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DC – DC Converter (Chopper)
DC to DC CONVERTER (CHOPPER)
• Buck converter • Boost converter • Buck‐Boost converter
fuel cell etc. DC motor control. • Output voltage Vo = Vin − Vce + VCEce − IL + Vin RL Vo − LINEAR REGULATOR • The transistor can be conveniently modelled by an equivalent variable resistor. battery chargers Linear regulator • Transistor is operated in linear (active) mode. • Power loss is high at high current Power loss is high at high current due to: Po = I L 2 × RT or Po = Vce × I L + Vce − RT IL + RL Vo − Vin EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 2 . • General block diagram: DC supply (from rectifierfilter. as shown. battery.6/1/2012 DC‐DC Converter (Chopper) DEFINITION: Converting the unregulated DC input to a controlled DC output with a desired ll d DC ih d i d voltage level.) DC output LOAD Vcontrol (derived from feedback circuit) APPLICATIONS: – Switched‐mode power supply (SMPS).
I. – Power is 100% transferred from source to load.6/1/2012 Switching Regulator • Transistor is operated in switched‐ mode: – Switch closed: Fully on (saturated) – Switch opened: Fully off (cut‐off) – When switch is open. no losses occurs in the switch. no current flow in it – When switch is closed no voltage drop across it. load – Power loss is zero (for ideal switch): Vo Vin (ON) (OFF) (ON) closed open closed DT T EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT • Switching regulator is the basis of all DC‐DC converters OUTPUT VOLTAGE Buck (step‐down) converter S Vd D L C RL + Vo − CIRCUIT OF BUCK CONVERTER iL S Vd D + vL − RL + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED S iL + Vd D vL − + RL Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED 3 . Vin Vin + Vce − IL + RL Vo − SWITCHING REGULATOR IL SWITCH RL + Vo − • Since P=V.
• Switch conducts inductor current • This results in positive inductor p voltage. i. iL continues to flow. • Diode is forward biased d f db d • Current now flows (freewheeling) through the diode.e: v L = Vd − Vo S Vd + VD − + vL iL C RL + Vo − vL Vd − Vo opened closed closed opened t • It causes linear increase in the inductor current −Vo di vL = L L dt 1 ⇒ iL = ∫ v L dt L iL iLmax IL iLmin DT T t Switch turned off (opened) • Because of inductive energy storage. The inductor voltage can be • The inductor voltage can be derived as: vL = −Vo −Vo iL iLmax IL iLmin S Vd D + vL iL C RL + Vo − vL Vd−Vo opened closed closed opened t (1-D)T t DT T 4 .6/1/2012 Switch is turned on (closed) • Diode is reversed biased.
e: ⎛ −Vo ⎞ ⎛ Vd − Vo ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ DTs − ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ (1 − D )Ts = 0 ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ ⇒ Vo = DVd 5 . diL −Vo = dt L −Vo ΔiL diL ΔiL ∴ = = = Δt (1 − D)T dt L vL = −Vo = L diL dt ⇒ ⎛ −V ⎞ ⇒ ( ΔiL )opened = ⎜ o ⎟ ⋅ (1 − D)T ⎝ L ⎠ vL Vd− Vo closed t iL iL max IL iL min t DT T Δi L Steady‐state operation iL t iL t iL t Steady-state current Decaying current Unstable current Steady-state operation requires that iL at the end of switching cycle is the same at the ( ΔiL )closed + ( ΔiL )opened = 0 begining of the next cycle. From Figure: diL ΔiL ΔiL Vd − Vo = = = dt Δt DT L ⎛ Vd − Vo ⎞ ⇒ ( ΔiL )closed = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ DT ⎝ L ⎠ For switch opened.6/1/2012 Analysis When the switch is closed (on): di diL Vd − Vo vL = Vd − Vo = L L ⇒ = dt dt L Derivative of iL is a positive constant. That is the change of iL over one period is zero.Therefore iL must increased linearly. i.
I min ≥ 0. Maximum and Minimum Inductor Current Average inductor current = Average current in R L ⇒ IL = IR = Vo R Maximum current: I max = I L + ⎛ 1 (1 − D) ⎞ ΔiL Vo 1 ⎛ Vo ⎞ = + ⎜ (1 − D )T ⎟ = Vo ⎜ + ⎟ 2 2 Lf ⎠ R 2⎝ L ⎠ ⎝R Minimum current: ΔiL 2 ⎛ 1 (1 − D) ⎞ = Vo ⎜ − ⎟ 2 Lf ⎠ ⎝R I min = I L − Inductor current ripple: ΔiL = I max − I min iL Imax IL Imin t ΔiL Continuous Current Mode (CCM) From previous analysis. Normally L is chosen b be >> Lmin 6 .6/1/2012 Average. ⎛ 1 (1 − D) ⎞ Vo ⎜ − ⎟≥0 2 Lf ⎠ ⎝R ( (1 − D) ⇒ L ≥ Lmin = ⋅R 2f This is the minimum inductor current to ensure continous mode of operation. ΔiL 2 ⎛ 1 (1 − D) ⎞ = Vo ⎜ − ⎟ 2 Lf ⎠ ⎝R I min = I L − Imax iL Imin 0 t For continuous operation.
Capacitor current: ic = iL + iR The charge can be witten as: Q = CVo ⇒ ΔQ = C ΔV ΔQ ⇒o ΔVo = C Use triangle area formula: 1 ⎛ T ⎞ ⎛ Δi ⎞ T ΔiL ΔQ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ L ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ 8 Ripple voltage (Peak to peak) (Peak-to T ΔiL (1 − D) ∴ΔVo = = 8C 8 LCf 2 So. Basic design procedures SWITCH L Lmin= ? L = 10Lmin f=? D=? TYPE ? D C ripple ? RL Po = ? Io = ? Vd (input spec. 7 . the ripple factor. larger heat sink. IGBT and BJT.) Calculate D to obtain required output voltage.6/1/2012 Output voltage ripple KCL. But results in higher losses. • Possible devices: MOSFET. Low power MOSFET can reach MHz range. Reduced efficiency. r= ΔVo (1 − D) = 8 LCf 2 Vo iL L iL iC iR + Vo − i m ax i L= IR V o/R iC i m in Note: Ripple can be reduced by: 1) Increasing switching frequency 2) Increasing inductor size 3) Increasing capacitor size. Select a particular switching frequency (f) and device • preferably f>20KHz for negligible acoustic noise • higher fs results in smaller L and C.
But iL is known as peak. 8 . .25A. The load is 8 Ohm. f=20KHz and D=0. Given L=400uH.5%. C=100uF. Design the converter such that it will be in continuous current mode. ECAPs can be used Wire size consideration: • Normally rated in RMS. • Capacitor ratings: must withstand peak output voltage must carry required RMS current. RMS = I L 2 + ⎜ L ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 2 Problems • A buck converter is supplied from a 50V battery source.5%. Specify the frequency and the values of each component.4. Note RMS current for must carry required RMS current Note RMS current for triangular w/f is Ip/3. Calculate: (a) output voltage (b) maximum and minimum inductor current. (a) Determine the duty cycle. (b) value of L to limit the peak inductor current to 6. RMS value for iL is given as: ⎛ Δi 2 ⎞ I L. The power output is 125W. R=20 Ohm. (c) value of capacitance to limit the output voltage ripple factor to 0.6/1/2012 Calculate Lmin. Choose L>>10 Lmin Calculate C for ripple factor requirement.( ) p g pp • A buck converter has an input voltage of 50V and output of 25V. • Design a buck converter such that the output voltage is 28V Design a buck converter such that the output voltage is 28V when the input is 48V. The switching frequency is 10KHz. The output voltage ripple must not be more than 0. (c) output voltage ripple. Suggest the power switch also. where Ip is the peak capacitor current given by ΔiL/2.
6/1/2012 Boost (step‐up) converter L D Vd S C RL + Vo − CIRCUIT OF BOOST CONVERTER iL L + vL − Vd S C + RL Vo − D CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED L + vL+ Vd S C RL Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED D Boost analysis:switch closed iL L + vL − D + vo v L = Vd di =L L dt V di ⇒ L= d dt L diL ΔiL ΔiL = = Δt DT dt V di ⇒ L = d dt L V DT (ΔiL )closed = d L Vd S C − Vd vL CLOSED t Vd− Vo iL ΔiL DT T t 9 .
10 .6/1/2012 Switch opened v L = Vd − Vo di =L L dt V − Vo di ⇒ L= d dt L diL ΔiL = dt Δt ΔiL = (1 − D)T ⇒ diL Vd − Vo = dt L iL + vL Vd S C + vo D Vd vL OPENED t Vd− Vo iL ΔiL ⇒ (ΔiL )opened = (Vd − Vo )(1 − DT ) L ( 1-D )T DT T t Steady‐state operation ( ΔiL )closed + ( ΔiL )opened = 0 Vd DT (Vd − Vo ) (1 − D)T + =0 ⇒ V L L = Vd 1− D o • Boost converter produces output voltage that is greater or equal to the input voltage. Hence output is large. • Alternative explanation: – when switch is closed. diode is reversed. – Wh When switch is opened. The input supplies energy to inductor. Thus output is isolated. the output stage receives energy it h i d th t t t i from the input as well as from the inductor. – Output voltage is maintained constant by virtue of large C.
6/1/2012 Average. Maximum. I min ≥ 0 Vd V DT − d ≥0 2 (1 − D) R 2L Lmin = D (1 − D ) TR D (1 − D ) R = 2 2f 2 2 Vd vL V d −V o iL Imax Imin Ripple factor ⎛V ⎞ ΔQ = ⎜ o ⎟ DT = C ΔVo ⎝R⎠ V DT Vo D ΔVo = o = RCf RCf ΔV D r= o = Vo RCf iD Imax Imin Io=Vo / R ic ΔQ DT T 11 . Minimum Inductor Current Input power = Output power Vo 2 R ⎛ Vd ⎞ ⎜ (1 − D) ⎟ 2 ⎠ = Vd Vd I L = ⎝ R (1 − D) 2 R Average inductor current: Vd IL = (1 − D )2 R Maximum inductor current: I max = I L + Vd V DT ΔiL = + d 2 2 (1 − D) R 2L Minimum inductor current: Vd V DT Δi − d = IL − L = 2 2 (1 − D ) R 2L 2 Vd I d = I min L and C values For CCM.
switching q y. C=200μF.6. The voltage ripple factor must be less than 0. D=0. inductor and capacitor size. p . maximum and minimum inductor current. fs=40KHz. • Design a boost converter to provide an output voltage of 36V from a 24V source. Determine (a) output voltage. Specify the duty cycle ratio. (c) output voltage ripple. and power device. L=65μH.5%. p frequency.6/1/2012 Problems • The boost converter has the following parameters: Vd=20V. R=12. The load is 50W. Buck‐Boost converter S D L C RL + Vo − Vd CIRCUIT OF BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER S + Vd iL vL − D + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED S + Vd iL vL − D + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED 12 .5ohm. (b) average.
13 .5. output is lower input • Output voltage is always negative. output is higher than input – If D < 0 5 output is lower input If D < 0.6/1/2012 Buck‐boost analysis Switch closed diL ⇒ dt ΔiL ΔiL Vd = = Δt DT L V DT ⇒ (ΔiL )closed = d L Switch opened vL = Vd = L diL Vd = dt L iL vL Vd Vd−Vo Imax Imin Imax iD Imin Io=Vo / R di diL Vo = vL = Vo = L L ⇒ dt d dt d L V ΔiL ΔiL = = o Δt (1 − D)T L V (1 − D )T ⇒ (ΔiL )opened = o L ic ΔQ DT T Output voltage Steady state operation: Δ iL ( closed ) + Δ iL ( opened ) = 0 Output voltage: ⇒ Vd DT Vo (1 − D)T + =0 L L ⎛ D ⎞ ⇒ Vo = −Vs ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1− D ⎠ • NOTE: Output of a buck‐boost converter either be higher or lower than input. • Energy is stored in inductor when switch is closed and transferred to load when switch is opened.5. • Note that output is never directly connected to load. – If D > 0.
Is = IL D ⇒ IL = Vo2 P Vd D = o = Vd RD Vd D R(1 − D) 2 L and C values Max and min inductor current. i.6/1/2012 Average inductor current Assuming no power loss in the converter. ripple ⎛V ⎞ ΔQ = ⎜ o ⎟ DT = C ΔVo ⎝R⎠ V DT Vo D ΔVo = o = RC RCf ⇒ Lmin = (1 − D) 2 R 2f r= ΔVo D = Vo RCf 14 .e. Vo2 = Vd I s R But average source current is related to average inductor current as: Po = Ps ⇒ Vo2 = Vd I L D R Substituting for Vo . Vd D V DT Δi ⇒ I max = I L + L = + d 2 R(1 − D) 2 2L Vd D V DT Δi ⇒ I min = I L − L = − d 2 2 2L R(1 − D) For CCM Vd D V DT + d =0 2 2L R(1 − D) Output voltage ripple. power absorbed by the load must equal power supplied the by source.
6/1/2012 Converters in CCM: Summary Buck S V d L D C RL + Vo − Vo =D Vd ΔVo 1− D = 8LCf 2 Vo Lmin = (1 − D ) R 2f Vo 1 = Vd 1 − D L V d D + Vo RL − Boost C S ΔVo D = Vo RCf Lmin = D (1 − D) 2 R 2f S D V d Buck − Boost L C RL + Vo − Vo D =− Vd 1− D ΔVo D = Vo RCf Lmin = (1 − D) 2 R 2f Control of DC‐DC converter: pulse width modulation (PWM) Vo (desired) Vo (actual) + Sawtooth Waveform Vcontrol Comparator Switch control signal Sawtooth Waveform Vcontrol 1 Vcontrol 2 ton 2 Switch control signal ton 1 T 15 .
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