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INTRODUCTION TO COMPANY PROFILE
COMPANY NAME:TELCOMA TECHNOLOGIES Pvt. Ltd. About Company: TELCOMA TECHNOLOGIES Pvt. Ltd. is an ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company is a provider of Telecommunication based Solutions,including Network Solutions,System Integration service,Corporate Solutions and Telecom Education.
The team at Telcoma Technologies is well-qualified and strongly motivated and committed to providing the high level of personal service and customer satisfaction. All processes within Telcoma Technologies are aligned towards the highest quality standards and formally certified to ISO 9001:2008. Company "Believe in the Best", be it people, products or services. Company’s solutions include 2G & 3G telcom network solutions, Network deployment & integration, Performance, RF optimization and Drive testing, Value added services, Next generation networks, New technologies and Telecom education.Our experienced engineers make sure that you get the best possible solutions. Company’s approach to everything emanates from this corporate philosophy. With every new day the quest for acquiring new competencies continues. Forever searching, experimenting, innovating, learning, moving ahead with our sincere efforts and dedication, shaping the future, and challenging our competencies to create new opportunities, is a never-ending process. TELCOMA is a globally recognized name in the field of telecommunication training, and engineers with TELCOMA Certified Wireless Expert - GLOBAL (TCWE-GLOBAL) certification are recognized by industry worldwide.
GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
TRAINING ON LIVE PROJECTS: Company’s Live Projects include 2G & 3G telcom network solutions, Network deployment & integration, Performance, RF optimization and Drive testing, Value added services, Next generation networks, New technologies and Telecom education. We provide cost effective and most reliable soultions for business. Company is always ready to face new challanges and deadlines. Quality is the first and foremost thing that company take care of.
CURRENT PROJECTS: TELCOMA TECHNOLOGIES Pvt. Ltd has tie up with RELIANCE and ALCATEL-LUCENT.
RF Optimization and Drive Testing Project for Reliance Communications in Punjab Circle (Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Patiala). Physical Site verification Drive Test. Physical & Parametric Optimization. Monitoring KPI Statistics. Reporting & MIS for site acceptance. Program Management. Company partner with you to build and implement innovative strategies and solutions to help you remain competitive, improve performance, and transform the way you conduct business.
GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
PROJECT UNDERTAKEN BSS COMMISSIONING & CONFIGURATION
About Project:It is about creating a site by adjusting some paramaters.If we want to create a site of a 1/1/1 means one TRx card in each sector then we adjust the parameters Site Type,Syn Source,Site id,BSC id etc. and create a site.By using this way,we can create many sites like 1/2/3,2/2/2,2/3/1 etc.If we are creating a site of 4/4/4 means 4 TRx in each sector then we will use frequency hoping which averages the interference. All radio-related functions between mobile stations and network are performed in the base station subsystem (BSS). The BSS consists of: • One base station controller (BSC) and • All base transceiver stations (BTS) under the BSC. Tool Required:ICM Integrating Configuration Management Software Requirement of the Project: To create a new BSS(BTS & BSC) To create a new site or new BSC in the network or new network. To increase the Capacity. For Swap site(BSC,BTS):The cells come under BCS1 having Location Area Code 1.If we create a new site with BSC2 which overlap the BSC1 so the cells of BSC1 will come under BSC2 and their Location Area Code will become 2. For Expansion:It means increases the TRx card.For example4/4/4 site will be convert into6/4/4. Requirements for Project: Deep study of GSM Basic. Deep study of BTS And BSC hardware Understanding with BTS,BSC,OMC-R connectivity. Steps for comissiong BSC Steps for configuring BSC Steps for configuring BTS Department:Configuration Department which comes under OMC-R . The project I have dealt with comes under the OMC-R department. OMC Department
OMC-S Page 3
GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
OMC-R has different modules. They are as shown below: Fault Management. Performance management. Moreover. OMC-R Modules: The project I have dealt with comes under the OMC-R department.BSC id. the OMC-R is responsible for consistently distributing any configuration change brought by the operator to the relevant network element. which allows external application to access the management information. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 4 .Telecommunication Operation and Maintenance Center for BSS(OMC-R): OMC-R guarantees the integrity of this data. Configuration management. Security management. which is always aligned with the network elements.Site Type etc.Before that RF Engineers will do the Frequency Planning and OMC-R Engineers will set other parameters like Site id. OMC-R provides a set of northbound standard interface. providing an easy integration into the Network Management of the operator.Like if new site is going to be launched and that is the work of BTS engineers but they cannot directly launch the site.This is a department which handles the parameters of radio part.
Main MODULES FUNCTIONS OF BSC: SCM (System Control Module): The SCM processes the signaling interaction between the whole BSC system and MSC/SGSN. AEM:Antenna Equipment Module. FCM:Fan Control Module. RMM (Radio Management Module):RMM processes the signaling flow on the Abis interface. The system provides one SCM. TRM:Transceiver Module . GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 5 . PDM:Power Distribute Module .Telecommunication Main Modules of BTS: CMM:Controller & Maintenance Module . and the system can provide 1 to 8 RMMs.
Telecommunication BTS BSC TRx & CDU GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 6 .
1.1 Operators 1.2 Vendors 1.Telecommunication Chapter INTRODUCTION 1.2 Generations 1.1.3 Sub-Vendors 1.1 TELECOM history 220.127.116.11 Introduction to TELECOM 1.1.2 TELECOM Companies 1.3 TELECOM Departments GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 7 .
A Communication Convergence Bill introduced in the Parliament on August 31. Wireless Local Loop (WLL) has been introduced to provide telephone connections in urban. The basic services are open to competition.Telecommunication 1. the first fixed semaphore systems emerged in Europe. MODERN POLICIES: All villages shall receive telecom facilities by the end of 2002. India is the world’s fastest growing industry in the world in terms of number of wireless connections after China. The International Long Distance Services (ILDS) have been opened to competition.. Two telecom PSUs. On the 28th January 1882 the first formal telephone service was established with a total of 93 subscribers. 2001 is presently before the Standing Committee of Parliament on Telecom and IT. In early1881.1 TELECOM HISTORY The history of telecommunication began with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa. 1999 in several new services. Bombay (Mumbai). a fourth cellular operator. semi-urban and rural areas promptly.1. which include Global Mobile Personal Communication by Satellite (GMPCS) Service. A decision to permit Community Phone Service has been announced. radio telegraph. data services and PCOs utilizing any type of network equipment. Cellular operators have been permitted to provide all types of mobile services including voice and non-voice messages.Therefore. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 8 . with 811. one each in four metros and thirteen circles. the history of Indian telecom can be started with the introduction of telegraph. National Long Distance Service (NLD) is opened for unrestricted entry.59 million mobile phone subscribers. Oriental Telephone Company Limited of England opened telephone exchanges at Calcutta (Kolkata). including circuit and/or package switches that meet certain required standards. however it was not until the 1830s that electrical telecommunication systems started to appear.1 Introduction to TELECOM 1. IN INDIA . radio telephone. funding. Steps are being taken to fulfill Universal Service Obligation (USO). VSNL and HTL have been disinvested. and administration. In the 1790s. has been permitted. digital Public Mobile Radio Trunked Service (PMRTS) and Voice Mail/ Audiotex/ Unified Messaging Services. Madras (Chennai) and Ahmedabad. Policies allowing private participation have been announced as per the New Telecom Policy (NTP). In addition to the existing three. From the year 1902 India drastically changes from cable telegraph to wireless telegraph. the Americas and parts of Asia.TELECOM is the the real sense means the transfer of information between two distant points in space.
75G. and 4G. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system. 1G(FIRST GENERATION) The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) in 1979. 1G and 2G. and 2G introduced data services for mobile. radio signals on 2G networks are digital. 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels. is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog. 2G networks are still used in many parts of the world. however. 2G the second generation. initially in the metropolitan area of Tokyo. there are four generations in the mobile industry. mobile telecommunications. 3G the third generation. 2G or 3G stood for and all of a sudden a hike was found out amongst laymen so as to be knowledgeable about it. while 2G networks are digital.Now almost all the service providers as well as the customers seek for availing these 3G and 4G services. and then the 4G the forth generation. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog. The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems. Stockholm. In the present time. These are respectively 1G the first generation. Still a number of people are unaware of 1G or 2G when the world has moved on to 4G.1. 6 billion people own a mobile phones so we are going to analyze the various generations of cellular systems as studied in the evolution of mobile communications from 1st generation to 5th generation . 1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology. 2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 9 . starting with SMS text messages. 2G(SECOND GENERATION) 2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted. the NTT network had been expanded to cover the whole population of Japan and became the first nationwide 1G network. 3G. 2. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991.Telecommunication 1. the previous mobile telephone systems were retrospectively dubbed 1G. Ericson a Swedish company is launching this high tech featured mobile into the market. Within five years.2 GENERATIONS The Journey of “G” from 1 to 5 th Generation Until the controversial spectrum scams were brought up in the lime light many were ignorant of what 1G. After 2G was launched.5G. It is being first introduced in the Swedish Capital city. 2G has been superseded by newer technologies such as 2.
also provide mobile broadband. video calls and mobile TV. while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time. delivering an average user data throughput of 80-100 kbit/s in commercial network. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003—initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States. The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1998. as well as Internet access. independent of whether the user actually is utilizing the capacity or is in an idle state.75G (EDGE) GPRS1 networks evolved to networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. 3G (THIRD GENERATION) 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred. indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. 2. GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s.5G and 3.5G (GPRS) 2. It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access.5G ("second and a half generation") is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. The specification achieves higher data-rates (up to 236. mobile Internet access. 1xRTT supports bi-directional (up and downlink) peak data rates up to 153. within existing GSM timeslots. It was first available in May 2001 as a pre-release of W-CDMA technology.Telecommunication EVOLUTION OF 2G 2. SMS & MMS services. EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks. Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). branded as FOMA. all in a mobile environment. The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001.Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone. as an extension on top of standard GSM. often denoted 3. It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuitswitched data services (HSCSD) as well. or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates.8 kbit/s) by switching to more sophisticated methods of coding (8PSK).It can also be used for WAP.Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS).75G. although it was initially somewhat limited in GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 10 . Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards. including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates).6 kbit/s. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).
Were a 5G family of standards to be implemented. and expected to be released in 2012.[ A new mobile generation has appeared every 10th year since the first 1G system (NMT) was introduced in 1981. the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G standards. it would likely be around the year 2020. which appeared in 2001. formally submitted by the 3GPP organization to ITU-T in the fall 2009. 3G (W-CDMA/FOMA). according to some sources. or ITU-R. At present. Coordinated Multi-point Transmission will also allow more system capacity to help handle the enhanced data speeds. The target of 3GPP LTE Advanced is to reach and surpass the ITU requirements. 4G(FOURTH GENERATION) In telecommunications. 5G(FIFTH GENERATION) 5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards effective since 2011. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. used primarily in Europe.LTE Advanced is essentially an enhancement to LTE. Release 8 currently supports up to 300 Mbit/s download speeds which is still short of the IMT-Advanced standards. including the 2G (GSM) system that started to roll out in 1992. WiMAX Forum.7 Mbit/s downstream. first offered in 2002. standardized by 3GPP2. Japan.Telecommunication scope. In 2009. and GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 11 . China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. Release 10 of LTE is expected to achieve the LTE Advanced speeds. sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. first offered in 2001. It is a successor of the 3G and 2G families of standards. used especially in North America and South Korea. New standard releases beyond 4G are in progress by standardization bodies. 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility communication LTE(Long-term-evolution Advanced) is a candidate for IMT-Advanced standard. This upgrade path makes it more cost effective for vendors to offer LTE and then upgrade to LTE Advanced which is similar to the upgrade from WCDMA to HSPA. The CDMA2000 system.broader availability of the system was delayed by apparent concerns over its reliability. standardized by 3GPP. The following standards are typically branded 3G: The UMTS system. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP. LTE and LTE Advanced will also make use of additional spectrum and multiplexing to allow it to achieve higher data speeds. It is not a new technology but rather an improvement on the existing LTE network. but are at this time not considered as new mobile generations but under the 4G umbrella.
1.2 VENDOR COMPANIES:These provide the services to Operator based on signed contract. SUB-VENDOR COMPANIES GTL GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 12 .2 TELECOM COMPANIES 1.1. 1. VENDOR COMPANIES NOKIA SIEMEN ERICSON ZTE HUAWEI TELECOM 1.1.These companies also manufacturesBTS for Operator Companies.Telecommunication "real" 4G standards fulfilling the IMT-Advanced requirements.1 OPERATOR COMPANIES:These are those companies which provide the sevices to us.3 SUB-VENDOR COMPANIES:These companies provide the services to the Vendor Companies.Operator Companies also make money by providing the network connectivity to other companies. OPERATOR COMPANIES AIRTEL RELIANCE BSNL TATA DOCOMO MTS 1.They provide the man-power to install the BTS. that were ratified in 2011 and products expected in 2012-2013.
then there is abeep before 30 seconds which indicates that your is balance is going to be vanish. Charges of call is cut by OCS which is inside the IN network GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 13 .MSC etc. so that is duty of BTS engineers to find the fault and rin the site in proper condition. reception comes under this BSS Department: Deal with Radio Part.Telecommunication 1. NSS Department: Switching of calls is handled by msc which comes under NSS.VLR. After that frequency planning is done and frequency planning should bedo in such a way that there should be no interference. To handle the parameters of HLR. Transmission Department: Transmission of the signals of antenna and department.EDGE is inclided in this department.4 Departments in TELECOM TELECOM RF Transmission BSS(BSC+BTS) NSS(MSC+OMC-S) VAS IN Planning Survey Drive Test Optimization RF Department: RF engineers do the survey that where site should installed. IN Department: If we are on a call and our balance is going to be vanish. VAS Department: The services like GPRS.thet select the location for site installation. If BTS is faulty.1.that beep is done by IN.
Telecommunication When balance is less or call is on waiting.4 GSM Channels.5.3 Number PLAN. Internet Charging is done by GGSN which is inside the IN network. 2.2 GSM Architecture.5 Frequency Planning 2.all the instructions which is given to user Is given bu IP which us the part of IN hardware. 2. Chapter GSM BASICS 2. 2.1 GSM System. 2.1 Analyzing Planned Frequency in MCOM and TEMS GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 14 .
telecommunication services can be divided into bearer services. and Circuit Switched Public Data Networks using a variety of access methods and protocols.32. The most basic teleservice supported by GSM is telephony. interface. but ran on slightly different frequency. which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 15 . Using the ITU-T definitions. and supplementary services. GSM is a cellular network. pico. A variety of data services is offered. ISDN. in terms of bandwidth and cost. There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level. such as X. Europe had numerous coexisting analog mobile phone systems. However. Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters. Packet Switched Public Data Networks. It is used by over 800 million people in more than 190 countries including INDIA. complex system architecture compressing many entities. To avoid this situation for a second generation fully digital system. they are mainly used indoors. micro. As with all systems in the telecommunication area. do not allow the standard ISDN B-channel bit rate of 64 kbps to be practically achieved. where the nearest emergency-service provider is notified by dialing three digits (similar to 911).1 GSM SYSTEM GSM is the most successful digital mobile telecommunication system in the world today. In the early 1980s. teleservices. to users on POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service).Telecommunication 2 . and acronyms. GSM comes with a hierarchical. There are various departments in GSM which play an important role in communication. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. they are typically used in urban areas. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Services Provided By GSM: From the beginning. speech is digitally encoded and transmitted through the GSM network as a digital stream. There is also an emergency service. femto and umbrella cells. radio transmission limitations. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells. the Groupe Speciale Mobile (GSM) was found in 1982.25 or X. GSM users can send and receive data. As with all other communications. at rates up to 9600 bps. which were often based on similar standards. the planners of GSM wanted ISDN compatibility in terms of the services offered and the control signalling used. Femto cells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service provider’s network via a broadband internet connection. This system was soon named the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM).
Telecommunication 2.2 GSM ARCHITECTURE Mobile Station (MS): The MS comprises all user equipment and software needed for communication with a GSM network.In order to keep mobile synchronized. and sends it towards the BSC. MS can also offer some other types of interface to users with display.encypted and then fed to antenna system. The functions of a BTS vary depending on the cellular technology used and the cellular telephone provider. which stores all user specific data that is relevant to GSM. and equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications with the Base Station Controller (BSC). A BTS is controlled by a parent BSC via the Base Station Control Function (BCF). The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. microphone. Page 16 GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES .. The function of BTS is to transmit and receive radio signals from a mobile unit via air interface. contains the equipment for transmitting and receiving of radio signals (transceivers). the Abis. The BCF provides an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) connection to the Network Management System (NMS). as well as software handling and alarm collection.the signals are encided. Base Transceiver Station (BTS): The Base Transceiver Station. or BTS. and programmable soft keys. An MS consists of user independent hardware and software and of the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).BTS transmits synchrinisation signal and frequency over a a frequency correction channel(FCCH). loudspeaker. and manages operational states of each TRX. antennas. There are vendors in which the BTS is a plain transceiver which receives information from the MS (Mobile Station) through the Um (Air Interface) and then converts it to a TDM ("PCM") based interface. While MS can be identified by International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI).
OMC management functions are traffic monitoring. The BSC handles allocation of radio channels. Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC): MSC’s are high performance digital ISDN switches. A gateway MSC (GMSC) has additional connections to others fixed network. an MSC can also connect to public data network (PDN) such as X. a full switching center. the intelligence behind the BTSs. connection release and handover of connections to other MSCs.Telecommunication Base Station Controller (BSC): The Base Station Controller (BSC) provides.25. A key function of the BSC is to act as a concentrator where many different low capacity connections to BTSs (with relatively low utilisation) become reduced to a smaller number of connections towards the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) (with a high level of utilisation). subscriber and security management or accounting and billing. Overall. Operation and maintenance Center (OMC): The OMC monitors and controls all other network entities via the O interface. The BSC is undoubtedly the most robust element in the BSS as it is not only a BTS controller but. Using additional interworking functions (IWF). 7 (SS7) is used for this purpose. this means that networks are often structured to have many BSCs distributed into regions near their BTSs which are then connected to large centralised MSC sites. OMCs use the concept of telecommunication management network as standardize by the ITU-T. The standard signaling system number no. such as PSTN and ISDN. An MSC handles all signaling needed for connection setup. It also provides all the required data to the Operation Support Subsystem (OSS) as well as to the performance measuring centers. Typically a BSC has 10s or even 100s of BTSs under its control. classically. receives measurements from the mobile phones. They setup Connections to other MSCs and to the BSCs via the A interface and form the fix backbone network of GSM system. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 17 . as well as an SS7 node with connections to the MSC and SGSN (when using GPRS). statues report of network entities. controls handovers from BTS to BTS (except in the case of an inter-BSC handover in which case control is in part the responsibility of the Anchor MSC). for some vendors.
The AuC contains algorithm for authentication as well as the keys for encryption and generates the values needed for user authentication in the HLR. the mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN) the current VLR an MSC. Functions of VLR: When a mobile station enters the LA borders. and the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI). The information necessary to manage the MS is contained in the HLR and is transferred to the VLR so that it can be easily retrieved. Dynamic information is also needed e. such as the Mobile Subscriber ISDN number (MSISDN). Current VLR address where the subscriber roams. Service Limitation: Roaming Limitation. Subscription Information: Teleservices. Controls allocation of new TMSI numbers that can be periodically changed to secure a subscribers identity. it copies all relevant information for this user from the HLR. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 18 . Some VLRs in existence. MS-ISDN.Telecommunication Home Location Register (HLR): The HLR is the most important database in a GSM system as it stores all user relevant information. are capable of managing upto 1 million customers. Works with HLR & AUC on authentication. Visitors Location Register (VLR): VLR stores all important information needed for the MS users currently in the LA the is associated to the MSC. Supplementary Services. Supports Paging. This information is necessary to localize a user in the worldwide GSM network Functions Of HLR: Home Location Register [HLR] handles permanent subscriber data. Identification IMSI. Dialogue with AUC. subscribed services. Bearer Services. This comprises static information.g. If a new MS comes into a LA the VLR is responsible for. As soon as MS leave its current LA the information in the HLR is updated. Handling of temporary subscribers data. Provide VLR with five ciphering items. it signals its arrival to the MSC that stores its identity in the Visitor Location Register [VLR]. the current location area (LA) of the MS. Authentication Center (AuC): AuC has defined to protect user identity and data transmission. Tracks the state of all mobile in its area.
2. It keeps track of all valid and invalid Mobile Equipment by storing their International Mobile Equipment Identities [IMEI]. The EIR has a black list for stolen devises. EIR actually maintains three lists of International Mobile Equipment Identities [IMEI]. A Ciphering Key Kc using A8 algorithm and computed each time authentication is performed. 6. 4. The While List contains a list of IMEI that have been allocated in Global System for Mobile Communication. The same Ki is to be found in the subscribers SIM-Card and is used to generate these Ciphering Items: A RANDom Number RAND. Country number code +valid national ISDN International mobile subscriber ISDN number GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 19 . Functions of EIR: Equipment Identity Function [EIR] is a database that performs a screening function within the Network. Manufacturers provide complete list of IMEI of Mobile Stations that they produce. Software Keys SRES and Kc are never passed over the air interface. 3. For Security reason AUC has often an internal interface with the HLR. Composition of a MSISDN number. 2 .Telecommunication Functions of AuC: 1. The EIR also contains the list of valid IMEIs. The two algorithms A3 and A8 are operator dependent. any one could use the stolen MS. The Authentication Center [AUC] is a database that contains the secret authentication key Ki of each subscriber and generates security related parameters to protect the network operator and subscribers against fraud. 5. The Gray List contains a list of faulty Mobile Equipment. This equipment will be logged but not barred. A Signature RESponse SRES using A3 algorithm. The Black List contains a list of Mobile Equipment that are barred from using the Network. 3 NUMBER PLAN ISDN number (MSISDN) of mobile subscribers A MSISDN number is the number dialed by the caller subscriber in PLMN. Equipment identity Register (EIR): The EIR is a database for IMEIs with valid SIM.
IMSI is used in all signaling in a mobile communication network. coding by manufacturer. FAC(Final Assembly Code) : 2 digits. used only locally.7 signaling. a 10-digit equi-length number. Page 20 GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES . TAC(Type Approval Code) : 6 digits. It is a 4-byte BCD code.7 signaling . Temporary mobile subscriber identification number (TMSI) TMSI is an identification number assigned temporarily to a visiting mobile subscriber by VLR for the secrecy of IMSI.Telecommunication MSC/VLR number MSC/VLR number is used in the No. SNR(Serial Number) : 6 digits. and assigned by each MSC/VLR independently. stored in HLR. assigned by certain department. International mobile equipment identification number (IMEI) IMEI is an unique number that can identify a mobile device in the GSM network.decide the place of manufacturing or assembling. assigned by manufacturer in sequence. MSC/VLR number structure : CC+NDC+ HLR number HLR number is used in the No. HLR number structure : CC+NDC+…… International mobile subscriber identification number (IMSI) IMSI is an unique number that can identify a mobile subscriber in the PLMN network. Composition of an IMSI number MNC MCC International mobile subscriber identification MSIN National subscriber identification mobile MCC＝ mobile country code (MCC=460 in China ) MNC＝ mobile network code(MNC=00 in China Mobile) MSIN＝ mobile subscriber identification number.
Channel to tranmit information about the network to help mobile to know about the frequencies being used in its cell as well as surroundings cells. LAC is a location area code that uniquely identifies each location area in digital PLMN. Location area identification number (LAI) LAI is used to identify the location area. Channel to set up call Channel to transmit Handover information. It is used only during inter-office handover of a mobile subscriber.4 GSM CHANNELS Number of channels required during call set-up (1) Channel to transmit information to help the mobile station to tune into the network. Number of channels required during call set-up (2) Channel to transmit mobile station’s request to initiate call set-up. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 21 . This number is part of a MSRN number. It is a 2-byte hexadecimal BCD code represented by L1L2L3L4 (with the range of 0000～FFFF. Channel to page the called party. 2. Channel to transmit measurements Channel to transmit actual conversations. After the connection. it is released and used by other subscribers. This number will be released and can be assigned to other mobile subscriber afterward. Its number structure is: MCC＋MNC＋LAC MCC and MNC : same as the MCC and MNC in IMSI. able to define 65536 different location areas.) Mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN) MSRN is a number temporarily assigned by VLR to a called mobile subscriber which it registers in according to the request of HLR (of called party) in each call for the network to re-route. Channel to transmit the synchronisation information.Telecommunication Spare bit : 1 digit. Hand-over number (HON) HON is a number assigned to a mobile subscriber by the destination MSC/VLR temporarily for routing during inter-office handover.
The cell shapes are different and cells do not have equal sizes. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 22 . Physical Channel can be used to transmit data or signaling information. Logical Channels Control Channels Traffic Channels They carry information used byMS to locate BTS and Synchrinize wiyh BTS and receive information to call set-up. The frequency re-use rate is simplest to explain using a hexagonal model. Therefore the frequency re-use rate is not a constant throughout the network.5 Frequency Planning: The frequency planning is to provide needed capacity and coverage within a given frequency band. as already explained in the coverage planning section. but varies from one place to another and can also vary between BCCH and TCH layers. When the interfering channels are consecutive there is some neighbor channel interference. The frequency channels therefore need to be re-used. but it is wise not to increase the interference level. but this is less serious. The interference level cannot be high when building a functional network.Logical Channels: The different informations carried on the Physical channel are classified as Logical Channel. 2. A physical channel carry different messages depending on the information to be sent. Frequency reuse patterns are not used in practice because the cells are not hexagons. The interference level increases with high transmission power in a close location. more precisely this is a co-channel interference situation. 2.Physical Channels: Each time slot o TDMA frame is called physical channel. The available frequency band and the capacity plan give boundary conditions for the largest possible frequency re-use rate. They carry either speech or data.Telecommunication Channel Orgnization 1. The path used to carry information between mobile station and BTS is called Physical Channel. Interference is caused when two network cells use the same channel too close to each other.
5.Telecommunication 2. Main Terminal Of M-COM GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 23 . MCOM is the software which is used for examine the frequency planning we did so far is correct or not.1 Analyzing Planned Frequency in MCOM and TEMS Frequency planning is basically the logical planning of the assigned spectrum with the help of various technologies defined so far. The window shown bellow shows the main interface of the MCOM and also shows the sites where we plot the planned frequency. In the beginning we select the site of a particular are whose frequency planning is need to be done.
This is the problem we face in frequency planning. These types of sites may cause interference later on. Interfering Frequencies GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 24 . Here we are plotting the frequency 34 on the Site ID LUD152.Telecommunication Plot the planned frequency on the sites and check whether that frequency is interfering with other neighboring cells. The other sites with red color shows the same frequency as that of this site and yellow color sites shows the adjacent frequencies.
Showing Neighbours GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 25 .Telecommunication To see the neighbor of a particular cell just click on the cell. We can also see the other radio parameter by this process. The dark blue colored cell is serving cell and green cells are assign as neighbor of that cell. To analyze that our planned frequency are working properly we perform drive test and the data collected is put into TEMS. From this software we can see the proper functioning of our site and its frequency.
Mode Request. Events. Data Reports. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 26 . Layer 2 Message.Telecommunication Showing Radio Parameters We can also analyze other various parameters from TEMS like Layer 3 messages.
4 Connectivity of BTS. 3. 3.3. 3.4 Transcoder and A Interface Unit.BSC and OMC-R Server. 3.5 BSC Hardware.5. 3.2 Cofiguration Management. 18.104.22.168 Functions Performed by BSC.3 Network Interface Unit. 22.214.171.124. 3.3 BTS Hardware.Telecommunication Chapter PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION 3. 3. 3.4 Security Management. 3.6 BSC Card Connectivity.2. 3.1 Abis Interface Unit (BBIU) 3.2. 3. 3.6.1 BTS Hardware Configuration.2 Rack Structure of BSC. 3.2 Main Modules Of BTS.2.1 Requirement of the Project.1 Fault Management.2 Radio and System Control Unit. 3. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 27 .2 OMC-R Department.3 Performance Management.2.
Performance Management. \ GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 28 . Operation and Maintenance Center for BSS(OMC-R): OMC-R guarantees the integrity of this data.Telecommunication 3. Moreover. The project I have dealt with comes under the OMC-R department. which is always aligned with the network elements. 3. OMC-R Modules: The project I have dealt with comes under the OMC-R department. OMC-R has different modules. To increase the Capacity.BTS):The cells come under BCS1 having Location Area Code 1. They are as shown below: Fault Management. the OMC-R is responsible for consistently distributing any configuration change brought by the operator to the relevant network element.2 OMC-R Department: Configuration Department which comes under OMC-R . For Expansion:It means increases the TRx card.For example4/4/4 site will be convert into6/4/4. For Swap site(BSC. Configuration Management. Security Management.1 Requirement of the Project: To create a new BSS(BTS & BSC) To create a new site or new BSC in the network or new network.If we create a new site with BSC2 which overlap the BSC1 so the cells of BSC1 will come under BSC2 and their Location Area Code will become 2.
Telecommunication Login Window For OMC-R After filling the username and Password. Tree Window GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 29 .click the ok Button theTree Window will open.
Customization handling of faults. redefinition and relativity judgment). Fault record query.1. The historical alarm list containing the archived alarms. These counters can be customized into user-defined alarm categories such as equipment alarms. 3. QoS alarms.2. 3.Telecommunication 3.2. System test.2. with five basic alarm counters like critical. Page 30 GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES .2 Network Supervision: The OMC-R provides all necessary service for network supervision: Real time fault detection. Fault diagnosis and correction. etc.1 Alarm Handling: A summary alarm window.1 Fault Management (FM): Fault Management performs tasks written bellow: Fault handling principles (alarm handlings include filtering. Network Supervision. minor. Alarm Management Alarm handling also allows a direct access to the alarms via a set of two alarm lists: The current alarm list containing the active alarms. warning and normal provides to the operator a synthetic view of the number of alarms. major.1.
3.1 Topology management: It offers the management of the different network elements as Base Stations.2. Equipment configuration management. 3. In above figure there are multiple alarms in different sites in a particular BSC. Faults are classified according to five level of severity. Topology management. Operator can easily recognize the fault in Site. The fault detection is performed by the network element. Software management.2 Configuration Management (CM): The OMC-R provides a comprehensive set of facilities for configuring the ZXG10. which reports alarms and state changes to the OMC-R alarms.Telecommunication Management of the resource state.2. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 31 . A dedicated color is associates to each level. System synchronization.2. The ZXG10 OMC-R topology management offers the following services: Base Station Creation. allowing operators to recognize the most urgent alarm to be investigated. Radio resources configuration management.
The operator is able to manage software operation through software plans time scheduled or manually triggered. 3. 3. 3. The operator is able to configure the telecom resources or to tune the network whenever they detect problem.3 Software Management: The software management activity consists in updating the software running on the ZMG10 Network Elements either in case of release migration or in case of restoration of a previous backup software version.2.3 Performance Management (PM): The Performance Measurement is based on the collection of counters calculated by the Network Engineer and transferred to the OMC-R.2.2.2. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 32 .2.2 Radio Resource Configuration: The Radio resources configuration management domain is the part of the system that deals explicitly with the telecom resources of the system.Telecommunication NE list.
Usage Statistics. network performance alerter have been defined based on performance counter. Abnormal GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 33 . Network Performance report. QOS threshold management. Network Performance analysis.1 Network Performance Alerter: In order to perform the OMC-R operator about any degradation of the quality of services. Observation job management.Telecommunication The Performance Managements are basically used to satisfy four types of need: Efficiency Planning. Measurement job management.2.3. Performance Mnagement Display 3.
a dedicated alarm is generated.4 Security Management: GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 34 .Telecommunication behaviors. such as for example system congestion. The alarm field “probable cause” allows the operator to identify quickly the QoS alarm . When a pre-defined threshold is crossed.2. The raw measurements are stored in the OMC-R database. are detected in the network element.2.3. With the help of these database (KPI) we analysis our network.The permanent network wide QoS monitoring relies on the same performance counters on all the network elements managed by one OMC-R. radio resource usage and handover behavior are collected from the network elements.2 QOS Monitoring: For the Quality of Service monitoring at the OMC-R. 3. and for back-office activities like network optimization and network planning. QoS Management Window 3. periodical measurement on the radio traffic.
managed from pc workstations running Windows. is controlled via the native Windows mechanisms. Security Management GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 35 . Every OMC-R operator is identified by a user name and a password managed with an expiration period. as well as to modify the properties of any user such as HMI preferences. Access management on the sever based on security mechanisms embedded in UNIX and encapsulated into the OMC-R application for a convenient use by the OMC-R administrator The access to the user sessions. whereby the identity of every user is checked. the OMC-R administrator can list all OMC-R operators allowed to access the OMC-R application.Thanks to the privilege access rights.Telecommunication The ZXG10 OMC-R provide efficient solutions to guarantee security and integrity of the exploitation and maintenance of the network. access to the HMI is regulated via an access control mechanism. the OMS-R administrator is able to declare and delete users. At any time.
BTS GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 36 . antennas.Telecommunication 3.e. A BTS can form a radio cell or.3 BTS Hardware: A BTS comprise all radio equipment i. several cells and is connected to MS via the Um interface and to the BSC via the Abis interface. The Um interface contains all the mechanisms nesccery for wireless transmission. and 35 km depending on the environment. using sectorized antennas. The Abis interface consist of 16 or 64kbps connections. signaling processing. amplifiers necessary for radio transmission. The GSM cell can measure between some 100 m.
2. Providing various clocks needed by BS. 3. 5. Remote operation & maintenance function of BTS.1 BTS Hardware Configuration: 3.2 Main Modules of BTS: CMM(Controller & Maintenance Module):-It provides following functions:1. Active/standby hot backup. Physical View Of CMM GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 37 . Equipment alarm collection.3. 4. 6. BS interface functions. Local operation & maintenance functions of BTS .Telecommunication 3.3.
BSC and OMC-R: E1 cables are used for the connectivity of BTS. PDM(Power Distribution Module):PDM distributes the -48 V power to CMBs. Frame Structure Of E1 Cable. In addition to a circuit breaker for each module.TRU(Transceiver Process Unit):-It provides the transmission and reception of radio frequencies.Communication with TRM.Temperature monitoring. 2.BSC.e from MS to BSC and vice-versa. FCM(Fan Control Module):-It provides the following functions:1. a main switch circuit breaker is placed at the -48 V input end on the top of the BTS cabinet. and provides overload protection via circuit breakers. CDU(Combining and Distribution Unit):-It provides the interface between transceiver Module and Antenna system.RCU(Radio Control Unit):-It control the transmission of radio part i.OMC-R that is standard for measuring signals. DTRUs and FCMs.Each slot carries 8 bits at a speed of 64 kbps so the total spped of carrying data by E1 is 2Mbps. 3.4 Connectivity of BTS.It has 32 time slots.Fan control and inspection. 3.TS0 is used for synchronisation and TS16 is used for signalling.PAU(Power Amplifier Unit):-It amplifies he weak signal. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 38 . 3. 2.Telecommunication TRM( Transceiver Module):-It contains three units:1.
A key function of the BSC is to act as a concentrator where many different low capacity connections to BTSs (with relatively low utilization) become reduced to a smaller number of connections towards the mobile switching center (MSC) (with a high level of utilization). Overall. power reduction levels receiving levels for cell border calculation. are stored in the BSC. including information such as carrier frequencies. The BSC handles allocation of radio channels. as well as an SS7 node with connections to the MSC and serving GPRS support node (SGSN) (when using GPRS). receives measurements from the mobile phones.5 BSC Hardware: The Base Station Controller (BSC) provides. classically. for some vendors. this means that networks are often structured to have many BSCs distributed into regions near their BTSs which are then connected to large centralized MSC site The BSC is undoubtedly the most robust element in the BSS as it is not only a BTS controller but. Physical View Of BSC GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 39 .Telecommunication 3. the intelligence behind the BTSs. a full switching center. The databases for all the sites. It also provides all the required data to the operation support subsystem (OSS) as well as to the performance measuring centers. Typically a BSC has tens or even hundreds of BTSs under its control. frequency hopping lists. and controls handovers from BTS to BTS (except in the case of an inter-BSC handover in which case control is in part the responsibility of the anchor MSC).
Supervision of inter cell handovers for MSs moving between BTSs in its control. TCP/IP signaling for connection with OMCR. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 40 . it assigns and releases frequencies for all MSs in its own area.5. Control of Power for information transfer between MS and BTS.1 Functions Performed by BSC are: Radio Resource [RR] management of the cells under its control. Traffic Handling. Time and frequency synchronization signal broadcast for each BTS. PCM Switching. CCS7 signaling for MSC. LAPD signaling transmission for BTS and TCU.Telecommunication 3.
3.5.2 Rack Structure of BSC:
There are six shelves (backplane) in a BSC rack. They are: Abis interface layer (BBIU):This is the first layer of BSC rack.The BTS is connected is connected with this layer of BSC.It provides the abis interface between BTS and BSC. Control layer (BCTL-RMU): This is the second layer of BSC rack.This is the backplane for controlling Radio Management.The alarms related to BTS is handled like BTS is downn no RTR detected etc are handled in this block. Control layer (BCTL-SCU): This is the third layer of BSC rack.This is the backplane for controlling System Conyrol Unit. T-net and clock layer (BNET):This is the fourth layer of BSC rack.This is the backlane for Network Layer.The two layers communicate with each other using BNET. A interface and TC layer (BATC):The last two layers of BSC are BATC.This is the backplane for A interface transcoder.The BATC is connected with MSC.The work of MSC is too large so we use two BATC.
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3.6 BSC Card Connectivity: Entire BSC can be described into six functional
blocks: Abis Interface Unit. Radio Management Unit. System Control Unit. Network Interface Unit. TranscoderUnit and A Interface Unit.
Logical Structyte Of BSC Page 42
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3.6.1 Abis Interface Unit (BBIU) :It has four cards in it. These comprised of 1. TIC: TIC stands for Transmission interface card. It provides E1 cables.TIC converts the 8M rate PCM stream into E1 stream for remote transmission; and converts the E1 stream sent by the remote end into the 8M rate PCM stream. Meanwhile, it provides the RS485 asynchronous serial interface for communication with the GPP board.
Physical View Of TIC Card Basic functions of TIC card:Transcoder: - The digital trunk interface unit converts the incoming pseudo ternary code into NRZ code, and converts the NRZ code into HDB3 code, then sends it out of the exchange. This is the X-coding function in simplest form. Clock Extraction: - The TIC extracts a clock out of the input data stream as the reference clock of the input data stream and as the external reference clock source of the local system clock. Frame Synchronization:- The Frame Alignment of the Drive and Receive signals is done in this unit by obtaining the frame aligning signal of the input signal from the input PCM stream at the receiving end, then generates timeslot pulses in respective lines at the receiving end and aligns them with the frame timeslot pulses in respective lines beginning with TS0 (timeslot 0) at the transmitting end, so that signals in different lines sent from the transmitting end can be correctly received in different lines at the receiving end, thus realizing frame synchronization. Control, Detection and Alarm: - Control includes the initialization of interfacing circuits and execution of reset commands. Detection involves the detection and hence commands for BER, loss of trunk signal, out of frame etc.Alarm includes detection of fault at the local O & M equipment in a certain mode and through certain channel and sending of information to remote exchange.
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and integrates and sends the LAPD channels switched from BTS to the RMU for processing through COMI. As the right and left power board are in parallel each line of output voltage of power boards need to be isolated by isolation board connected in reverse bias state. and manages and controls such boards as TIC. what the switching network receives are mostly the service channels. The -48V feed circuit consists of capacitive load and large power MOSFET. 3. BIPP carries out the integrated management of the Abis interface. POWERB and COMI.It derives two clocks 8M. BIPP: It is used on the ABIS interface. 3. 4. 3. Power supply. As source voltage at recharge grid increases. Over/under voltage detection is carried out manually as well as by software switch. and the switching network resources can be fully utilized. 2. and three HDLCs when having TIC board. POWRB is integrated power supply for 1. Network layer. The BIPP hardware is the same as that of GPP.Telecommunication 2. Components of BIPP: CPU: . Ripple is removed by large capacity electrolytic capacitor and noise between primary power supply and secondary power is suppressed by a common mode inductance. A clock is provided for six TIC boards and two COMI boards in this unit. on the BIPP board. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 44 .It provides for the processing for the switching network and active/ standby change over. QMC of CPU processes two HDLCs for MP-PP communication. 8K from the T-net and provides for the various clock requirements of switching circuit and Drive/ Difference drive isolation. Monitoring circuit. It supplies 30A and +5 V power. Clock Processing Unit: . POWRB: POWRB works on MOSFET Technology. Input and Output filters. Control line. The -48V voltage is fed from large power MOSFET soft start circuit and Pi filters to DCDC circuit. eight HDLCs for managing SMB and one HDLC for active/standby board communication. POWRB comprised of 1. QMC of CPU must process 11 HDLCs when having SMB. MOSFET is also responsible for controlling the output switch of -48V feed circuit. the channel becomes wide. Trunk layer. 2. 5. increasing the input current and also slows down channel widening. and for eight SMB’s. Switch. Control layer. Therefore. RC combination controls the grid potential of MOSFET. It can provide power ranging from +5V 3A to +5V 27A reliably. Therefore. controlling the drain-source channel width.
Two lines of 8Mb/s HWs connected with T-net provide two MP-PP communication channels (Two 64Kbps HDLCs) for maintaining and managing six TIC boards (or eight SMB boards) and two COMI boards.Telecommunication HDLC protocol processing: -It is done for processing of communication information between BIPP card and MPPP card over HDLC protocol. MUX/ DEMUX:. One 8Mb/s single polarity HW inputs/outputs are connected with another BIPP in this unit. COMI cards and opposite board. de-multiplexing function of data MUX Rack GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 45 . Eight 8Mb/s differential HW inputs/outputs are respectively connected with eig eight SMBs.MUX/ DEMUX provides for the multiplexing. which are mutually active and standby. Difference drives isolation: -It allows the communication channel data between switching circuit (4K x 4K) and T-net and also provides status info for cascaded BIPP over 4 x 8M interface. Two 8Mb/s differential HW inputs/outputs are connected with Tnet to separate the up-link signals from T-net: The communication information is separated transparently and connected to CPU for processing.It connects the appropriate service channel time slots to MUX/ DEMUX for multiplexing de-multiplexing function.It allows flow of service channel data between switching circuit (4K x 4K) and TIC cards. Six TIC boards and Two COMI boards are managed through the RS485 bus. Two 8Mb/s single polarity HW inputs/outputs are respectively connected with two 2 COMI boards. providing one HDLC communication channel for these two AIPPs in the same unit. Drive: . Switching circuit (4K x 4K): . Six 8Mb/s single polarity HW inputs/outputs are respectively connected with six TIC boards.
In two RRU four messages are sent from BIPP in two BIU to maximum of six COMM boards through HW.It tells about BTS related alarms. One 8M and 8K signal is combined with EPLD to generate 4M and 8K signals which are then allocated by the clock drive to generate 16 clocks. MP: MP is basically computer. It implements signal and clock conversion as follows: Conversion of 8 Mbps single polarity signal into 2 Mbps differential signal of dual polarity is done from BIPP board to COMM board also. One 8M and 8K signal is sent to click test chip to test clock signal. SMEM: It acts as memory for MP card.Telecommunication 4. They are given as below: Four 8M and 8K signals are sent to switching circuit. Basic Structure of MP Board GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 46 .2 Radio Management Unit and System Control Unit:It has following cards:1. 8M and 8K clocks are derived to six 8M and 8K clock signals. COMI: COMI is used for HW connection between BIU and RRU. 3. 2.. Now these signals are through to differential drive to output to specific COMM board. conversion of 2 Mbps differential signal from COMM board to 8 Mbps single polarity from COMM board to BIPP board through COM I HW.It also implements distribution of 4M clocks and 8 K clocks to COMM boards.6.
HDLC : MP-PP Communication within BSC. Dual interface Ram. Different data linkages provided by these cards are: - MP-PP cards over HDLC protocol. COMM: COMM cards provide data linking function of control channels at 64 kbps. LAPD : BSC-BTS communication at Abis interface. CPU (386). 3. No. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 47 . cards. 5. (SMB’s drive isolation). Clock adjustment processing. Control active/standby MP switchover. Data layer protocol. 4. BSC and MSC communicate via these comm. Hub Differential receiving/sending drive isolation. Control the active/standby switchover of function units working in the active/standby mode. COMM card comprised of 1.Telecommunication Functions Of MP Card: 1. Types of COMM: 1. They act as co-processors of MP cards. 3. 3.BSC and BTS communicate via these comm. 2. cards using C7 protocol at A interface. 5. 4. MP-MP cards within and between different BSC communicate and exchange data over HDLC protocol using comm. Communicate with external interface units assisted by COMM boards. MP-MP cards over HDLC protocol. cards using LAPD protocol at A-bis interface. 2. 256 kbps and 512 kbps. HDLC : MP-MP Communication within BSC. Processes the Ethernet interface and enables communication between foreground and background. 4. MP-PP cards within the BSC communicate and exchange data over HDLC protocol using COMM cards. MP Board 3. Control connection of the switching network assisted by COMM boards. 7 : BSC-MSC communication at A interface. 2.
Code rate conversion 3. MP level DSNI cards: MP level interface converts service data from outside into 8 Mbps data stream and 2 Mbps data stream in the Mp.3 Network Interface Unit:It has following Cards: 1.Telecommunication 3. and eight PP-level ones work in the active/standby mode. Through the drive (single polarity) circuit of PP DSNI board 16 channels of 8Mbps single polarity are converted into 16 channels of dual polarity differential signals and 16 channels of dual polarity differential signals from external boards to 16 channels of single polarity signals. Active/ standby handover. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 48 . 2. Clock processing circuit output is differential for the sake of system stability. 5.level message channel. RS485 port. Information flow at different switching rates reaches the COMM board where 2 Mbps differential signal is converted to 8MBps single polarity signal and 8 Mbps single polarity signal is converted into 2Mbps differential signal and then they are output to the T-Net and COMM board. 4. MP Level DSNI work in load sharing mode. of which two MPlevel ones fulfill load sharing via data configuration. DSNI:There are two categories of DSNI cards 1. 2. Physical connections of MP Level DSNI boards: Fig 3.Ten DSNI boards in total are available. 6. The MP and T-Net communicate with each other through DSNI board. Clock frequency division allocation.6. Components of MP level DSNI Board: 1. Differential drive. Single end drive isolation circuit. PP level DSNI cards:PP level interface converts two kinds of 8M HWs drives to gain a strong anti interference capability and provides different levels of PP’s and RMM with clock of 8 MHz and 8 KHz.8 PP Level DSNI enables communication between various other cards and T Net. CPU. 7.
One AIU includes two AIPPs which are active and standby mutually and eight TIC boards used for A interface. 3. 4. One 8Mb/s single polarity HW input/output is connected with TCPP. Components of TCPP card : 1. HDLC protocol processing. It separates the down-link signals from EDRT or DRT. It also processes one HDLC for standby AIPP card.Telecommunication 3. and each multiplexed service timeslot is demultiplexed into four timeslots. CPU: QMC of CPU processes two HDLCs for the MP-PP communication and one HDLC for the active/standby board communication. The TCH channel is connected to a multiplexed unit by the circuit switching chip. Drive/ Difference drive isolation. and then the circuit switching chip connects both the multiplexed timeslot and the communication information from CPU to T-net. and the switching network resources can be fully utilized. 5. what the switching network receives are mostly the service channels. Eight 8Mb/s single polarity HW inputs/outputs are respectively connected with eight TIC boards. The TCH channel is separated to a de-multiplexed unit. and connected to CPU for processing. Components of AIPP card: 1.4 Transcoder and A interface Unit:It has following cads: 1. 3. Switching circuit (4K x 4K). MUX/ DEMUX. Drive/ Difference drive isolation: Eight 8Mb/s differential HW inputs/outputs are respectively connected with eight E/ DRT. Therefore. 2. and centrally manages the E/ DRT board. TCPP: TCPP (X CDR Peripheral Processor) is used on the A interface. 6. Basic function of X coder: TC mainly completes voice conversion between the 16kbit/s RPE-LTP (regular pulse excited long-term prediction) codes and 64kbit/s A-law PCM codes. and integrates and sends the LAPD channels switched from BTS to the RMU for processing through COMI. providing two MP-PP communication channels(two 64K bps HDLCs) for this board to maintain and manage eight TIC boards. CPU. The communication information is separated transparently. The BIPP hardware is the same as that of GPP. AIPP: AIPP (A Interface Peripheral Processor) is located in the A Interface unit (a interface between MSC and BSC). Every four service timeslots are multiplexed into one. The communication information is separated transparently and connected to CPU for processing. DRT cards and between TCPP and MPPP card over HDLC protocol. BIPP carries out the integrated management of the Abis interface. and then the circuit switching chip connects both the demultiplexed timeslots and the communication information from CPU to the corresponding EDRT or DRT board. 2. 2. Clock processing circuit. One TCPP manages 8 E/ DRT cards. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 49 .Two 8Mb/s differential HW inputs/outputs are connected with T-net to separate the up-link signals from T-net. HDLC: It is done for processing of communication information between TCPP card and E/ DRT.6.
4. So it adapts the two rates. E/ DRT adopts 6 DSP so it requires 6 chips for DSP algorithm processing. 3.Telecommunication 3. DSP chips. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 50 . Switching circuit. HDLC protocol processing. DRT adopts eight DSP so it requires 8 chips for DSP algorithm processing. E/ DRT card comprised of: 1. CPU. E/ DRT: X-coding and rate adapter DRT/EDRT converts between the voice code at the GSM radio interface @ 16kbps into the A law PCM voice code @ 64kbps of the common public telephone network and vice versa. 2.
5. 5.Telecommunication Chapter CONFIGURATION OF BSS 5.1 BSC configuration in the OMCR Server: GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 51 . 5. 5. 5.2 Adding TRX to BTS.2. 5.1 BSC configuration in the OMCR Server. 5.5 Configruing Handover. 126.96.36.199 Saving Configuration.2.1 Addition of BTS in a BSC.3 Adding Channels.2.4 Configuring Frequency Hopping.2 BTS Configuration in BSC.2.
Telecommunication Login to ZXG10 OMCR Client For Staring the Configuration select Configuration Management >> Integrated Configuration Management . Configuration Management Then Left click on File in menu bar will get the drop down list and select New>>New File as shown in figure Opening New File The first step is to add the MSC details: Page 52 GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES . Refer the fig as shown below.
MSC Details Configure BSC. Signaling point type 3 by default (STEP). Enter the Details like: Page 53 GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES . MSC name can give id according to the existing network. Destination point code Provided by the MSC side.Telecommunication MSCID can give id according to the existing network.
rack2 (GPRS) & rack7 according to the requirement. Right click the BSC equipment >>add Rack. Alias give a name according to the Network. Test code any numbers (1234). Page 54 GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES . Now add racks rack1. Destination point code should get it from MSC side.Telecommunication BSC ID should be the same as what given in bsccfg. Adding BSC Details Then you will find a tree topology .ini file.
Adding Shelf If your network is having a remote TC define the BSC rack like Rack 1(with NSMU).Telecommunication Add Rack Add the Shelf 1st add ZXG10_BCTL_RRM then any other shelf for the BSC Rack1 and add the Shelf accordingly for other Racks also. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 55 .
Page 56 GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES .Telecommunication Rack 1 Rack2 Rack 3 Rack Configuration Shelf to be added in Rack1 ZXG10_BIF. ZXG10_BCTL_SCM.ZXG10_BNET. ZXG10_BSM_NM or ZXG10_BATC(incase BSC is near to MSC ).ZXG10_BCTL_RRM .
ZXG10_BATC. PCM Addition GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 57 .Telecommunication Shelf to be added in Rack2 ZXG10_GIU. Shelf to be added in Rack3 ZXG10_BSM_FM. ZXG10_SPCU. 4 E1 between BSC and transcoder have to be added in Ater interface and 8E1 between BSC and MSC (Air interface). Add Board 3 PCM should be added in to Abis (as 3 BTS site) have to connected in to BTS site accordingly while configuring the BTS. Add boards by Right click on the Particular Board and Click Add Board accordingly like here is GSM trail Project for Reliance installing 3 BTS so 3 PCM(3E1) link to be add in Abis TIC.
Telecommunication Display Configures Parameters After adding BTS to the E1 the Site ID and Rack no and Site PCM will Automatically display like in the second figure. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 58 . add TIC Board 12th and 13th in FSMU Shelf (Rack-2). Transcoder side PCM have to be connected with the BSC TIC Board of NSMU. Add 4E1 in Ater interface after simply adding the TIC Board 12th and 13th in NSMU (BSC Rack-1).
Add EDRT board. of TIC we add. Remember to select EDRT 20 type.Telecommunication Add 8E1 in Air interface as we are using 12 TRX per BTS so (12*3*8*0. of EDRT is equal to No. No. Adding EDRT Board GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 59 .68) which is approximately come out to be 8.8/30=7. In these 6 DSPN Select all the DSP and in DSP type select FR/EFR/HR.
Telecommunication 5.1 Addition of BTS in a BSC: Add BTS by Right click on GSM Equipment >> Add Physical Site BTS Addition Choose the details as: Site Type BTS V2. of TRX in one E1 and select support bypass GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 60 .2 BTS Configuration in BSC: 5.0 or B8018 for BTS V3.2. Syn Source Net Clock MultiLAPD 1:4 this will increase the no.
Telecommunication Press Next then select Initialization Panel. Or for the Cascade site select the 4th PCM. BIEPCMTYPE BSC and connect the BTS to the PCM no of BSC. Connecting BTS to PCM Number Of BSC GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 61 . BIEPCMTYPE Up site and connect accordingly. Select the 1st PCM.
Telecommunication Add the BTS to the particular rack in the BSC. Add BTS to Rack Of BSC GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 62 .
Telecommunication Add Panel Right click on 1st Panel >> Add Panel Select CDU in the Panel type. Addng Panel GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 63 . For TRM panel you will get the Properties window select the TX from the 1st CDU for the 2nd and 3rd panel TRM and 9th/6th(V3/V2) CDU for the 4th and 5th panel TRM. Rx form the 1st CDU and RXD from the 9th/6th (V3/V2) CDU for all the TRM panel.
Telecommunication After adding the required TRX Right Click on the Physical Site >> Edit Radio. Radio View Radio View Connection GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 64 . Then you will get Radio View like figure.
from radio planning engineers. Adding Cells Page 65 GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES . TA Allowed: 64 for BTS V2 and 32 for BTS V3. Frequency Band: GSM 900 for BTS V2 and BCS1800 for BTS V3 and choose accordingly. Cell id . BCC.Telecommunication Right Click on BTS Site Manager1 >>create Cell now fill the details accordingly. NCC. Collect the information for the following details like LAC .
BCCH TRX.2Adding TRX to BTS Add TRX By right Click on Cell 1 >> Create TRX and in the Add TRX radio information Window select ARFCN frequency as accordingly.Telecommunication 5.2. Adding TRX GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 66 .
2. Create Frequency Hopping GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 67 . it should be same as the BCC.2. Channel Addition 5.3Adding Channels Add Channels: Click on the Channel Tab and selects the channels according to the time slots and also select the TSC.4 Configuring Frequency Hopping: Right click on the any cell and select Create Frequency Hopping.Telecommunication 5.
Adding Parameters Now open the Edit TRX Radio Information window to add frequency hopping. and add all TCH frequencies. Edit TRX Information GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 68 .Telecommunication In the window shown bellow add Frequency Hopping Number. In this click on the Channel tab and select the MAIO. Hopping Sequence Number.
5 Configuring Handover: Here we will configure handover between different cells and different sites.2.Telecommunication Click on the TRX tab and select the Frequency Hopping checkbox and click OK. Selecting Creating Handover GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 69 . 5. Right click on the cell and select Create Handover and Reselection Cell.
Telecommunication First we will configure all the sectors of the site for the handover. Select the other cells of the site for creating the neighbor. Configuring Sectors Of Handover For configuring the handover with external cells we right click on the BSC Equipment and for adding external neighboring cells. Adding External Neighbour GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 70 .
Select the external cells for configuring handover. Adding Details Of Neighbours.Telecommunication Add the detail of all neighboring cells of other sites one by one in the window shown bellow. Adding External Cells For Handover Configuration GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 71 .
Telecommunication After configuring all the required TRX in the BTS it look like this: TRx in BTS after Configuration GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 72 .
If it found any error it will show in the wizard otherwise it will show no error.Telecommunication 5. Checking Errors GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 73 . It will check the current configuration script.6 Saving the Configuration To save the current work click on the save button.2. Saving Configuration Now it checks the errors in the configuration.
Telecommunication CONCLUSION The training that I underwent was truly a rewarding experience for me in more than one way. It not only gave a big thrust to my technical knowledge as prospective but also helped me to enhance my skills on the personal front. This project is a generalized approach for managing the coverage of various areas. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 74 . I feel truly satisfied by the fact that though getting a chance to work in such a real live application project is rare still I managed to get it.It can be adopted and modified in a desired manner to meet particular needs. I have exploited the opportunity that came my way to the fullest extent by increasing my technical know-how and also gaining the valuable work experience from the esteemed organization.
Solution: Solution is provided by adding following features. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 75 . Configruing Frequency Hopping to average interference. Configruing Handover to prevent call drop. Add TRX to increase capacity.Telecommunication Solution Of The Problem Problem: Less capacity and more inteference in some area’s.
Feeders ICM software for BSS Comissioning and Configuration. GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 76 . Magnetic Compass and GPRS to measure the orientation of antenna.Channels.Number PLAN.Telecommunication Facilities provided by Proposed System Deep stydy of GSM. M-COM Software for Frequency Planning. TEMS Software fir Drive Test. Site Visit Practical view of BTS.Jumpers. Inner and Outer view of Anteenas.MSC.BSC.
indiana.telecommunicatios.Telecommunication REFRENCES Websites: www.in www.edu.com GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Page 77 .telecom www.telcoma.
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