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Mahabir

1/3/2012 Period 3

**Measurements and Mathematics
**

Units - A unit is a standard quantity with which other similar quantities can be compared. The SI system - The SI system is the standard units for scientific measurements. There are seven

basic units. Derived units are combination of two or more of the fundamental units making one new unit that depend on the basic units. Basic units can be length, mass, time, electric current, temperature, amount of substance, and luminous intensity.

SI Prefixes - SI prefixes are combines with SI bases to form new units and are larger or smaller

than the base by a multiple of 10. Examples of these prefixes are kilo, nano, and milli.

**Tools for measurement
**

Length can be measured with a metric ruler, Mass can be measured with an electronic balance or a triple beam balance Time can be measured with a clock or stop watch Force can be measured with a spring scale Angle can be measured with a protractor

Trigonometry

It is the branch of mathematics that treats the relationship between the angles and sides of a triangle. This can be solved by using Sine, Cosine and Tangent, on a calculator. Pythagorean theorem- a^2+b^2= c^2 Sin is formulated by using a/c

1345 will contain 4 significant figures which will be the 134&5 Scientific Notation Measurements that have very large or very small values are usually expressed in scientific notation. . Making a Graph Independent variable is the quantity that the experiment changes in an experiment. Line graphs or bar graphs are used most. Data Analysis Range is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a data set. Or Significant Digits. Figs. Dependent variable is the quantity that changes in an experiment as a result of changes made by the experimenter. An example would be increase in speed over time. Variance is the sum of the squares of the differences of the measurements in a set of data from the mean of the set. 6. Graphing Data The data that are collected in physics experiment are often represented in graphical form. Mean is the average of a set of measurements. divided by the number of measurements.002 will conatin 1 significant figure which can be the 2. In a measured value. Its consists of a number equal or greater than one and less than ten. the one digit whose value have been estimated.37 X 10^ 6 would be an example of scientific notation because the number would be too large. followed by a multiplication sign and the base ten to a power. Example: 0. 0. the digits that are known with certainty plus. An example would be time.Cos is formulated by using b/c Tan is formulated by using a/b Sig.

It is only needed in Slope is the inclination of a graphed line. This causes a constant line in a graph. Indirect squared proportion is the relationship that exists between two quantities in which an increase in one causes a squared decrease in the other. Vector is the quantity that has both magnitude and direction. .The line of best fit is a straight or curved line on a graph which approximates the relationship among a set of data points. Direct squared proportion is the relationship that exists between two quantities in which an increase in one causes a squared increase in the other. Inversely proportional applies to the relationship between two quantities in which an increase in one quantity causes a decrease in the other Constant proportion is the relationship that exists between two quantities when an increase in one causes no change in the other. Scalar and vector Quantities Scalar is the quantity that has magnitude only and no direction. determined as the ratio for any two points on the line Slope: ∆Y/ ∆X = Change in dependent/ change in independent Mathematical Relationships Directly proportional applies to the relationship between two quantities in which an increase in one quantity causes an increase in the other. Extrapolation is the extension of a graphed line beyond the region in which data was taken.

V= d/t and its derived unit is m^2/s in speed and m^2/s^2 in velocity. Perform exponents 3. Perform the multiplications and divisions in order from left to right 4. Also measured in length. Simplify the expression within each set of parentheses 2. Distance and Displacement Distance. measures in length.Performing Series of operations 1. . Do the additions and subtractions from left to right This is all known as PEMDAS in mathematical terms.Is the total length of the path that an object travels. Distance and displacement are both measured in meter and meter is the SI unit of length. Displacement Speed and Velocity Speed (Velocity) – is the distance the object moves in a unit of time. speed is also a scalar unit.is the change in position of an object described by the vector that begins at the initial position of the object and ends at its final position. Mechanics Kinematics The branch of physics that deals with forces and the way they produce and change motion. Displacement.

is used to represent both displacement and distance Graphs of linear Motion Position Position Time Time Tangent is a line on a graph which passes through a point and has slope equals to the slope of the curve the point. the object is said to be in uniform motion. So a car can increase at a velocity of 5 m^2/s^2. . A=∆v/t Freely Falling Objects Vacuum is a space in which there is no matter. Instantaneous velocity is the velocity of an object at any particular instant in time. a. Linear motion can refer to the objects change of position along a straight line. The velocity of an object is the time rate of change of its displacement.If the objects speed is constant. during the entire time interval. Uniform motion is when the dependent variable stays the same throughout the graph. The symbol v. Free fall is the ideal falling g motion of an object only by the force of gravity. Acceleration It is the rate of change of velocity. a vector quantity represented by this formula. is used for velocity and speed and the symbol d. Gravity is the force between the mass of earth and the mass of any object in the vicinity of earth.

They can be another outside object that affects the object. Equilibrium The vector sum of the concurrent forces acting on an object is called the net force. the object is in equilibrium. Concurrent Forces Two or more forces that act on the same object at the same time are called concurrent forces. Resultant is the single force that is equivalent to the combined effect.an object maintains a state of equilibrium remaining at rest or moving with constant velocity. The fundamental unit of mass is kilograms (kg). The branch of mechanics that treats forces which act on objects at rest. Dynamics Dynamics are the branch of mechanics that deals with how the forces are acting on an object affects its motion. Inertia is the resistance of an object to a change in its motion. This is always positive. It always produces a change in an objects velocity.Statics Newton’s are a measurement of pressure on a object weather its negative or positive pressure. If the net force of an object is zero. They can be negative and positive. Unbalanced forces are the nonzero force acting on an object. A force is a push or a pull and is measured in newton’s. Free body diagram is a sketch or scale drawing that shows all the forces acting concurrently on an object. Newton’s three laws of motion • First law. . unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. it is also said to be at static rest.

• Third law is when an object exerts a force on a second object. Uniform Circular Motion The object moves in a circular path at a constant speed.• The Second law is when an unbalanced force acts on an object. Two dimensional Motion and Trajectories Horizontal component is a component parallel to the horizon Vertical component is a component at a right angle to the horizon. Centripetal Acceleration Is an object moving uniformly in a circular path. the object is accelerated in the same direction as the force. the second object exerts a force on the first that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. . Gravitational field strength equals the force per unit mass at that point. Formula is Fc = mv^2/r Newton’s Universal law of Gravity Everything in the universe exerts a force of attraction on every other body of mass. Formula is Ac = V^2/r Centripetal Force Is the force needed to keep an object moving in a circular path. Gravitational Field Strength is a region in space where a test particle would experience a gravitational force. Gravitational Force the attractive force between that one object exerts on another object due to their masses.

Closed system is a group of objects. Momentum Is the product of objects mass and velocity in a vector quantity. Law of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of the objects in a closed system is constant. Static friction is the force that opposes the start of motion. Friction Is the force that opposes the relative motion of two objects in contact. not acted upon by any external force. Work . Formula is p = mv Impulse is the product of the net force acting on an object and the time during which the force acts. one perpendicular to the inclined surface and the other parallel to the surface. Energy is a scalar unit. the total energy of the system is changed. Coefficient of friction is the ratio of the frictional force to the normal force and has no unit. Normal force is the force pressing the two co9ntact surfaces together. the objects weight can be resolved in two ways. When work is done by a system. Friction on an inclined surface is if an object is on an incline. Energy Energy is the ability to do work. Fluid Friction is when an object moves through a fluid such as air depends upon the surface area and the speed of the object moving through the fluid. Kinetic friction is the friction between objects in contact when they are in motion.Weight is the gravitational force with which a planet attracts a mass.

microwaves.Work is the transfer of energy to an object when the object moves due to the application of a force. Potential Energy The energy possessed by an object due to its position or condition. and radio waves. Forms of Energy Internal Energy refers to the total potential energy and kinetic energy possessed by the particles that make up an object. Power The rate at which work is done.is a derived unit equal to the work done on an object when a force of one newton produces a displacement of one matter. such as visible light. the combining of two light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. Nuclear Energy is the energy released by nuclear fission. Watt is a unit of power. the division of a heavy atomic nucleus into parts of comparable mass or nucleus fusion. Gravitational potential energy is the work done on or the energy change of an objects resulting from lifting the object to a height above earth’s surface. Joule. Compression is a decrease in spring length from its equilibrium position or length. but excludes the potential and kinetic energies of the system as a whole. Electromagnetic energy can take many forms. in to electrical energy. Spring constant is the constant of proportionality between the applied force and the compression or elongation of a spring. Elastic Potential Energy the energy stored in a spring when work is done in compressing or stretching it. . a form of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic Energy is the energy associated with electric or magnetic fields. Photo cell Photo cell is a device that converts light.

Ideal Mechanical Systems The total mechanical energy is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies in a system. This means that the sum of the changes in energy within a closed system is zero. such as friction? . Simple Pendulum Consists of a mass attached to one end of a string or wire that is attached at the other end to a pivot point. Ideal Mechanical System is a closed system in which no friction or other non conservative force acts. Conservation Of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Non Ideal Mechanical Systems Is when a system acted upon by a non conservative force. Example: Car crash.Kinetic Energy When a moving object strikes another object and displaces it. the moving object exerts a force on the second objects and does work on it.

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