This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
DC – DC Converter (Chopper)
DC to DC CONVERTER (CHOPPER)
• Buck converter • Boost converter • Buck‐Boost converter
• Power loss is high at high current Power loss is high at high current due to: Po = I L 2 × RT or Po = Vce × I L + Vce − RT IL + RL Vo − Vin EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 2 . battery chargers Linear regulator • Transistor is operated in linear (active) mode. • General block diagram: DC supply (from rectifierfilter.6/1/2012 DC‐DC Converter (Chopper) DEFINITION: Converting the unregulated DC input to a controlled DC output with a desired ll d DC ih d i d voltage level. as shown. battery.) DC output LOAD Vcontrol (derived from feedback circuit) APPLICATIONS: – Switched‐mode power supply (SMPS). DC motor control. fuel cell etc. • Output voltage Vo = Vin − Vce + VCEce − IL + Vin RL Vo − LINEAR REGULATOR • The transistor can be conveniently modelled by an equivalent variable resistor.
load – Power loss is zero (for ideal switch): Vo Vin (ON) (OFF) (ON) closed open closed DT T EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT • Switching regulator is the basis of all DC‐DC converters OUTPUT VOLTAGE Buck (step‐down) converter S Vd D L C RL + Vo − CIRCUIT OF BUCK CONVERTER iL S Vd D + vL − RL + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED S iL + Vd D vL − + RL Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED 3 . – Power is 100% transferred from source to load. no losses occurs in the switch. Vin Vin + Vce − IL + RL Vo − SWITCHING REGULATOR IL SWITCH RL + Vo − • Since P=V.6/1/2012 Switching Regulator • Transistor is operated in switched‐ mode: – Switch closed: Fully on (saturated) – Switch opened: Fully off (cut‐off) – When switch is open. no current flow in it – When switch is closed no voltage drop across it.I.
e: v L = Vd − Vo S Vd + VD − + vL iL C RL + Vo − vL Vd − Vo opened closed closed opened t • It causes linear increase in the inductor current −Vo di vL = L L dt 1 ⇒ iL = ∫ v L dt L iL iLmax IL iLmin DT T t Switch turned off (opened) • Because of inductive energy storage. • Switch conducts inductor current • This results in positive inductor p voltage. The inductor voltage can be • The inductor voltage can be derived as: vL = −Vo −Vo iL iLmax IL iLmin S Vd D + vL iL C RL + Vo − vL Vd−Vo opened closed closed opened t (1-D)T t DT T 4 . iL continues to flow. • Diode is forward biased d f db d • Current now flows (freewheeling) through the diode.6/1/2012 Switch is turned on (closed) • Diode is reversed biased. i.
i.Therefore iL must increased linearly. diL −Vo = dt L −Vo ΔiL diL ΔiL ∴ = = = Δt (1 − D)T dt L vL = −Vo = L diL dt ⇒ ⎛ −V ⎞ ⇒ ( ΔiL )opened = ⎜ o ⎟ ⋅ (1 − D)T ⎝ L ⎠ vL Vd− Vo closed t iL iL max IL iL min t DT T Δi L Steady‐state operation iL t iL t iL t Steady-state current Decaying current Unstable current Steady-state operation requires that iL at the end of switching cycle is the same at the ( ΔiL )closed + ( ΔiL )opened = 0 begining of the next cycle.6/1/2012 Analysis When the switch is closed (on): di diL Vd − Vo vL = Vd − Vo = L L ⇒ = dt dt L Derivative of iL is a positive constant. From Figure: diL ΔiL ΔiL Vd − Vo = = = dt Δt DT L ⎛ Vd − Vo ⎞ ⇒ ( ΔiL )closed = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ DT ⎝ L ⎠ For switch opened.e: ⎛ −Vo ⎞ ⎛ Vd − Vo ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ DTs − ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ (1 − D )Ts = 0 ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ ⇒ Vo = DVd 5 . That is the change of iL over one period is zero.
I min ≥ 0. ΔiL 2 ⎛ 1 (1 − D) ⎞ = Vo ⎜ − ⎟ 2 Lf ⎠ ⎝R I min = I L − Imax iL Imin 0 t For continuous operation. Normally L is chosen b be >> Lmin 6 . Maximum and Minimum Inductor Current Average inductor current = Average current in R L ⇒ IL = IR = Vo R Maximum current: I max = I L + ⎛ 1 (1 − D) ⎞ ΔiL Vo 1 ⎛ Vo ⎞ = + ⎜ (1 − D )T ⎟ = Vo ⎜ + ⎟ 2 2 Lf ⎠ R 2⎝ L ⎠ ⎝R Minimum current: ΔiL 2 ⎛ 1 (1 − D) ⎞ = Vo ⎜ − ⎟ 2 Lf ⎠ ⎝R I min = I L − Inductor current ripple: ΔiL = I max − I min iL Imax IL Imin t ΔiL Continuous Current Mode (CCM) From previous analysis.6/1/2012 Average. ⎛ 1 (1 − D) ⎞ Vo ⎜ − ⎟≥0 2 Lf ⎠ ⎝R ( (1 − D) ⇒ L ≥ Lmin = ⋅R 2f This is the minimum inductor current to ensure continous mode of operation.
But results in higher losses. IGBT and BJT. Reduced efficiency. 7 .) Calculate D to obtain required output voltage. larger heat sink. r= ΔVo (1 − D) = 8 LCf 2 Vo iL L iL iC iR + Vo − i m ax i L= IR V o/R iC i m in Note: Ripple can be reduced by: 1) Increasing switching frequency 2) Increasing inductor size 3) Increasing capacitor size.6/1/2012 Output voltage ripple KCL. Select a particular switching frequency (f) and device • preferably f>20KHz for negligible acoustic noise • higher fs results in smaller L and C. • Possible devices: MOSFET. the ripple factor. Basic design procedures SWITCH L Lmin= ? L = 10Lmin f=? D=? TYPE ? D C ripple ? RL Po = ? Io = ? Vd (input spec. Low power MOSFET can reach MHz range. Capacitor current: ic = iL + iR The charge can be witten as: Q = CVo ⇒ ΔQ = C ΔV ΔQ ⇒o ΔVo = C Use triangle area formula: 1 ⎛ T ⎞ ⎛ Δi ⎞ T ΔiL ΔQ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ L ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ 8 Ripple voltage (Peak to peak) (Peak-to T ΔiL (1 − D) ∴ΔVo = = 8C 8 LCf 2 So.
(a) Determine the duty cycle. Calculate: (a) output voltage (b) maximum and minimum inductor current.25A. Note RMS current for must carry required RMS current Note RMS current for triangular w/f is Ip/3. C=100uF. But iL is known as peak. RMS = I L 2 + ⎜ L ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 2 Problems • A buck converter is supplied from a 50V battery source. The power output is 125W. 8 . Given L=400uH. Suggest the power switch also. R=20 Ohm. RMS value for iL is given as: ⎛ Δi 2 ⎞ I L. The output voltage ripple must not be more than 0.4. The load is 8 Ohm. (b) value of L to limit the peak inductor current to 6. ECAPs can be used Wire size consideration: • Normally rated in RMS.5%. The switching frequency is 10KHz. f=20KHz and D=0.5%. . Design the converter such that it will be in continuous current mode. where Ip is the peak capacitor current given by ΔiL/2.6/1/2012 Calculate Lmin. (c) value of capacitance to limit the output voltage ripple factor to 0. Specify the frequency and the values of each component. • Design a buck converter such that the output voltage is 28V Design a buck converter such that the output voltage is 28V when the input is 48V. • Capacitor ratings: must withstand peak output voltage must carry required RMS current. (c) output voltage ripple.( ) p g pp • A buck converter has an input voltage of 50V and output of 25V. Choose L>>10 Lmin Calculate C for ripple factor requirement.
6/1/2012 Boost (step‐up) converter L D Vd S C RL + Vo − CIRCUIT OF BOOST CONVERTER iL L + vL − Vd S C + RL Vo − D CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED L + vL+ Vd S C RL Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED D Boost analysis:switch closed iL L + vL − D + vo v L = Vd di =L L dt V di ⇒ L= d dt L diL ΔiL ΔiL = = Δt DT dt V di ⇒ L = d dt L V DT (ΔiL )closed = d L Vd S C − Vd vL CLOSED t Vd− Vo iL ΔiL DT T t 9 .
– Wh When switch is opened. The input supplies energy to inductor. the output stage receives energy it h i d th t t t i from the input as well as from the inductor. Hence output is large. • Alternative explanation: – when switch is closed. diode is reversed. – Output voltage is maintained constant by virtue of large C.6/1/2012 Switch opened v L = Vd − Vo di =L L dt V − Vo di ⇒ L= d dt L diL ΔiL = dt Δt ΔiL = (1 − D)T ⇒ diL Vd − Vo = dt L iL + vL Vd S C + vo D Vd vL OPENED t Vd− Vo iL ΔiL ⇒ (ΔiL )opened = (Vd − Vo )(1 − DT ) L ( 1-D )T DT T t Steady‐state operation ( ΔiL )closed + ( ΔiL )opened = 0 Vd DT (Vd − Vo ) (1 − D)T + =0 ⇒ V L L = Vd 1− D o • Boost converter produces output voltage that is greater or equal to the input voltage. 10 . Thus output is isolated.
Maximum. Minimum Inductor Current Input power = Output power Vo 2 R ⎛ Vd ⎞ ⎜ (1 − D) ⎟ 2 ⎠ = Vd Vd I L = ⎝ R (1 − D) 2 R Average inductor current: Vd IL = (1 − D )2 R Maximum inductor current: I max = I L + Vd V DT ΔiL = + d 2 2 (1 − D) R 2L Minimum inductor current: Vd V DT Δi − d = IL − L = 2 2 (1 − D ) R 2L 2 Vd I d = I min L and C values For CCM.6/1/2012 Average. I min ≥ 0 Vd V DT − d ≥0 2 (1 − D) R 2L Lmin = D (1 − D ) TR D (1 − D ) R = 2 2f 2 2 Vd vL V d −V o iL Imax Imin Ripple factor ⎛V ⎞ ΔQ = ⎜ o ⎟ DT = C ΔVo ⎝R⎠ V DT Vo D ΔVo = o = RCf RCf ΔV D r= o = Vo RCf iD Imax Imin Io=Vo / R ic ΔQ DT T 11 .
p frequency. p . maximum and minimum inductor current. L=65μH. D=0. Specify the duty cycle ratio.6. The voltage ripple factor must be less than 0. • Design a boost converter to provide an output voltage of 36V from a 24V source. C=200μF. inductor and capacitor size. (b) average.5ohm.6/1/2012 Problems • The boost converter has the following parameters: Vd=20V. The load is 50W. and power device. switching q y. (c) output voltage ripple. fs=40KHz.5%. Buck‐Boost converter S D L C RL + Vo − Vd CIRCUIT OF BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER S + Vd iL vL − D + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED S + Vd iL vL − D + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED 12 . Determine (a) output voltage. R=12.
• Note that output is never directly connected to load. 13 .5. – If D > 0.6/1/2012 Buck‐boost analysis Switch closed diL ⇒ dt ΔiL ΔiL Vd = = Δt DT L V DT ⇒ (ΔiL )closed = d L Switch opened vL = Vd = L diL Vd = dt L iL vL Vd Vd−Vo Imax Imin Imax iD Imin Io=Vo / R di diL Vo = vL = Vo = L L ⇒ dt d dt d L V ΔiL ΔiL = = o Δt (1 − D)T L V (1 − D )T ⇒ (ΔiL )opened = o L ic ΔQ DT T Output voltage Steady state operation: Δ iL ( closed ) + Δ iL ( opened ) = 0 Output voltage: ⇒ Vd DT Vo (1 − D)T + =0 L L ⎛ D ⎞ ⇒ Vo = −Vs ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1− D ⎠ • NOTE: Output of a buck‐boost converter either be higher or lower than input. • Energy is stored in inductor when switch is closed and transferred to load when switch is opened.5. output is lower input • Output voltage is always negative. output is higher than input – If D < 0 5 output is lower input If D < 0.
i. power absorbed by the load must equal power supplied the by source.e. Vd D V DT Δi ⇒ I max = I L + L = + d 2 R(1 − D) 2 2L Vd D V DT Δi ⇒ I min = I L − L = − d 2 2 2L R(1 − D) For CCM Vd D V DT + d =0 2 2L R(1 − D) Output voltage ripple. ripple ⎛V ⎞ ΔQ = ⎜ o ⎟ DT = C ΔVo ⎝R⎠ V DT Vo D ΔVo = o = RC RCf ⇒ Lmin = (1 − D) 2 R 2f r= ΔVo D = Vo RCf 14 . Is = IL D ⇒ IL = Vo2 P Vd D = o = Vd RD Vd D R(1 − D) 2 L and C values Max and min inductor current. Vo2 = Vd I s R But average source current is related to average inductor current as: Po = Ps ⇒ Vo2 = Vd I L D R Substituting for Vo .6/1/2012 Average inductor current Assuming no power loss in the converter.
6/1/2012 Converters in CCM: Summary Buck S V d L D C RL + Vo − Vo =D Vd ΔVo 1− D = 8LCf 2 Vo Lmin = (1 − D ) R 2f Vo 1 = Vd 1 − D L V d D + Vo RL − Boost C S ΔVo D = Vo RCf Lmin = D (1 − D) 2 R 2f S D V d Buck − Boost L C RL + Vo − Vo D =− Vd 1− D ΔVo D = Vo RCf Lmin = (1 − D) 2 R 2f Control of DC‐DC converter: pulse width modulation (PWM) Vo (desired) Vo (actual) + Sawtooth Waveform Vcontrol Comparator Switch control signal Sawtooth Waveform Vcontrol 1 Vcontrol 2 ton 2 Switch control signal ton 1 T 15 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?