems. adaptive equalization 2. navigation.4. A failure of the compu ter can cause the entire system to be unusable until the computer is repaired. if a component design is changed it can force c hanges in spare component inventory. and undocumented features must be taken into account when performing the upg rade. answering machines. which may be at odds with keeping production costs low. maintenance pro cedures. personal communicati on systems (PCS). maintenance test equipment.2 Automotive Engine control. packet switching. As distributed embedded systems co me into more widespread use. image proc essing. 2. Therefore.1 Military Communications Radar.3. component acquisition costs can be taken int o account when optimizing system life-cycle cost 2. digital TV. personal digital assistants. upgra des to electronic components and software may be used to update functionality an d extend the life of the embedded system with respect to competing with replacem ent equipment.3. it affects the downstream maintenance of the product. to ys. Also. which implies that spare components and maintenance personnel must be located close to the system.5 Consumer Radar detectors. power tools. While it may often be the case that an electronics upgrade involv es completely replacing circuit boards. l .

athe control. specialized computer systems stored on a single microprocessor are playing a major role in the growth of the Internet and the boom of wireless communication channels. embedded systems small.5. with embedded systems starting to be connected to the Internet. all the necessary knowledge to obtain the internet connect ivity for the embedded systems. the demands of the specific application and the interface with external equipment may dominate the system design. This ubiquitous computing environment is becoming a reality. The fact that these connectivity abilities will be required for many of the future applications. shop floor tools will connect to d ata gathering systems and hospitals will connect to laboratories. shop floor tools will connect to data gathering systems an d hospitals will connect to laboratories. This ubiquitou s computing environment is becoming a reality. creating a new market category of embedded Internet systems. The future of e mbedded Internet in an unlimited array of appliances and applications designed t o create. creating a new market category of embedded Intern et systems. with embedded systems starting to be connected to the Intern et. 2. computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Also. Operating in the background embedded Internet will connect home appliances to each other and to the homeowner. Operating in the background embedded Internet will connect home a ppliances to each other and to the homeowner. Many embedded systems have requirements that differ significantly bo th in details and in scope from desktop computers. EMBEDDED INTERNET: Used in everything from consumer electronics to indust rial equipment. In particular. m ore and more consumer products and industrial equipment are becoming Internet-fr iendly. make it necessary to incorporat e them in the courses of electrical engineering and computer sciences. The future of embedded Internet in an unlimited array of appliances and applications designed to create. The pra ctical point of view. long life-cycles and in some cases extreme cost sensit ivity require more attention to optimization based on these goals rather than ma ximizing the computational throughput. noise cancellation. connect and make smarter the things that people use everyday. . Due in part to embedded systems. connect and make smarter the things that people use everyday.