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BOEING 747-200 747-300 747-200F

Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Welcome on board of the Commercial Level Simulations B747-200/300/200F booklet. This booklet contains everything needed to fly one of these Boeing 747 Classics, but it also provides you with many other details. For your convenience, we have divided this booklet in the following parts: - Chapter One: Introduction - Chapter Two: Panel Description - Chapter Three: Flight tutorial KBOS-KSFO - Chapter Four: Appendix We hope you are enthusiastic to start flying right away, however we advise you either to print the booklet or start first reading the Users Manual with general aircraft information and of course, the panel description. This is vital to understand the operation, handling and control in the cockpit as well as some hidden features. Most important, we welcome you on board a special CLS house livery of the Boeing 747-200 GE, during a test flight from KBOS (Boston) to KSFO (San Francisco). The flight duration will be around 4 hours and will give you a good idea of the capabilities of this unique Boeing 747 Classic Series including the INS (Inertial Navigation System). Additional INS information as well as a flow diagram, where to find this unique equipment, will be briefly explained in Chapter One Introduction. The flight tutorial is compatible with the CLS B747-200/300/200F Series, since the cockpit panels are the same for all 747 Classic Series models. This flight tutorial uses a combination of flying a SID, waypoints, VOR beacons and a STAR. In other words, it will cover all kinds of possible flight techniques and navigation devices. We assume you have basic knowledge of how navigation systems work, how to power-up the aircraft system and starting the engines. On purpose, we did not use any add-on free- or payware products. You are of course free to use any of those. However, flying online at VATSIM or IVAO could give problems with the whole flight profile as discussed within this tutorial. Finally, we from CLS wish you a lot of fun with the Boeing 747-200/300/200F Classic Series. For your convenience, we included in the download package the FSNavigator file KBOS-KSFO.fsn (flight plan for use within FS2004) and the exported FS2004 CLS KBOS-KSFO.pln file. The exported FS2004 flight plan file (*.pln) can also be used and loaded into FSX and used in combination with the onboard lite FMS or the advanced INS CDU. Preface

On behalf of Commercial Level Simulations, Angelique van Campen

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Disclaimer This manual is not provided from, or endorsed by Boeing Commercial Company, or any airline in any way. Any exact similarities between this manual and Commercial Level Simulations aircraft to actually aircraft, procedures, or airlines carriers are strictly confidential. All copyrights remain the property of their respective owners. The procedures contained within are the Commercial Level Simulations interpretation of generic flight operations. These procedures are not always accurate Preface

in all situations. All diagrams have been either been recreated to mimic actual procedures or scenarios, or remain the copyrights of the respective owners. The purpose of the manual is not to claim ownership of the procedures or diagrams herein, rather, to show flight operations of the Boeing 747-200/300/200F based on available information. This manual is not intended for real world flight. Any aircraft from Commercial Level Simulations is intended as an add-on for Microsoft FS2004 or FSX.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Preface

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Table of Contents

Chapter One

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1 History.......................................................................................................... 1 747-100 - The World's First Jumbo Jet ........................................................ 2 747-200 Continuing the Legacy ................................................................ 3 747-300 Moving Forward With Significant Changes................................. 3 Terminal Servicing ....................................................................................... 9 Unique INS CLS 747 Classic ..................................................................... 13
Delco Carousel INS ............................................................................................ 13 Basic Construction.............................................................................................. 13 Simplified operation ............................................................................................ 15 INS Flow Diagram .............................................................................................. 16

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Introduction

Introduction History
During the late 1960s, some 50,000 Boeing people belonged to a group called "The Incredibles.". These were the construction workers, mechanics, engineers, secretaries and administrators who made aviation history by building the 747 -- the largest civilian airplane in the world -- in less than 16 months. The incentive for creating the giant 747 came from reductions in airfares, a surge in air-passenger traffic and increasingly crowded skies. Following the loss of the competition for the gigantic military transport, the C-5A, Boeing set out to develop a large advanced commercial airplane to take advantage of the high bypass engine technology developed for the C-5A. The design philosophy behind the 747 was to develop a completely new plane, and other than the engines, the designers purposefully avoided using any hardware developed for the C-5. The 747's final design was offered in three configurations: all passengers, all cargo and a convertible passenger/freighter model. The freighter and convertible models loaded 8- by 8-foot cargo containers through the huge hinged nose. The 747 was truly monumental in size. The massive airplane required construction of the 200-millioncubic-foot 747 assembly plant in Everett, Wash., the world's largest building (by volume). The fuselage of the original 747 was 225 feet long; the tail as tall as a six-story building. Pressurized, it carried a ton of air. The cargo hold had room for 3,400 pieces of baggage and could be unloaded in seven minutes. The total wing area was larger than a basketball court. Yet, the entire global navigation system weighed less than a modern laptop computer. Pilots prepared for the 747 at Boeing training school. The experience of taxiing such a large plane was acquired in a contraption called "Waddell's Wagon," named after Jack Waddell, the company's chief test pilot. The pilot sat in a mockup of the 747 flight deck built atop three-storyhigh stilts on a moving truck. The pilot learned how to maneuver from such a height by directing the truck driver below him by radio.

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747-100 - The World's First Jumbo Jet


The 747-100 entered commercial service in 1970. Initially, engines only were available from Pratt & Whitney, but by 1975 engines also were available from General Electric and Rolls-Royce. Boeing delivered 250 of the 747-100s, the last in 1986. Boeing built two versions of the 747-100 passenger airplane, one of which had a higher payload capacity and was known as the -100B. The 747-100 also was available as a short-range airplane, which had a modified body structure to accommodate a greater number of takeoffs and landings. This model typically was used by airlines on short flights with a high-passenger capacity, as many as 550.

Boeing also built the 747-100SP (special performance), which had a shortened fuselage and was designed to fly higher, faster and farther non-stop than any 747 model of its time. The B747-100 model is not included within the Commercial Level Simulations 747 package.

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747-200 Continuing the Legacy


The 747-200, which was developed after the 747-100, while having a tough period. The first -200 went into commercial service in 1971, and Boeing delivered in total 393 aircrafts, the last in 1991. Although its external appearance is nearly identical to the 747-100, it was designed to carry more payloads. In addition to being offered as a passenger airplane, the -200 was the first 747 to be configured as a freighter, a combination passenger-freighter and a convertible. From the beginning, the 747 was designed to serve as an all-cargo transport. The first 747 Freighter could easily carry 100 tons (90,000 kg) across the Atlantic Ocean or across the United States. Its operating cost was 35 percent less per ton mile than the 707 Freighter. The 747 Freighter has a hinged nose to allow cargo loading through front of the airplane, with the option of a large side-cargo door. The 747-200 Convertible served as a passenger airplane, a freighter or a combination of both. This airplane responded to airlines' needs to carry different payloads at different times of the years, such as higher passenger capacities during the summer and more cargo during the winter. Similar to the convertible is the -200 combi, which still serves as a passenger-only airplane or as a passenger-freighter mix. With the large side-cargo door on the main deck of the combi, airliners can use it to make better use of their routes during different times of the year. The convertible has a nose cargo door similar to the freighter.

747-300 Moving Forward With Significant Changes


The 747-300 entered commercial service in 1983, and was the first to integrate the most significant changes of the 747 Classics. These changes included an extended upper deck and improved engines with a reduced fuel burn of 25 percent per passenger. In addition, passenger capacity increased 10 percent by extending the upper deck and relocating the new straight stairway to the rear of the upper deck (prior models had a spiral-shaped staircase in the center of the upper deck). Boeing delivered 81 747-300s in passenger, combi and short-range configurations, the last in 1990.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Introduction

General Dimensions 747-200/300/200F

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Ground Clearances Passenger Configurations Models 747-200B, -200C and -300


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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Introduction

Ground Clearances Cargo Configurations Models 747-200C and -200F

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Introduction

Cabin Cross Sections Forward Cabin Model 747

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Cabin Cross Sections Constant Body Section Model 747


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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Introduction

Terminal Servicing
During turnaround at the terminal, certain services must be performed on the aircraft, usually within a given time to meet flight schedules. This section shows service vehicle arrangements, schedules, locations of service points, and typical service requirements. The data presented herein reflect ideal conditions for a single airplane. Service requirements may vary according to airplane condition and airline procedure. Section 5.1 shows typical arrangements of ground support during turnaround. As noted, if the auxiliary power unit (APU) is used the electrical, air start, and air-conditioning service vehicles would not be required. Passenger loading bridges or p[portable passenger stairs could be used to load or unload passengers.

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Airplane Servicing Arrangement Passenger Models 747-200B, -200C and -300

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Airplane Servicing Arrangement Passenger/Cargo Models 747-200B Combi, -300 Combi

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Airplane Servicing Arrangement Cargo Models 747-200F

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Introduction

Unique INS CLS 747 Classic


Delco Carousel INS Amongst many other features, this CLS 747 Classic Series offers the famous and highly realistic Delco Carousel INS (Inertial Navigation System). Since this highly sophisticated piece of simulated software is one of the two standard navigational systems (the other being the FMS system) integrated into these CLS 747 models, weve decided to build this flight tutorial completely around this INS navigation equipment. With that said, we will try to add something unique to this aircraft and thus its our turn to explain something of the basic IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) operation and the INS itself, so please join us. Basic Construction Consider an accelerometer as an instrument that measures acceleration along a single axis. Integrate the output once, and you have velocity. Integrate again, and you have position - or rather, change of position - along the accelerometer's axis. If you know the direction of travel, you can deduce current position. Inertial Navigation is simply a form of dead reckoning. You need to know the starting point - an Inertial Navigation device/system (I.N.) can't find its initial position on the earth (it can find latitude, with difficulty, but not longitude). Take three accelerometers, with their sensing axes orthogonal. Arrange them so that their axes are aligned north south, east west, and vertical. To maintain this orientation when the vehicle maneuvers, the accelerometers are suspended in a set of three gimbals that are gyrostabilized to maintain the direction. Later we will be describing strapdown arrangements, but it always seems easier to explain the principles by starting with the gimbal model. The gyros, similarly, are single axis devices, of a type known as integrating gyros - that is, they give an output proportional to the angle through which they have been rotated (about their input axes). The gyros are used as the sensing elements in null seeking servos, with the output of each gyro connected to a servomotor driving the appropriate gimbals, thus keeping the gimbal in a constant orientation in inertial space.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Integrating gyros also have what is called a `torquer', a means of processing the input axis at a rate proportional to input current. This forms a convenient means of cancelling out any drift errors in the gyro. The gimbals, as shown in the figure, (well, they may be there but they are not identified)have a bearing at each end. Each has a motor, built around one of the bearings, and at the other end a synchro. No matter how the aircraft maneuvers, the innermost gimbal maintains its orientation in inertial space. The synchro on the innermost gimbal thus measures azimuth (or heading), the synchro on the middle gimbal measures pitch, and the outer gimbal measures roll. The innermost gimbal can be thought of as a stable platform on which are mounted the gyros and accelerometers although, in practice, it looks like anything but a platform, being a miracle of mechanical packaging. The whole arrangement is generally called a gimballed platform. Find on your left an example of an Inertial Measuring Unit, which houses not only the gyros, motors, gimbals but also the accelerometers. Introduction

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Simplified operation As said before; the INS or actually the IMU 1 is an electro-mechanical device consisting of accelerometers and gyroscopes. The accelerometers are mounted on a gimballed platform in a way that the axes of the devices sensitive to acceleration were mutually perpendicular. At the beginning of the flight, an INS is aligned. The pilots would input the current position of the aircraft into the INS. The INS stores this information and also aligns the gimballed platform to a set attitude with reference to the Earth. The gyroscopes were set up to measure the rotational displacement and velocity of the aircraft about the longitudinal, vertical and lateral axis of the aircraft. Basically what happens is that the gyroscope signals are used to mechanically rotate the gimbaled platform in a direction opposite to what the aircraft is doing. Introduction

Velocity Gyros Attitude Accelero meters Navigation equations Horizontal Position

IMU This maintains the Depth accelerometers in the same attitude relative to the Earth that they were INS Inertial Navigation Unit established in during the alignment process. Thus, if one accelerometer was aligned East-West, and one North-South, this alignment would be maintained no matter the attitude of the aircraft (not sure if there was a vertical axis accelerometer). The accelerometers would generate signals proportional to the accelerations in the E-W and N-S directions. This acceleration data can be directly integrated once to get velocities in the E-W and N-S directions, and integrated once more to get displacements or navigation data in the E-W and N-S directions.

Inertial Measuring Unit


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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual INS Flow Diagram At Commercial Level Simulations we thought it would be a good idea to implement this INS story throughout the several chapters. This means that a kind of guide would help you where to find something but in a logical way. Lets look at a flow diagram, which should help you to follow and understand the INS implementation in this 747 Classic. Theres no such story for the FMS CDU in these chapters except for the different CDU pages, which can be found in the panel description. Just follow sequentially the flow diagram numbers and youll see every corner of the CLS 747 Classic Inertial Navigation System. Introduction

START
I

Chapter Two

Chapter Two

Panel Description Detailed description and operation of the - INS MSU (page 2) - INS CDU (pages 7-11) - INS Flight Plan Loader (pages 12-14) Panel Description Basic description of the FMS CDU (pages 25-31)

II

Chapter Three Flight Tutorial INS MSU/CDU Initialization (page 22)

III

Chapter Three Flight Tutorial FAST INS Alignment (page 23-25)

IV

Chapter Three Flight Tutorial AUTO Flight Plan Loading (page 26-29) Manually entering waypoint (page 30-32)

Chapter Three Flight Tutorial Practical cruise INS CDU Explanation (page 50-59)

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Chapter Two

Panel Description............................................................................................ 1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 1 Overhead panel ........................................................................................... 2


General Overview................................................................................................. 2 INS Mode Selector ............................................................................................... 4

Radio Controls Orientation........................................................................... 5


Lite FMS CDU Configuration................................................................................ 5 INS CDU Configuration ........................................................................................ 6

Inertial Navigation System ........................................................................... 7


CDU (Control Display Unit) .................................................................................. 7 INS CDU status RH display................................................................................ 10 Flight Plan Loader General ................................................................................ 12 Flight Plan Loader Operating Mode AUTO ........................................................ 13 Flight Plan Loader Operating Mode MANUAL................................................... 14 Flight Plan Loader Special Operating Mode DME............................................. 14

Pedestal ..................................................................................................... 15
Automatic Flight Mode Selector Panel (MSP) .................................................... 16 Automatic Flight Annunciator panel.................................................................... 18 ASI (Indicated Air Speed Indicator) .................................................................... 19 ADI (Attitude Direction Indicator)........................................................................ 20 RMI (Radio Magnetic Indicator).......................................................................... 21 HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator) .................................................................... 22 Altimeter / RA / EVSI-TCAS / Flight Controls Indicators .................................... 23 Aircraft Clock and lights...................................................................................... 24 Lite FMS CDU .................................................................................................... 25

Engine Instruments .................................................................................... 32


General............................................................................................................... 32 Engine Panel Lights (annunciator) ..................................................................... 33

System Instruments ................................................................................... 34


Landing Gear Controls and Indications .............................................................. 34 Kruger- and Trailing Flap Indicator..................................................................... 35 System Panel Lights (annunciator) .................................................................... 36

Flight Engineer Panel................................................................................. 37


Electrical and Anti-Ice Section............................................................................ 37 Engine Instruments Section ............................................................................... 38 Hydraulic Section................................................................................................ 39 Miscellaneous Section........................................................................................ 40 Fuel Section........................................................................................................ 41 Fuel Jettison Section .......................................................................................... 42

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Panel Description Introduction


The following pages will give you an overview of the different panels and their switches, selectors, lights, knobs etc. Specific instruments, located on the pilot panels, are explained in depth on the next pages for FMS and INS equipped aircraft. The panel includes a replica of the famous Delco Carousel IV-A Inertial Navigation System (INS). These gauges let any Flight Simulator user learn and practice inertial navigation as performed by professional pilots for more than thirty years. An Inertial Navigation System is a device capable of sensing and measuring any change in its current gravitational environment. Once aligned, while steady on ground, it measures and quantifies any acceleration in X, Y and Z-axis and it is, consequently, able to provide position (latitude and longitude) and attitude references. It also provides navigation capabilities based on a sequence of waypoints (latitude/longitude positions) which is defined by the crew. The unique and huge advantage an INS provides, when compared to "traditional", ground stations radio signals based, navigation, is that the INS has autonomous positioning/navigation capabilities so it is able to provide relatively precise (aircraft, in our case,) positions even in those areas where navaids (or even ground visual references) are not present, like oceans for example. Many liners where equipped with this unit, the Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8, Lockheed L1011, Douglas DC-10, Boeing 727, Boeing 747 (not the -400 model), just to mention the most famous. Not only available for these jets, its an easy job to implement it in aircraft like the DC-9 or the B737 or even on executive class jets. The implemented INS in our 747 Classic consists of: Three MSUs (Mode Selector Unit), installed at the overhead panel. Three CDUs (Control Display Unit) situated at the pedestal/radio control panel. It allows the pilot(s) to insert- and to read out data. INS activation rotary knob, mounted on the Auto Pilot control panel. Autopilot Control In most cases, on real aircraft equipped with multiple INS units, there are also multiple autopilot systems hard-wired to each INS unit as can be seen on the previous page. As the default Microsoft Flight Simulator provides only one autopilot system, we introduced therefore only one INS CDU with dummies although each CDU can offer different data.

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Overhead panel
General Overview A-I A-II A-III

D E F

G A-I A-II A-III B C D E F G H J K

MSU 1 (INS Mode Selector Unit) MSU 3 MSU 2 Guarded Flight Control Hydraulic Power switches Guarded UPPER/LOWER YAW DAMPER switches Guarded ANTI-SKID switch Guarded LH/RH ALTERNATE GEAR EXTEND switches AUTO BRAKE Selector switch STORM light switch MAIN PANEL background light switch Captains and Co-Pilots main instrument background illumination switching. LH/RH OUTBOARD wing mounted landing light switches LH/RH INBOARD wing mounted landing light switches

Note: Items A-I, A-II and A-III or not operative when using FMS.

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T U V

L L M N O P Q R S T U V W X

RUNWAY TURNOFF light switches NO SMOKING/FASTEN SEAT BELTS switches NAV light switch BEACON light switch WING light switch STROBE light switch LOGO light switch Cockpit DOME light selector NACELLE ANTI-ICE switches with separate VALVE OPEN light Guarded EMERGENCY light switch WING ANTI-ICE switch with separate VALVE OPEN light LH/RH PROBE HEATERS switches with indicator Closes the overhead panel

Note: All the other switches, guarded switches, knobs, selectors, lights, indicators and fire handles, which not discussed here, are not selectable or modeled.
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Overhead panel
INS Mode Selector

B A-I A-I A-II A-III

Mode Selector Knob positions: OFF Turns the INS electrical power OFF. STBY Turns the INS power ON and allows data insertion in the CDU. ALIGN Starts automatic INS alignment. During alignment a battery test will be performed when API 1 8 is reached. It is indicated by the INS BAT light illumination. NAV Selects the Navigation mode and Mode Index 4, if API is at least 5 while the READY NAV light on the MSU will illuminate. From API 5 the alignment will continue down to API 0. NAV position must be selected before moving the airplane. After selected the NAV position, the READY NAV light extinguishes. ATT Selects the Attitude Mode. The INS provides attitude outputs/information only. A-II Moving the Mode Selector knob: - Drag sideways between the positions OFF and STBY - Drag UP and sideways between the positions STBY and ALIGN - Drag sideways between the positions ALIGN and NAV - Drag sideways between the positions NAV and ATT A-III INS Fast Alignment ( 2 minutes) Turn the mode selector switch directly from OFF to NAV, release it, load your ramp coordinates and then rotate it back to ALIGN. B READY NAV bulb unit With the selector knob in the ALIGN position, and the API has reached value 5, the READY NAV light illuminates to indicate the INS is ready and alignment is complete. C BAT INS bulb unit This light warns when there is insufficient battery voltage to power the INS. In this case, the INS will be automatically shutdown

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Radio Controls Orientation


Lite FMS CDU Configuration A

D-I

D-II

CLS lite FMS CDU (Flight Management System / Control Display Unit) Click screen are to enlarge FMS CDU. This flight tutorial offers you a detailed description and operation. B ADF (Automatic Direction Finding) C AUDIO Control panel D-I Integrated COM 1/VHF NAV 1 panel The LH side of the control panel allows you to select a NAV frequency for navigation while the RH side COM is used for communication frequencies. D-II Integrated COM 2/VHF NAV 2 panel E ATC Transponder with TCAS selector With the TCAS selector set ON (TCAS position), the white TCAS OFF message disappears on the Electronic VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator)

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Radio Control Panel


INS CDU Configuration F E

A-I

A-II

B-I

B-II

C D

A-III A-I INS CDU 1 (Inertial Navigation System / Control Display Unit) Detailed panel description and operation can be found on the next page A-II INS CDU 2 A-III INS CDU 3 B-I Integrated COM 1/VHF NAV 1 panel The LH side of the control panel allows you to select a NAV frequency for navigation while the RH side COM is used for communication frequencies. B-II Integrated COM 2/VHF NAV 2 panel C ADF (Automatic Direction Finding) D ATC Transponder with TCAS selector With the TCAS selector set ON (TCAS position), the white TCAS OFF message disappears on the Electronic VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator) E AUDIO Control panel F INS Flight Plan Loader Found detailed description and operation on page 12.

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Inertial Navigation System


CDU (Control Display Unit) E-I F E-I

D C B-I B-II A

INS CDU

B-I B-II C

E-I F

FROM / TO Display A two digit display where youre able to insert / read waypoints and DME ID numbers: - two non flashing numbers are the waypoints defining the current navigation leg. - a single non flashing number in the FROM side of the display with the data selector in WYPT position, shows waypoint ID being displayed on data displays. - a single flashing number in the FROM side of the display, with the data selector in WYPT position, shows the selected waypoint is involved in the leg currently being shown. - a flashing number in the TO side of the display defines the DME station designed for DME updating. Waypoint/DME Switch (previous) Selects previous waypoint or DME station number to be loaded or displayed. Waypoint/DME Switch (next) Selects next waypoint or DME station number to be loaded or displayed. HOLD Key Illuminates when pushed. It freezes displayed PP (Present Position) and inertial position, allowing a manual update to be performed. REMOTE Key Illuminates when pushed. It allows simultaneous loading and insertion of a waypoint and DME coordinates. LH and RH Data Display Shows data according to selected Data Selector (M-II) position. INSERT Key Inserts the loaded data into the simulated Navigation Unit (NU). It is illuminated while data is being set by the CDU keyboard and goes out when pushed to insert it.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Op erations Manual Panel Description

G H I

INS CDU

N-I N-II G

ALERT Light Illuminates two minutes before airplane reaches TO waypoint. It flashes, with AUTO/MAN selector in MAN, when the TO waypoint has been reached and passed. With the AUTO/MAN selector in AUTO, the light extinguishes as leg switching occurs. I BAT Light Illuminates during alignment at API 8 for about 15 seconds indicating the battery test is in progress. Illuminates also when INS is operating on battery power. H WARN Light Illuminates when INS detects an abnormal condition. J Keypad Consists of 10 keys to load data into data displays and FROM-TO display. K CLEAR Key Used to cancel a data loading operation prior INSERT switch/light pushing. L WYPT CHG Key Illuminates if pushed. It allows numbers selection in FROM-TO display using the CDU keyboard. N-I AUTO/MAN Switch Selects automatic leg switching by the INS or manual leg switching by the pilot. N-II TEST Switch If pushed, a test of MSU-, CDU lights and CDU displays is made.
(only the pushbutton lights and digital windows of the CDU are shown)

INS CDU Light Test

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M-II DATA Selector Selects what data is to be displayed on the LH and RH (E-I) displays. M-II LH display (E-I) Selector position TK/GS Present Track Angle Ground Speed RH display (E-I)

When the HOLD switch is pressed, the Along Track Acceleration (ATA) will be indicated in the LH display. HDG/DA XTK/TKE POS Aircraft Heading X-Track distance in NMs left (L) or right right (R) of the track. North (N) / South (S) latitude Drift Angle Angle is 0 if GS is < 75 knots Track Angle error left (L) or right (R) of the desired track angle. East (E) / West (W) longitude

If the HOLD switch is pressed the displays are frozen. POS is used to insert ramp and position updating coordinates. WYPT Track Angle East (E) / West (W) longitude

Waypoint 0 before a manual track leg change has been performed, indicates the ramp position. Inertial position is indicated if HOLD switch is pressed. DIS/TIME Distance present position to: - displayed TO waypoint - any VOR/DME station - between two waypoints Time from present position to the displayed waypoint or station. Value is based on present GS.

WIND

Wind direction. If TAS < 115 knots or GS < 75 knots, both displays (E-I) will be blank. Desired Track Angle. If the HOLD switch is pressed, the program ID is displayed. System STATUS - Actual Performance Index (API), - Action and malfunction codes, - System Mode Index (MI), - Operation mode,

DSRTK/STS

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual INS CDU status RH display Call up the INS CDU INS unit status is displayed on the right display when the Data Selector knob is placed in the DSRTK/STS position. Panel Description

006 95
INS CDU RH display 1st digit

- 1st digit NAV Mode indicator. The digit can assume two different values: - 0 is not currently in NAV mode when for example in STBY or ALIGN status, - 1 is in NAV mode.

006 95
INS CDU RH display 2nd and 3rd digit

- 2 and 3 digit Action/Malfunction Codes. No indication available (blank) is there is no action/malfunction code(s). With the TEST button, we can scroll through the codes. One the end of the sequence of codes have been reached, codes belonging to a warning condition will be automatically cleared, codes related to error conditions will not be cleared. Action codes are identified by small numbers (1 to 8), malfunction codes have higher values.

nd

rd

006 95
INS CDU RH display 4th digit

- 4 digit Always blank (no function).

th

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Call up INS CDU (cont)

006 95
INS CDU RH display 5th digit

- 5th digit PI / AI indicator. During the aligment phase the 5th digit is called Performance Index (PI) representing the current INS aligment mode. It is always starting as a 9 and decreasing towards a 0. At PI 5 or lower, the NAV mode selection is allowed. If the NAV mode is selected, this digit becomes the Accuracy Index (AI) providing an indication of the position error the unit should have statistically accumulated at the present stage. For instance, the value 6 corresponds to 0.5NM of error.

006 95
INS CDU RH display 6th digit

- 6 digit Desired PI or Requested PI It stays fixed at 5 during aligment. In NAV mode, it can get the following values: 4 - INS unit is operating in aided inertial mode, which means that DME update is active. 5 - not applicable for this configuration.

th

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Inertial Navigation System


Flight Plan Loader General This gauge simulates a computer that helps the pilot load the different waypoints of the current FS flight plan into the CDU units. It has been designed to suit the general aspect of the other gauges present in the pedestal. Even its functioning is rather simple, its very important to understand how each of its two principal modes AUTO and MAN works. This and more will be explained in the following pages, as part of a hands-on training during our flight from KBOS to KSFO. A B C E D B

B C

Guarded MODE switch, which offers the positions AUTO and MAN(UAL) Normally it remains guarded to prevent undesired changes. By default, it is in the AUTO position (guard closed) and AUTO displays in both windows. MAN selection allows the user manually control the inserted flight plan waypoints. More information is available on the next page as well as detailed hands-on training during our flight from Boston to San Francisco. The LH rotary knob is used in combination with the F PLAN WPTS window and the RH one with the INS WPTS window provided the MODE switch is in the MAN position. F PLAN WPTS window This window - with the MODE switch in MAN - shows the range of flight plan waypoints that were loaded last. If the window shows - - - - it means no flight plan is active! INS WPTS window This window - with the MODE switch in MAN - shows the range of INS waypoints that contains this data. If the window shows - - - - it means no flight plan is active! The DISP/RST (Display/Reset) button is used to show waypoints data in both windows when AUTO mode is active, and to reset the selected data to previous info when in MAN mode. The green SEL switch enables the MAN selection of waypoints to be loaded into INS system, and also starts the loading process itself.
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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight Plan Loader Operating Mode AUTO AUTO mode is the default mode, and when selected: - As soon as an IFR FS flight plan is detected, it will automatically load the first 9 waypoints (or the complete range if exist less than 9) into the 9 INS slots. - While waypoints are loaded (takes 1 second each) SEL switchs green light will flash; status displays left window will show the current range being loaded for example 01 to 09 and the right window will show the actual INS slots where waypoints data is being loaded (like 1 to 9). - As soon as the process is completed, SEL light will go off and both status windows will show AUTO, meaning the computer is working in AUTO mode. - To show the range of waypoints that were last loaded, press and hold the DISP/RST button. - The next and successive auto loadings will occur in groups of 5 waypoints until reaching the end of the flight plan; the first INS slot to be loaded will be the second following TO slot, ending at the previous since FROM slot. For example, after the first auto load (01 to 09 into 1 to 9) the following will happen while flying between INS waypoints 7 (FROM) to 8 (TO); and the slots to fill will be 1 2 3 4 5. So left status display will show 10 14 and right 1 5. Now the next load will happen when flying INS waypoints 3 (FROM) to 4 (TO), and the slots to fill 6 7 8 9 1. Then left status display will show 15 19 and right 6 1. - Making a 0-n change to fly direct a certain waypoint will initiate an auto load as long as the n waypoint is one less than the rightmost displayed on the INS status display window. For example, if right display shows 4 8 and a 0-7 change is commanded, the auto load will proceed. - At any time a slot can be manually loaded with different coordinates using the CDU keyboard. It wont affect the info in both status display windows because what is shown here is the latest range auto loaded, although it could be manually changed afterwards. Therefore, manual change of coordinates in a slot should be done with care and in exceptional situations. - In this mode, operation of both rotary selectors is inhibited, as well as SEL button light remains off while not in loading process. Besides, AUTO load will occur only when the INS unit on active navigation has its CDU status selector in AUTO mode. - Placing the MODE Selector switch in MAN at any time will prevent the auto loading process. - It is recommended that coordinates loaded into INS slots be checked against FS flight plan data right after each auto load, to ensure the correct info has been inserted. Panel Description

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight Plan Loader Operating Mode MANUAL MAN mode is available by selection, and when selected: - Left status display window shows the latest FS flightplans waypoints loaded into the INS computer, and right status display window shows the INS slots where the data was inserted. When a FS flight plan is first loaded, left display will show 01 09 or 01 and the last waypoint number if the flight plan has less than 9 waypoints; and right display will show 1 9 or 1 and the last filled slot. - A range of 1 to 9 waypoints can be selected for insert into INS computer. Pressing SEL switch once will hold it down and green light will turn on steady, enabling the rotary selectors to work. Rotating the right selector clockwise moves the INS displays right digit, and counterclockwise the INS displays left digit. FS flight plan waypoints to insert can be selected by rotating the left rotary selector in any direction. Its only possible to insert a range of waypoints that coincides with the range of slots selected. It is not possible to select a reversed range of waypoints (for example, to reverse flying the flight plan). - Once the proper range of waypoints has been selected, pressing SEL switch will make it release and the loading process begin. Green light will flash while this happens, and will stop when its completed. To cancel the current selection without making changes, press the DISP/RST button. This action will release the SEL switch - turning green light off- and also display back the previous selection in both status display windows. - Turning Mode switch to AUTO at any time will resume auto load and the process will happen next when TO waypoint in INS CDU is one less than the rightmost displayed on the INS status display window. - This mode must be operated with care to prevent overloading any of the active FROM TO waypoints, and or losing control of what has been actually inserted into the INS system. Flight Plan Loader Special Operating Mode DME DME mode is an automatic mode that enables the loading of DME waypoints into the proper INS slots. This procedure goes as follows: - When a FS flight plan that is IFR and VOR to VOR mode is loaded, the INS flight plan computer considers it as a DME flight plan and will load up to 9 of its waypoints into the 9 slots available for DME data. While loading is in process, green light will flash, left status display window will show 01 09 (or less) and right status display window will show DME. These values will keep showing after the process is completed, reminding the pilot that DME mode is active. - The INS computer will load only waypoints that are classified as VOR or ILS, ignoring the rest. - In this mode all switches/selectors are inhibited. There is no auto or manual chance to update the DME slots with this computer while in flight. Some tips for a proper operation of this computer and then in particular to the DME mode: - Load a DME flight plan first and then load the flight plan that is going to be flown. - To build a DME flight plan, first define a standard IFR flight plan that is not VOR to VOR. Save this one and then make a new one using the same info but changing the mode into VOR to VOR. Check/Edit/Modify this plan manually as to let it include the most significant VORs to be used as DME updaters during the flight (remember up to 9 slots are supported). - Always check that accurate DME data has been inserted into the proper INS DME slots. Panel Description

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Pedestal
A-III A-IV

D-I

A-I A-II B-I

B-II

B-II

C-I A-I A-II A-III A-IV B-I B-II C-I C-II D-I D-II D-III E F G

C-II

D-III

D-II

When button/ARM light unit is depressed, the green ARM legend illuminates and the speed brake handle is placed in the ARMED position. Speed brake handle SPEED BRAKE ARMED Illuminates as under condition A-I, located at the pilot panels. SPEED BRAKE DEPLOYED Illuminates when spoiler(s) deployed, located at one of the pilots instrument panels. Horizontal Stabilizer TRIM handles. Horizontal Stabilizer TRIM pointers PARKING BRAKE lever. When the lever is SET, the light (C-II) illuminates as well as a yellow PARKING BRAKE light on the annunciator panel. PARKING BRAKE light illuminated when lever is SET. Engine start switches, one for each individual engine. Throttle levers. FUEL SHUTOFF levers. N2 (CORE engine) RPM indicators. TOGA (TakeOff Go Around) light and switch unit. FLAP handle. Positions the Kruger- and Trailing Edge Flaps.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight instruments Automatic Flight Mode Selector Panel (MSP) The Automatic Flight Mode Selector Panel gives the pilot the ability to control the aircraft in the CMD Mode. This means that he/she controls pitch, roll and thrust via the control panel. B-I B-II B-III C D-I D-II F Panel Description

A-I

Automatic Flight Mode Selector Panel - Part I

B-IV

E-I

E-II

Turns the Flight Director (FD) ON or OFF. When set to ON, the Flight Mode Annunciator shows in the respective F/D window ENGAGED. B-I Auto Throttle lever must be ON for the Auto Pilot (AP) in IAS, Mach and N1 Speed control. Positive engagement is shown in the Flight Mode Annunciator RH window. B-II IAS/Mach SPD selection window. It will display either the desired IAS or Mach value depending upon which mode is selected. B-III IAS/Mach SPD selector knob. B-IV IAS/MACH selector. This commands the Auto Throttle to hold the Indicated Airspeed as set in the IAS/Mach speed selector window or it holds a specific Mach speed. To function, the A/T lever (B-I) must be in the ON position. The switch has three positions: UP IAS mode engaged MIDDLE No mode engaged DOWN Mach mode engaged C AP Channel A and B CMD (command) mode. The status of the AP - ENGAGED - is shown by the middle of the Flight Mode Annunciator. D-I VOR 1 (NAV 1) CRS (course) selector knob. D-II VOR 1 CRS selection window E-I HDG selector knob. The desired heading (HDG) can be adjusted by clicking the outside edges of this knob. To engage the HDG HOLD command, set item G to HDG position. E-II HDG HOLD command window. Displays the desired HDG. Note: When youve selected an FMS equipped aircraft, flying an MSFS flight plan or a flight plan created from another source, must be done as follows: - Set selector F in the GPS mode and - Set selector G in the NAV mode.

A-I

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

H-II J-I(A)

J-II

Automatic Flight Mode Selector Panel - Part II

FMS configuration

H-I

K-I

K-II K-III

INS configuration

L F

J-I(B)

J-I(C)

NAV 1 GPS NAV 2 selector knob. Allows you navigate with either NAV system or to use the onboard GPS. When flying with a FMS equipped aircraft, youre not able to connect the FMS to the AP! This means, the FMS CDU is only offering flight information. G Allows you to select HDG, NAV, APR (approach) or BC (Back Course). Selecting HDG activates the HDG HOLD mode, which is confirmed via the A/P FMA window. NAV mode allows you to follow a flight plan. This is also confirmed via the A/P NAV HOLD text on the FMA. APR selection will capture and fly an ILS approach if the proper frequency is tuned into NAV 1 radio and finally the BC selects a Back Course approach to the ILS localizer. H-I VOR 2 (NAV 2) Course selector knob H-II VOR 2 Course selection window J-I(A) Vertical Speed (VS) Adjustment wheel. This will adjust the vertical in which the aircraft will fly when the ALT HOLD is engaged. The Vertical Speed is indicated by the double blue bug on the VS/TCAS indicator. Not only J-I(A), but J-I(B) and J-I(C) represent the possible thumbwheel positions. J-II Selected V/S window K-I Altitude selector knob. Here you can adjust the desired altitude. K-II Altitude selection window. It displays the selected altitude K-III ALT HOLD command button. It commands the AP to hold the altitude selected in the ALT selection window. L With this INS-HDG-VOR-APR-BC selector in the INS position, an active loaded INS flight plan will be connected to the aircrafts Auto Pilot. Important to keep in mind that theres absolutely a need to click the word INS on the panel itself to active this.
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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Flight instruments
Automatic Flight Annunciator panel On both instrument panels, you will find the Automatic Flight Annunciator. It is located to the right of each ADI, as can be seen on the screenshot. This light unit provides the crew with the actual status of the Flight Director (F/D), Auto Pilot (A/P) and Auto Throttle (A/T). Flight Director (F/D) Indicates the armed and capture modes of the Flight Director. When the FD switch is ON, the F/D ENGAGED legend illuminates. VOR, LOC and GS are sub modes, depending on others. It should be obvious that the LOC (localizer) and GS (Glide Slope) are connected to an ILS frequency and the A/P selected mode; APR. Auto Pilot (A/P) When the AP channel A and B are engaged in the COMMAND mode it depends on the sub modes. Valid HOLD modes are altitude, heading and approach, while NAV or INS LOCK represent the same for single L NAV modes. A special non normal mode is the BC (Back Course). Auto Throttle (A/T) When you engage the single AT lever it allows you to ARM either the SPD or MACH mode.

ENGAGED

ENGAGED ALT HLD

ENGAGED

MACH HLD INS LOCK

typical example of INS equipped annunciation

F/D
ENGAGED VOR LOC GS

A/P
ENGAGED ALT HLD HDG HLD NAV LOCK APR HLD
FMS configuration

A/T
ENGAGED SPD HLD MACH HLD BC HLD

ENGAGED = LOC GS

ENGAGED ALT HLD HDG HLD INS LOCK APR HLD

ENGAGED SPD HLD MACH HLD BC HLD

INS configuration the light green (=) and (INS LOCK) are related to the INS equipped aircraft configuration

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Flight Instruments
ASI (Indicated Air Speed Indicator) D H D F

J G B C G G G

A B C D E F G

H J

OVERSPEED barber pole needle. This is the "do not exceed" airspeed for the aircraft. Presets the amber speed bug and modifies automatically the SPEED window value on the Auto Flight panel. Speed bug indicates selected speed in the AP's IAS/Mach speed selector window Mach command indicator, displays when Mach hold is selected on the AP. M(ach) symbol in view when Mach selected on Auto Flight panel. Adjust the first white speed slider (item F). Speed bugs. How to set the speed bugs in correspondence with the actual speeds will be explained during the flight tutorial preparations. Speed needle, this shows the current Indicated Airspeed. Current IAS display window.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Flight Instruments
ADI (Attitude Direction Indicator)

A-III A-I

A-II

A-IV C

K F G

H E J

D A-I A-II A-III A-IV B C D E F G H J K ATT flag FD flag ASI INOP flag GLIDE SLOPE flag Appears when the ADI is inoperative. In view when the Flight Director (FD) is switched OFF or inoperative. Displayed when the speed reference bug is inoperative. Displayed when there is no GS signal or the GS is inoperative.

Represents the bank angle indicator. On the bottom of the ADI the slip indicator can be found. Belonging to the slip indicator, is the turn and slip indicator ball. Aircraft reference indicator. Flight Director (FD) PITCH bar. Flight Director (FD) ROLL bar. Speed reference indicator: Shows if the aircraft speed is above or below the ATS selected speed. Glide Slope indicator, shows if the aircraft is above or below the GS. Altitude alert indicator

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Flight Instruments
RMI (Radio Magnetic Indicator)

C-I

C-II

E-II E-I D-I D-II A B

F
INS Configuration

A A

DME 2 distance window for VOR1 station If no data is received or the wrong VHF VOR frequency is set, dashes are shown. B DME distance window for VOR2 station. C-I Red VOR1 flag indicating not valid signal received or no correct frequency selected. C-II Red VOR2 flag indicating not valid signal received or no correct frequency selected. D-I Selector switch for either VOR1 or ADF1 D-II Selector switch for either VOR2 or ADF2. E-I Magnetic Heading indicator for VOR1 or ADF1, depending upon selection D-I. E-II Magnetic Heading indicator for VOR2 or ADF2, depending upon selection D-II. F INS DME Update Flags. Illuminates green when added inertial navigation is operating; to improve accuracy INS is using DME data.

DME Distance Measuring Equipment Version 1.30 / March 3, 2009 All rights reserved

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Flight Instruments
HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator)

F-I D

C F-II

INS Configuration

O A B C D E F-I F-II G H J K L

VOR/LOC flag is displayed when the signal is lost or the HSI is inoperable. Current Heading readout. GS (glide slope) flag is displayed when GS signal is lost. Heading bug, this is set thru the AP or the Heading Bug Knob (G) on the HSI. Heading Bug Knob. TO/FROM inoperable flags, displayed when the VOR signal is lost. TO/FROM indicators. Course Set Knob. VOR1 DME Ground Speed readout. Glideslope indicator. Course Deviation Indicator (CDI).

The following items are only applicable when selected an INS aircraft configuration. M Calculated total or individual distance according to the INS CDU. N HSI rose no longer operative when in INS mode. O Calculated total or individual distance according to the INS CDU.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Flight Instruments
Altimeter / RA / EVSI-TCAS / Flight Controls Indicators D R O S
ALTITUDE ALERT

E A B C P G F H N J Q

K M L Barometric Altimeter A Display window shows actual barometric altitude. B The needle indicated the current altitude. C Kohlsman setting in millibars (mBar). D Kohlsman setting in Inches of mercury (Hg). E Bug indicating actual setting. EIVS / TCAS (Vertical Speed / Traffic Collision Alerting System) F Actual aircraft vertical speed needle. G Preset VS (double blue bugs), entered via the AUTOPILOT control panel. H TCAS function. Flight Control Surface Position J LH Aileron K RH Aileron L Elevator M Horizontal Stabilizer Trim N UPPER and LOWER Rudder. Vertical Radio Altimeter (RA) O ON legend meaning the RA is active (below or equal to 2500 feet) P Selector knob for entering MDA 3 or DH 4 Q Selected MDA or DH R ALTITUDE ALERT message when approaching selected or leaving initial altitude S Outer, Middle and Inner Marker beacon.
3 4

MDA Minimum Descent Altitude DH Decision Height Version 1.30 / March 3, 2009 All rights reserved

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Flight Instruments
Aircraft Clock and lights G H

A C
Aircraft clock only available on the First Officers Instrument panel

Shown light units are from the Captains Instrument panel and glareshield

Aircraft Clock A Default operational analog MSFS clock B Stopwatch function: 1st click starts the stopwatch and a 2nd click stops the pointer (D). C Reset of stopwatch A click will reset the pointer (D) to the 12 oclock position. D Stopwatch pointer. Light Units E GPWS (Ground Proximity Warning System) visual and aural activation in case one of the GPWS conditions arise F GLIDE SLOPE illumination in case youre above or below the glide slope signal. G MASTER CAUTION Illuminates under certain conditions and indicating theres a system or instrument fault. H MASTER WARNING Illuminates under certain conditions and indicating theres a system or instrument fault. For example when youve got an OVERSPEED or STALL condition.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Flight Instruments
Lite FMS CDU These pages will cover some of the lite FMS CDU (Flight Management System Control Display Unit). CDU pages are based on particular flight plan data and therefore could be different then your CDU information. If you selected an aircraft configuration with FMS, it is an integral part of the cockpit preparation and for in flight use otherwise the INS CDU is used. For many reasons, you will see that the flight tutorial offers an INS equipped aircraft. This is done because the original 747-200/300 models didnt had a FMS. It simply didnt exist in those days and because weve simulated/programmed an INS CDU, which is as real as possible. Note: the following FMS CDU pages are just offering you some background information of the available CDU pages while certain pages are self-explaining. Further more its important to know that the offered FMS cant and will not control the aircrafts Auto Pilot. The offered pages are just for your information and used as reference only. How When you decide to fly with a FMS equipped aircraft, you load a prepared flight plan via the MSFS Flight Planner menu. Flying this flight plan is than done by positioning on the Automatic Flight Mode Selector Panel, the upper NAV selector in GPS and the lower one in NAV. The FMS CDU offers you than all the necessary flight information like navigation data (beacons) and aircraft performances like takeoff and approach data, but it doesnt fly the aircraft! One huge advantage of the FMS is the automatic calculation of your takeoff and approach (landing) speeds. This feature is not available when flying with an INS equipped aircraft. In that case, you need to use the performance tables. Those tables are added into the Operations Manual and available during the 74-200/300 installation process. One last word about the menu keys; most of them gives you direct access to the relevant page except for the following keys - MODE, WX, REF which are not modeled. Ok, lets go and see what the CDU pages offer.

MENU keys LSK (Line Select Keys) Alphanumeric keyboard

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

STATUS page

- Click LSK 2L <STATUS - The STATUS page offers only static information like the aircraft model, engine rating in 1000x of Thrust, navigation data, simulated AIRAC numbers and others.

INIT page

- Click LSK 3L <INIT or use the INIT keyboard pushbutton. - It provides you with actual LAT and LONG 5 position data, found on LSK 4L and 4R).

- Data like FROM/TO and CRZ ALT is retrieved from the loaded flight plan. Youre not able to enter any data via the scratchpad.

Latitude and Longitude Version 1.30 / March 3, 2009 All rights reserved

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

TAKEOFF page

- Click LSK 4L < TO/APPR or use the TOFF APR keyboard pushbutton. - Click LSK 1L < CALC/SET T/O V SPEEDS - Note the values of found directly below: V1 knots VR knots V2 knots Use and enter these into the IAS indicator. - Via LSK 6R APPROACH> you can do the same for the approach or landing speeds.

RAD NAV page

- Click LSK 5L < RAD NAV or use the RAD NAV keyboard pushbutton. - This page offers frequencies like NAV1/2, COM1/2, ADF and the squawk code. You cant enter any data via the scratchpad but this needs to be done via the radio panel.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

DATA page

- Click LSK 2R DATABASE> or use the DATA keyboard pushbutton. - This page shows you environmental information like wind, groundspeed, barometric pressure, OAT, UTC or Zulu time and others. You cant enter any data via the scratchpad.

FUEL PREDICTION page

- Click LSK 4R PROG> or use the PROG keyboard pushbutton. - Via LSK 6R FUEL PRED> the FMS made some predictions based on your loaded flight plan. This data is actual and constantly updated in relation to the environmental conditions as well as user changes.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

FLIGHT PLAN page A

- Click LSK3R FLT PLAN > or use the F_PLN keyboard pushbutton. - Allows you to check your flight plan in relation to the waypoints. This page shows TIME/TRK.

WAYPOINT page

Not only distance and time information is available, also waypoint information along the route is stored in the FMS CDU. Retrieving this can be done as follows: - Click LSK 4L (GDM) - This page offers for example for the GDM VOR station (Gardner - 110.60) data like latitude/longitude information, distance to waypoint and distance to destination.

- To return to the FLT PLN page, just click the LSK 6R RETURN>

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

FLIGHT PLAN page B (cont)

- With the PAGE menu keys, we can switch to the DIST/FREQ page and visa versa.

DIR TO page

- Click keyboard key DIR TO. This allows you to fly directly to another waypoint but only those, which are in the active flight plan. Lets go for an example. - Irrespective of the present CDU page, its automatically replaced by the flight plan DIR TO page.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

DIR TO page (cont)

- Click the LSK you want to fly directly. Here its LSK 4L GDM. - This waypoint will be transferred to LSK 1L.

- To activate and confirm; click LSK 1L. - This will change the flight plan and it now flies directly to waypoint GDM.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Engine Instruments
General J-II J-II J-II J-II

J-I B-II B-I A-II

B-III H

A-I A-I

EPR indicator. Indicates the Engine pressure Ratio of all four engines on a vertical scale. A-II Digital actual EPR indication. B-I Manual EPR selector. B-II Digital value set by the EPR manual selector. B-III Pointer indicating manual EPR value. C Typical identification of a vertical tape of all the four engines. D N1 indicator. Indicates the % of RPM of the Low Pressure Compressor (LPC) of all the four engines on a vertical scale. E EGT indicator. Exhaust Gas Temperature indicator shows the temperature of exhaust gases downstream of the High Pressure Turbine (HPT), before entering the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) of all the four engines on a vertical scale. F N2 indicator. Indicates the percentage of RPM of the High Pressure Compressor (HPC) of all the four engines on a vertical scale. G FF (Fuel Flow) vertical tape indicator. H White vertical tape shows typical actual N1, EGT, N2 or FF. J-I Typical Engine Thrust Reversers stowed and locked. J-II Typical Engine Thrust Reversers fully deployed and ready for use.
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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Panel Description

Engine Instruments
Engine Panel Lights (annunciator)
OIL TEMP OIL PRESS HYD PRESS GEN V O LT S OIL PRESS HYD PRESS GEN V O LT S

GEN V O LT S EXT TEMP

FUEL PRESS

FUEL PRESS

ENG 1

ENG 2

ENG 3

ENG 4

OIL TEMP OIL PRESS HYD PRESS GEN VOLTS EXT TEMP FUEL PRESS

Illuminates when a certain high oil temperature has reached. Illuminates when a certain low oil pressure (LOP) has reached Illuminates when a certain low hydraulic pressure has reached Indicates that the generator doesnt supply electrical AC power Illuminates when a certain high air exhaust temperature has reached Illuminates when a certain low fuel pressure has reached

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System Instruments
Landing Gear Controls and Indications C D

GEAR Handle: Mechanically positions the landing gear hydraulic valve for retraction or extension of the landing gear. To move the handle from GEAR UP or DOWN position, just select it to the corresponding position. The handle offers three positions; DOWN, UP and NEUTRAL. GREEN lights: Illuminates when the gear handle is DOWN and the respective landing gear is DOWN and LOCKED. The LDG GEAR unit comes with three light legends; NOSE, LEFT- and RIGHT MAIN gears. The LEFT (RIGHT) GEAR lights represent either the left (right) wing and body (fuselage) gears. AMBER lights: Illuminates when the landing gear is not down locked while the handle is still down, or when any unsafe condition exists. Also illuminates when landing gear is in transit or not in agreement with the gear handle. Found at item B the correct individual light unit identifications. Lights extinguished: This condition is valid with the gear handle is the UP, NEUTRAL or OFF position and all the gears are UP and locked.

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System Instruments
Kruger- and Trailing Flap Indicator

D E F

A B

D E F G

ADI (Attitude Direction Indicator) See for detailed description page 20 FLAPS indicator The FLAPS indicator offers the position of the Kruger-, Variable Camber- and Trailing Edge flaps of the wing. Typical identification when FLAPS 10 is selected and inboard- and outboard trailing edge flaps are at 10 units. The figures do not represent actual degrees. The positions 1 and 5 are only for the Kruger- and Variable Camber Flaps. From 10 units and further, the Trailing Edge Flaps are extended accordingly. Shows the TAT (Total Air Temperature). Shows the OAT (Outside Air Temperature) Shows the TAS (True Air Speed) Dual BRAKE PRESS indicator.

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System Instruments
System Panel Lights (annunciator)
SPOILER LANDING LIGHTS ARMED SPOILER AUTOBRK DEPLYD ARMED ENGINE ENGINE DE-ICE DE-ICE FUEL FUEL TANK 2 TANK 1 STAB OUT TRIM PARKING SMOKING BRAKE TAXI LIGHTS STROBE LIGHTS ENGINE DE-ICE FUEL TANK 3 LOGO LIGHTS PITOT HEAT ENGINE DE-ICE FUEL TANK 4 AVIONICS BUSS YAM DAMPER

SEAT BELTS

SPOILER ARMED LANDING LIGHTS TAXI LIGHTS LOGO LIGHTS SPOILER DEPLYD AUTOBRK ARMED STROBE LIGHTS PITOT HEAT ENGINE DE-ICE ENGINE DE-ICE ENGINE DE-ICE ENGINE DE-ICE FUEL TANK 1 FUEL TANK 2 FUEL TANK 3 FUEL TANK 4 STAB OUT TRIM FWD CARGO AFT CARGO AVIONICS BUSS PARKING BRAKE SMOKING SEAT BELTS YAW DAMPER

Illuminates when the SPEED BRAKE handle is in the ARMED position. When either INB and/or OUTB switches selected ON. RUNWAY TURNOFF switch selected ON at the lower overhead panel. Illuminates when the logo light switch on the overhead is ON. Illuminates when the handle is not in the DOWN and ARMED position. Auto brake selector in the positions 1, 2, 3 and MAX Switch selected ON at the lower overhead panel. Illuminates when the pitot heat switches selected ON at the overhead. Engine 1 NACELLE ANTI-ICE switch selected on the overhead. Engine 2 NACELLE ANTI-ICE switch selected on the overhead. Engine 3 NACELLE ANTI-ICE switch selected on the overhead. Engine 4 NACELLE ANTI-ICE switch selected on the overhead. NO 1 MAIN fuel tank empty (MSFS left auxiliary) NO 2 MAIN fuel tank empty (MSFS left) NO 3 MAIN fuel tank empty (MSFS right) NO 4 MAIN fuel tank empty (MSFS right auxiliary) Appears when the stabilizer trim is too far out of normal trim range. Not assigned Not assigned AVIONICS switch on the FE panel in OFF with BAT switch ON. Parking brakes are set via handle on pedestal. NO SMOKING pushbutton on the overhead panel selected. SEAT BELTS pushbutton on the overhead panel selected. Illuminates when the YAW DAMPER is active.

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Flight Engineer Panel


Electrical and Anti-Ice Section Although most of the Flight Engineer panel contains dummy indicators, many of the switches can be used. During your cockpit preparations, you will need to do o a lot of switching here, so this page is by means a good reference to look at. The electrical panel consist of two parts; the DC METERS (DC VOLTS and DC AMPS) with belonging switchings and the BATTERY switch. The ALTERNATORS (Alternate Current) part offers the engine generator switches with individual red ALT light legends. With the switch(es) in OFF, the respective light illuminates.

AC/DC Electrical- and Anti-Ice System

The lower part of the panel offers the ANTI ICE switches including the PROBE selections. As weve mentioned, most of the switches are selectable although not every switch is simulated. During cockpit preparations - discussed in the flight tutorial - switches must be selected, which gives you the time to become familiar with the Flight Engineers sub-panels.

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Flight Engineer Panel


Engine Instruments Section ments The UPPER engine instrument panel offers the following parameters: - EPR (Engine Pressure Ratio) Only used in combination with Pratt & Whitney or Rolls Royce engines. - N1 (FAN rotor speed in %) - EGT (Exhaust Gas Temperature) - N2 (CORE rotor speed in %) - FF (Fuel Flow) in Pounds Per Hour - ENGINE START switches
UPPER Primary Engine Instrument panel Worth noted that the green, amber and red area in the N1, N2, EGT indicators represent a safe rotor LOWER Secondary Engine Instrument Panel speed/temperature, temperately/time limited allowed and prohibited speed/temperature. The LOWER panel houses the secondary engine instruments e.g. OIL QTY, OIL TEMP and OIL PRESS and the amber FILTER BYPASS light units.

Click this arrow to return to the Captains panel.

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Flight Engineer Panel


Hydraulic Section During normal operations, there is no need to do anything for the flight regarding the hydraulic system. The moment the engines are running, each EDP supplies its hydraulic system for the flight controls, brake system, flap/slats etc. The hydraulic panel offers the following components: - HYD QTY indicators of al three systems - EDP (Engine Driven Pump) selector switch for NORMAL and DEPRESS mode with amber PRESS light - AIR PUMP selector with switchable modes for AUTO, OFF and CONTINUOUS. If the pump runs, a blue light illuminates. If the pump doesnt supply enough pressure, Hydraulic Control Panel an amber light comes ON. - HYD PRESS indicators for each hydraulic system - Hydraulic tank OVERHEAT light. Individual light illuminates if the hydraulic fluid temperature becomes too high. - QTY TEST pushbutton; this allows you to check the HYD QTY indicators - Dual HYD TEMP indicators in degrees Centigrade - ELEC PUMP HYD SYS 4 ON-OFF selector - NORMAL BRAKE SOURCE SELECT switch with SEC SYS1 or PRIM SYS 4 selections - LOW PRESS and SEC SYS 1 legend

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Flight Engineer Panel


Miscellaneous Section The miscellaneous panel offers a few switches and lights, and some of them are working while others are dummies. Available lights/switches are: - FWD PASS, MID PASS, MAIN CARGO and NOSE CARGO amber lights. Control for these doors is done via a simicon in the cockpit. - Dual BRAKE PRESS indicator - AVIONICS MASTER switch. Only operative when the BAT switch is ON. If the AVIONICS switch is OFF, the amber LOW VOLTAGE light illuminates. When the switch is on, the green light comes ON. - INSTR- and CABIN LIGHTS switches. The switches offer an ON-OFF position. Instrument light switch controls backlight of FE panel instruments only. Cabin light switch controls the cabin lights if the battery switch is OFF.

Miscellaneous Control Panel

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Flight Engineer Panel


Fuel Section There is normally no need to do anything except that with fuel in a specific tank, the related FUEL PUMP switch must be selected ON and if needed, opening the Respective cross feed valve. From left to the right, the fuel tanks are built up as follows: No 1 RES(erve), No 1, No 2, No 3, CENTER, No 4 and Finally No 4 RES. The indications are in lbs (Pounds) so keep in mind when you intend to fly with Kgs. The panel also offers the following: - OPEN/CLOSE No1 (4) RES valves Fuel Control Panel - Four X-feed valves, to control the fuel distribution - BOOST PUMP switches for each tank except RES. Each boost pump has its own amber PRESS light if the supplied fuel pressure is too low. - Four FUEL PRESS indicators - One FUEL TEMP indicator - Four FUEL CONTROL VALVE selectors, for distribution to the individual engines.

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Flight Engineer Panel


Fuel Jettison Section The fuel jettison system allows you to dump an excessive amount of fuel from specific fuel tanks. Covered by a red panel/door, we find the only available control. Opening of the panel can be done by clicking the black button. Once open, you click the red lever, which will turn and dump the fuel from the specific tanks.

Fuel Jettison Control Panel

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Table of Contents

Chapter Three Flight tutorial KBOS-KSFO............................................................................. 1


Introduction .................................................................................................. 1
General................................................................................................................. 1

Cockpit and Aircraft Facts............................................................................ 2


CLS Simicons ....................................................................................................... 2 Sound Settings ..................................................................................................... 3 IAS (Indicated Air Speed) Settings....................................................................... 4 Special Features................................................................................................... 5

Flight Planning ............................................................................................. 8


Route Finder......................................................................................................... 8 FSNavigator flight plan (FS9 only) ....................................................................... 9

Initial Preparations ..................................................................................... 10


Selecting pre-configured tutorial file ................................................................... 10 Part I - Selecting manually the INS Boeing 747-200.......................................... 12 Part II - Selecting manually your airport location................................................ 13 Part III - Configure your Cold & Dark situation ................................................... 14 Fuel and Payload................................................................................................ 18

Cockpit Preparations.................................................................................. 19
Power Up............................................................................................................ 19 INS Initialization.................................................................................................. 22 FAST INS Alignment .......................................................................................... 23 Flight Plan Loading............................................................................................. 26 Manually entering waypoints .............................................................................. 30

Before Engine Start.................................................................................... 33 Engine Start ............................................................................................... 34


Engine 4 Start sequence (FE panel) .................................................................. 34 Engine 3 Start sequence (pilots workspace) ..................................................... 36

After Engine Start....................................................................................... 38


Finalizing settings and adjustments ................................................................... 38

Taxi Profile ................................................................................................. 39 TO Profile................................................................................................... 40 Climb Profile............................................................................................... 42 Cruise Profile ............................................................................................. 49


Relax and enjoy.................................................................................................. 49 CDU explanation ................................................................................................ 50 Automatic track leg change ................................................................................ 54 Manual Track leg change ................................................................................... 56 Entering new waypoints (without INS Flight Plan loader) .................................. 58

Descent, approach and landing preparations ............................................ 61 Descent Profile........................................................................................... 62 Approach Profile ........................................................................................ 65 Final Approach........................................................................................... 67 Touchdown and taxi................................................................................... 71 Cockpit Termination ................................................................................... 73
Pilot panels ......................................................................................................... 73 Flight Engineer (FE) panels................................................................................ 74

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Flight tutorial KBOS-KSFO Introduction


General The intention of this flight tutorial is to give you an overview of how to handle this CLS 747 Series. Due to the F-Lite aircraft characteristics, many things have been designed to make aircraft operations easy for you. This means theres no need to perform complicated calculations. The separately published Operations Manual offers you all the necessary information about aircraft performances as well as limitations. We also assume that youve got basic aviation navigation knowledge including making a flight plan, either via the MSFS Flight planner or any external program. As part of making any flight plan, we also assume youre aware of low and high altitude routes, V- and J-routes as applicable for the United States. Furthermore, this tutorial is a guide helping you understanding the INS and settings, but values may differ from your flight! This and much more information is freely accessible via the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration), but theres much more. Lets give you some more examples of interesting sites; AirNav, ADDS (Aviation Digital Data Service), AIM (Aeronautical Information Manual), MyAirplane.Com and VirtualSkies Navigation. What we have done, for your convenience, is adding into the appendix some navigation history information such as what is dead reckoning, navigation with the help of VOR/DME stations and NDB beacons as well as what is Area Navigation. Feel free having a look into it while the INS (Inertial Navigation System) is flying you to the American West coast.

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Cockpit and Aircraft Facts


CLS Simicons An important item is the ability to call-up the necessary panels via these simicons. Added to the basic MSFS icons, customized ones are found. Let us have a look at what these offer. at

First Officers panel --

(INS Configuration)

Selection Icons Captains Instrument panel (FMS Configuration)

First Officers panel FMS CDU DOOR and ground equipment panel Virtual Cockpit ON/OFF Flight Engineer (FE) panel Pedestal Radio Control panel Overhead panel

Selection Icons First Officers panel

Captains panel Radio Control panel MSFS GPS500 Equipment FS9/FSX Map FS9/FSX Kneeboard FS9/FSX ATC Window

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Sound Settings Recommended sound settings for the Boeing 747 Classic are:

Note: Some machines will experience digital tunneling or may freeze when certain sounds are played, due to slower processors, smaller amounts of RAM, and the large size of the sound files. If you experience either of these problems, we recommend that you set sound quality to medium or low.

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IAS (Indicated Air Speed) Settings Requirement It is mandatory to configure FS9/FSX to display Indicated Airspeed rather than True airspeed. In the Flight Simulator 2004/FSX menu - Select from the FS menu Aircraft - From the pulldown menu choose Realism Settings

- In the Settings Realism window: - Tick Display indicated airspeed in the Instruments and lights part.

FS9 (FSX) menu Realism Settings

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Special Features ures The DOOR and ground equipment control panel allows you to control each passenger-, combi- and lower cargo doors as well as the foldable nose. Further more additional ground equipment can be added to this to create an overall realistic view of equipment around your 747. As seen on the screenshot below, the panel is used for all kind of 747 configurations. Although every click on a pink, blue or green square is straightforward, weve added for your convenience the specific operations on these three pages.
TOW Pushback Truck

Notice that when you have clicked the colored box, the box will highlight yellow, indicating that this function is active.

II I

Door and Ground Equipment Control Panel

I II

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Related passenger doors not shown

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HLL HI Loader

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Flight Planning
Route Finder Route Finder (http://rfinder.asalink.net/free/) is an on-line flight planning system for flight simulations. This route generator service does not contain all the logic and features of its counterpart aimed at real aviation users (and the underlying database is maintained separately, trying to meet PC flight simulation needs) but its constantly updated with a current AIRAC. For this American CLS flight, we start with Route Finder. When we have created our flight plan, we can use these coordinates in FSNavigator (not useable with FS X), which we then load into the MCDU of the 747 Classic. To be clear; you can use this FSNavigator file with FSX as well!

http://rfinder.asalink.net/free/

KBOS DCT SOSYO V431 GDM V2 ALB J16 MCW J148 ONL J94 OCS J154 TCH J56 MVA STAR KSFO

Detailed description of the operation of Route Finder is found on their website. Remember that this RouteFinder route could differ from the one created by Microsofts own Flight Planner. This could result in different waypoints than used in this tutorial.

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FSNavigator flight plan (FS9 only) S9

KBOS LOGAN2
SID

SOSYO
Waypoint

GDM
V2

ALB
J16

MCW
J148

ONL
J94
Airway

OCS
J154

TCH

MVA
J56

LOCKE1 KSFO
STAR

V431
Airway

Airway

Airway

Airway

Airway

Airway

115.30 110.60
(Gardner) (Albany)

113.90
(ONeill)

115.10 116.00 116.80


(Wasatch) (Mina)

114.90
(Mason)

(Rock Springs)

SID LOGAN2

STAR LOCKE1

FSNavigator flight plan (all values in this tutorial are based on Kilograms) (Included for training purposes the KBOS-KSFO.PLN file)

End of Climb equals TOC (Top of Climb) Beginning of Descent equals TOD (Top of Descent) LOGAN2 - Standard Instrument Departure (SID) OAL.LOCKE1 - Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) Depending on the flight situation, environmental condition and overall complexity, we could use a different SID and/or STAR. B747 -200/300/200F Copyright 2008 Angelique van Campen Version 1.30 / March 3, 2009 All rights reserved

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight Tutorial

Initial Preparations
Whatever MSFS youre using - together with the CLS 747 Classic tutorial installer - prepared flight tutorial configuration files are installed in the Flight Simulator X Files directory or if you use FS2004, the Flight Simulator Files. What do you get from us? Find your cold and dark 747-200 GE aircraft configuration, parked at gate E8 at Boston Logan International Airport (KBOS). For this tutorial, the aircraft livery used is the CLS house livery with GE and INS. This livery is installed with the basic installer and thus always available. Youre of course free to change it into your own favorite airline livery. If this procedure fails, go to a sub chapter - starting at page 12 - where there is a systematic procedure, which will guide you how to load the INS equipped 747-200 including the correct airport location. It will also guide you as to how to bring the aircraft in a Cold and Dark situation. Selecting pre-configured tutorial file At Flight Simulator X (or FS2004) menu - Select from the FS menu Flights, followed from the pull down menu Load

Select Aircraft FSX menu (FS2004 Flights Select a Flight)

- Select from the LOAD FLIGHT My Saved Flights list the CLS 747-200 KBOS-KSFO Gate E8 flight configuration, followed by the Fly Now button.

LOAD FLIGHT FSX window (FS2004 - Select a Flight)

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Offered situation

- After loading this preconfigured file you should end up with the following situation: - 747-200 GE INS configuration in CLS livery - Parked at E8 KBOS - Cold and dark aircraft configuration - Weather condition - building storms

If youve followed this step-by-step procedure correctly, the Captains main panel should look like the above picture and that your external livery is the CLS one. The simulated available sound is originating from the ground power unit. On behalf of CLS, I wish you a pleasant and nice flight with this tutorial.
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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Part I - Selecting manually the INS Boeing 747-200 In Flight Simulator 2004 / FSX menu Select from the FS menu Aircraft From the pull down menu Select Aircraft Flight Tutorial

Select Aircraft FS2004 menu (FSX similar)

- Select from the Aircraft Manufacturer menu Commercial Level Simulations - Select from the Publisher menu Commercial Level Simulations - Tick Show all variations - Choose the 747-200 CLS House Livery GE (INS) - Click the OK button to confirm.

- Select from the Aircraft Manufacturer menu Commercial Level Simulations - Select from the Aircraft model menu 747-200 - Select from the Variation menu CLS House Livery GE (INS) - Click the OK button to confirm your choice.

Aircraft Selection FSX menu

Aircraft Selection FS2004 menu

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Part II - Selecting manually your airport location In Flight Simulator 2004 / FSX menu - Select from the FS menu World - Followed by Go to Airport Flight Tutorial

Airport location FS2004 menu (FSX similar)

- Type it the Airport ID window: KBOS - Select out of the Choose runway/Starting position GATE E8 - GATE HEAVY

- Type it the Airport ID window: KBOS - Select from the Runway/Starting position Gate E8 - GATE HEAVY

GO TO AIRPORT FSX menu

GO TO AIRPORT FS2004 menu

- Confirm the changes with the OK button

- Confirm the changes with the OK button - Save in either MSFS version the current Inertial Navigation System Boeing 747-200 configuration as well as the airport location.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Part III - Configure your Cold & Dark situation This is a good moment to bring our Jumbo Jet to a cold and dark situation, so lets go for it! On the overhead panel Set the following switches, selector, knobs and others, in accordance with the figure below: - UPR/LWR YAW DAMPER switches OFF - ANTI-SKID switch OFF - AUTO-BRAKE selector OFF - INS MSU 1 / 2 / 3 selectors OFF - STORM light switch OFF - MAIN PANEL BACKGROUND switch OFF - OUTBD/INBD LANDING LIGHT switches OFF - RUNWAY TURNOFF switches OFF - NAV light switch OFF - BEACON light switch OFF - WING light switch OFF - STROBE light switch OFF - LOGO light switch OFF - DOME light switch OFF - SEAT BELTS switch OFF - NO SMOKING switch OFF - EMERGENCY light switch OFF - PROBE HEATERS switches OFF - NACELLE ANTI-ICE switches OFF Flight Tutorial

- these switches are only dummies and should stay in this position. If not, do so!
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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the Flight Engineer panel Flight Tutorial Set the following switches, selector, knobs and others, in accordance with the figure below: - BATTERY switch OFF - ALTERNATOR ENG 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 switches OFF - ANTI ICE ENG 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 switches OFF - HYD AIR PUMP switches OFF - HYD ENG PUMP switches OFF - AVIONICS MASTER switch OFF - INST LIGHTS OFF - CABIN LIGHTS OFF - ENG FUEL CONTROL switches UP - FUEL TANK PUMP switches OFF Verify that the following switches are in the same position as on the screenshot. If not, select them to reflect the picture. - NORMAL BRAKE SOURCE guard closed - ELEC PUMP HYD SYS 4 guard closed - Engine START switches OFF

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the Radio Control panel Flight Tutorial Verify that the following switches, indicator windows and others are in accordance with the figure below: - INS CDU lights and indications are OFF. - INS MODE selector AUTO. If not, place it in this position. - The indicator windows of the NAV1/COM1 NAV2/COM2 - ADF and TRANSPONDER units are blank. - TCAS switch OFF

On the pedestal

Set the following switches, levers, handles and others in accordance with the figure below: - Throttles in IDLE - FUEL switches in the CUTOFF position - Engine START switches OFF - Spoiler handle in RET position - FLAPS handle 0 position - PARKING BRAKE switch SET (PULL) The PARK BRAKE light should illuminate

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If youve followed the Cold and Dark procedure correctly, the Captains and Co-pilots main panel should look like the one shown below. We wish you a pleasant and nice flight.

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Fuel and Payload For this flight, MSFS adjustments for fueland payload are made. Although the screenshots represent FSX, the settings and values are also applicable for FS2004, with minor changes. Ok. For this flight we need approximately 45000 kg (kilogram) of fuel, but with some extra for the APU during the flight, holding(s), ATC and others we increase this value to around 55000 kg (121.000 lbs). - Select Aircraft from the menu - Select Fuel and Payload - Tick Display fuel quantity as weight
Typical FSX Fuel and Payload (FS2004 menu similar)

- Select Change Fuel - Enter 14800.0 kg (32560.0 lbs) into the Left and Right Aux(iliary) fuel tanks. Once you leave the field, the value could slightly change. - Enter 12500.0 kg (27500.0 lbs) for the Left and Right fuel tanks. Once you leave the field, the value could slightly change. - Click the OK button

Typical FSX Fuel Settings (FS2004 menu similar)

- Select Change Payload - Enter the values as shown on the screenshot - Click the OK button - Click the OK button to close the FUEL and PAYLOAD window

Typical FSX Payload Settings (FS2004 menu similar)

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Cockpit Preparations
Power Up Aircraft Performance data For the necessary calculations and settings to make, weve got collected the following data for you. - Aircraft data; - ZFW 173.186 Kgs (Zero Fuel Weight) - GW 257.031 Kgs (Gross Weight) - TAKEOFF N1 111.7% - 112.5% - STAB TRIM setting 4ANU (Aircraft Nose Up) - TAKEOFF speeds (knots) V1 114 VR 144 V2 159 Vclimb 169 - ATC Squawk code 3446 - Environmental data: - OAT 20C (68 F) - Barometric Pressure 1013 hPa (29.92) - Weather conditions calm - Runway Dry On the FE UPPER panel To get the aircraft up and running, we need to connect the aircraft battery and APU electrical and pneumatic power to the aircraft, so lets go. - Select the BATTERY switch ON This will connect the BAT and APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) to the aircraft. Positive connection of the APU is visible via the white indicator light. - Select the MASTER AVIONICS switch ON This will illuminate the green bulb.

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On the pedestal

- Verify that the PARKING BRAKE is SET

On the overhead Panel

Set UPR/LWR YAW DAMPER switches ON Select the ANTI-SKID switch ON EMER LT switch in the ARM position NO SMOKING and SEAT BELTS buttons ON Set PROBE HEAT switches ON Select the NAV selector ON Select the LOGO switch ON

FE ELEC Panel Probe switches

On the captains instrument panel

- Set baro setting to 1013hPa or 29.92inHg. Follow the +/- procedure as identified below.

Since the Captains and First Officers indicators are interconnected with each other, theres no need to make any changes here.

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On the Captains instrument panel (cont)

- At the IAS (Indicated Air Speed) indicator, set the following speed (bugs): - V1 114 knots - VR 144 knots - V2 159 knots - Initial Vclimb 169 (V2+10) Small differences could exist between these values and your MSFS aircraft configuration!

V1

VR

V2

Vclimb

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel

Make the following adjustments: - Set GDM (Gardner) VOR to NAV1 110.60 - Set the FD switch (Flight Director) ON - Set a speed in the ATS window of 169 - Dial a HDG of 273 - Set the mode selector to HDG Click the HDG text as written on the panel. - Set an initial VS of 2200 Use the upper part of the V/S thumbwheel (+) - Set an initial altitude of 9000 feet The entered heading of 273 guides you to waypoint GARVE. At this point connect the INS.

On the radio panel

- Set a transponder code of 3446, but leave the TCAS switch in the OFF position. Follow the +/- procedure as identified below.

+ -

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual INS Initialization On the overhead MSU1, 2 and 3 - Place the selector(s) in the STBY position. This powers the INS and we are now ready to begin with the INS preflight checks. Flight tutorial

Typical example of a MSU with STBY selected

On the INS CDU1, 2 and 3

- Turn the Mode Selector on the respective CDU in the DSRTK/STS position. - The first digit of RH display should show 0, the last but one a 9 and the last one a 5 - Push the HOLD knob. The LH display should show 11 21 which is the ID program.

11 21

Typical INS CDU with DSRTK/STS and HOLD selected

- Press the HOLD button for a second time. - Bulb and display testing; - Click and hold the TEST switch. All lights on the CDU and MSU should illuminate and all display characters should becomes 8s. The result can be seen below

Typical MSU and CDU in TEST mode

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual FAST INS Alignment Aligning the IRU1, 2 and 3 is possible following the normal procedure, which takes around 20 minutes or the fast alignment procedure. This takes no more then 20 seconds so lets go. On the INS Loader (radio panel) - Verify yourself that the MODE selector is in the AUTO position. Flight tutorial

On MSU 1 (overhead) panel Note: You must perform these steps also for the MSU / INS CDU 2 and 3!

- Move the Mode Selector directly from OFF to NAV and release the knob.

This illuminates the white ALIGN light On CDU 1 - Turn the Mode Selector to the POS position - Enter the ramp position coordinates. You can retrieve the actual aircraft position via Shft + Z or for your convenience, find the FS9 (FSX) coordinators on your left. - Click button 2 on the keypad. The INSERT light illuminates and the W71* 1.33(FS9 PPOS) LH display shows all 0s with the N of North. W71* 1.21(FSX PPOS) - Press the following keys on the keypad 4 2 2 2 3, followed by one click on the INSERT key (you dont see anything happen).

N42* 22.31 N42* 22.29

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- Click button 4 on the keypad. The RH display shows again 0s with at the end the W of West. - Press the following keys on the keypad 7 1 0 1 3 in this sequence, followed by one click on the INSERT key. The INSERT light should extinguish. - Your CDU longitude/latitude should look like:

- Turn the Mode Selector back to the DSRTK/STS position. The RH display should show:

The LH display can show on your INS CDU any value! On MSU 1 (overhead) panel - Set the selector to the ALIGN position. This starts the fast alignment procedure.

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On CDU 1

- Monitor the RH display only. The LH could show a different value than shown below. - The 1 API decreases to value 8.

- After 20-30 seconds theres again some change. API decreased to 7, followed by 6.

- API has reached 5. It will further countdown to 0, but 5 is enough for a good final alignment.

On MSU 1 (overhead) panel

- Set the selector to NAV, which concludes the FAST INS alignment procedure and the extinguishes of the white ALIGN light.

On CDU 1

- The moment the MSU 1 selector is in the NAV position, the CDU 1 RH display will change.

The LH display shows the DSRTK (desired track) while in the RH display the 0 changed into a 1 and the last digit has become a 4. Keep in mind that the LH display can show on your INS CDU a different value!

API Aligment Performance Index Version 1.30 / March 3, 2009 All rights reserved

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight Plan Loading You want to follow the old-fashioned way of entering waypoints via latitude/longitude data? A manual loading procedure will be found following this section. Loading process - Select from the FSX (FS2004) menu - Flights - Select from this menu - Flight Planner Flight tutorial

- Select Load and look for CLS KBOS-KSFO.PLN - When found, click the OPEN button (FSX) or the OK button if youre using FS2004

- Click the OK button to close the Flight Planner - Click the Yes button in the next window.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the INS Loader (radio panel) Flight tutorial - During the flight plan loading process, all the waypoints are loaded into the memory of the INS. The green SEL switch/button is flashing for every waypoint that is currently loaded. Furthermore, the two displays no longer show AUTO, but 01 09 and 19.

On the radio panel

When the last waypoint is loaded - only the first 9 waypoints are visible on either CDU the INS flight plan loader green SEL light extinguishes and AUTO returns in both displays. With the INS CDU Mode Selector in the WAY PT position, both latitude and longitude waypoints are shown. In the following example CDU 1 shows the current lat/long position (0) while CDU 2 and 3 waypoints 1 and 2. Note: waypoint 1 is the beginning of runway 27.

The flashing FROM-TO indicator as well as the yellow BAT light on each CDU will stop flashing/extinguish the moment an engine is started.

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On the INS CDU

Lets scroll thru the auto inserted waypoints and crosscheck with the list on the next page. Use the indicated thumbwheel and place it in position 0 as shown.

Remember one important thing; the last two digits should be rounded up or downwards thus .29 will be .3 while .21 becomes .2. Shown 071.01.2 reflects FS9 latitude position! Use the indicated thumbwheel and place it in position 1 as shown.

Use the indicated thumbwheel and place it in position 2 as shown.

Use the indicated thumbwheel and place it in position 3 as shown.

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Use the indicated thumbwheel and place it in position 4 as shown.

Use the indicated thumbwheel and place it in position 5 as shown.

You continue checking the others while Ill show you below the last available and visible waypoint in the INS CDU Use the indicated thumbwheel and place it in position 9 as shown.

Ready to fly; go to page 33.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Manually entering waypoints Collecting latitude/longitude data Before were able to manually enter the first nine waypoints, we need to collect the enroute waypoints as well as their latitude and longitude positions. HDG SPD DIS LATITUDE W07101.33 W07101.21 W07102.4 W07106.04 W07203.49 W07322.35 W07348.19 W07838.78 W08108.92 W08243.08 W08817.06 W09319.79 W09841.22 W10328.92 W10900.92 W11158.91 W11801.97 W11746.23 W11845.90 W12024.25 W12057.47 W12117.10 W12130.58 W12205.82 W12222.49 ----237 305 299 278 284 282 271 268 255 252 254 238 230 145 247 246 245 246 289 289 ------0.0 0.0 2.3 4.1 44.9 59.7 19.1 213.3 110.0 313.5 221.0 238.8 216.0 248.4 141.1 311.1 35.9 47.5 78.6 26.6 15.7 75.5 23.7 27.4 FS9 FSX Flight tutorial

# WAYPOINTS

POSITION LONGITUDE N4222.29 N4222.29 N4221.2 N4218.05 N4232.76 N4246.79 N4244.84 N4255.74 N4302.28 N4315.35 N4307.01 N4305.68 N4228.23 N4153.65 N4135.41 N4051.02 N3833.92 N3800.20 N3753.74 N3741.95 N3737.64 N3735.42 N3742.81 N3801.92 N3737.14

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

KBOS Gate E8 KBOS Gate E8 Fix01 WYLYY GDM 110.60 GRAVE ALB 115.30 EOC BUF 116.40 YXU 117.20 ECK BAE 116.40 MCW 114.90 ONL 113.90 BFF 112.60 OCS 116.00 TCH 116.80 MVA 115.10 OAL 117.70 INYOE BOD TROSE MOD 114.60 GROAN LOCKE UPEND KSFO

---

Note: The prepared INS flight plan, which is loaded via the INS Flight Plan loader, uses different waypoints then the above listing.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the INS Loader (radio panel) Flight tutorial Verify that the Mode switch is in the MANUAL position. You can close the guard if you want.

Entering the latitude/longitude data

With the collected data its now time to enter the first nine waypoints. Dont forget that waypoint 0 (aircraft position at gate E8) is also an active used waypoint. In other words, eight additional waypoint latitude/longitude data can inserted into the INS CDU memory. Thats it nothing more!

On CDU 1

- Enter waypoint 1: N4221.6 W07159.3 - Press the REMOTE key, - Turn the Data Selector to WAYPT, - Select Waypoint/DME switch to pos. 1

INS CDU Entering Latitude Coordinates

- Press the following keypad keys: 2 4 2 2 1 6 (first digit (2) equals N of North) - Press the illuminated INSERT button. The light will extinguish and the data is entered.

INS CDU Entered Latitude Coordinates

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On CDU 1 (cont) Flight tutorial - Press the following keypad keys: 4 0 7 1 5 9 3 (first digit (4) equals W of West) - Press the illuminated INSERT button. The light will extinguish and the data is entered,

INS CDU Entered Latitude and Longitude Coordinates

When youve pressed the INSERT key for the second time, which means both latitude and longitude data is entered, the remaining INS CDUs will show the same waypoint 1 data. - Enter waypoint 2: N4221.2 W07102.4 - Select Waypoint/DME switch to pos. 2 - Press the following keypad keys: 2 4 2 2 1 2 - Press the illuminated INSERT button. - Press the following keypad keys: 4 0 7 1 0 2 4 - Press the illuminated INSERT button.

INS CDU Entered Latitude and Longitude Coordinates

Remaining waypoints

Continue the same way for the other 7 waypoints, so once again . in total you can enter nine waypoints. Since we have more than nine for this flight from KBOS to KSFO, we need to add the additional ones during the flight when previous waypoints are deleted upon passing.

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Before Engine Start


On the pedestal - Please double check that the PARKING BRAKE is SET before starting the engines.

On the overhead panel

- Set the BEACON light switch ON

On the FE FUEL panel

- Select MAIN NO 1 (2, 3 and 4) FUEL PUMP switches ON except the CTR tank. Positive output pressure is visible on the pressure indicators and amber legends. Note: Fuel quantity as indicated only in pounds.

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Engine Start
Engine 4 Start sequence (FE panel) We first start from the FE panel because it offers you all the necessary indications and to get familiar with starting these hi-bypass General Electric engines. Which procedure to follow Engine starting can done as follows: - Use of the MSFS command Cltrl+E - From the main instrument panel and pedestal - From the FE panel We show you the procedure to start an engine via the FE panel, since it shows all the primary- and secondary engine parameters. On the FE ENGINE and FUEL panel - Select ENG START switch engine number 4 Slowly the air starter will drive the N2 spool, which is visible on the respective indicator. - At 20-22% N2, close the FUEL VALVE 4. This will start the ignition and fuel supply. - The result is EGT indication, increase of the N1 spool and further increase of the N2 indicator. The PRESS RATIO indicator (EPR) will stabilize at around 1.45. At the secondary engine indicators, oil pressure is rising and when out of the red area, the OIL PRESS light extinguishes. It automatically becomes a FILTER BYPASS lite. Pressure increases to 100 psi. The OIL TEMP stabilizes at around 100, within the green area.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual At the FE ELEC panel - Set ALTERNATOR ENG 4 ON This extinguishes the ALT light Flight tutorial

At the FE HYD panel

- Set or check for HYD SYS 4 the: - the HYD PRESS light extinguishes and is automatically replaced by an reservoir OVERHEAT light, which is currently extinguished. - AIR PUMP switch ON. - ENG PUMP switch to NORMAL Both PRESS lights illuminate. Furthermore theres always pressure indication available. - HYD PRESS indication is already alive during engine start. Output pressure should be within the green area. - Dual HYD TEMP indicator SYS 3-4 Indicator needle should stabilize at 100C. Find for your convenience on the next page the engine 3-start procedure/sequence, but now from the pilots workspace.

Starting other engines

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Engine Start
Engine 3 Start sequence (pilots workspace) At the pedestal - Select ENG START switch engine number 3 The air starter will drive the N2 spool, which is visible on the respective round indicator as well as on the vertical tape.

- Place at 20-22% N2, the FUEL CUTOFF valve number 3 in the IDLE position. This will start the ignition and fuel supply. - The result is EGT indication, increase of the N1 spool and further increase of the N2 indicator. The PRESS RATIO indicator (EPR) will stabilize at around 1.45.

OIL TEMP OIL PRESS HYD PRESS

FUEL PRESS

- Since there are no secondary engine indicators available for the pilots, an annunciator panel is available right under the vertical tapes. During this engine start and the others, specific engine lights must be monitored. Those are: - OIL PRESS - HYD PRESS - FUEL PRESS Those legends should be extinguished after the engine is stabilized.
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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual At the FE ELEC panel Flight tutorial - Set ALTERNATOR ENG 3 ON This extinguishes the ALT light and it extinguishes the GEN VOLTS light on the main instrument panel.

At the FE HYD panel

- Set or check for HYD SYS 3 the: - the HYD PRESS light extinguishes and is automatically replaced by an reservoir OVERHEAT light, which is currently extinguished. - AIR PUMP switch ON. - ENG PUMP switch to NORMAL Both PRESS lights illuminate. Furthermore theres always pressure indication available. - HYD PRESS indication is already alive during engine start. Output pressure should be within the green area. - Dual HYD TEMP indicator SYS 3-4 Indicator needle should stabilize at 100C. Ok, its now up to you to start with the previous descriptions to start the remaining two engines.

Starting other engines

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After Engine Start


Finalizing settings and adjustments On the pedestal - Set STAB TRIM to 4 ANU (Aircraft Nose Up). Click the + area to adjust the stabilizer until the pointer equals value 4.

- ARM the speed brakes Either click the ARM light unit or move the speed brake handle until the green ARM light illuminates.

Captains side

First Officers side

SPEED BRAKE ARMED is also visible on both Captains- and First-Officers instrument panels. - Select FLAP 10 units. Monitor actual FLAP position on the flap indicator on the main panel.

On the main instrument panel

- Set the EPR bug to 1.9 EPR

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Taxi Profile
After receiving ATC clearance (if applicable) we request the ground crew to start with the pushback. - -PARKING BRAKES Press PERIOD (.) to release- Start the pushback via keyboard combination Shift + P. For further details for left/right rotation at the end of the pushback, see MSFS. - For more realism, connect the CLS pushback truck via the DOOR PANEL simicon.

On the overhead panel

- After our pushback and cleared for taxi, we need to perform the following actions: - Select the RUNWAY TURNOFF switches ON - Select the WING switch to ON

Taxi towards runway 27

- Taxi from your gate E8 ( ) via taxiways B -C D to holding point runway 27

Airport Diagram General Edward Lawrence Logan Intl (BOS)

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TO Profile
On the overhead panel - Select the OUTB and INBD LAND LIGHTS ON - Select the STROBE lts ON - Set AUTO-BRAKE selector to RTO

On the pedestal

- Set the TCAS switch on the transponder ON

Commence Take Off

- Align the aircraft with runway centerline - Press the brake pedals - if you have them - to keep the aircraft in the current position. - Increase the throttles to approximately 60% N1, pause briefly to verify that the engines have run-up properly. - Watch the EPR, N1, EGT and N2 gauges on the center instrument panel. - Increase the 1.9 EPR - While TO in progress, watch your V SPEEDS

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual At aircraft rotation When theres a positive climb Flight tutorial - At VR, gentle pull and bring the aircraft into approximately 10 PITCH UP position. - While holding the pitch raise the landing gear after V2 as follows; - Click the landing gear handle UP or use the keyboard command G. - Verify all gear lights extinguish.

- Maintain a speed equal to V2+10 Thats our earlier set 169 knots at the Auto Pilot Panel and the last bug in the IAS indicator. - Maintain a V/S of 1800 fpm - Try flying manually a HDG of 273, as set (for later) on the Auto Pilot control panel. Dont follow the VOR1 needle/pointer (47.1 Nm), since this points to the GDM VOR station for which were not yet cleared.

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Climb Profile
At Thrust Reduction Altitude (1500) - Retract FLAPS in steps to 0 Note the maximum speeds limits: FLAP position Maximum Speeds (knots) 1 255 5 240 10 220 20 210 25 190 30 175 Select Click Engage Set Select A/T lever ON IAS panel text AP channels A / B CMD Your course (here 297) to center CDI ALT HOLD pushbutton

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel

On the Flight Annunciator panel

- On the Automatic Flight Annunciator panel, the active modes are visible and it should look the same as within your Jumbo Jet.

If you do not see HDG HLD at the annunciator, click once on the HDG text on the AP panel! On the overhead panel - Set AUTOBRAKE selector to the OFF position - Set the RUNWAY TURNOFF switches to OFF - Select the WING light switch to OFF

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the pedestal Flight tutorial - Disarm the speed brakes. Either you click the ARM legend/pushbutton or you move the handle to the DOWN position. Confirm this on the main panel annunciator.

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel

Since we are cleared to continue to climb to FL200 (20.000) and allowed to follow our preprogrammed INS flight plan: - Set altitude of 20.000 feet in ALT SEL window - Select INS NAV mode (click INS text on panel) - Dial a speed of 250 - Reduce V/S to 1900 fpm (use - sign)

On the Flight Annunciator panel

- The active HDG HLD mode disappears and should be replaced by INS LOCK.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Slaved to the INS Flight tutorial Although you cant see it on the FSX Flight Annunciator, the INS is now connected to the aircraft Auto Flight system. See below for the following typical items for this: - Flying leg 1 to 2 (INS CDU) - INS CDU mode selector DIS/TIME, which tells us 118NM to go, which will take 27.6 minutes. - HSI shows also 118 NM to go and HDG bug and VOR pointer/CDI now slaved to the INS. - RMI VOR needle points to our initially entered GDM VOR station (110.60), which is still 40.3 DME NM to go. On other words, this is not connected to the INS and can still be used for own navigation such as cross checking.

Passing FL100 (10000) On the Overhead panel

- Select the OUTBD and INBD LANDING light switches to OFF

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel

- Increase the speed to 300

At Transition altitude (18000) On the main instrument panel

- Set BARO PRESSURE on altimeter to Standard Atmosphere (STD). Oops, we departed from KBOS under standard atmosphere conditions, so no need to adjust!
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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Approaching FL200 On the main instrument panel Flight tutorial

- An ALTITUDE ALERT message indicates that were approaching our selected altitude. - By the way, GDM VOR (110.60) is just 6.2NM away from us and a little later only 4.1NM to go. You can see this on the DME 1 indicator, while the VOR 1 pointer on the RMI points to this station.

Level off at FL200 On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel

- Aircraft is leveling off at selected altitude. V/S indication returns to 0 as well as the V/S thumbwheel. The V/S indicator blue indicator lines return to 0 fpm.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Re-cleared for FL360 On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel Flight tutorial

- Enter a value in the ALT SEL window of 36000 - Enter a V/S of 1800 fpm

On the radio panel

- Set NAV 1 to 115.30 (ALB Albany VOR) and NAV2 to 114.00 (ECK Peck VOR)

On the main instrument panel

You can enter these VOR frequencies on the designated VOR control panels. These are located on the outboard sides of the Automatic Flight Mode Control Panel, so lets go for that. - Set the switch to VOR 1 and enter 115.30. - Set the switch to VOR 2 and enter 114.00.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the main instrument panel Flight tutorial Ok, while the aircraft is climbing to FL360, we will have a look to basic VOR station and positioning. Our initial situation: - Lateral navigation via INS (see HSI and CDU). - RMI and DME indicators used for own bearing. - VOR1 ALB (115.30) single needle (59.0 NM) VOR 2 ECK (114.00) double needle (22.0 NM)

ALERT light illuminates when the time to the waypoint go is less or equal to 2 min.

ALB VOR (Albany)

II

I Actual aircraft track II Flight plan track


ECK VOR (Peck)

Along our first INS track (1 - 2), we can monitor the INS distance to go for ALB VOR and at the same time by separate tuning the VOR ALB and VOR ECK, those bearings and DME.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Approaching FL300 On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel Flight tutorial

- Select speed switch to MACH - Set a Mach value of 0.85 Mach. Confirm that the IAS HLD message on the Automatic Flight Annunciator panel changes into MACH HLD

Level off at FL360 On the main instrument panel

- Aircraft levels off at our cruise altitude, which means that; - ALTITUDE ALERT message has illuminated. - V/S thumbwheel/indicator have returned to 0 - V/S needle and blue stripes returns to 0 - Since weve passed ALB VOR, INS track 2 3 becomes active. The HSI shows 94.9 NM while a CDU shows us 94 NM.

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Cruise Profile
Relax and enjoy Although our cruise lasts for only a few hours, its still a relaxing time; the PF (Pilot Flying) is looking around and sometimes looking on his/her instruments and of course, playing around with the INS CDU. The NPF (Not Pilot Flying) is doing the ATC if needed and hundreds of other things are possible in this Jumbo Jet. Unfortunately, Ive added a separate paragraph for more detailed flight handling of the INS CDUs and the belonging indications. So lets say, either you enjoy the American landscape or you follow me during the INS lessons.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual CDU explanation At CR altitude - Its time to do some practice with our INS CDU. Although this explains the INS CDU in detail, there is not that much difference between the INS and the FMS CDU. One noticeable item is the absence of a visible flight plan or showing a listing of waypoints to come. Also, waypoints names or abbreviations are used in combination with the FMS CDU. The following pages will help you with a step-by-step procedure how to use and interpret all the different data selector positions. Please remember one thing; your INS CDU values could slightly differ with the once shown here. This is because your actual aircraft position is never the same than the screenshots taken for this tutorial. Therefore, those INS CDU screenshots are no more then a guideline for you to understand what each switch position means. On the INS CDU - Lets start with the DATA selector options. Place the selector in the DIS/TME position, which tells us that: - 32NM to go to the next waypoint - 3.8 minutes to go to the next waypoint The moment you do it, would give you of course different distance and time values. Flight tutorial

32

3.8

- In the FROM-TO window we can see that we are flying the leg from WPY PT 6 to 7.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the INS CDU (cont) Flight tutorial - Set the DATA selector to POS (position): - Real time (current) longitude and latitude position. You can verify this with the FS9/FSX shift+Z command.

42 44,8

07348,0 W

23

Shown latitude/longitude indications are just to give you an idea whats possible

- Place the DATA selector to XTK/TKE position. - XTK refers to Cross Track Distance - TKE means track angle error desired track

0.0a

1l

INS CDU Data Selector in XTK/TKE position

actual track

- LEFT display shows 0.0R since theres no distance difference. In other words, according to the INS, we fly on-track. A 0.1NM indication means 0.1 NM off track. - RIGHT display shows 1L since we fly 1 left of the desired track.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the INS CDU (cont) Flight tutorial - Place the DATA selector to HDG/DA position. - HDG refers to the current aircraft heading - DA means drift angle

INS CDU Data Selector in HDG/DA position

- Since there is currently no drift angle (right hand), we can focus on the aircraft heading of 312.4. A rounded HDG value can also be found on the HSI. - Place the DATA selector to TK/GS position. - TK refers to the current aircraft track - GS means Ground Speed

INS CDU Data Selector in TK/GS position

- The values for each selector position are more or less self explaining. The current aircraft track over the ground equals 312.5, while the ground speed, as calculated by the INS, is 410 knots .

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the INS CDU (cont) Flight tutorial - Place the DATA selector to WIND position. - WIND refers to wind velocity (LH) and wind direction (RH) if received.

INS CDU Data Selector in WIND position

- With the selector in this position, we see that the left hand window shows the wind direction (91) while the right hand side tells us the wind velocity (18 knots). - Last but not least, place the DATA selector into the DSRTK/STS position: - DSRTK refers desired track (what you want), - STS, that one we have seen before, which means the INS STATUS.

INS CDU Data Selector in DSRTK/STS position

- 313 is more or less self-explaining. It shows the track we would like to fly, it is directly taken from the flight plan. - The first LH digit 1 means that the NAV mode is active else its a 0. The others are the MI, Action & Malfunction codes and the API. Other values could be applicable.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Automatic track leg change On the INS CDU - This screenshot shows us that were flying leg 2-3 with 24NM to go and expected overflying the waypoint in 3.2 minutes. Flight tutorial

23

- When we have no more then 2 minutes to go to waypoint 3, the amber ALERT light illuminates till the leg change, and when we overfly the waypoint itself the light will go out.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the INS CDU (cont) Flight tutorial - The moment we fly over waypoint 3, the INS changes from leg 2-3 to 3-4.

22 34

2.7

The leg distance to waypoint 4 is 22NM, and will take 2.7 minutes.

Waypoint 4

Waypoint 3

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Manual Track leg change On the INS CDU It is possible to command a track leg change from the present position (waypoint 0) to any waypoint or from any waypoint to any other waypoint. - Assume youre flying leg 4 to 5. Flight tutorial

17 45

2.1

- ATC approval allows us to go directly to waypoint 7 from the auto loaded flight plan, so lets go for it. - Press the WY PT CHG pushbutton. The white light illuminates as well as the INSERT light. It indicates that the waypoint change function is active. - Select on the CDU keypad the keys that are required to fly leg 4 - 7. This is from current waypoint 4 to waypoint 7, so type 4 7 (see the FROM-TO indicator).

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight tutorial

On the INS CDU (cont)

- To activate your change, press the illuminated INSERT pushbutton.

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7.7

- When the INSERT key is pressed the light extinguishes and the FROM-TO window shows that we will now follow track leg 4 7 - With the data selector in the DIS/TIME position, it shows us the distance and flight time from our current position to waypoint 7.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Entering new waypoints (without INS Flight Plan loader) On the radio panel While we are flying from waypoint 6 to 7 (HANKK to WELTI) and the memory of the INS only offers 9 waypoints, it is time to enter some new waypoints. The last available waypoint in the INS CDU database is VOR YXU. Flight tutorial

YXU

117.20

N4302.3

W08108.9

The first 4 waypoints from our initial start KBOS27, ALB, FABEN and AUDIL are no longer necessary, so we can fill the INS CDU with some new waypoints. Those are MONEE, GRUBB, BAE and SIBER, so lets do that! - Enter MONEE - N4314.4 W08427.9 - Press the REMOTE key, - Turn the Data Selector to WAY PT, - Select Waypoint/DME switch to pos. 1

- Before we enter the new waypoint data, you can see that these coordinates belong to waypoint KBOS-27 - Press the following keypad keys: 2 4 3 1 4 4 (button 2 equals N of North) - Press the illuminated INSERT button.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual On the radio panel (cont) Flight tutorial - Enter MONEE - N4314.4 W08427.9 - Press the following keypad keys: 4 8 4 2 7 9 (button 4 equals W of West) - Press the illuminated INSERT button.

- We have now finished replacing the old waypoint 1 (KBOS-27) with the new MONEE. - Next, enter GRUBB - N4313.5 W08520.4 - Select Waypoint/DME switch to pos. 2 - Press the following keypad keys: 2 4 3 1 3 5 (button 2 equals N of North) - Press the illuminated INSERT button.

INS CDU Entering new longitude/latitude position

- Enter GRUBB - N4313.5 W08520.4 - Press the following keypad keys: 4 8 5 2 0 4 (button 4 equals W of West) - Press the illuminated INSERT button.

INS CDU Entered longitude/latitude position

Continue entering the waypoints BAE and SIBER using those two examples. Later, when youre further on your flight plan, you can enter again new waypoints according to the list on page 30.
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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight tutorial

100NM or earlier before VOR MVA

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Set 115.10 for VOR 1 MVA (Mina) and 117.70 for VOR 2 OAL (Coaldale) This will give us, via the RMI/DME indicators, an idea of how many NM to go until VOR MVA and OAL is our backup. Dont forget that the INS is still providing lateral navigation. Why, we will explain on the next page! - Our flight slowly reaches its end. First we will do some briefing regarding the LOCKE ONE ARRIVAL followed by the actual descent, approach, final approach and the landing. - For now, just enjoy the view of the American landscape and clouds below you. Unfortunately, its not always that clear but anyway, relax..

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight tutorial

Descent, approach and landing preparations


Its a good time to review our descent, approach and landing at KSFO. Proper descent planning is necessary to ensure proper speed and altitude at the arrival point. Descent rates are as follows: Intended speed Descent Rate Clean Configuration with speed brakes 0.80/0.85Mach / 300 knots 250 knots VREF 30 + 80knots 2500 FPM 1400 FPM 1100 FPM 5500 FPM 3500 FPM 2400 FPM

Generally, plan the descent so that your aircraft is approximately at FL100 / 250 knots and 30 NM from the airport. Furthermore, a good rule of thumb is that when flying without the FMS CDU and if theres no ATC available, keep in mind that we need 3 miles for every 1000 feet of descent. In our case, its good to start the descent 26NM before reaching VOR MOD (Modesto), but looking to the STAR chart, we should be at VOR OAL (Coaldale 117.70) at FL190. Ok, that means with a cruise level of 360, another descent difference of 17,000 feet so (17.000/1000) x 3 mile equals 16NM before VOR MVA should start to descent to FL190. Furthermore, before TROSE we should be at FL180 and at waypoint GROAN at 8000 feet. Overall approach planning with ATC/airport clearance available: - 250 knots below FL100 at around 30NM out of the airport - 180-230 knots while 23 NM out of the airport - Slow down to VREF at GS 2 capture VSPEEDS can be found at the CDU APPROACH page.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Descent Profile 30NM before VOR MVA On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Make the following settings: - Altitude 19.000 feet - ATS switch IAS - ATS speed 280 knots Nothing will happen yet! However, when changing the VS, then the aircraft will descend so here we go . - Set a vertical speed of - 2200 fpm - If the aircraft speed becomes too high, gradually select the speed brakes. Flight tutorial

Approach VOR OAL and FL190 If everything goes well, you should be at or around FL190 before or at VOR OAL (Coaldale). While the INS is still connected, she takes care for the lateral navigation while youre in control for the vertical navigation. Its time to monitor our distance to VOR MOD (Modesto 114.60). - Set VOR 1 MOD (114.60) Note: You can set the frequency for VOR 1 MOD also on the radio panel.

On the main instrument panel

Although the INS is still doing all the work, it is good habit to monitor auto flight behavior. Thats the reason of our VOR MOD setting. On the RMI/DME indicators, the single needle (VOR 1) points to MOD while Modesto is showing 141.5 NM to go.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual 60NM before VOR MOD Flight tutorial On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: Make the following settings: - Altitude 8000 feet - V/S - 1800 fpm - L NAV Set mode selector to VOR - HDG pos Align HDG bug with HSI needle.

- Verify that the annunciator shows NAV LOCK since it confirms that the VOR mode is active. In this case the AP is connected to follow the signal from VOR (1) MOD.

- If the aircraft speed becomes too high, gradually select the speed brakes. - This means while approaching San Francisco, we have left the INS. We will switchover to the VOR (VOR 1 MOD) and need to align the HDG bug. This is needed when we changeover to the HDG SEL mode later. Passing thru FL180 (18.000) - Set the altimeter to 29.77, which is the current pressure of KSFO. Further more weather information can be retrieved from KSFO ATIS 3 on the frequency of 118.85

- +

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Passing thru FL100 (10.000) Flight tutorial On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: Reduce the air speed to 250 knots.

On the overhead panel: - Select the OUTB and INBD LAND LIGHTS ON - RUNWAY TURNOFF switches ON - WING light switch ON

Leveling off at FL080 (8000)

You should reach FL080 (8000) at or around 25 to 30NM before VOR MOD. This depends on how much you had to use the speed brakes and your own weather conditions. Our virtual ATC cleared you for an ILS 28R approach at KSFO. This means we need to maintain our current heading, which is a HDG of 246. At 53NM out of VOR MOD, we should get the LOC signal. Ok, here is some data we need for our approach: - Passed VOR MOD: FLAPS 1 (223 knots) - 16NM out of VOR MOD: Descend to 6000 - 30NM out of VOR MOD: FLAPS 5 (203 knots) Descend to 4000 - 40NM out of VOR MOD: FLAPS 10 (183 knots) - Localizer alive: FLAPS 20 (163 knots) - Glide Slope alive: FLAPS 25 (153 knots) GEAR DOWN - Final ILS part: FLAPS 30 (148 knots) - ILS 28R KSFO: 111.70 (283) - NDB in localizer path: 4.8NM out of MM (379.0)

Important approach data

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight tutorial

Approach Profile
5NM before VOR MOD On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Enter a new altitude of 6000 - Dial a VS of -1200 fpm - Reduce the IAS to 223 - Dial a HDG of 246 and then place the selector to the HDG position. Verify that the annunciator shows HDG HLD. - Dial at the radio panel: - VOR 1 OAK 116.80 - VOR 2 MOD 114.60

On the pedestal: - Select FLAPS 1 Check the FLAP indicator for correct leading- and trailing edge position. 40NM after VOR MOD On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Enter the final approach altitude 3000 - Dial a VS of -1200 fpm - Reduce the IAS to 203

On the pedestal: - Select FLAPS 5 - ARM the speed brakes. Verify that ARM- and the respective lights on the main instrument panel illuminates.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual 40NM after VOR MOD (cont) Flight tutorial On the overhead panel: - Set the AUTO BRAKE switch in position 2

45NM after VOR MOD

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Reduce the IAS to 183 - Dial VOR 1 ILS 28R 111.7 on the radio panel - Set NAV selector to NAV 1 and dial 283 in CRS window, which is the runway course of 28R Remark: the moment you select a valid ILS frequency, the annunciator shows LOC (localizer), while at 48-49NM after MOD, the GS signal could come alive. You can see this on the annunciator. On the pedestal: - Select FLAPS 10

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Final Approach
50NM after VOR MOD On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Set the mode selector to APR This will arm the ILS localizer/glide slope signal. Verify the correct indications on the annunciator panel. Detection of the localizer signal results in the extinguishing of the HDG HLD message and is replaced by APR HLD. On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Reduce the IAS to 163 On the pedestal: - Select FLAPS 20

LOC (Localizer) signal alive

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight tutorial

GS (Glide Slope) signal ( 9.6NM out)

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Reduce the IAS to 153 Detection of the available Glide Slope signal is visible on the altimeter and also on the ALTITUDE ALERT legend, and the VSI needle. On the pedestal: - Select FLAPS 25

On the main instrument panel: - Select GEAR DOWN

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At 7.3 DME

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Reduce the IAS to 148 On the pedestal: - Select FLAPS 30

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight tutorial

On final 28R 400 RA)

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Disconnect the AP A / B CMD switches - Disconnect ATS switch

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Touchdown and taxi


On the pedestal - Select ENGINE REV THR

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight tutorial

Taxi to gate D12

Taxi to your assigned gate via - if possible taxiway Q - cross-runway 28L - Q - Q1 and A. On the pedestal: - Select FLAPS 0 - Disarm SPEED BRAKE by clicking the ARM legend. Confirm that other lights on the main instrument panel extinguish. - Return the Horizontal Stabilizer to 0

On the radio panel: - Set the TCAS switch OFF On the overhead panel: - Set the AUTOBRAKE selector to OFF - Select the LANDING light switches OFF - Select the RUNWAY TURNOFF lights OFF - Select the STROBE light switch OFF

On the Auto Flight Mode Selector panel: - Disconnect the FD (Flight Director) switch - Disconnect the ALT HLD switch The green light was already extinguished due to the disconnected AP!

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight tutorial

Cockpit Termination
Pilot panels Arriving at Gate D12 On the Pedestal: - Set -PARKING BRAKEThis should illuminate the PARKING BRAKE legend as well as the BRAKE light on the Aircraft System Annunciator panel. - Select the Engine FUEL LEVERS OFF

On the Overhead panel select: - BEACON light switch OFF - INS MSU Mode Selectors OFF - EMER LIGHTS switch OFF - NO SMOKING/FASTEN SEAT BELTS OFF - NAV light switch OFF - WING light switch OFF - LOGO light switch OFF - LEFT/RIGHT PROBE HEATERS OFF If applicable: - STORM light switch OFF - Main Panel Background light selector OFF - DOME light selector OFF - WING ANTI-ICE switch OFF - NACELLE ANTI-ICE switches OFF

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Cockpit Termination Flight Engineer (FE) panels On the FUEL panel - Select the FUEL PUMP switches OFF. This is not applicable for the CTR WING. This will extinguish the applicable PRESS lights. - Select the AIR PUMP switches OFF - Select the ENG PUMP switches OFF This will extinguish the PRESS lights - If applicable; Select the INST LIGHTS selector OFF Select the CABIN LIGHTS selector OFF - Select the AVIONICS MASTER switch OFF This will illuminate the amber light - Select the BATTERY switch OFF Flight tutorial

On the HYD panel

On the miscellaneous panel

On the ELEC panel

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Table of Contents

Chapter Four

Appendix.......................................................................................................... 1 Simple navigation principles ........................................................................ 1


Introduction to navigation ..................................................................................... 1 Pilotage................................................................................................................. 1 Dead Reckoning ................................................................................................... 2 Radio Navigation - ADF........................................................................................ 3 Radio Navigation VOR/DME ............................................................................. 4 Inertial Navigation System.................................................................................... 5 Global Positioning System ................................................................................... 6 Flight Management Systems (FMS)..................................................................... 7

Diagrams...................................................................................................... 8
KBOS (Logan International Airport)...................................................................... 8 WYLYY SIX DEPARTURE (WYLYY6.WYLYY) KBOS ..................................... 9 KSFO (San Francisco International Airport)....................................................... 10 LOCKE ONE ARRIVAL (MOD.LOCKE1) - KSFO.............................................. 11 ILS or LOC RWY 19L - KSFO ............................................................................ 12 ILS RWY 28R (CAT III) KSFO......................................................................... 13 Use of FSNavigator 4.7 (FS2004 only).............................................................. 14

Credits........................................................................................................ 15

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Appendix

Appendix Simple navigation principles


Introduction to navigation Navigation is the art and science of getting from point "A" to point "B" in the least possible time without losing your way. In the early days of aviation, navigation was mostly an art. The simplest instruments of flight had not been invented, so pilots flew "by the seat of their pants". Today, navigation is a science with sophisticated equipment being standard on most aircraft. The type of navigation used by pilots depends on many factors. The navigation method used depends on where the pilot is going, how long the flight will take, when the flight is to take off, the type of aircraft being flown, the on-board navigation equipment, the ratings and currency of the pilot and especially the expected weather.

Pilotage For a non-instrument rated, private pilot planning to fly VFR (Visual Flight Rules) in a small, single engine airplane around the local area on a clear day, the navigation is simple. The navigation process for such a local trip would be pilotage. Bear in mind, however that the flight planning and preflight for such a trip should be as thorough as if the pilot is preparing to fly cross-country. The pilotage method of navigation developed naturally through time as aircraft evolved with the ability to travel increasingly longer distances. Flying at low altitudes, pilots used rivers, railroad tracks and other visual references to guide them from place to place. This method called pilotage is still in use today. Pilotage is mainly used by pilots of small, low speed aircraft who compare symbols on aeronautical charts with surface features on the ground in order to navigate. This method has some obvious disadvantages. Poor visibility caused by inclement weather can prevent a pilot from seeing the needed landmarks and cause the pilot to become disoriented and navigate off course. A lack of landmarks when flying over the more remote areas can also cause a pilot to get lost.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Dead Reckoning Is the process of estimating your position by advancing a known position using course, speed, time and distance to be traveled. In other words figuring out where you will be at a certain time if you hold the speed, time and course you plan to travel. The Chinese discovered that a needle with a magnet on one end always pointed the same direction, north. At least now they could know what direction they were headed in, and if you knew that and you multiplied your speed by your time spent traveling you could deduce your position. This is called 'Dead Reckoning' and was used regularly well into this century. It wasn't terribly accurate since it relied too much on estimates of speed. According to popular definition, dead reckoning is short for "deduced reckoning" or, as the oldtimers used to say "you're dead if you don't reckon right." In truth however, the term originated with maritime navigation and refers to "reckoning or reasoning (one's position) relative to something stationary or dead in the water." Simply stated, DR navigation is a method of precluding en route progress based on the direction of travel and the estimated speed since the last known position. Dead" Reckoning (or "Ded" for Deductive Reckoning) is another basic navigational method used by low speed, small airplane pilots. It is based on mathematical calculations to plot a course using the elements of a course line, airspeed, course, heading and elapsed time. During this process pilots make use of a flight computer. Manual or electronic flight computers are used to calculate time-speed-distance measurements, fuel consumption, density altitude and many other en route data necessary for navigation. The estimated time en route (ETE) can be calculated using the flight distance, the airspeed and direction to be flown. If the route is flown at the airspeed planned, when the planned flight time is up, the destination should be visible from the cockpit. Navigating using known measured and recorded times, distances, directions and speeds makes it possible for positions or "fixes" to be calculated or solved graphically. A "fix" is a position in the sky reached by an aircraft following a specific route. Pilots flying the exact same route regularly can compute the flight time needed to fly from one fix to the next. If the pilot reaches that fix at the calculated time, then the pilot knows the aircraft is on course. The positions or "fixes" are based on the latest known or calculated positions. Direction is measured by a compass or gyro-compass. Time is measured on-board by the best means possible and speed is either calculated or measured using on-board equipment. Navigating now by dead reckoning would be used only as a last resort, or to check whether another means of navigation is functioning properly. There are navigation problems associated with dead reckoning. For example, errors build upon errors. So if wind velocity and direction are unknown or incorrectly known, then the aircraft will slowly be blown off course. This means that the next fix is only as good as the last fix. Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Radio Navigation - ADF ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) is the oldest radio navigation system still in use. ADF uses NonDirectional Beacons (NDBs) that are simply AM-radio transmitters operating in the Low and Middle Frequency (L/MF) Band from 190 to 535 kHz. These frequencies are below the standard broadcast band. All ADFs can also home in on AM broadcast stations. Pilots can listen to the radio and navigate also. The ADF indicator has a compass rose and an indicating needle. The needle automatically points to the station. "Homing" means following the needle. "Crabbing" to track to the station is more efficient. Crabbing is a method of flying in which the horizontal axis of the airplane is not parallel to the flight path. ADFs have a "HDG" knob where the pilot can dial in the aircraft heading. Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Radio Navigation VOR/DME The VOR (Very high Frequency Omni-directional Range) station transmits two signals, one is constant in all directions, and the other varies the phase relative to the first signal. The VOR receiver senses the phase difference between the two frequencies and the difference identifies 360 different directions or "radials" from the VOR. The aircraft is on one, and only one, radial from the station. The system does not provide distance information. When the appropriate VOR frequency is entered into a navigation radio, the VOR indicator connected to that radio is used to find where the aircraft is relative to the VOR station. The vertical needle called a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) on the VOR indicator shows whether the aircraft is right or left of the chosen course. A "To/From/Off" indicator indicates whether the aircraft is on the "to" or "from" side. If the aircraft is "abeam the station", an "off" indication is given. To fly toward the station, the Omni Bearing Selector (OBS) is turned until the CDI is centered with a "to" indication. The pilot then flies that heading. To find out where the aircraft is located from that station, center the needle with a "from" indication. If a radial is dialed into the VOR indicator, the CDI will be right or left of the center and either a "to" or a "from" indication will be seen. The heading of the aircraft does not matter. DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) as its name states is an electronic device that measures "slant range" from the DME station. Slant range is a measure of an aircraft's position relative to the DME station that incorporates the height of the aircraft, its angle from the ground station and its unknown ground range based upon a 90 angle. The farther the aircraft is from the station and the lower the aircraft's altitude, the more accurate the distance reading. An aircraft could be directly over the DME station at an altitude of 10,500 feet above ground level (AGL) and the DME would correctly indicate the aircraft is two miles from the station. Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Inertial Navigation System An Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer and motion sensors to continuously track the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references. An inertial navigation system includes at least a computer and a platform or module containing accelerometers, gyroscopes, or other motion-sensing devices. The INS is initially provided with its position and velocity from another source (a human operator, a GPS satellite receiver, etc.), and thereafter computes its own updated position and velocity by integrating information received from the motion sensors. The advantage of an INS is that it requires no external references in order to determine its position, orientation, or velocity once it has been initialized. An INS can detect a change in its geographic position (a move east or north, for example), a change in its velocity (speed and direction of movement), and a change in its orientation (rotation about an axis). It does this by measuring the linear and angular accelerations applied to the system. Since it requires no external reference (after initialization), it is immune to jamming and deception. Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Global Positioning System A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by the GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages containing the time the message was sent, precise orbital information (the ephemeris), and the general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites (the almanac). The receiver measures the transit time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite. Geometric trilateration is used to combine these distances with the location of the satellites to determine the receiver's location. The position is displayed, perhaps with a moving map display or latitude and longitude; elevation information may be included. Many GPS units also show derived information such as direction and speed, calculated from position changes. It might seem three satellites are enough to solve for position, since space has three dimensions. However a very small clock error multiplied by the very large speed of light - the speed at which satellite signals propagate - results in a large positional error. The receiver uses a fourth satellite to solve for x, y, z, and t which is used to correct the receiver's clock. While most GPS applications use the computed location only and effectively hide the very accurately computed time, it is used in a few specialized GPS applications such as time transfer and traffic signal timing. Although four satellites are required for normal operation, fewer apply in special cases. Appendix

If one variable is already known (for example, a ship or plane may have known elevation), a receiver can determine its position using only three satellites.

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Flight Management Systems (FMS) A flight management system is a fundamental part of a modern aircraft in that it controls the navigation. The flight management system (FMS) is the avionics that holds the flight plan, and allows the pilot to modify as required in flight. The FMS uses various sensors to determine the aircraft's position. Given the position and the flight plan, the FMS guides the aircraft along the flight plan. The FMS is normally controlled through a small screen and a keyboard. The FMS sends the flight plan for display on the EFIS, Navigation Display (ND) or MultiFuction Display (MFD). The modern FMS was introduced on the Boeing 767, though earlier navigation computers did exist. Now, FMS exist on aircraft as small as the Cessna 172. In its evolution an FMS has many different sizes, capabilities and controls. However certain characteristics are common to all FMS. Once in flight, a principal task of the FMS is to determine the aircraft's position and the accuracy of that position. Simple FMS use a single sensor, generally GPS in order to determine position. But modern FMS use as many sensors - IRS, VOR/DME - as they can in order to determine and validate exactly their position. Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Appendix

Diagrams
KBOS (Logan International Airport)

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual WYLYY SIX DEPARTURE (WYLYY6.WYLYY) KBOS Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual KSFO (San Francisco International Airport) Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual LOCKE ONE ARRIVAL (MOD.LOCKE1) - KSFO Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual ILS or LOC RWY 19L - KSFO Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual ILS RWY 28R (CAT III) KSFO Appendix

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Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Use of FSNavigator 4.7 (FS2004 only) To track the complete flight plan, as an example, you can use FSNavigator 4.7. This program allows you to use many things in relation to the flight plan such as NAV aids, aircraft position, and export functions to other programs etc. The intention of this appendix is to show you how to load the FSNavigator flight plan and to see the actual aircraft position, monitor its behavior, placing the aircraft to a new point etc. Location of the KBOS-KSFO.fsn file - Copy the KBOS-KSFO.fsn from the download package and paste it into preferably ..\Flight Simulator 9\Modules\FSNavigator\Plan or in any other position on a local drive of your computer is also OK, as long as you remember where you put it. Call up FSNavigator Start Flight Simulator 2004 Click on the keyboard the F9 key Click Plan on the FSNav menu In the pull down menu, click Open Appendix

- Automatically youll be guided to the FSNav directory, as shown above in green. - Select out of the list KBOS-KSFO.fsn - Click in the window the Open button - On the globe the flight plan is added with all belonging details of this Boeing flight - Further details of how to use FSNavigator can be found on their website.

B747 -200/300/200F Copyright 2008 Angelique van Campen

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Version 1.30 / March 3, 2009 All rights reserved

Commercial Level Simulations Flight Crew Operations Manual Appendix

Credits
Through this page, I would like to thank the following people for their great contribution for helping me finalizing this 747-200/300/200F Commercial Level Simulations manual.

Jack Fentress For his help with the English text and the matching descriptions, but above all for his contribution in advising me with users point of view as well as the many suggestions. Jack checked almost every page in detail and whenever something needed to be improved, he always offered me the necessary information. Paul van Uffelen He was a great help checking the entire flight tutorial, offering many other suggestions thus improving the overall manual. Special feedback was given out of users prospective in adding the necessary background information in relation to the implemented Inertial Navigation System (simulated CLS Delco Carousel INS).

B747 -200/300/200F Copyright 2008 Angelique van Campen

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Version 1.30 / March 3, 2009 All rights reserved