PREFACE In this era of globalization and liberalization of economy, business practices have evolved and are in the process and procedures of government. In this context, technical and field education has also changed its strive for excellence to meet global standard. Giving this due consideration, practical training schedules have been inducted in curriculum of technical studies as they give practical exposure to actual condition. It is the matter as great pleasure for me to present the following report on my industrial implant training in at It out line the whole course of my training in a specific and oriented manner. The basic aim of this report is to study the organizational set up of the industry, to study about the division of various blocks, auxiliary unit as well as latest manufacturing techniques employed to produce quality product. From the electrical point of view the main strain is given on the manufacturing and latest techniques being employed for their production which was to us at DZG department with their best design and more accuracy. All in all I have tried my best to present this report in a very precise manner.



The project is an extensive report on how the T.T.L. makes its strategy and how the company has been able in tackling the present tough competition and how it is cooping up by the allegations of the quality of its products. The report begins with the history of the product and the introduction of the .T.T.L. Ltd. This report also contains the basic marketing strategies that are used by the T.T.L. Ltd. of manufacturing process, production policy, advertising, future prospect, The report includes some of the key salient features of market trend issues. In today’s world of cutthroat fierce competition, it is very essential to not only exist but also to excel in the market. Today’s market is enormously more complex. Hence forth, to survive in the market, the company not only needs to maximize its profit but also needs to satisfy its customers and should try to build upon from there.


(Marketing Manager) who give me permission for this project and ……. Last but not the least.Sahibabad (A group company of Havells’s India Ltd.) particularly ………. This training session give me opportunity to enhance professional skills and give me a way for a success and achieving ambition in life.. who helped me during my stay and who never made me feel as though I am not a permanent member of this team. The training procedure session has contributed to develop my personality. directly or indirectly. I lean this fact in natural environment.who give me need full guideline and support and co operation for conducting the summer training and preparing this report. 4 . I would like to my heartiest thank to the officers and staff of ………….ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to all those who. made this project possible. I would like to thank sincerely all the staff of TTL Ltd.


L. conductors. the main objective of the company are To undertake and carry on all or any of the following industries. cotton/paper cover conductors and other instruments and things required for or capable of being used for in connection with wires. 1. The company is one of the largest manufactures of single and three phase meters in India producing annually over 3 million numbers. battery eliminators. The company was originally incorporated on 20th Dec. 1971 by ……Gupta under the name of Towers & Pvt.As per the memorandum of association of T. It shall target international market for a rapid growth in volume and company stature.L.L. Ltd.L.T. battery charges. with its registered office in Delhi. thus taking it to the category of the leading manufacturing in the world.T. the company has entered into a strategic alliance with another major player in high end electronic energy meters like M/S Duke Arnics Electronics Ltd. Ghaziabad. LTD Towers & Transformer Limited is one of the associate of the Havells group. enamel wires. voltage stabilizers. voltage testing sets. With this alliance the Havell’s has become the only company in India to have complete range of energy meters.T. 2) In pursuance to the above objectives the company is presently engaged in manufacturing single and three phase residential and commercial KWH meters at its plant located in Sahibabad Industrial Area.T. There after it was converted in to a Public Ltd Co. T. 3) In line with its constant aim of expanding its scope of capabilities and marketing off rings. trades or business in all are any of there branches and process and to do such acts and things as are necessary or usually done or implied in undertaking or carrying on such trades or business. It has put up a separate world class plant for high quality single phase and three phase meters at Faridabad. The name of the company was changed to T. Ltd. 6 .ABOUT THE T. Further with a view to serve the discerning customers all over the world. namely: 1) To manufacture and produces. Ltd on 3rd Feb 1998. voltage regulator. Ltd has innovative skills emerged as one of the manufactures and supplier of the electronic energy meter. distributors transformers.

HT trivector meters.4) The meters can be put to industrial application for calibration and testing HT grid metering. 7 . 5) The company is now investing heavily in new technology development in solution for communication with energy meters. portable reference meters and complete meter networking solution for industrial applications. LT trivector meters. The company has increased its product range to include three phase multifunction meters.

Ltd. • ESC Pvt. • Standard Electricals Ltd. • Havell’s Dorman Smith Ltd. • Havell’s Switch Gears Ltd. • Crabtree India Ltd. • Havell’s Industries Ltd. 8 .ASSOCIATES OF HAVELL’S GROUP Switch Gear and Cables division:• Havell’s India Ltd.

I.T. Priya etc.PLANT AT A GLANCE NAME OF THE COMPANY HEAD OFFICE : T. Welcome Group. Civil Lines Delhi – 110054 PRODUCTION UNIT : Plot no. EMPLOYMENT CUSTOMER : 500 Employees : Cochin International Airport. 9 . 1971 Converted in 3rd Feb. – 6. LTD.. Delhi Stock Exchange.T. Sahibabad. : 1. Hotel Inter Continental. Sahara India. Raj Narain Marg. Citi Bank.R.L.4.V. Infosys.L. 1998 to T. Ghaziabad QUALIFICATION DATE OF INCORPORATION : Public Ltd Co. : Originally in 20th Dec. Site . Sahibabad Industrial Area.T.C. P. Reliance Industry.

COMPANY PROFILE QRG ENTERPRISES QRG is step towards integrating all our companies under one common entity, one common vision. QRG is the holding company of all erstwhile Havell’s group companies, which includes – Havell’s India, Crabtree India, Standard Electrical, Duke Arnics, Crabtree Aquatech and TTL. But then what is QRG? QRG is Havell’s in its new avatar. With a new vision, New purpose. Now dynamism. QRG is committed to meeting the challenges of the new economy through business ethics, global reach and technological expertise.


     



HAVELL’S GROUP Havell's Group, India's leading multi product electrical engineering organization has been offering the industries the benefits of expertise and experience of over three decades in the field of Electrical Switchgear, Controlgear, Energy Meters, Electrical wiring Accessories and Cables & Wires etc. The group has eight Manufacturing plants in and around Delhi equipped with latest stateof-art manufacturing facilities supported by strong marketing network of 20 branch offices, 16 representative offices, over 500 authorized dealers and more than 100 approved outlets catering to the needs of discerning buyers across the country and part of Asia and Africa. Most of our products manufactured by Havell's bear ISI MARK and all the products comply with the latest IS & IEC Specification. Most of our existing plants have been certified and accredited by ISO 9001 further reinforcing our commitment towards quality. Havell's has made available the best technology to the Indian buyers by virtue of its strategic alliances with leading global manufacturers in their respective areas viz.Schiele of Germany, Geyer of Germany, DZG of Germany, Dorman Smith of U.K., Crabtree of U. K. Highly qualified and experienced professionals backed up by a work force of 1800 employees manage the company. All the branches and manufacturing facilities are computerized and the company has successfully implemented the first phase of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) so as to provide faster response to its valued customers.


HAVELL'S CORE PHILOSPHY We are committed to meeting the challenges of the 21st century with integrity and technological expertise. ISO 9001 HAVELL'S QUALITY POLICY: Building customer confidence by providing wide range of quality products and service through teamwork Company Structure Havell's Group came into being in 1958 with a small electrical goods trading unit M/s Guptajee & Co. Manufacturing units have been added from time to time viz.Havell's Industries (HI) in 1971. M/s Towers and Transformers (TTL) are a deemed public limited Company belongs to the Havell's Group of companies a renowned name in the field of electrical. Havell's India Ltd (HIL) was floated in 1983 in collaboration with M/s Christian Geyer A.G.of Germany which has raised capital through a public issue in 1993. M/s Havell's Switchgears Pvt Ltd. (HSPL), a new group company, has since started trading and Distribution of the groups has recently acquired Electric control and Switchboards Pvt Ltd. (ECS) which is engaged in designing, fabrication, installation and commissioning of control panels, switchboards, and bus bars etc. Judicious mix of family control vis-a-vis delegation to professionals in planning and management process with emphasis on product quality and after sale service has helped the group to build a market image and to maintain effective presence in the market. Two of the group companies, TTL & HIL have obtained ISO-9001 Certification. The group has also started into joint ventures with a few reputed international giants for setting up joint ventures in India for expanding the product base of the group.


DORMAN SMITH UK 13 .HAVELL'S JOINT VENTURES: Miniature Circuit BreakerRCCB & Controlgear Changeover Switch Wiring Accessories Electronic Meters GEYER Germany SCHIELE Germany P E T E R R E I N S Germany Crabtree UK AMPY UK Moulded Case circuit Breaker.

Bhubneshwar. The various functions currently being performed by the Corporate. It also complies details for income tax & sales tax assessment cases. is to coordinate & streamline the realisation of money due from various parties & check out all legal compliance's applicable to Havell's as per the Companies Act. Jashedpur. It monitors investment and fund resources. It involves finalisation of accounts of the company & all the subsidiary company. Personnel & HRD. c). policy formulating. Lucknow. besides retaining all unit based activities. Calcutta. Jaipur. The office consist of 8'employees who were involved in functions like sales & marketing. Over the years the head office has taken a multi-functional role and has evolved into a decision making. office at New Delhi are: a). Bhopal. Legal: The main function of the legal dept. Baroda. Varanasi The Head Office of the group is based in Delhi. monitoring & coordinating agency for the entire Group's business activities. Chandigarh. Sonebhadra. To correspond with stock exchange. Cochin. Marketing 14 . Accounts: The main function of the accounts dept. & other related dept. Indore. RBI.HAVELL'S NETWORK Corporate office Delhi Branches: Bangalore. Dhanbad. Accounts. b). Patiala. Hyderabad. Pune. at Head Office is to control & supervise all the accounting functions at the head office as well as the units. Chennai. Ludhiana. Commercial etc.Guwahati. Mumbai Representatives: Ahmedabad. Jalandher. thereby transforming itself into the "Corporate office". To satisfy all correspondences & complaints of shareholders.

Design and installation of dealers and retailers sign board. Business Development Department. formulate policy guidelines for different units for buying of materials sending production programs to factory. tender attending. seminars. creative development. sample analysis & features & benefits Complaints after sale services/ analysis sample analysis & features & benefits. • • • • • • • • • Design. printing. New launch products: Pre-launch information / surveys. kiosks. monitoring & reviewing periodically the personnel & HRD policies & practices considered conducive to the overall development of the employees as well as 'the organization. This dept. e). administering. Product : Comparisons. ensures d). Post launch activities. price-lists. approvals & projects. for timely deliveries schedules. execution & Distribution of catalogue. The main responsibility of this department is to improve the perception of the Group. order status. It co-ordinate with the branches as well as the units for enquiries. proofing. bus back panels & hoardipg Arranging an execution meets Conferences. & commercial correspondences etc. Communication & Market Support The role & responsibilities of CMS are as follows. It also involves attending liasoner. Dispatch and billing. wall paintings. Marketing dept. Exhibition and road shows & Launches. Release of press advertisements & press releases to agencies and print media. product & Corporate presentation. inspection cases to DGS&D. is responsible for formulating. life cycle analysis. HRD & Personnel The corporate. HRD & Personnel dept. mailer. Visualization. also conduct seminars. implementing. profiles. collection of sales proceeds. f). Commercial The commercial dept. 15 . They also monitor the sales targets periodically & coordinate with the respective production dept. pitch the product against competition. editing. g). & inspection formalities.The marketing dept are responsible for overall formulation & implementation of marketing strategies for their respective product lines. dispatch details stock availability etc.

Middle east & African Market in coming one year.) • • • • This dept. 16 . EDP (Electronic Data Processinq Dept. (I) Export Department Objective • • To develop export orientation & Culture in Havell's Group To achieve maximum penetration in South Asian.• Complaints after sale services / analysis /coordination with work. Developing various Database programs for the various dept. Keeping the records of all hardware group / training tools of BAAN /To customise the Baan Reports & interactive new system as per company's requirement. supervises the database at various units & also develops modules as per requirement.

Function: Export function • • • Market development: which involves international Dealers, Agent, and direct institutional Administrative development: which involves quality improvement & packaging improvement. Exim commercial: o Export Export documentation & customer clearance. o Import documentation & customer clearance. o Availing export promotion benefits o Interaction with banks for negotiation of export documents o Interaction with A/c ( finance for arranging) Basically it act as a NODAL AGENCY b/w Factory -HO - Supplier/customer. development.


HAVELL'S WIDE PRODUCT RANGE INDUSTRIAL • • • • • Switch fuses, Fuse Switches, HRC Fuse Links, Distribution Boards, Switch isolator and allied products. Contactors, Relays, Timers, Motor Starters. Changeover switches, Programmable Switches, Control switches SENTRY - Motor Protection circuit Breakers Dorman Smith Load line Series Moulded Case Circuit breakers

DOMESTIC • • • Miniature Circuit Breakers, Residual Current Circuit Breakers, Plastic I Metallic Distribution Boards. PVC Wires / Cables Crabtree Electrical Wiring Accessories (Modular Plate Switches)

KWh ENERGY METERS • POWER CABLES: • Low Voltage PVC /XLPE Cables Single core upto 1000 Sq.mm & Multicrore upto 630 Sq.mm. • • • Control Cables Special Purpose Cables JOINING FORMALITIES Single & Three Phase

(a) Submit the joining report.


(b) Submit copies of certificates supporting your educational qualifications, Date of birth certificate and other testimonials, passport -size photograph, clearance certificate from your previous employer. (c) Fill in the Provident Fund nomination form. (d) Complete the ESIC requirement. (e) Submit a copy of the vehicle registration form for claiming conveyance allowance. (f) Open a saving bank A/c with the prescribed bank for crediting of your salary: All the above documents are to be submitted to the HRD & Personnel dept. EMPLOYMENT RULES. (a) Timings For Head Office: Working Days: Working Hours: Monday to Saturday. 9:00 a.m. – 5:30 p.m. 1.00pm - 1.30 PM (Lunch Time) Weekly off days: Sunday, Second Saturday

Sahibabad, Faridabad, Badli, KNW,TNW, Alwar, Madhopur, Working Days Working hours : 9.00 am - 5.30 pm 1.00 am - 1.30 pm (Lunch Time) Weekly off Days: (B) ATTENDANCE


You are required to sign the attendance register. (b) Increments & Rewards: Depending upon your performance you may be given graded increments on the 1st April every year provided you had joined the conil)any before 1st Oct of the preceding year.Manager or below you are normally required to serve a one-year probationary period or as otherwise specifically prescribed. as assessed and recommended by your departmental head / unit head.be intimated to you in writing. and based on the assessment by your seniors. PERSONNEL REGULATIONS. and contribution. a decision will be taken to either confirm you in the services of the company to extend the period of probation or terminate your services and the decision as it may be. However employees may be permitted to inform the office in advance about their late comings on A/c of any unforeseeable exigencies subject however to a maximum of twice a month. will . However this practice may somewhat vary from one unit /business to the other 8. the management may decide to give you further recognition either in status or in monetary terms. It will be based purely on your performance of the preceding year. 20 . Attendance is normally calculated from the 26th of the previous month to the 25th of the present month for the calculations of salary.your performance will be evaluated. At the end of the probation period. You cannot however demand an increment as a matter of right.. A 'mark' is put if you late & three such marks result in deduction of half day's leave. This practice may somewhat vary from one unit / business location to the other. However it may be noted that either due to unsatisfactory work performance or for any other reason whatsoever The services of a probationer are liable to be terminated by the company by giving 7 (seven) days notice during the probationary period & one month notice after confirmation. (a) Probation /Confirmation If you are newly appointed employee at the level of Dy. In case of very good performance. of the management. or both in appreciation of your work.

1948) Casual leave Earned /Privilege leave Total Casual leave Leave availed of in the nature of personnel engagements and of casual nature will be adjusted against "CL" standing to your credit. or the unit head at you _location.. (d) Leave Rules At Head office : (as per Shops & Establishment act) Casual leave Privilege leave Total = 12 = 15 = 27 At Factories : (as per Factories Act. discussion with the HRD & Personnel dept. However if there is no casual leave is standing to your credit.25 leave after every 20 actual working days and total 15 days for which one must have' actually worked for 240 days in the previous year before his entitlement begins: Earned leave with pay is allowed as under: a) 3 leave after completion of first quarter. Privileqe leave The term privilege leave is synonymous with "Earned Leave" or "Annual Leave" and is meant for an employee's rest & recuperation. 21 =7 = 15 = 22 . Remaining unavailed CL will automatically stand lapsed at the end of the leave year / calendar year. it will be adjusted against your privilege only.(c) Promotion These are decided on the basis of consistently good performance over functional head. b) . 1.Balance leave after completion of 4th quarter . . The company therefore expects that an employee will avail of privilege leave at least once in each year & have an enjoyable holidays so that he returns to work fully refreshed .

75% by the employer Provident fund (PF) The Provident Fund Act of 1952 came into being to provide compulsory contribution on the employer & that of the employee as an old age benefit to the employee. SOCIAL SECURITY MEASURES ESI (Employee State Insurance): ESI is a statutory social security scheme extended by the Govt of India. (i) (ii) Voluntary or normal retirement of an employee. 9. All employees drawing a gross salary (excluding conveyance allowance) upto Rs. The details of the same can be obtained from the personnel & HRD dept.6500/(Basic + HRA) per month are covered under the scheme. at your location. the act states that "Every employee whose pay does not exceed Rs. & dependent parents at the rate of 1. They can avail of medical facilities for self. The PF scheme is applicable to all the employees on the rolls of HAVELL'S and its other associated subsidiaries companies.75% by the employee and 4. The entire contribution under this fund is payable to the employee under the following events. irrespective of the basic salary to become a member of this fund". These shall not be carried over for accumulation in the next year. children.5000 PM (Basic earned) is required to becomb a member of the fund " However in our organisation it is imperative for every employee. According to its prevailing provision. An employee can take loan from his PF contributions after fulfilling the necessary requirements. 22 . spouse. In the event of the employee's death (amount will be paid to the nominee / nominees).All unavailed earned leaves are encashable at the end of the year. The employee contribution to the PF scheme is 12% of the basic salary & Havell's also contributes an equal amount to employees provident fund account as per EPF act 1952.

33% of the employees' pay which shall be remitted by the employer to the EPF within 15 days of the close of every month. The erfiployee's contribution to the scheme is @ 8. On employees resigning from the company or settling abroad.(iii) (iv) (v) If the employee retires due to permanent or total disablement. as an extension of PF. is applicable to all the employees on the rolls of Havell's and its subsidiaries. 23 .(after certain number of If the employee joins another company which does not have a PF facility months ) c) Employee Pension fund: The family pension scheme.

who have worked for atleast 80 (eighty) days preceding the 12 months immediately the date of her expected delivery. The maximum duration for which any woman is entitled to maternity benefits would not exceed 12 weeks. In case of miscarriage she shall on production of medical proof be entitled to avail leave with salary (at the rate of maternity benefit) for a period of six weeks immediately following the day of her miscarriage. After completion of maternity leave& before resuming duty the employee would have to submit a fitness certificate'. 24 .d) Gratuity As a part of the terminal benefit extended to all the employees gratuity becomes payable upon cessation of the employment after rendering a continuos service of not less than 5 years either in case (six months or more are considered to be one year). However in case of death the Gratuity benefits will be payable (minimum one year service is required for qualifying this. -On Retirement -On Resignation After completion of every one year he will be entitled for 15 days salary as gratuity. 15/26 x Last salary drawn x Number of completed years of service e) Maternity benefits According to the Maternity Benefit Act 1961 maternity benefits are applicable to all married female employees of the company. scheme). However in case of a miscarriage or illness the employee should submit a medical certificate from the registered medical practitioner . In addition the employee can avail leave for a maximum period of one month in case of her illness or illness of her child arising out of delivery. ordinarily six weeks upto & including the day of the delivery & six weeks immediately following the date. The Gratuity shall be payable for every completed year of service or part thereof in excess of six months the employer shall pay the gratuity to an employee at the rate of fifteen days' wages based on the rate of wages last drawn by the employee concerned on the basis of the following formula.

Basic Salary Rs.a.3.) SM (Senior Mgt.4. and shall be paid'as under. Managers Rs.00. LTA can be availed only on completion of one-year service.) Director /Executive Directors President / Vice President General Manager AGM / DGMs Managers Dy.1. The percentage of bonus however decided by the management in keeping with the profitability/performance of the units and also as per the determining provision of the Bonus act.000/ Rs. The company shall pay 100% premium of such insurance.00.00. Dependent family members shall also be covered under this scheme. The employee has to inform the company of his plan to proceed on LTA must take sanction from the competent authorities atleast 15 days in advance.000/ 10.and above (Basic) Entitlement (Rs. It is usually announced in the month of Oct/Nov each year.4. b) Leave Travel allowances (LTA): The LTA is eligible only to those employees (staff) who are specially covered under LTA rules by virtue of their appointment letter or agreement with the management.000/ Rs.) Equal to one month Basic Salary p. LTA not availed in any financial year will lapse unless otherwise it is permitted by the management due to urgency of official work.2.. ANNUAL BENEFITS: a) Bonus /Ex-Gratia: The Bonus shall be paid on the Earned Basic Salary during the financial year and to be calculated as per the payment of bonus act.00.00. In subsequent years the LTA benefits can be claimed once during December to March every year. Manager/Asst.000/ Rs.000/ Rs. The facts should be placed on records at Head Office for such purpose.1 Lac to 6 lacs according to their status as determined by the company.000/ Rs. 25 .f) Accident Insurance Employees including managerial staff who have to travel regularly on office duty may be insured against accident risks for an amount of Rs.00. 5000/. However as a special case the management may relax the rules and grant LTA benefits.) MM (Middle Mgt.6. The categories are as under: TM (Top Mgt.

or dependent persons. 6501/. Medical bills should be submitted. This benefit can be availed of provided privilege leaves are standing to his credit The encashable amount would be calculated on the basis of his prevailing total salary & is usually paid during December/Jan every year. At the time of cessation of service either on account of Resignation. children & dependent parents. This benefit is extended to the employee.under "Mediclaim insurance policy " and full premium shall be borne by the Company. Employee not covered under ESI scheme shall get medical relief as per the mentioned norms below. Salary Rs. e) Leave Encashment All the employees are entitled to this benefit.. no specific loan scheme exists in the company but subject to availability of -additional funds. Retirement or discharge the entire privilege standing to his credit is encashed as per the company rule. loans may be given in exceptional cases on the 100% discretiion of the management for the purpose of marriage of children. c) Mediclaim Insurance Policy Employees in the rank of GMs and above shall be covered . 26 .c) Medical Reimbursement: The employees drawing a salary less than 6501/. his spouse. housing.a. Loan scheme: Presently.and above (Basic + HRA) Entitlement Equal to one-month Basic salary p. purchase of vehicle (in case of entitlement) and or any unforeseen circumstances. minimum 60% to 70% in original and balance can be through declaration.per month (Basic + HRA) are covered under ESI and shall get free medical treatment under ESI Scheme. Hence They shall not be entitled for any medical benefit from`the company.

Similarly the employee would also be at liberty to leave. the services of the employee at any time by giving one-month notice with or without assigning any reason whatsoever. The marketing and sales department has to submit No due certificate from all the dealers. Once accepted he will fill in a clearance form & get it signed from his departmental head. Presently we are allowing loan facility giving salary equivalent to one-month total salary & same should be deducted in six equal installments.To avail loan prior sanction must be secured in the prescribed proforma from Head office before any case is considered / recommended. the company may terminate the services of the employee at any time by giving 7days notice with or without assigning any reason whatsoever. before leaving the company Service Certificate: 27 . Therelieving letter would be issued. Full And Final Settlement In case employee decides to leave the organization he will have to submit his letter of resignation to the Departmental head / Reporting manager. Similarly the employee would also be at liberty to leave the services of the company at any time upon giving 7days prescribed notice. the company may terminate . On Confirmation During the confirmed period. Marketing & Sales dept. The full & final settlement of dues would be initiated as soon as the relieving letter is issued. Notice of Termination On Probation : During the probation period. Only after the acceptance of his resignation & when the clearance form reaches the HRp & personnel dept. the services of the company at any time giving one month's prescribed notice.

28 . resignation or superannuation. dismissal.At the time of discharge. an employee shall be furnished with a service certificate in the prescribed form. termination of service.

Product Training programs Sales management programs. Most of the Training programs are conducted by in-house trainer who adds to the sense of belonging to the company & an itch to do something. imperative for us to keep abreast with world engineering needs. Mumbai.. This needs result in establishing Training & Development dept. It is therefore. The main objective of T&D department is "to build a competent & competitive work force to meet the challenges of growth & achieve the corporate mission". Cochin. systematic & organized manner. Chennai. Chandigarh etc. 29 . Jaipur. Ahmedabad. The major focus area comprises of: • • • • • • Corporate presentation programs. Training programs are conducted for executives & managers to improve Technical & Professional skills so as to ensure positive contribution towards enhancing all round development of our employees as well as organisation thus equipping all concerned towards better cohesiveness. Skill development programs. The process of training & retraining has been set into motion to bring about a positive cultural & attitudinal change so as to ensure better responsiveness & accountability among its employees & sufficient resources have been earmarked to promote continuos development activities at all its business location in a planned. Technical education to dealers / customers Servicing of products tips for proper use & preventive maintenance of products.TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT The company is growing with more products being sold to increasingly diverse set of customers & competing against new set of competitors. `Excellence' is moving target & the means to achieve this is learning which in itself an unending process is". Hyderabad. improved. market development & competition. which impart training to the employees in various fields. The various training programs will be conducted at Head office in Delhi and Regional offices such as Calcutta. There is a constant need for training in terms of product improvement and honing sales / marketing skill.

performance. & achievement of targeted results. These training programs build a sense of comrade ship among the branches and also inter branch colleagues. The training aims at updating the employees on the product. system & building the confidence to motivate them in taking up the challenges to achieve growth. profitability & excellence. 30 .

AN INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING: Successful candidates placed on the job need training to perform their duties effectively Workers must be trained to operate machines. screening and selection The principles of learning make training work . so training has to be done on the basis of identified resources in three phases PRE TRAINING -Clear understanding of the situation that calls for more effective behavior TRAININGImplementing the effectiveness in behavior POST TRAINING- 31 .thus how a person learns should be the guiding principle in explaining how a person should be trained Thus training requires    Practice Feedback Motivation to learn Thus training is systematic and intentional basically involving the felicitation of the learning process Further training enhances three broad classes of skills  Motor skills: manipulation of physical environment based on certain patterns of bodily movements   Cognitive skills: acqusitional of mental and attitudinal functions Interpersonal skills: enhancing interactions with other people No organization has unlimited resources. reduce scrap and avoid accidents It is not only workers but executives and supervisors who need training as well in order to enable them to acquire maturity of thought and action Training and development constitute an ongoing process in any organization Training thus means to turn members into productive insiders It is the second step after recruitment.

SECONDARY DATA: Information regarding the new methods that can be implemented was collected on the basis of book research NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT In simple terms training and development refer to imparting of specific skills abilities and knowledge to an employee A formal definition of training and development is “ …………it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning .The management has to handle a person who is more confident. post training A lot of adjustment is needed on both sides OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH To understand the entire training process and identifying the training needs of the employees at the HAVELL’S INDIA LIMITED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The information was basically obtained from two sources a.usually by changing the employees attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge The need for training and development is determined by employee’s performance deficiency which is computed as under: TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEED= Standard performance -Actual performance” 32 . PRIMARY DATA: Informal conversations were the source of information regarding the training methods already followed and identification of the training needs of the workers b.

the trainees acquire technical knowledge. Flippo ”Training is the act of increasing the knowledge an skills of an employee for doing a particular job” Thus training is an organized activity for increasing the knowledge and skills of people for a definite purpose It involves a systematic procedure for transferring technical know how to the employees so as to increase their knowledge and skills for doing specific jobs with proficiency In other words.g.According to Edward B. skills and problem solving ability by undergoing the training programme Training objectives should always be expressed in behavioral terms to remove ambiguity and vagueness e. To have more productive workers (vague) To increase output by 10%over current levels (behavioral terms) EDUCATION TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: DIFFERENCE The processes of training and development are often confused Training means learning of basic skills and knowledge necessary for a particular job or a group of jobs But development on the other hand means growth of the individual in all respects However education is afar broader term in comparison to the above two Its purpose is to develop the individuals It is concerned with increasing the general knowledge and understanding of the environment as a whole Education is more formalized then development and is in general imparted in schools and colleges The distinction between the three can be made as under: TRAINING VERSUS DEVELOPMENT According to Dale Yoder” the use of terms training and development in today’s employment setting is far more appropriate than training alone since human resources can exhibit their full potential only when the learning process goes far beyond the simple routine” TRAINING Training means DEVELOPMENT and Development means the growth of an learning skills knowledge for doing a particular job It employee in all respects It shapes attitudes increases the job skills The term training is generally used to The term development is associated with the indicate imparting specific skills among overall growth of the executives operative workers and employees Training is concerned with maintaining and Executive development seeks to develop 33 .

whereas development programmes are meant for employees in higher position Education however is common to all employees their grade not withstanding TRAINING OBJECTIVES Optimize the workers performance in pursuit of organizational goals  To develop a person ‘s behavioral patterns in areas of knowledge skills or attitude to achieve a desired performance level  Interaction during training programmes lets the management understand what motivates or satisfies the workers     Leads to improvement in safety standards Leads to understanding of corporate strategies Manpower planning Unifying individual objectives with those of the organization and vice versa 34 .improving the current job performance Thus competence it has a short term perspective and skills for future performance Thus it has a long term perspective Training is job centered in nature Development is career centered in nature The role of trainer or supervisor is very All development is ‘self development’ The important in training executives have to be internally motivated for self development TRAINING VERSUS EDUCATION According to Carnegie “Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills Education on the other hand is confined to theoretical learning in class rooms” TRAINING Application oriented Job experience Specific task Narrow perspective EDUCATION Theoretical orientation Classroom learning General concepts Broad perspective To conclude. in order to bring about a distinction. amongst training development and education in sharp focus it can be said that training is offered to operatives.

emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision making and problem solving abilities SKILLS There are three kinds of skills that need to be imparted These are • • • Basic skills/technical skills Motor skills Interpersonal skills It also enables to operate machines and use other equipment with least damage and scrap Without the basic skill an operator will not be able to function properly Motor or psychomotor skills on the other hand refer to performance of specific physical activities These skills involve learning to move various parts of one’s body in response to internal and external stimuli Lastly employees particularly supervisors and executives need interpersonal or the people skill to understand oneself and others better and act accordingly EDUCATION The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment that any T&D programme must contain an element of education is well understood by the HR professionals Any such programme has university professors as resource person to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics proposed to be discussed 35 .INPUTS IN TRAINING NAD DEVELOPMENT Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills. learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant future In addition to these there is a need to impart ethical orientation.

functional loyalties to the interests of the organization as a whole? How to make them result oriented? How to help them to see and internalize the differences between activity and results between efficiency and effectiveness? How to make them sensitive to the environment in which they function both at the workplace and outside How to make them aware of themselves –their potentials and their limitations How to help them to see themselves as others see them? How to teach them to communicate without filters to see and feel others view points How to help them to understand power and thereby develop leadership styles which inspire and motivate others? How to instill a zest for excellence a divine discontent a nagging dissatisfaction with the status quo ETHICS There is a need for imparting greater ethical orientation as they are largely ignored It is also significant because of the following reasons: • • • • Ethics correspond to the basic human needs All of s want to be ethical in our personal lives and business dealings too Values create credibility in public Values lend management credibility with employees They provide a common language for aligning a company’s leadership and its people Ethical attitudes help management make better decisions which are in the interest of the public the employees and in the long run the company itself 36 .DEVELOPMENT Another component of training and development programme is development. which is less skill oriented but stresses on knowledge An organization expects the following from its mangers when they are deputed to attend training and development programme • • • • • • • • How to make managers self-starters How to imbue them with a sense of commitment and motivation so that they become self-starters? How to make them subordinate their parochial.

and Information needed to change attitude may not be sufficient DECISION MAKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Decision making and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work related problems Learning related to decision making and problem solving skills seeks to improve trainees ability to define and structure problems. collect and analyze information.• • Ethical practices are good even from the profitability point of view According to a survey organizations that showed the highest concern were the ones that showed highest profits Finally ethics are important because government and law cannot always protect the society but ethics can ATTITUDNAL CHANGES Attitude represent feelings and beliefs of individuals towards others Attitudes affect motivation. satisfaction and job commitment Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive ones Negative attitudes are difficult to change because • • • Employees refuse to change They have prior commitments. generate alternative solutions and make an optimal decision alternatives Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers. yet to make my concepts clearer I 37 . supervisors and professionals POINTS TO BE KEPT IN MIND WHILE TRAINING    It is the means to an end not an end to a means The management must have a responsible attitude The trainees would be unwilling to participate in training if the trained employees are being paid less THE ENTIRE PROCESS OF TRAINING Just like the budget TNA estimates the training needs of the different levels of employees in the organization Although this is done at the beginning of the year.

Motivation 8.was asked to submit an exhaustive list of many topics. Succession plan 4. Leadership 5. Management development programmes 2. Risk management 10. Cost cutting and maintenance 7. Emotional training 3. Manpower planning 38 . on which training could be carried out at he different levels The levels were classified into: Top level Middle level Lower level DIAGRAM SHOWS THE DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT LEVELS IN AN ORGANIZATION These were the training areas identified: FOR THE TOP LEVEL 1. Quality management 6. Employee retention 9.

Grievance handling (particularly the HR department) 28. Training for internal trainers 39 . Stress management 12. Technology trends 29. Planning. Business ethics and conduct 15. Effective communication 21. organizing and controlling 18. OD interventions 22. Civil rights and equal opportunity programs 23. Management by objectives 19. Customer development (marketing) 25. Labour relations 14. Customer relationship management (marketing department) 27. Counseling 17. Conflict resolution 13.11. Job enrichment 20. Self appraisal 16. Personal development 26. Employee empowerment 24.

Labour relations 8. Basic decision making 16. Skill enhancement. Self appraisal 4. Effective communication 10. Manpower planning 2. Work performance and conduct 6. Interpersonal skills 11. Technology trends 12. Motivation 18. Prevention of stock shortages and equipment failures 9. Quality management 15. Kaizen and 5S 20.FOR THE MIDDLE LEVEL 1. Civil rights and equal opportunity programme 5. basic process training 40 . Security and safety 7. Training for internal trainers 14. Supervision 13. and  Unskilled  There training needs are as under: 1. Disciplinary training 2. Disciplinary training FOR THE LOWER LEVEL The lower level can be divided further into:  Skilled  Semi skilled. Job enrichment 3. Cost cutting 17. Team building 19. Career planning (skilled) 3.

Due to some internal problems no training could be held for the period of May 2004 Some of the topics scheduled for May were taken over in the first week of June All the topics dealt with were for the workers To enable more 41 . Hygiene 12. training is taken at all levels on a regular basis A few days before the actual training programme the. Motivation (skilled) 15. Self appraisal (skilled/semiskilled) 6. the venue the nominees etc THE TRAINING PROGRAMMES ATTENDED AT THE HAVELL’S INDIA LIMITED Training is a regular feature at the Havell’s India Limited. Effective communication 9. Work performance and conduct 8. Prevention of stock shortages and equipment failure 11. Technology trends 5. a notice of the same is sent out to the nominated trainees or the HR department may ask the respective department heads to nominate their own trainees. Safety: generic and machine specific 13.4. Cost cutting 14. The calendar may be altered if required At the Havell’s India Limited. Standard operating procedures (semiskilled/unskilled) THE TRAINING CALENDAR Once the training needs are identified a training calendar giving the training schedule for each month is prepared specifying the training needs for different cadres of employees. Civil rights and equal opportunity programs 7. Quality management 10. The training calendar is consulted at the beginning of each month and a notice of the programme to be conducted is given out THE TRAINING NOTICE The training notice contains all the information related to the training programme It is generally in the form of an internal memo It contains the date on which the training programme is to be conducted.

Head HR &Administration He imparted training on the following topics 1.5s 3. after the days work was over Mr.Hygiene and safety Hindi in its simplest and spoken form was used.number of workers to gain knowledge the venue was shifted over to the company’s garden The timings were 6:00-7:00PM i.e.Effective communication 2. Sanjay Kumar Nagar provided the training. as a medium of instruction Humor was an important element without which the attendance would have been quite low these meetings had an air of relaxed informality where participation and questions were encouraged on the part of workers 42 .Kaizen 4.

is more than simply the sum of its parts They all must be interwoven into a unified design . THE OVERALL TRAINING PROGRAMME A training programme.FACTORS THAT ENSURE SUCCESS OF A TRAINING PROGRAMME 1.The factors that affect such integration include how methods are selected sequenced and presented For an evolution of a training programme seven steps are summarized here STEP 1:Define the problem STEP 2:Arrange the problem in order of priority STEP 3:Analysis of the problem STEP 4: Set the targets STEP 5: Produce a training plan STEP 6:Implement the training process STEP 7: Evaluate the results 43 .

The job of a training manager Define the problems Arrange the problem in order of priority Evaluate the result Analyze each problem to determine the best combination of organizational change. selection and training Assemble the resources and implement the process Design the training process and produce a training plan Produce a -Target population analysis -Task analysis -Performance analysis THE SYSTEMS APPROACH TO TRAINING The systems approach to training given by Eckstrand involves seven major steps 1.define training objectives 2.develop criterion measure to evaluate training 44 .

modify step 3 &4 based upon results in step 6 ASSESING TRAINING NEEDS In a way training needs analysis (TNA) is an examination of the training system There are a variety of internal and external forces in an organization to change The following table lists some of these forces and their implications for training within organizations.3.g.define training contents 4. Often organizations attempt to change with these forces by maintaining the status quo some will respond to these forces and recognize the need to change FORCES TRAINING IMPLICATIONS Increased computerization Training in the use and mgmt of computers Increased demand for employees Develop these skills in the current employees with technological skills Changing composition of the Need for managers who know how to relate to workforce (e. greater education. This gives rise to the Change model Price observes that training need exists when there is a gap between the present performance of an employee or group of employees and their desired performance .If an organization uses training to achieve its goals it must first access its training needs Which goals can it attain through training Which people need training? What is the purpose of training. employees problems and can work in a cooperative more minorities and females) manner with employees More demand on management Need for managers who can make quick and accurate time Greater foreign competition decisions Need for employees who have skills in the technical aspect of the job Need for managers who have skills in management techniques that maximize employee productivity THE CHANGE MODEL Diagram Shows A Schematic View Of Evolution Of A Training Plan TNA can be done on the basis that what sorts of changes are needed for the betterment of the organization.integrate training programmes and trainees 6. and finally 45 .compare graduates to criteria standards set in step 2 7.design methods and training materials 5.

the system that TNA examines are often referred to as perceived performance deficiencies A perceived performance deficiency exists where there is a difference between the expected and perceived job performance Perceived performance deficiency can be equated with the reasons that often lead to losses within organizations or with the symptoms of the need to change The example below depicts this in a clearer way: 46 .What will be the training cores? Goldstein believes that assessing training needs is far more important tan choosing particular training technique The Change Model is depicted as under: Stimulus for change Recognition of the Stimulus Recognition of the need to change Diagnosis Goals In other words we can say that Training needs assessment (TNA) is the examination or the diagnostic portion of the training system.

and Identification of the special problems of the job and analysis of any particular kind of skill needed to meet the problem Selection policy and size and general skill level of the available work force are two of the important factors that affects the general ongoing training programme of an organization Training programmes should be formulated by the line personnel with the advise and assistance of the staff An important point to be noted is that training can also be given in lieu of the high standards accomplished by the employees i.e.low productivity 2. Training should be provided based on current and/or future job requirements training should have a dual goal of organizational effectiveness and an improved work experience for the job incumbent Organizations should benefit from training if it raises employee performance by raising skill and motivation level and /or increases the organization’s ability to attract or retain high quality employees and Attempts are made to determine the training needs for the entire organization rather than its specific departments to involve the top management in this programme The existence of the gap between employees present performance and the desired performance can be determined on the basis of skill analysis involving five steps • • • • • Analysis and determination of the major requirements of the specific job Identification of the task needed to be accomplished to meet the job requirements Understanding of the procedures needed to accomplish each of the job tasks Analysis of the knowledge and skills needed to accomplish the procedures. in the form of a reward YODER’S PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE TRAINING 1.high absenteeism 3high turnover 4low employee morale 5high grievances Failure to motivate the employees TIPS ON PROVIDING THE RIGHT KIND OF TRAINING Before examining the various forms of TNA it is important to focus on the kinds of training organizations should provide. Training is a management function and accordingly every individual is a trainer 47 .Failure to train workers effectively SYMPTOMS OF THE NEED TO CHANGE 1.

Either a committee or some other individual should be eventually responsible for training 6. even a good instructor cannot train him Thus a positive attitude towards learning must be inculcated in the trainee 48 . Training should be imparted in the real work environment 11. Attempt must be made to distinguish between staff and line training functions 7. The objective and scope of the training should be defined at the very outset of the programme 9. Every individual requires training 4. Training should be aimed at the attainment of the objectives of the enterprise by providing proper knowledge skills and attitude 8. Lastly everything should be measured and the proper yardstick standard time cost etc should be developed SUMMARY: ESSENTIALS OF TRAINING To conclude there are four essential s for effective training namely: a) Stimulus b) Response c) Motivation d) Reward and incentives STIMULUS: The trainer’s communication must be scientific and to the point The trainee should understand what he is going to learn The instructor must use all or at least most of the sense organs of the trainee so as to get maximum possible participation RESPONSE: The trainer must observe the responses of the trainees as well as the result of his stimuli The responses of the trainees can be observed either by asking questions or allowing him to do the job according to his directions The instructor should allow the repetition of the correct response and encourage the trainees to retain the improved behaviour MOTIVATION: The trainee must be motivated to learn Unless the trainee is motivated and interested in learning. The staff trainer must not exert authority over line but provide advice and guidance 3. Training should be supported by all levels of managers 5. Attempts should be made to employ tested principles of learning 10.2.

e. remedial) TNA occurs when the perceived performance deficiency is a discrepancy between perceived and expected performance for the employees current job A proactive TNA is conducted to respond to the perception that current job behavior reflects an inability to meet future standards or expectations There are two variants of the proactive TNA namely: Preventive approach Developmental approach The preventive approach is designed to assure that an employee will be able to meet future expectations for his or her current job The developmental approach is conducted when current job behavior leads to the perception that the individual has the potential but is not yet ready to perform at a higher level position A proactive TNA rests on the ability of someone to predict or anticipate a future problem 49 .REWARDS AND INCENTIVES: Rewards and incentives act as a stimulus for the trainee to satisfy his need for social approval For any effective training programme the management must have a provision for the trainees The management must give sufficient information about the reward whether in the form of financial or non financial benefits to the trainees who will come out successfully of the training programme At present there is no systematic standardization of the different training programmes in India Each organization has developed its own method of training both for workers and supervisors However management must consider a systematic training to improve the efficiency and morale of the employees systematic training programme will help the management to standardize the job performance as well as the selection and placement programme As already specified for the success of any training programme the selection of trainer is of prime importance The trainer must be picked from the immediate supervisors in case of on the job training programme Secondly the statues of the training in charge should be equivalent to that of the personal manager in the organisationThirdly the needs of training should be based on organizations needs The last but not the least important point is the importance of human relations for the development of an effective organization Training in good human relations means training good leadership and developing sound relationship among people in the organization CATAGORIES OF TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS A TNA can be categorized based upon whether it is reactive or proactive A reactive (i.

it may seem logical that many organizations do not conduct a TNA prior to training TNA increases the probability of a successful training effort by determining if and how training can help to solve a particular problem It is impossible for trainers to prove that their training activity caused an improvement in job performance without conducting a TNA HOW SHOULD A TNA BE CONDUCTED To pinpoint the range of training needs and define their content.Any well done TNA is time consuming and costly . safety reports. absenteeism and turnover statistics and exit interviews of departing employees may reveal problems that should be addressed through training and development efforts Training needs may also become apparent from career planning discussions or performance appraisal reviews Supervisors see employees on daily basis and thus are another source of recommendation for training The HR department also reviews self nominations to learn whether training is actually needed Self nominations appears to be less common for training situations but more common for developmental activities 50 . the HR department uses different approaches to need assessment It may survey potential trainees to identify specific topics about which they want to learn more Another HR led approach is task identification Trainers begin by evaluating the job description to identify the salient task that the job requires Trainers are also alert to others sources of information that may indicate a need for training such as production records quality control reports grievances.

trainees skills and abilities and environmental constraints on correcting the deficiency Developing the behavioral description of the need These steps are explained as under: Ask questions about the job Training committees and Inputs from several view points can often reveal conferences training needs Analysis of the operating Indicators of task interference environmental factors problem Card sort Utilized in training conferences “how to” statements sorted by training importance 1.KEY STEPS INVOLVED IN CONDUCTING A TNA • • • • Defining the perceived performance deficiency Prioritizing the problem Identifying the job requirements. PERSON ANALYSIS A person analysis compares the individual with the task requirements The individual must have the necessary KSA as well as the motivation and the opportunity to perform the task Training the incumbent can typically rectify the deficiencies that are due to lack of skill or knowledge To ascertain whether a lack of KSA is the cause of the performance deficiency the incumbent must be asked to perform the desired behavior 51 .

that needs to be corrected In a reactive TNA the problem is typically identified as a result of the performance appraisal Problem identification for a proactive TNA stems from performance appraisal in conjunction with a planning process Whatever be the source or type.PRIORTIZE ORGANISATIONAL GOALS Since organizations have limited resources all problems cannot be handled simultaneously An organizational analysis asks “what problem should be solved to provide the greatest organizational benefit The answer to this question will depend upon the following three criteria: ORGANISATIONAL GOALS: The extent to which the performance deficiency hinders the attainment of organizational goals RESOURCES: The capacity to take corrective action must also be considered Just as any individual has strengths and weaknesses so to do training departments (and immediate supervisors) differ in their abilities to rectify the performance problems These along with other resource limitations (such as budget and time constraints must be considered) PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS: The objective of training is to improve performance by changing behavior Even if a training need is accurately identified and the correct timing is effectively administered there are still a variety of factors that may inhibit behavioral change One such factor is the particular climate/culture of the organization Orientation towards development is a dimension of climate that has been identified by several researchers The table on the next page lists a variety of resources that can be used in organizational analysis. 52 . 2.2. there is often a tendency to state the problem in terms of the perceived solutions rather than in behavioral terms According to Mager and Pipe one way of removing the problem is to ask the individual defining the problem “what specific behaviors are not taking place that should be” Without a specific behavioral description of the problem an accurate TNA is highly improbable. DEFINE THE DEFICIENCY IN BEHAVIORAL TERMS The first step in the diagnostic process is to clearly define the deficiency in the behavioral terms.

JOB TASK AND WORK ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS 53 Planning and Review business objective Provides actual performance data on .DATA SOURCE TRAINING NEED IMPLICATION RECOMMENDED Organizational goals Were the training emphasis can and should be placed These and objectives provide normative standards of both direction and expected impact which can highlight deviations from objective and Manpower inventory performance problems Where training is needed to fill the gaps caused by retirement turnover age etc This provides an important demographic Skill inventory data base regarding possible scope of the training programme Number of employees in each skill group. knowledge and skill level training time per job etc This provides an estimate of the magnitude of the specific training needs Useful in cost Organizational climate indices benefit analysis of training projects These “quality of working life” indicators at the organizational level may help focus on problems that have training components Analysis of effective Cost accounting concepts may represent ratio between actual indices performance and the standard or desired Changes in system or New or changed equipment may present training problems subsystem Management requests One of the most commom techniques of TNA or interrogation Exit interviews MBO systems or Often information not otherwise available can be obtained in these problem areas and supervisory training needs specially Work Provides performance review potential review and long term recurring basis so that base line measurement may be known subsequently improvements may be made Of all the sources listed the most useful for an organizational analysis is the organizations goal and objectives In larger organizations a formal strategic document exists which the trainer should not only read but analyze to get the true feeling for the direction in which the organization is headed 3.

job demand and the specific human behavior involved such as decision making.As part of TNA a job analysis should focus on what the trainee needs to be able to do. communicating etc A task oriented approach focuses on a description of the work activities performed These involve a description of how where why a worker performs an activity The table below specifies the data sources for job analysis TECHNIQUES FOR TRAINING NEEDS IMPLICATIONS OBTAINING JOB DATA Job description Outlines the job in terns of typical duties and responsibilities but is not meant to be all inclusive Helps define performance discrepancies Job specifications or task List specified tasks require for each job More specific analysis Performance standards than job descriptions Specifications may extend to judgment of the reqd knowledge and skills Objectives of the task of the job and standards by which they are judged This may include base line data Perform the job as well Most effective way o determining specific tasks but has serious limitations the higher the level of job the greater is the gap between performance and result outcomes Observe job work sampling Review literature Possibly useful in comparison analysis of job concerning the job structure but far removed from unique aspect of the job structure within any specific organization 4. to perform the job satisfactorily In TNA a job analysis should take both worker and task oriented approach A worker oriented approach focuses on the skill knowledge and abilities to perform the job These might include elementary notions. WORK ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS 54 .

the methods and the techniques used have progressed considerably Specialists have become more aware of what their role should be. the approach. DEVELOP OBJECTIVES The information obtained in the job. person and work environment analysis is used to develop the training objectives Many advocate this approach while others have questioned its value. the capacity to perform will not result in performance if the other two variables are not present analysis The assessment of whether these variables are present is referred to as work environment 4. SKILLS AND ATTITUDE While the purpose of training in the business context has changed very little over the past several years. what trends to motivate people to work in various kinds of employment and what are the most acceptable and profitable ways of achieving the desired performance from individuals and groups Employers too have grown to recognize the value of investing in training with these ends in view It has been accepted over some years that all training can be categorized under the heading of knowledge skills and attitudes At one time little distinction was made between these three areas Skills were seen to be acquired when knowledge of the method process or system was passed on either by word of mouth or in writing Learners were expected to be proficient in a job after being told what to do Those who were slow learners were considered untrainable and thus discharged The approach to attitude in training was negative Employees were often seen to have the wrong attitude when they failed to meet the employer’s demand but it wasn’t in practice to inculcate the right attitude i. the one that could be accepted as constructive But the work of behavioral scientists has helped to bring about a change in the recent years Trainers today are aware that men cannot be treated like machines 55 .However.Even if the KS is acquired there is no guarantee that the deficiency will be eliminated Training can only rectify a deficiency which is due to the lack of KS.e. Critics have typically stated that behavioral objectives are rigid and fail to consider individual learning styles TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES INTRODUCTION: DISTINCTION BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE.

and How much a particular group of trainees will learn from a particular method or a combination of methods The intellectual level and educational background of the participants. trade off exists That is no single technique is always best: the best method depends on: cost effectiveness. appropriateness of the facilities. trainee preferences and capabilities The importance of these six trade offs depend s on the situation There is a range of ‘teaching methods’ available to trainers Each method has its advantages and disadvantages in terms of the ‘objective ‘ of a particular training programme The difference between training methods lie mainly in terms of the trainees personal involvement or participation in the process of learning The choice of the training method depends on • • • • • Experience and competence of the instructor. desired programme content. but not employees are dedicated enough to undertake private study to keep abreast of the latest developments in their field Self development according to most trainers is the best and the most effective means of training Nevertheless the employers have a responsibility towards the employees Thus there is a continuous need for ‘knowledge ‘training Not only is it necessary to cover the knowledge required to enable an employee to carry out a specific job but a good deal more information about the business has to be imparted if a person is to be made the contributing member of the team In selecting training and development techniques. the participants age and practical experience Depends on the social and cultural factors in the environment Now many participative methods are accepted and used in management training Some methods are more effective in achieving certain objectives than others 56 . learning principles.The distinction between knowledge and skills has also come about much by reason of workers pressure as because of managerial enlightenment Employees were outsiders and the business secrets were not divulged to them They lived in blissful ignorance of the aims of the organization and the significance of themselves Today managements have become aware of the facts that employees who re kept in the picture about what is going on are likely to accept and give commitment to management decisions After all uncertainty can have a more damaging effect on workforce than bad news Moreover employees need to be continually updated in specific work areas Many.

Off the job training 57 . 1. Rank and file job training methods 3.e. On the job training 2. Craft training method 4. Special training method The second classification can be on the basis where the training takes place i. Executive training method 5. General training methods 2.• It also depends on the time and availability of resources and infrastructure al facilities Training may be classified lucidly as given by Yoder into the following categories 1.

development of a feeling of belongingness and felicitation of learning and teamwork on part of the employees content of the induction programme should be predetermined in the form of a checklist specifying the topics to be covered Attempts are to be made to follow up and assess the programme by interviewing the new employees as a measure to correct the gaps in the knowledge and attitude of the employees • RANK AND FILE JOB TRAINING This is based on similarities in training on several specific jobs This type of training can either be imparted in a class room or on the job It is performed by foreman or a group leader Its advantages arise in so far as it is realistic and economical and does not hamper production as well as necessitate transition from classroom to job situations Its limitations include 1. The trainer may be an incompetent teacher 2. The shop floor maybe busy 3. There may arise heavy production losses 58 .TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS ON THE BASIS OF ABOVE CLASIFICATION INDUCTION OR ORIENTATION TRAINING Induction or orientation training may be defined as a process of guiding and counseling the employee to familiarize him with the job situation The induction process accomplishes several objectives including formation of a favorable impression and attitude.

• SUPERVISORY TRAINING Supervisory training needs reveal utmost divergence in view of the divergent duty of the supervisor Employee attitude survey s help in finding areas of supervisory training Likewise supervisors themselves may be requested to indicate the areas where they need training Frequently these surveys indicate that supervisors need training in human relations. and is so often called “on the job training” It is primarily used to teach workers how to do their current jobs In this the worker learns to master the operations involved on the actual job situation under the supervision of his immediate boss who has to carry the primary burden of conducting this training Usually no equipment or space is needed. since new employees are trained in the actual job location The trainer may be a skilled workman He may be a superior who breaks in the new man and then turns him over to the skilled workman who continues to guide the learner 59 . company policies and how to instruct Supervisory courses consist of Job method training (JMT) and Job relations training (JRT) The JMT helps the supervisors to improve methods in their departments. production control. while the JRT helps them in handling human relations problems in their departments ON THE JOB TECHNIQUES As the name suggests on the job techniques are conducted in the real job settings On the job methods usually involve training in the total job These methods are typically conducted by individuals. workers or supervisors The main advantage is that the trainees learn while actually performing the job which may minimize the training costs They also learn in the same physical and social environment in which they will be working once the normal training period is completed However this method has its limitations It does happen sometimes that the supervisors and coworkers are not interested in training new employees This becomes a problem particularly when the trainers believe that their job security may be threatened by training the new comers • JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING Job instruction training (JIT) is received directly on the job.

The trainee receives an overview of the job. Finally the employee performs the job without supervision. On the above basis a continuous feedback is received 6. its purpose and its desired outcomes with an emphasis on the relevance of the training 2. the method facilitates positive transfer since the training and actual work situations are almost identical It provides active practice and immediate knowledge of results DISADVANTAGES The assigned instructor may be a poor teacher • • • The instructor may be antagonized by an additional assignment The worker in his haste for immediate production may fail to learn the best way of doing the job The actual costs considering the trainers time loss (if the trainee fails to learn the job properly) as well as the wasted material and damaged equipment may be heavy • • The training programmes are often briefly and poorly structured Many established workers find teaching a new recruit to be a nuisance and the new employee may be pressured to master the task too quickly 60 . is realistic and stimulates high motivation It speeds up the workers adjustment to his superior and fellow workers The cost of such a training is quite low In terms of learning principles. The trainee then mimics the trainer’s example 4. The trainer demonstrates the job to give the employees a model to copy 3.JIT may include the following steps 1. although the trainer may visit the employee to see if there are any lingering questions ADVANTAGES • • • • • It is easily organized. Demo by the trainer and practice by the trainees is continued till the job is mastered 5.

Before implementing effective JIT programme. one should take into account certain things. attitudes or age that may inhibit communication • • The trainer must be made to realize the importance of close supervision in order to avoid trainee injuries JIT should be used in conjunction with other training approaches such as programmed instruction lectures and films JOB ROTATION To cross train employees in a variety of jobs.absences downsizing or when resignations occur It helps workers to sharpen their skills and is used to develop people for higher level positions by exposing them to a wide range of experience in a relatively short span of time It is used for both blue collared as well as white collared positions ADVANTAGES • • • High degree of learner participation and job transferability Creates flexibility during manpower shortages Workers having the right skills can step in to fill open slots 61 . these are as under: • • • • Firstly the choice of trainers should be based upon their ability to teach and their desire to take this added responsibility The trainer should be trained in proper methods of instructions Adequate evaluation of the trainers progress has to be made frequently and then fed off back to the trainee using reliable and valid methods Trainers and trainees should be carefully paired in order to minimize differences in background languages personality. thereby providing them a wider exposure Trainees are placed in different jobs in different parts of the organization for a specified period of time They may spend several days or even years in different company locations In this way they get an overall perspective of the organization Besides giving workers variety in their jobs it helps the organizations in vacations . some trainers move a trainee from job to job by job instruction training This is a method of training wherein workers rotate through a variety of jobs.

• • The method provides new and different work on systematic basis giving employees a variety of experiences and challenges Employees also increase their flexibility and marketability as they can perform a wide array of tasks LIMITATIONS • • • Time consuming and expensive Due to individual differences different employees are not equally suited for all jobs It weakens a worker’s commitment to a given job Job rotation also challenges one of the basic principles of personnel placement: that workers be assigned to job that best matches their talents and challenges APPRENTICESHIP Apprenticeship training is ancient device An apprentice is a worker who is learning a trade but who has not reached the state where he is competent to work without supervision It is particularly common in the skilled trades. Organizations that employ skilled trade people such as plumbers. masons. lengthy and usually on one to one basis DISADVANTAGES This kind of training basically discriminates and gives preference treatment to friends and relatives Time use in the programme is on basis of advancement rather than demonstrated ability This result in some skilled apprentices remaining at minimal wages. printers and sheet metal workers may develop journeymen by conducting formal apprentices programmes A new worker is tutored by a established worker An apprenticeship lasts 2 to 5 years Classroom instructions are imparted typically in the evenings for 144 or more hours per year Each apprentice is usually given a workbook consisting of reading material.crafts and technical fields in which proficiency can be acquired after a relatively long period of direct association with the work and under the direct supervision of experts At the end of apprenticeship programme . carpenters.the person is “promoted” to journeyman ADVANTAGES Training is intense. a situation that companies sometimes have exploited The members of the trade predetermine the amount of time an apprenticeship lasts 62 . tests to be taken and practice problems to be solved The apprentice serves as an assistant and learns the craft by working with a fully skilled member of the trade called a Journeyman This training is used in such trades .

those specific performances subordinates find hardest to improve and the kind and quality of feedback which can have great impact on subordinates • • Participation. in that the trainee cannot trust the coach VESTIBULE TRAINING To keep instructions from disrupting normal operations. coaching of immediate subordinates by their managers is common Coaching is similar to apprenticeships because the coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy It tends to be less formal than an apprenticeship programme because there are few formal classroom sessions and because it is provided when needed rather than being part of a carefully planned programme Coaching is almost always handled by the supervisor or the manager not by the HR department ADVANTAGES • • Coaching thrives in a “climate of confidence”. feedback and job transference are likely to be high in this form of learning Coaching is likely not to be effective as less directive approaches such as nondirective counseling or sensitivity training the trainees shortcomings are emotional or personal Coaching may be effective if relations between trainee and coach are ambiguous. a climate in which subordinates respect the integrity and capacity of their superiors Coaching can take greatest advantage of the possibilities of individualized instruction concentrating on those specific stimulus situations subordinates find hardest to deal with. some organizations use vestibule training This type of training is often used in production work A vestibule consists of training equipment that is set up a short distance from actual production line The method is good for promoting practice a learning principle involving the repetition of behavior These special training areas are used for skilled and semiskilled jobs particularly those involving technical equipment ADVANTAGES Trainees can practice in the vestibule without getting in the way or slowing down the production line 63 DISADVANTAGES .COACHING At management levels.

Basic theoretical knowledge has to be built up before actual practice 2. once they are back in their jobs LECTURES The lecture method is a popular form of instruction in educational institutions Even though the effectiveness of the lecture method is often questioned many instructors find themselves 30%-50% of their time lecturing It is also used in industry Lectures consist of meeting in which one or a small number of those present actually play an active part The lecturer may be a member of the company or a guest speaker Before preparing a lecture the following 4 questions must be considered • • • • Who is your audience? What is your audience? What is the available time? What is the subject matter?  It should be brief and to the point. With a more homogeneous audience a trainer can direct the lecture to specific topics and techniques which is often more beneficial than using some broad based material 64 Besides the following points must be considered: .DISADVANTAGES Vestibule is small so relatively few people can be trained at the same time OFF THE JOB TRAINING TECHNIQUES Off the job methods are those training and development programmes that take place away from the daily pressures of the job and are conducted by highly competent outside resource people who often serve as trainers. presenting the theme of the subject in a manner that arouses the interest of the audience from the start  The speaker must poised courteous and sincere  Simple language must be used The method is generally used when: 1. consultants and university faculty Its major drawback is the transfer problem Too often trainees learn new facts and principles at lectures workshops and conferences but have no idea how to apply them. which is one of the main advantages of this method Such people include technicians. When the summary of some research work has to be communicated 3.

knowledge of results and transfer of learning It produces staleness and monotony resulting in less absorption of knowledge by students Trainees themselves have to understand and personalize the contents of a lecture There is a little chance for dialogue.MERITS: • • • DEMERITS: • • • • • • • It gives very little opportunity for active practice. no interaction among group members is encouraged The method cannot adopt itself to the individual differences and is farthest from reality Large number of people can be trained /taught at the same time Method is cost efficient and effective Lecture method has more participant acceptability than training directions 65 . questions or discussion of individual problems and special interests It is not suitable for courses where people with work experience are participating There is one way communication. development.

a slide presentation is superior to verbal and printed instruction in training employees to complete various work assembly operations • • Videotapes are extremely useful in time and motion study in recording employees’ job behavior which can be later evaluated and feedback provided They are time saving as copies of the same films can be mailed to all plants at one time 66 .AUDIO VISUAL TECHNIQUES: Audiovisual techniques cover an array of training techniques. It allows participants to see while listening and is usually quite good at capturing their interests These allow a trainers message to be uniformly given to numerous organizational locations at one time and to be reused as often as required It is important to note that people remember 20%of what they hear. such as films slides and videotapes. 30% of what they see and 50% of what they see and hear AVAILABLE DEVICES Blackboard: It is inexpensive and is available in all lecture halls Its use require no prior preparation is very useful for demonstrating calculations and formulations One of the major disadvantages of using a blackboard is that the speaker has to turn away from the audience Flip chart: It can replace the blackboard with the advantage that no erasing is required It is especially useful for single presentations which may not justify the designing of costly visuals Limitation of space is a major disadvantage Drawings have to be stored away flat to avoid damage OVERHEAD PROJECTOR: It projects large size transport images onto a screen under normal lighting conditions MERITS: • • • Useful for training people in a work process or a sequence as they can more readily trace the pattern of work flow when laid out graphically The trainer can readily face the audience retaining an eye contact and thus make his talk more effective According to a study conducted by Konz and Duckey.

giving the participants a chance to share opinion about the material An effective trainer can get all the participants involved even the less vocal ones The success of this method depends largely on the skills personality and education of the discussion leader The conference method can draw on the learning principles of motivation and feedback MERITS • Stimulated participants readily join in the discussion and then receive feedback on their ideas from others in the group This method is used to enhance knowledge or attitudinal development • This method does not usually involve any tangible assets other than people.• Trainees can also be provided with immediate visual feedback of their behavior when necessary LIMITATIONS: • • A trainer cannot modify formal visuals in response to new situations and in answering questions If the training content changes. with the majority no more active than. the conferences are dominated by a few. Changing and modifying attitudes Sometimes the lecture method may be followed by a conference. had they been facing a lecture This is particularly effective if the ratio of trainees to trainers is not very large This method is useful when the material needs clarification and elaboration or where a lively discussion would facilitate understanding OBJECTIVES OF THE CONFERENCE METHOD: 1. enthusiasm and verbal communication skills of the participants affect the outcome more than for any other training method 67 . Developing the decision the decision making and problem solving skills of the personnel 2. Presenting new and complicated material 3. ideas and criticism It is a small group discussion in which the leader plays a neutral role providing guidance’s and feed back In spite the intention to encourage general participation. the attitudes. a whole new film has to be made CONFERENCE METHOD: It is also known as the discussion method It encourages the participation of all members of a group in an exchange of opinions.

real or imaginary is presented and then spontaneously acted out Participants suggest how the problem can be handled more effectively in the future The acting is followed by discussion and analysis to determine what happened and why and if necessary how the problem can be handled in the future Role playing is less structured than acting. and be sensitive to others feelings The information serves as feedback of the effect his behaviour has on other people A fuller appreciation of the important part played by feelings in determining behaviour in social situations is developed Each person is able to discover his own personal faults It permits training in control of feelings and emotions The two important types of role-plays are 68 .they get to see themselves as others see them The experience may create greater empathy and tolerance of individual differences and is therefore well suited to diversity training which aims to create a work environment conducive to a diverse workforce The unique values of role playing include the following • • • • • • • It requires a person to carry out a thought or decision he may have reached Role playing experience demonstrates the gap between thinking and doing It permits the practice of carrying out an action and make it clear that good human relations require skills Attitudinal change is effectively accomplished by placing the person in the specified role It trains a person to be aware of. skills or sales techniques Role playing can be defined as an educational or therapeutic technique in which some problems involving human interaction. where performers have to say lines on cue Participants are assigned different roles in the scenario to be enacted so in this way it is a device that forces trainees to assume different identities Usually participants exaggerate each others behaviour Ideally .DEMERIT • This method is only restricted to small groups and therefore. it proves to be costly ROLE PLAYING: Role playing believes that learning is facilitated by active participation rather than passive reception This is a training method often aimed at enhancing either human relations.

1. Structured role play is characterized by use of written cases selected from text or written to meet organizational training objectives It can further be subdivided into three types • Single role play consists of two or three playing out roles in front of a class ADVANTAGE It allows the entire class to examine in depth all the dynamics and complexities involved when individuals attempt to solve a problem or understand one another 69 .

Some players tend to feel embarrassed performing in front of the entire class • Multiple role play is the one in which all the trainees are players Each player is given a written role or an assignment as an observer and then the entire class role plays at the same time It causes almost no embarrassment to the players and sharply reduces the problems related to negative comments about ineffective role play behaviour The problem in this type is that very little time can be allowed for discussion of process experiences of each individual group • Role rotation consists typically of one person playing the role usually that of an individual who has a problem and having several class members attempt to use their skills to handle the situation Participants tend to feel less embarrassed and are more willing 2. it may be difficult for the trainers to handle the negative comments about them that are likely to emerge in the discussion following the role play b.Spontaneous role play is used to help the participant acquire an insight into his own problem and not on skill development The trainee elicits some problem from the group itself and does not use written material ADVANTAGE It tends to develop more deeply into motivations and assumptions that influences a role player’s behaviour DISADVANTAGE The major problem is that it requires extremely high skills on the part of the trainer and only a few persons get an opportunity of active participation The typical role-play involves three phases: 70 . burden is placed on only one of the players c. If players do badly.DISADVANTAGES a. Regardless of the number of roles in any written role play.

Enhancing ability to develop innovative solutions to the human relations problem e. the trainer sets the scene by restarting the identity of the roles being enacted and making a brief statement about what has just happened POST ENACTMENT: In conducting post enactment discussion. Modifying attitude 71 . Improving interviewing skills d. Increasing sensitivity to the motivation of others c.THE WARM UP: The objective of the warm up is to get the trainees participate in a constructive manner with minimum anxiety and maximum motivation The trainee’s introduction to the session should be such that it would arouse interest of the trainees THE ENACTMENT: Before carrying out enactment the trainer should do the following • • Read aloud the general information Those who have volunteered to role play are given briefing sheets and sent out of the room with the instruction of not to communicate among themselves • • • The instructor should clarify all the doubts that the role player might have Role players take their positions facing the class To begin the role play. reaction to role-play should be obtained from the people who have acted a role-play ROLE PLAY HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE EFFECTIVE IN a. Studying small group leadership skills b.

ADVANTAGE • By “putting their feet in the other person’s shoe” participants gain some understanding of what it is like to experience interpersonal conflict from someone else’s position DISADVANTAGE • Some people tend to put more emphasis on acting out rather than problem solving However managerial personnel have indicated only a fair acceptance of this method of training CASE STUDY: By studying the case. trainees learn about real or hypothetical circumstances and the action s others take under those circumstances Besides learning the content of the case a person can develop decision making skills particularly the analytical skills According to KR Andrews “business case is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes in the reader the need to decide what is going on what the situation really is or what the problems are and what can and should be done” Cases are organized around one or more problems or issues that are confronted by an organization Cases are designed primarily to illustrate problem issues rather than to portray “success stories” Cases can range in length from one page to over fifty pages The method calls for language skills But many people are sent to case study courses primarily because they lack communication skills 72 .

ADVANTAGES • • When cases are meaningful and similar to work related situations there is some transference There also is the advantage of participation through discussion of the case It improves participants skills in problem analysis. simulation training is based on a reproduction of some aspect of job reality Coppard defines simulation as “a representation of a real life situation which attempts to duplicate selected components of the situation along with their interrelationships in such a way that it can be manipulated by the user” Simulation usually enhances cognitive skills. while others may involve as many as 15 to 20 people working together as a team Simulations are broad based training techniques that can be adapted to suit a company’s need By using equipment simulators workers can practice new behaviour and operate certain complex equipment free of danger to themselves Equipment simulators can range from simple mock ups to computer based simulations of complete 73 . particularly decision making Avery popular training technique for higher level jobs in which the employees must process large amounts of information Simulation have many forms –some use expensive technical instruments while others are far less costly Some simulations need only one participant. communication and particularly brings home to the participant that nothing is absolutely “right or wrong” in the field of human behaviour DISADVANTAGES Feed back and reception are usually lacking One inherent difficulty is personal bias According to Castore trainees may grow tired of case study after being exposed to it for awhile and find other methods more involving and more interesting Survey results indicate that the case method is considered by the training directors to be the best method of developing problem solving skills SIMULATION Simulation is an approach that replicate certain essential characters of the real world organization so that the trainees can react to it as if it were the real thing and then consequently transfer what has been learned from the to their job As the name implies.

initiative planning and organizing. the entire exercise may take 2-3 hours to be completed Problem from various management field may be put in the form of letters memos and memoranda in the IN basket of the participant The participant is required to respond to these items as he might do on the job Judges unconstructively observe and evaluate the participant’s performance along certain dimensions such as the quality and quantity of work accomplishes ADVANTAGES • The biggest advantage is that this method is rooted in the real life situation of the corporate world It effectively enhances skills in decision making and problem solving The technique can be applied to all managerial positions • • It can also be designed to emphasize certain specific aspects of performance It is the best method to assess specific dimensions like written communication skills.. management control.use of delegation .problem analysis and decision making 74 .environments Some of them are utilized to train a single individual and others are used for team training A.IN BASKET EXERCISE It simulates how managers make decision an the allocated time The name is derived from the famous IN and OUT trays found on the table of executives These trays are more prominent in the case of government officials and public sector managers The managers proceeds through the line basket and makes decision about the matters that need attention Usually there are 12-15 items in the basket IN basket. sensitivity. risk taking.

BUSINESS GAMES It is described as a dynamic training exercise utilizing a model of a business situation This trains the employee in certain skills within the rules of the game participants try to meet the stated objectives of the exercise Participants may be divided into various teams which are placed in competition to each other in resolving some problem information which may be supplied to all the teams The game illustrates the value of analytic technique such as use of mathematical model to arrive at the optimal solution Business games are developed to simulate interpersonal relations problems. budgeting and resource allocation problems It is a simulation which consists of a sequential decision making exercise structured around the hypothetical model of an organizations operations in which the participants assume roles in managing the simulated operations It attempts to reproduce the social psychological and economic dynamics or organizational behaviour in an artificial setting Participants are told about the objective of the game and evaluated on the basis of how far they are able to meet the objectives ADVANTAGES • • • • • • They are time saving thereby provide the trainees with many years of experience in a few days They are able to demonstrate some very broad but vital facets of organizational life It helps in modifying attitudes to a great extent Provides experience in the application of statistical and analytical methods These games are quite absorbing and interest provoking They give the trainee the opportunity to learn from experience without the fear of failure or the consequences 75 . financial.DISAVANTAGES • • • These games are expensive to conduct and to administer The method is essentially individual and non interactive It provides very little opportunity for learning team building activities B.

the method has three characteristics: • • • The participants are active and they determine their own learning pace What is to be learned involves many discrete pieces of material. a business should run on the basis of well established policies rather than short range opportunistic one DISADVANTAGES • • • • It is too costly in cases where computers are needed. the cost goes still higher It may become only a game to be won without any learning outcomes Some games may be too simplified models of reality to be effective for real learning of actual business situations Many games involve only quantitative variables completely ignoring the human aspect PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION It is a training approach which makes the advantage of private tutoring available to large group of students being trained in new skills Programmed instruction is one of the innovations used in teaching technology developed in recent years but its origin goes to the research of learning theorist BF Skinner The method involves an actual piece of equipment usually called the Teaching machine or a specially constructed paper booklet In either case. the student works through all the sequences of a book in a straight path from the first page to the last He is given feedback in every step 76 .e.• They are excellent means of emphasizing the importance of long range planning i. and the participants get immediate feedback on whether they have learned each piece The material to be learned is prepared in such a way that it can be presented to the learner in a series of sequential steps These steps progress from simple to more complex level of instruction The information to be taught is presented in the form of a programme The person who writes the programme is is called the programmer and the people for whom the programme is being written is referred to as the target population There are three kinds of programmed instructions: • LINEAR PROGRAMMING :In this method which was developed by Skinner.

the book becomes the teacher The learner has to be highly motivated to continue learning Developing programmed instructions is time consuming The material has to be broken into a number of logical steps since there are several correct ways to perform a task This method does not appear to improve training performance in terms of immediate learning or retention over a time compared to other conventional methods 77 . there is a constant exchange of information among them When participants make mistakes they suffer no embarrassment as they are the only one s who know that a mistake has been made Fast learners don’t have to wait for the slow ones to catch up Administrative simplicity and increased productivity in training results in lower training cost per student An individual may receive instructions at any time DISADVANTAGES • • • • There is an absence of a teacher.• INTRINSIC OR BRNDING PROGRAMMING: This form developed by Dr Crowder makes the student work through the programme by one of the several “paths” or “branches” according to the response he chooses • ADAPTIVE PROGRAMMING: Developed by Gordon Pask these programmes can only be presented in machines which “adapt” to the trainees This form makes allowance for more variations in student ability ADVANTAGES • • • • • • • • • It reduces the training time The learning takes place at the student’s own pace Participants get immediate feedback Since the material is presented in a precise and systematic manner there is no gap in presentation The participants are active learners.

COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION It is one of the newest developments in instructional methodology It is a logical extension of programmed instruction and shares many of its benefits ADVANTAGES • • • • CAI has the advantage of individual pace instruction and a considerably wider range of application It requires less time to teach the same amount of information than any conventional method Trainees also react favorably to this method The computer is capable of assessing the progress of the trainees and can also adapt to his needs by virtue of its storage and memory capacities It presents the advantage of standard presentation. structured practices and instant specific feedback DISADVANTAGE • The major drawback to CAI for most organizations is the initial high costs 78 .

which is obviously the best development The method gives the participant a practice in communicating with his colleague and understanding them It provides an environment far away from his daily working situation and thus free from the pressures and biases It involves interaction over an extended period of time and living together with a large cross section of people from different types of organizations with varied functional interest 79 . to update his knowledge of new concepts and techniques with the help of other co participants to develop sound judgment through greater insight into the human behaviour The method is suitable for training and development of executives with considerable experience It is not useful in the case of management students without any experience The participants are divided into groups consisting of about eight to ten participants These groups are called syndicates Each syndicate functions as a team that can represent various functions as well as interest areas The syndicates are given assignments which have to be furnished and a report submitted by specific date and time By rotation each member of the syndicate becomes the leader for completing the specific task Each assignment to the syndicate is given in the form of a “brief” This is a carefully prepared document by the faculty Generally each syndicate is required to submit a report which is circulated to other syndicates for critical evaluation ADVANTAGES • • • • • • It secures a very high level of involvement from the participants For the practicing managers their own experience is the starting point in this method It is a method of self development.SYNDICATE METHOD Working in small groups to achieve a particular purpose is described as Syndicate method The essence of this method is that the participants learn from each other and contribute their own experience to the fullest The syndicate method is designed to provide the participant an environment that would help him to reflect critically on his own work and experience.

DISADVANTAGES • • If the syndicate is not structured properly it could lead to a lot of wastage of time and cause frustration In the absence of proper pressure on the participants by trainers or participants themselves some participants might start dragging their feet BEHAVIOUR MODELLING According to social learning theory. At the end of each training session the trainees are given copies of the learning points and are asked to try and apply them to their job in the following week It has been found that this programme has had desirable effects on learning behaviour and performance criteria Employees may learn a new behaviour by observing and then imitating the new behaviour recreation of the behaviour may be videotaped so that the trainer and the trainee can review it When watching the ideal behaviour the trainee also gets to see negative consequences of not following the right behaviour By observing the positive and negative consequences the employee receives enforcement that enables him to correct the behaviour This approach has been successful in teaching supervisors how to discipline employees and is particularly common in athletics SENSTIVITY TRAINING It provides the participants with an opportunity to actually experience some concept of management just as a manager would experience them in his organizational situation Sensitivity 80 . It is generally used to improve the interpersonal and communication skills of supervisors in dealing with the subordinates. most human behaviour is learnt observationally through modeling when social learning theory is applied to industrial training programme it is commonly referred to as behaviour modeling. There are a number of training sessions and each session follows the same format The topic is first introduced by the trainer and then a film is shown depicting the supervisor model effectively handling a situation followed by asset of three to six learning parts that are shown in the film immediately before and after the model is presented A group discussion is held in which the effectiveness of the method is discussed After this the practice session starts in which one of the trainee assumes the role of an employee And then feedback from the training class is given on the effectiveness of each trainee in demonstrating the desired behaviour.

e.training purports to develop awareness and sentiments to one’s own and other’s behavioral patterns is a group training method that uses intensive participation and immediate feedback for self analysis and change The method provides face to face learning of on going behaviour within a small group and lacks structure In this the participants remain involved and enthusiastic This attempts to develop the diagnostic ability of the participants –the ability to perceive reality The individual is made more aware of himself and his impact on others At a group level one learns about normative structures and authority relationships leading to better team work It increases sensitivity and awareness towards others and their styles It helps to understand how conflicts arise and are resolved Obviously the learning is at an emotional rather than at an intellectual level Being an emotional experience the degree of change depends on the amount of emotional involvement A predominant problem with the effectiveness of sensitivity training is the transfer problem that is the inability of the participant to apply concepts and awareness gained in the laboratory or group to his job ROLE OF THE TRAINER The trainer acts as the facilitator to obtain the feed back and check severe psychological damage to the participants He is responsible for creating an environment with time and space in which learning can take place He should focus on the discussion and group learning for constructive purposes It allows the participants to form their own conclusion based on “HERE AND NOW” i. behaviour discrepancies: developing an ability to diagnose the relationship between how one feels and how it is shown in behavioral terms This helps in moving towards greater congruence between the two • Flexibility: developing skills in behaving in new and different ways Thus sensitivity training is aimed at developing the entire person and not just a particular skill The method is likely to increase managerial sensitivity and trust and enhance respect for the contribution of others However the method has not received proper recognition in the business world TYPES OF SENSTIVITY TRAINING 81 . learning from the interactions with the group GOALS OF SENSTIVITY TRAINING • • • Introspection or awareness. the ability to reflect on feelings and ideas within oneself Awareness of feelings: developing a high regard for the significance of feelings in working and living situations Recognition of and concern about feelings.

LAWLER AND WEICK HAVE SUMMARIZED THE MAIN GOALS OF T GROUP AS FOLLOWS • • • • • To give the trainee an understanding of how and why he acts towards other people as he does and of the way in which he affects them To provide some insights into why people act the way they do To teach the participants how to listen i. actually hear what other people are saying rather than concentrating on a replay To provide insights concerning how groups operate and what sorts of processes groups go under certain conditions To foster tolerance and understanding of the behaviour of others 82 . DUNNETTE.e.SENSTIVITY TRAINING T-GROUP TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS STRANGER GROUP FAMILY GROUP COUSIN GROUP T-GROUP One of the significant and repeated methods of sensitivity training is the Tgroup T group leads to understanding of self and contribute towards organizational change and development through training in attitudinal change in the participants and create better team work CAMPBELL.

the ways in which we are supposed to control and nurture others and the way in which we have to learn to deal with our own feelings The TA programme can vary from one day capsule to a five day programme It involves sharing of concepts and knowledge of TA. may dilute it or may not disclose themselves in the fear of it being used against them • COUSIN GROUPS: Persons are from the same organization or institution but not in the same department or hierarchical level They are quite independent of one another TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS: He basic philosophy and approach to TA was developed by Dr Eric Berne.• To provide a setting in which an individual can try new ways of interacting with people and receive feedback as to how these new ways affect them T-GROUPS ARE CLASSIFIED AS: • STRANGER GROUPS: Participants in this group have no prior knowledge of on another The advantage of such a group is that the members can express and involve himself or herself without fear or retaliation • FAMILY GROUPS: Participants in this group belong to the same department or hierararchical level and have knowledge of one another The disadvantage is that the members may shy away from giving feedback. a psychologist searching for alternatives to Freudian therapeutic procedure she realized that all of us have one of three operating ego states Parent adult or child at any given time TA can be used to eradicate or minimize the dysfunctional aspect of the personality The dysfunctional aspect of ones personality develop from cultural assumptions assimilated during childhood. playing structural exercises and games leading the participants to assess their own personalities FISHBOWL METHOD It is essentially used in providing skills for understanding human behaviour It effectively uses group interaction to develop in the participants a degree of self awareness The primary objective of this method is to inculcate in the participants the discipline of observing others and on the basis of this provide feedback to learn about ones behaviour and personality as seen through the eyes of others 83 .

and Interpersonal relations METHODOLOGY : The exercise can involve up to 25 participants seated in 2 circles one inner and one outer The inner group is the target group.Fish bowl can be effectively used in developing: • • • • • • • Individual and group behaviour Content of communication Role that an individual plays in-group activities Resolving intergroup conflict level of participation Dynamics of group problem solving Decision making. members of this group will either discuss a reselected topic or move towards the completion of a group task After the discussion by the members of the inner group the outer group is asked to comment on the content and more importantly the dynamics and processes of the inner group members Feedback may be obtained by one of the following methods: • • Each member of the outer group observes all the members of the inner group on a specific dimension of the group process Each member of the outer group observes one member of the inner group on all the dimensions of group activity Participants must learn to provide feedback with clarity and precision Feedback must never be critical or lose its constructive nature After one cycle is completed the outer circle changes places with the inner circle and the cycle repeated NON-GROUP METHODS: Under this method the assessment is made on an individual basis It is of three types: • • • Counseling Understudy system Special projects COUNSELING : It helps the trainees to observe their weaknesses and involve measures to overcome them It is related to periodic appraisal or rating Specific counseling purports to help the 84 .

it is disappointing as a training method because of the likelihood of imitation of week and strong points of the seniors SPECIAL PROJECT ARRANGEMENTS: These are likely to be highly effective training systems In these systems a task force is built representing varied functions in the company The special projects enable the trainees to achieve knowledge of the subject assigned as well as to learn how to deal with others who have varied view points Some of other methods of training that can be useful particularly for management students and beginners are     Field trips Prescribed reading Distance learning Induction training CONCLUSION: Of all the methods mentioned above none can be quoted as the best A combination of methods can be used or it can be changed according to the changing circumstances ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ON THE JOB AND OFF THE JOB TECHNIQUES ON THE JOB METHOD ADVANTAGES • • • • No special facilities needed No additional staff needed Real life situation.subordinates to do their job better picture of how they are doing their job build strong personal relationships and eliminate or minimize anxiety. UNDERSTUDIES SYSTEM: In this the trainees work directly with individuals whom they are likely to replace However . not simulated productive in terms of departments work Trainee can establish work relationship from the start 85 .

• • • • • • • • • Learning can be controlled No off the job cost involved No transferability of trainee required Cost lost in departmental budget Risk to machine. equipment etc and increase in scrap due to lack of experience Part time instructor may lack training skills Lack of time due to pressures of production Difficulty in accommodating trainee idiosyncrasies Psychological pressures on trainee due to exposure before experienced workers DISADVANTAGES OFF THE JOB TECHNIQUE ADVANTAGES Away from work and home pressures • • • • • • • • • • • • • • More time available Trainee specific difficulty can be easily sorted Relaxed atmosphere more conducive to learning Under this method trainee attention can be obtained more easily as the distraction is minimum Enables testing of hypothesis and ideas in low risk environment Improves morale and motivation for self development Cost of external facilities Artificial sheltered environment Difficulty of simulating work problems Difficulty of transferring learning to work situation Resistance of trainees being away from home Difficulty of transferring learning to work situation Generally more time consuming Often involves traveling costs and inconvenience 86 DISADVANTAGES .

showing the path to improvement Transfer to the job Follow up studies 87 .EVALUATION OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT It basically involves the following steps: • • • • • • • Setting the evaluation criteria Selecting the trainees to be tested Testing on the basis of set criteria Finding out the gap between the actual and set standard performance Giving feedback.

evaluation adds up to the cost Some training cannot be evaluated because of the complexity of the behaviour being taught • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Leads to improved profitability and or more positive attitude towards profit orientation Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of an organization Improve the morale of the workplace Helps create a better corporate image Helps people identify with organizational goals Foster authenticity.REASONS WHY TRAINING IS IGNORED BY ORGANISATIONS /WHY TRAINING RESULTS ARE NOT EVALUATED • • • • • Many training directors don’t have the proper skills to conduct a rigorous evaluation research Some managers are just reluctant to evaluate something which they have already convinced themselves is worthwhile Many organizations carry out training because their competitors are doing so or the unions are demanding it Training is in itself expensive. openness and trust Improves the relationship between boss and subordinates Aids in organizational development The organization may learn from the inputs given by the trainees Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational responsibilities Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization Helps employees adjust to change Aids in improving organizational communication BENEFITS OF TRAINING 88 .

2 points Strongly disagree . Systems etc TOOL The data was collected through as structured questionnaire namely “Training Needs Assessment Questionnaire” developed by Pattanayak and Dhar.SECONDARY DATA ON TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION IN INDIAN INDUSTRIES A few years ago a survey was conducted to identify the training needs in Indian industry I have included this to get a better view of the the overall picture SAMPLE The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 executives of which about 400 completed forms were received This sample of companies was drawn up on the basis of three criteria Adequate representation of various industry groups Enough common ground to allow meaningful comparison between companies All core aspects of management were covered i.5 points . Production.e.1 point 89 .4 points . Personnel. Marketing Finance. 1996 The questionnaire comprised of 44 items is designed to elicit detailed information with respect to the assessment of training needs PROCEDURE The questionnaire was distributed to the executives both personally and through post and later on collected The participants for the various Executive Development Programmes (EDP) at NITIE were also contacted and they filled questionnaires The TNA variables were evaluated on the pre decided scale as shown • • • • • Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree .3 points .

development and managing self etc 2. improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness by understanding organizational climate and job requirements Statements under this include understanding quality requirements of the job. organizational development and customer relationship development based on the following criteria: 1. Organizational development training need s are those which when imparted. understanding of needs and expectations These are required to improve the external image of the company 90 . Customer development specific needs include training to serve customer needs in terms of delivery. professional management. Personal development related statements are those which primarily target individual growth and development Statements under this category include training needs to improve personal performance. quality of product and service. development. enhancing organizational effectiveness minimizing gap between planning and implementation. learning and practice of ethical values. learning MIS. in each category They were further classified as ANALYSIS On the basis of data collected under the structured questionnaire the analysis was drawn on statistical packages and the various graphs and charts were obtained to draw out results CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY Statements for the training needs were classified into three categories namely personal.The executives were broadly classed as those working in the • • • • • Public sector Private sector Senior level Middle level Junior level. managing conflict etc 3. promote positive attitude facilitate individual growth and development. updating technical skills and general knowledge. increased awareness of safety measures. acquisition of new skills. complaint settlement. shaping creative potentials. increasing job involvement.

2. middle and junior level executives of public and private sectors 1. maximum needs is realized for organizational development so as to increase effectiveness in an increasing competitive scenario. MIDDLE LEVEL EXECUTIVES a) PUBLIC SECTOR: Maximum training needs were identified in the areas such as: • Improving their performance 91 . SENIOR LEVEL EXECUTIVES PUBLIC SECTOR: The questions which received the maximum waitage pertained to: • • • • • • Understanding the quality requirements of the job Enhancing organizational effectiveness Acquiring new skills in general Improving the decision making skills Increasing the managerial/supervisory effectiveness Enriching the job knowledge Senior level executives of public sector laid almost equal stress on all the facets of development with a marginally extra importance to personal development (34%) and organizational development (34%) followed by customer development (33%) PRIVATE SECTOR: The points which received the maximum support by senior executives of private sector organizations were: Improving their performance • • • • • Enhancing organizational effectiveness Learning cost effectiveness techniques Involving decision-making skills Increasing the managerial/supervisory effectiveness Updating technical skills Executives have laid maximum stress on the organizational development (35%) followed by personal development (33%) and customer relationship development (32%) This can be attributed to the fact that these personnel that have gone through severe screening procedure and have grown up with customer relations related education passed on to them quite early Moreover. the results were analyzed and inferences drawn from senior.Based on the survey conducted.

• • • • • Enhancing organizational effectiveness Facilitating growth and development of the individual Increasing job satisfaction Improving their decision making skills Increasing the managerial/supervisory effectiveness Whereas relatively lesser response was received from areas such as ethical values. occupational health.JUNIOR LEVEL EXECUTIVES a) PUBLIC SECTOR: Maximum training needs are felt for: • • • • • • Improving performance Understanding the quality requirements of their jobs Promoting a positive attitude in general Facilitating growth and development of the individual Familiarizing them to new job related technique Enriching their job knowledge 92 . etc importance to organizational development and personal development related training needs was 2%ahead of customer development needs (32%) We observe similarity between public and private sector in middle level executive category This shows equal concern for improvement in personal performance 3. which is marginally ahead of customer development needs (32%) b) PRIVATE SECTOR: For this segment training needs were maximum for: • • • • • • Improving their performance Understanding the quality requirements of their jobs Increasing the managerial/supervisory effectiveness Learning and developing the MIS Promoting a positive attitude in general Enhancing organizational effectiveness Whereas fairly average response was received for training on ethical values. middle level public sector employees were sensitive to training in areas of personal development (34%) and organizational development (34%).

and enrichment of the organizational culture Overall organizational development (34%) was felt slightly more compared to the need for personal development (33%) and customer development (33%) 93 .However a mediocre response was received in the field of learning and practicing the ethical values Personal development needs (34%) are a slightly more than customer development needs (33%) and organizational development needs (33%) b) PRIVATE SECTOR: Maximum training needs were: • • • • • • Improving performance Understanding the quality requirements of their jobs Facilitating growth and development of the individual Familiarizing them to new job related technique Preparing themselves for meeting the challenges of global competition Facilitating rapid organizational growth and development However a lesser need was felt for training in serving the customer in terms of quality of product or service.

in which they remain least bothered are: 1) Increasing ethical values in business 2) Commitment to organization 3) Increasing awareness about occupational health RESULTS Graphical presentation of the findings is as follows: 94 . which varied with individual requirements 1) Performance improvement 2) Quality of work life improvement 3) Quality improvement of the job itself 4) Managing organization professionally 5) Improving presentation and communicational skills Some of the areas which remained untouched i.SUMMARY  Cumulative results of the senior level executives surveyed showed that they had greater concern for training needs in the areas as organizational and personal development  Cumulative results of the middle were also along the pattern of senior level executives with greater emphasis on personal and organizational development  Junior survey differ from senior and middle level executives survey who identified maximum training needs for organizational development There are certain areas in which almost all level executives both public and private sector wanted some sort of training.e.












SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE COMPANY STRENGTHS:   Talented human resources Financially secure company WEAKNESS  Training not conducted on a regular basis OPPURTUNITIES   Huge potential for growth in the market because of excellent process operations All round improvement assured if training is conducted on a regular basis Irregularity in training can demotivate the employees leading to failure and downfall THREATS  106 .

kaizen etc get more priority and others like personal development and skill enhancement are ignored If training programme is carried on a regular basis probably all topics will get equal attention  In my view leadership skills can be developed more effectively by day to day interactions rather than short term training programmes  More reading material should be provided which can be kept for later use  Efforts should be made to make training programmes bi-directional and where both the trainer and trainee are equally at work This can be done if methods other than coaching such as roleplays. audiovisuals etc are used  Training results must be immediately measured and stored for future reference This should be done keeping in view the Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) tenet “Nothing improves until it is measured” and the corollary “As soon as something is measured it automatically begins to improve” 107 .SUGGESTIONS:  Often it so happens that the management is so focused on achieving the targets set that training takes a backseat and is ignored This should not happen and training should be made a part of regular organizational activity  Generally programmes for training are so designed that a few topics like communication.

foster a higher level of motivation and build behavior adaptability to changes in technology. structure and environment of the organization But these can be of use only when the organizations perceive and attach importance to training and development of their managers and plan to ensure successful conduct of training programmes for employees as well 108 . if it receives regular care and nutrition then it grows to provide shelter and food else in adverse circumstances it vanes and dies out The success of an organization’s plans for the future depends largely on a sound training strategy In the face of continuous technological innovation higher levels of knowledge and skills and their applications are crucial resources that can only be mobilized by training Training and development infact. improve their competence and skills. maximize the growth of the executives in the organization.SUMMARY Thus to sum up “success is a journey and not a destination” Likewise its true for an organization as well In order to enable continuous improvement a continuous training programme must be carried out An organization is like a sapling.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Managing Human Resources: TN Chaabra Personnel Management: NK Chaddha Human Resource and Personnel Management: Ashwathapa Human Resource Management: Stoner Human Resource Management: CB Mamoria Human Resource Training: Biswajeet Patanayak Training and Development Handbook: Robert L Craig A Handbook of Training Management: Kenneth R Robinson Human Resource Management: Gary Dessler Human Resource Management: LN Agrawal           109 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful