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# Engineering: In&Ct

c ARISER Vol. 4 No. 3 (2008) 103-117

**A Predictive Maintenance Tool: Vibration Analysis to Determine the Condition of Electric Machines
**

Assil SMEISMEH, Rayyan SAKLAWI and Wissam YASSINE

Electrical and Computer Department, American University of Beirut, LEBANON {azs06@aub.edu.lb; ras48@aub.edu.lb; way00@aub.edu.lb}

Received 06 June 2008; Accepted 23 June 2008

In recent years, induction motors are becoming the most important equipment in industry. Motors failures often happen when they are needed the most. In some industries this can’t be tolerated because it leads to catastrophic losses in production time, cost of repairing, and it indulges the safety conditions of the industry. Studies have shown that defects in bearings are the main cause of failure of induction motor. Predictive maintenance technique determines the condition of inservice machine by performing periodic or continuous equipment monitoring. This approach offers cost savings over routine or time-based maintenance because tasks are carried out only when warranted. Predictive maintenance has many beneﬁts. In fact, it predicts failures before they occur and schedules down time repairs. There are several techniques that can be employed to predict the condition of an electric machine, these include: vibration monitoring, Current Signature Analysis, Tribology, Thermography, etc... Several studies showed that the most important technique in predictive maintenance is vibration analysis as it gives clear indications regarding the condition of the machine in question, in addition the level of vibrations and the frequency at which these vibrations occur can serve in determining the exact location of the defect and possibly severity of such defect. The theory behind using vibration analysis is that the presence of a fault in industrial equipment will be accompanied by a detectable increase or modiﬁcation of vibratory signal. The objective of our project is to design, implement and test a predictive maintenance tool that uses vibration analysis to predict failures in induction motors. An accelerometer will be used as a sensor to measure the vibration levels of the motor being tested; a data acquisition card will collect these signals, ﬁlter them and convert them to digital signals. The signals then will be converted to the frequency domain by FFT, after that we can analyze this spectrum to determine the condition of the motor, and based on this evaluation it can be determined whether to keep the motor in operation or if it requires maintenance. This can be a periodic action which can be carried out without stopping the operation of the motor, and a log of the vibration levels can be saved to have a history of the machine condition and capture important data regarding trends of the motor condition. Contents 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Predictive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Design of the predictive maintenance tool . 1 Introduction Induction motors are AC motors that supply power to a rotating device by induction. An induction motor has a stator (which represents the primary side of a transformer) and a rotor (which is the secondary side in a transformer). That’s why such a motor is called a rotating transformer. Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphase induction motors, which are frequently used in industrial drives due to their rugged construction, the lack of brushes and the ability to control the speed of the motor using power electronics. {Carnero [2]}. Used in severe conditions and with continuous operation, induction motors are at any times subject to failure due to defects in its internal parts. Two separate studies where conducted by IEE and EPRI {Kumar & Manuhar [4]} to determine the cause of failure, and the results are summarized in Tab. 1. 103 104 105 4 5 3.1 Theory behind vibration analysis 3.2 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Experimental work . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 107 108 114

Arab Research Institute in Sciences & Engineering http://www.arabrise.org Online Publishing Group ISSN 1994-3253

determine the presence the output in the Motor and perform the different types. especially polyphase induction motors. An increase in the security of the workplace. In will be used to motor bearings supportof such defectsshaft. the motor bearings support the output shaft. – Too high ambient temperature. 1: Used in severe conditionsDistribution ofcontinuousaccording to partinduction motors are at any times and with motor failure operation. It’s difﬁcult to detect the exact reason of a bearing failure. before it effects the operation of the motor. • Corrosion measured and recorded intermittently or continuously for the purpose of reducing. • Some of the main of advantages of having a predictive maintenance program are: {Carnero [2]} Vibrations • – Exclusive controlto transport that show the beginning of a malfunction. sleeve bearings and needle bearings. TABLE 1: DISTRIBUTION Rotor 8% 9% Others 22% 14% OF MOTOR FAILURE ACCORDING TO PART [2] It’s evident that defects in the bearings represent the widest source of failure to an induction motor. The following is a list of the common defect causes: {Grundfos [3]} – Ordinary wear. which are frequently used in industrial drives due to their rugged construction. – Vibrations. – Reduced lubrication. like: roller bearings. It's evident that defects in the bearings represent the widest source of failure to an induction – Damage due to transport. {Kumar & Manuhar [4]} Failure IEE EPRI subject to failure due to defects in its internal parts. . Smeismeh et al.I. An induction motor has a stator (which represents the primary side of a transformer) and a rotor (which is the secondary side in a transformer). comparing and lubrication • Reduceddisplaying the data and information so obtained for support decisions related to the operation and maintenance of the machine {Carnero [2]}. That’s why such a motor is called a rotating transformer. – Corrosion. sleeve bearings and needle bearings. reduce the friction and wear on the rotating aand stationary parts of vibration analysisaddition. ability to control the speed of the motor using power electronics. analyzing. 26% results are summarized in TABLE 1. – Misalignment. quality and availability in the • Misalignment industrial plants. Two separate studies where conducted by IEE Bearings 44% 41% and EPRI [2] to determine the cause of Stator and the36% failure. TAB . Induction motors are widely used. Production quality is optimized by operating machinery without interruption due to failures. Bearings main function is to Bearing currents from frequency converter drive. Motor bearings have different types. bearings bearings haverequired maintenancelike: roller bearings. In addition. motor. This will provide an increase in safety.–thus more focus was needed on bearings defects in particular. The following is a list of the common defect causes: [3] 2 Ordinary wear • Predictive maintenance • Too maintenance is a maintenance policy in which selected physical parameter associated with an operating Predictive high ambient temperature machine are sensed. where the motor. the Our predictive maintenance tool will act as monitoring device. [3] It's difficult to detect the exact reason of a bearing failure. Predictive maintenance had proved to be very effective through the years. [4] Figure simpliﬁed diagram of an induction motor induction motor [9] F IG . ball bearings. Reduction of direct maintenance costs by checking only the equipment that is developing a fault. ball bearings. drive • Bearing currents from frequency converter – – – – The capacity to carry out quality checks of both internal and subcontracted maintenance intervention. the lack of brushes and the 104 A. INTRODUCTION Induction motors are AC motors that supply power to a rotating device by induction. Bearings main function is to reduce the friction and wear on the rotating and stationary parts of the motor. thus more focus was needed on bearings defects in particular. 1: A1: A simplified diagram of an {Integrated publishing [9]}. {Grundfos [3]}. Damage due of the machines – An increase in the availability of the industrial plants.

After measuring the vibration signals and using FFT to transform it in to frequency domain we have to study it carefully. this frequency can be calculated knowing the geometry of the bearing and its rotational speed. Figure 2: Rough defect condition in a bearing [7] F IG . 2). vibration analysis.1 Theory behind vibration analysis We will carry out a design of predictive maintenance tool that can sense vibrations of the bearing of an induction motor and analyze them in such a way to detect speciﬁc defects in the bearing which will lead to motor failure. Several studies had shown the suitability of vibration analysis for application to rotary and reciprocating machines. and that’s why frequency-domain analysis of of motor bearings. This technique consists of measuring the vibration levels from a certain machine and analyzing these measurements to predict any failure in the machine. The presence of a fault in industrial equipment will be accompanied by a detectable increase or modiﬁcation of vibratory signal {Carnero [2]}. [8]}. that’s why frequency-domain analysis of vibration reading is usually carried out to determine the condition of motor bearings. can be noticed. [8] an increase in the vibration levels at this frequency a the Y-axis is is velocity of a bearing element. motion current signature and infrared thermography (by temperature measurements) {Kumar & Manuhar [4]}. Whenandcertain defect the present on displacement. make it the most versatile predictive technique. Each different bearing has unique characteristic rotational defect frequency which depends on the kinematics consideration. Usually Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is applied to the vibration signal which converts it into a series of discrete frequency Usually Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) plot the X-axis in the frequencywhich converts itis theavelocity of components. In a frequency domain plot the X-axis in the frequency displacement {Mobley [5]}. which can be considered to be the most widely used in general. 3 Design of the predictive maintenance tool 3. that’s why frequency-domain analysis of vibration reading is usually carried out to determine the When a bearings. condition of motorcertain defect is present on a bearing element. and that’s why When a certain defect is present on a bearing element (example of a rough defect is shown in Fig. vibration reading is usually carried out to determine the condition of motor bearings. Tandon et al. an frequency-domain analysis of vibration reading is usually carried out to determine the condition increase in the vibration levels at this frequency can be noticed. In a frequency domain is applied to the vibration signal and the Y-axis into series of discrete frequency components. usually these frequency lie in the low-frequency range (less than 500Hz). When a certain defect is present on a bearing element (example of a rough defect is shown in figure 2). these frequencies can be calculated by the following formulas [6]: . an increase in the vibration levels at this frequency can be noticed. 2: Rough defect condition in a bearing {Al-Ghamda & David Mbab [1]}. motor circuit analysis. Frequency-domain or spectral analysis of vibration signal is theis the most widely used approachbearing defect Frequency-domain or spectral analysis of vibration signal most widely used approach for for detection bearing defect detection [6]. an increase in the vibration levels at this frequency can be noticed. this is the main reason behind using vibration monitoring to detect machine failure. {Tandon & Choudhury [7]}. in addition to its high capacity of diagnosis. especially the rotational defects frequencies of the bearing element. {Tandon & Choudhury [7].A Predictive Maintenance Tool: Vibration Analysis to Determine the Condition of Electric Machines 105 There are many techniques used in predictive maintenance programs: such as oil & wear analysis.

By comparing the amplitude of vibration at the outer race defect frequency of 84. Z in the number of rolling elements and α is the contact angle. especially the rotational defects frequencies of the bearing element. They measured the vibration signals and used FFT to get the frequency response. In addition to other results. these show the strong capabilities of vibration signature monitoring in determining defects in motor bearing. Smeismeh et al. D is the pitch diameter. these frequencies can be calculated by the following formulas {Tandon & Choudhury [7]}: Cage frequency ωc d ωc = 1 − cos α (1) 2 D Ball spining frequency: ωb = Outer race defect frequency: ω od = Zω c = Inner race defect frequency: ω id = Z(ω s − ω c ) = Rolling element defect frequency: ω re = 2ω b = Dω s d 1− d2 cos2 α D2 (5) Zω s 2 1+ d cos α D (4) Zω s 2 1− d cos α D (3) Dω s 2d 1− d2 cos2 α D2 (2) Where s w is the shaft rotation frequency in rad/s. ﬁrst with a healthy bearing then with a bearing with an outer race defect of 1500µm. and based on the speciﬁc frequency at which the velocity amplitude increase we can determine what’s the nature of the defect and how severe it’s. 3 and 4. a group of researchers calculated-using equation 3. [8] Figure 3: Spectrum of vibration velocity of healthy bearing [5] F IG . [8]}. a test bearing having 9 balls of diameter 8.the outer race defect frequency to be 84. 3: Spectrum of vibration velocity of healthy bearing [8]. as mentioned earlier these frequencies are usually less than 500Hz. a signiﬁcant increase in amplitude was observed as can be seen in Figs.5mm and pitch circle diameter of 38. . After measuring the vibration signals and using FFT to transform it in to frequency domain we have to study it carefully.5mm with contact angle α of 0. they had a shaft rotating frequency of 24Hz.106 A. In a study to test vibration monitoring techniques published in the Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing Journal in 2007 {Tandon et al. d is the diameter of the rolling element.15Hz.15Hz.

2 Design amplitude increase we can determine what’s the nature of the defect and how severe it’s. 5 is a ﬂowchart that shows at which LabVIEW is installed andof thecan perform any kind of analysis on computer system the basic operation then we predictive maintenance tool. several techniques to defect a bearing include: acid etching. siemens induction motor. the accelerometer we are using has a 1000mV /g sensitivity which means that for every 1000mV change in the voltage reading there is a 1g(9. next we will describe the vibration signal we collected.Figure Analysis to of vibration velocity of healthy bearing [5] A Predictive Maintenance Tool: Vibration 3: SpectrumDetermine the Condition of Electric Machines 107 Figure 4: Spectrum of vibration velocity for 1500 µm defect [5] In addition to other results. these signals. we will intentionally introduce several forms of defects to the bearing to study how each defect changes the frequency spectrum of the bearing. the and and use the analysis method described in the previous section. next tool and how we choose the speciﬁc components. Our predictive maintenance tool should measure vibrations signals from the bearing of the motor. this method was introduced in. we will intentionally introduce1000a mV/g sensitivity which means that for everythe object several forms in the acceleration of 1000 mV change in the voltage reading there is 1g (9. . decide what kind of accelerometer is suitable in. changes the frequency spectrum ofrange and other factorsthis method was introducedfor several techniques to defect a each purpose. Accelerometer: The basic part of our vibration monitoring tool. brieﬂy every component of this is a flowchart that shows the basic operation of the predictive maintenance tool. Figure5: The components of our predictive maintenance tool Induction Motor: we are testing our design on a 1. for this purpose we will use an accelerometer. spark erosion. siemens induction motor. 1400rpm. F IG . these show the strong capabilities of vibration signature monitoring in determining defects in motor bearing. transform them into an analyzing interface where we can perform motor. these might instatic or dynamic forces caused by moving or record vibration signature when bearing it’s an electromechanical device that measures acceleration be vibrating objects. Induction Motor: we are testing our design on a 1.8m/s2) change in the acceleration of the object being sensed. F IG . transform them into an analyzing interface where wevibrations signals from the bearing of the method described Our predictive maintenance tool should measure can perform FTT and use the analysis in the previous section. 4: Spectrum of vibration velocity for 1500µm defect [8]. frequency the bearing. the The healthy bearing. The accelerometer gives a voltage reading that corresponds to the level of vibration. is installed and then we can perform anyour tool isanalysis on element. Design nals. spark erosion. elements. scratching or heating [6]. To study how vibration is effected by different defects that might occur in bearing elements. we will part of occur is effected by different defects The basic forces. then we will record the vibration signature when using defected bearing. Figure 5 we will describe briefly every component of this tool and how we choose the specific components. these might be static or dynamic forces caused by moving or vibrating objects. for this purpose we will use an accelerometer.5hp.5 hp.8 m/s2) change of defects to the bearing to study how each defect being sensed. and based on the specific frequency at which the velocity 3. the accelerometer then transforms the data through a data acquisition card into a Fig. 5: The components of our predictive maintenance tool. running the motor with accelerometer gives a voltage reading that correspondsrecord of vibration. accelerometer then transforms the data through a data acquisition card into a computer system at which LabVIEW The first and essential part of kind of the sensing the vibration signal we collected. it’s an electromechanical device that measures acceleration forces. collect The ﬁrst FTT essential part of our tool is the sensing element. To study how vibration Accelerometer: that mightour vibration monitoring tool. collect these sigB. for our project we need an accelerometer that can be mounted on the bearing bearing include: acid etching. then we will to the level the vibration signature when using defected accelerometer we are using has a bearing. scratching or heating {Tandon & Choudhury [7]}. 1400 rpm. we will record vibration signature when running the motor with healthy bearing. Sensitivity.

especially when the monitoring of several machines is required. Smeismeh et al. Circuit of the current supply required power the accelerometer. a DAQ. thus we checked the operation of the DAQ and its accuracy. and we are still in the process of building the required current supply circuit.way. this section will describe our experimental work so far. and several other features that would help us better understand our data in a better way. The accelerometer we are using arrived late March. this Thetoolkit is called:enormous analyzing techniques that would help us manipulate our for using this the most toolkit provide NI Sound and Vibration Toolkit. the signal and applying special analog signal into a digital signal that the signal suchthe amplifyingin addition it performs important processing filters. this is important because they have a We used a PCI-6040E DAQ.current supply. and the (2-20 mA). Figure 6: 6: Circuit of thecurrent supply required toto power the accelerometer F IG . and several other features that would We started the experimental work in the spring term.108 A. in and converts this Data acquisition card: The data signal into acard collects the data sensed by the accelerometeraddition it performs important processing in can be read by as computer. an induction motor and an accelerometer. the circuitconstant supply is same line. 2 an accelerometer with a high frequency range. . The toolkit provide enormous analyzing techniques that would help us manipulate our signal and get the most 4 Experimental work out of it. which is a 1000mV the monitoring frequency range and + − 7g measuring range. since we found that most of defect frequencies we will monitor Sensitivity. Since the DAQ didn’t have an ICP mode. and AUB already have a license signal and get out of it. whichBruel & Kjaer Type 4507B way of mounting. which is a we don’t needHz . Data acquisition card: The data acquisition card collects the data sensed by the accelerometer and converts this analog acquisition digital signal that can be read by the computer. including the vibration and sound toolkit on the computer. and AUBour DAQ created a toolkit using this toolkit. is a constant accelerometer operation required having an an mode in our our acquisition card-DAQ. but since we didn’t have the accelerometer ready. frequency range and other factors decide what kind of accelerometer is suitable for each purpose. and +-7g measuring range. We mounted the accelerometer on the motor using wax. for our project we need an accelerometer that can be mounted on the bearing housing of the induction motor. and then we installed LabView and all the additional toolkits. the circuit of such supply of the accelerometer. fast way of mounting. we noticed a certain feature called zoom FFT which allowing analyzing the frequency range of interest toolkit.5 KHz We are using a Bruel frequencies we will monitor are bellow 500Hz 1000mV/g. we started measuring generated signals from a function generator. ﬁrst step was to start a working station. Since the available DAQ build our an constant we had to build our own of such shown in Fig. we had to didn't haveownICP mode. We mounted the accelerometer on the motor using frequency range We wax. housing of the induction motor. especially when/g. 6. this this current is a constant current supply to the20mA). are bellow 500 Hz we don’t need an accelerometer with a high frequency range. We wanted to test the DAQ. it consisted of a help us better understand our data in a better the computer. will be very useful for us in analyzing the vibration signal. as provided by the manufacturer is shown in figure 6. We used a PCI-6040E DAQ. the accelerometer. LabVIEW: NI the manufacturer of our DAQ created a toolkit which runs on LabVIEW. which is a very efﬁcient and several machines is required. TheThe accelerometer operation required havingICP ICP mode in datadata acquisition card-DAQ. we noticed a certain feature called zoom FFT which allowing analyzing the frequency range of interest with improved resolution. in the signal such as amplifying the signal and applying special ﬁlters. this is important us in analyzing because they have a special toolkit (Sound and vibration toolkit) which runs on LabVIEW and the vibration signal. and the output is modulated on the available supply to the accelerometer (2 − accelerometer output is modulated on the same line. 2Hz − 5KHzof are using a is a very efficient and fast accelerometer. this toolkit is called: NI Sound and Vibration Toolkit. since we found that most of defect & Kjaer Type 4507B accelerometer. LabVIEW: NI the manufacturer of already have a license for which runs on LabVIEW. The ﬁrst step was to attach the DAQ to the computer. as provided by the manufacturer of current supply. manufactured by on LabVIEW and will be very useful for special toolkit (Sound and vibration toolkit) which runsNational Instruments NI. manufactured by National Instruments NI. with improved resolution.

and we are still in the process of building the required current supply circuit. Upon having the actual signal from our accelerometer we might need to add further analysis techniques. We used this accelerometer to generate signals and measure them using the DAQ and perform the We viewedanalysis onsignal of the vibration using LabView. but Tool: Vibration Analysis to Determine theready. 9: Using these data we were able to calculate the defect frequencies. an induction motor and an accelerometer. it shows the the the junction box used connect the accelerometer to the DAQ. the overall spectrum will be observed for any apparent change in the level of vibrations. obtained an available Vernier 3-axis accelerometer. we expect that vibration levels at these frequencies will be the most indicating and will help us diagnosis the defect with more precision. analysis since vibration100Hz range andhad a− 3gHz range and a +-3 g measure limit. including the vibration and sound toolkit on the computer. thus we checked the operation of the DAQ and its accuracy. we had the following given: Shaft frequency = Fs = RPM/60 = 23. in addition we performed FFT on the signal and the time LabView. 7 shows theshows the apparatus setup experiment. We wanted to test A Predictivethe DAQ. the motor we experimenting with the accelerometer mounted on its outer shell. we opened the motor and got the bearings. We used a special VI in the vibration and sound toolkit called ”zoom FFT” which allows us to focus the spectrum on a particular range of frequencies. The accelerometer we are using arrived late March. Next we will turn our attention into the frequency domain. and then the defect frequencies which we will calculate in the next section will be examined with special attention. the first step was to start a working station. the motor we experimenting with the accelerometer mounted on its outer shell. In addition we set a special test feature. junction box used toto Figure 7 apparatus setup of our of our experiment. we had to calculate the dimensions of the bearings to get the rotational defect frequencies as the formulas to calculate these frequencies depend of the geometry of the bearing and rotational speed of the motor. Figure 7: Apparatus setup of the experiment F IG . which wasn’t appropriate for for it had a analysis since it a + 100 measure limit. connect the accelerometer to the DAQ. this is important because in our analysis it’s required to focus on the rotational defect frequencies explained earlier. Finally we turned our attention into the induction motor. we started measuring generated Maintenance since we didn't have the accelerometer Condition of Electric Machines signals from a function generator. The bearings turned out to be of the type 6205zz. which could determine if a speciﬁc signal exceeds a speciﬁc limit which can be pre-determined or fed from one of the parameters from the vibration signal. The first step was to attach the DAQ to the computer.3Hz Number of balls = Z = 9 . this would serve as one data point. which wasn't appropriate vibration LabView.We started the experimental work in the spring term. and compare it with the average level of vibration while at normal operation. PC. Fig. We did not want to wait tell getting the required accelerometer to start designing the analysis procedure with We did not want to wait tell getting the required accelerometer to start designing the analysis procedure with LabView. but at this level the available techniques are sufﬁcient. and then we installed LabView and all the additional toolkits. thus we thus we obtained an available Vernier 3-axis accelerometer. it consisted of a computer. and its dimensions are shown in Fig. viewed the frequency spectrum. We used this accelerometer to generate signals and measure them using the DAQ and perform the analysis on LabView. Mainly our algorithms of detecting a failure in the bearing of a motor we are currently monitoring consists of measuring the overall vibration level in time domain. 109 Fig. 8 shows a screenshot of the analysis outcome on LabView. 7: Apparatus setup of the experiment. this section will describe our experimental work so far. it shows the PC. as identifying the cause of defect and approximating the size and severity of such defects. a DAQ.

the overall spectrum will be observed for any apparent change in the level of vibrations. and its dimensions are shown in figure 9: Figure 9: Scheme and and dimensions of the 6205 ball bearing. this would serve as one data point. and compare it with the average level of vibration while at normal operation. bearing F IG . we opened the motor and got the bearings. we had to calculate the dimensions of the bearings to get the rotational defect frequencies as the formulas to calculate these frequencies depend of the geometry of the bearing and rotational speed of the motor.2 Hz Fod = 77. and then the defect frequencies which we will calculate in the next section will be examined with special attention.4Hz Fb = 41.58 Hz Fre = 82. 9: Scheme dimensions of the 6205 ball Using these data we were able to calculate the defect frequencies. as identifying the cause of defect and approximating the size and severity of such A.4 Hz . defects.26 Hz Fid = 132. Smeismeh et al.4 Hz Fre = 82. 8: Screenshot of the results of the analysis in LabView.26Hz The defect frequencies where calculated: Fid = 132.4Hz Fc = 8. Next we will turn our attention into the frequency domain.3 Hz Shaft frequency diameter = 38mm The defect frequencies where calculated: Number of balls = Z = 9 Diameter of the rolling element = 10 mm Fc = 8.2Hz Pitch diameter = 38 mm Fod = 77. Figure 8: Screenshot of the results of the analysis in LabView F IG . The bearings turned out to be of the type 6205zz. Finally we turned our attention into the induction motor.58Hz Fb = 41.110 Mainly our algorithms of detecting a failure in the bearing of a motor we are currently monitoring consists of measuring the overall vibration level in time domain. we expect that vibration levels at these frequencies will be the most indicating and will help us diagnosis the defect with more precision. we had the following given: Diameter of the rolling element = 10mm Pitch = Fs = RPM/60 = 23.

Several methods are available to defect the bearings.2 Hz Fod Maintenance A Predictive= 77.4 Hz We bought 3 bearings of the same type to perform our experiment on them. The full LabView program FigureF11:11: ThefullLabView program. and we will study the effect of such defect on the frequency spectrum. then we are able to start our analysis using the accelerometer. and more defects will be introduced later on to study the effect of each particular defect. is usually carried out to determine the condition of motor bearings. particular defect. an increase in the analysis of at this frequency can is usually carried out to determine analysis of frequency-domainvibration levels vibration reading be noticed. one is to heat the outer race which we did on one of the bearing. When we build the current supply for the accelerometer. while figure 12 shows the front panel where all the waveforms will be displayed. 30). Several methods are available to defect the bearings. and that’s why When a certain defect is present on a bearing element (example of a rough defect is shown in Fig.Using these data we were able to calculate the defect frequencies.26 Hz Tool: Vibration Analysis to Determine the Condition of Electric Machines 111 Fid = 132. then we are able to start our analysis using the accelerometer.58 Hz Fb = 41. and that’s why frequency-domain the condition vibration reading of motor bearings. Figure 10: Defected Bearings F IG . 10: Defected Bearings. type to perform will be introduced them. one is to heat the outer race which we did on one of the bearing. and we will study the effect of such We bought 3 bearings of the sameand more defects our experiment on later on to study the effect of each defect on the frequency spectrum. Here we see the block diagram of all the functions. When a certain defect is present on a bearing element (example of a rough defect is shown in figure 30). an increase in the vibration levels at this frequency can be noticed. Figure 11 above shows our LabVIEW program after fully adding all the VIs required for our project.4 Hz Fre = 82. IG . . we had the following given: Shaft frequency = Fs = RPM/60 = 23. When we build the current supply for the accelerometer.3 Hz Number of balls = Z = 9 Diameter of the rolling element = 10 mm Pitch diameter = 38 mm The defect frequencies where calculated: Fc = 8.

Here we see the block diagram of all the functions. Smeismeh et al. which confirms that the motor is running normally without any defects. for above 1. 13: Vibration analysis waveform in time domain bearing (Amplitude in g and time Figure 13: Vibration analysis waveform in time domain of healthy of healthy bearing.atFigure 13 would be considered that vibration levels our motor wewould be consideredfurther theand provoke normal level. and compare them Several steps are required determine the origin of the defect with predetermined normal tomotor’s operating condition to goodand thus applyourneeded maintenance on that tests to operation level of such motor. Several steps are required to determine the origin of the defect and thus apply the needed maintenance on that part and enhance or restore the motor’s operating condition to good and normal. determine ﬁrst step of our analysis normal the time domainwe determinedcomparevibration levels above 1. Figure 11: The full LabView program Fig. in sec). 13 shows the time domain vibration level. Here we Figure diagram shows our LabVIEW program after fully front panel where required for our see the block11 above of all the functions. 11 above shows our LabVIEW program after fully adding all the VIs required for our project. Fig.7 G The the vibration at is to check level. shows the as such motor. while Fig. F IG . and vibration levels. 12: Front Panel showing our results. displayed. The first step of our analysis is to check the time domain vibration levels. (Amplitude in g and time in sec) The vibration level reaches the maximum of 0. for the motor we ran several part and enhance or restore the and normal. . and that them with predetermined normal operation level ofan alert and provoke ran several tests to determine analysis.9 G. Figure 12: Front Panel showing our results F IG . further analysis.7G the need for as an alert vibration the need for and we determined time domain vibration level. while figure 12 shows the front panel where all the waveforms will be displayed. 12 shows theadding all the VIs all the waveforms will be project.112 A.

We need to monitor the vibration levels of the motor. we apply FFT and checking the vibration level in frequency domain against the alert limits. (Amplitude in cm/sec and frequency in Hz) The frequency spectrum shows that the motor vibrates at maximum velocity at around 280Hz with velocity of 0. After inducing the defect.9 G. (Amplitude in g and time in sec) The vibration level reaches the maximum of 0. 14: 14: Vibration analysis waveform healthy bearing (Amplitude in of healthy bearing.Figure 13: Vibration analysis waveform in time domain of healthy bearing.09.9G. . this conﬁrms our initial diagnosis-based on the time domain analysis.2 and summarized in table 6 that state that a good operating motor’s vibration should be 0. we will always start our testing procedure with checking the time domain vibration levels. then the frequency domain levels. Next we any defects.s 19 and 20 compare the vibration level at this frequency. Now.08cm/sec this complies with the standards explained in the section 10. the vibration level at the defect frequency = 77Hz becomes 0. and compare them with the normal operation levels. and defects where introduced to this section of the bearing. which conﬁrms that the motor is running normally without F IG . out a frequency domain analysis. which confirms that the motor is running Predictive 113 normallyA withoutMaintenance Tool: Vibration Analysis to Determine the Condition of Electric Machines any defects. We will compare the frequency waveform of the healthy and the defected bearing. figure 36 shows the same signal after will carry Next applying FFT: we will carry out a frequency domain analysis. Fig. Next. 15 shows the waveform of the time domain vibration level: In the above waveform it’s apparent that the vibration exceeds the normal level which calls for immediate inspection from a specialist to determine the fault. and if necessary further inspection will be carried out using the zoom frequency analysis which allows more insight on the nature of the defect. In the case of the defected bearings. Fig. we a start testing and collecting vibration signature of a motor with defected bearing. 18 shows how the program indicates that the vibration exceeded the limit: It is clear that the function indicates the points at which the vibration level exceeds the alarm limit of 178cm/s and thus the limit test fails indicating the need for further analysis which will be carried out next in the zoom analysis. Fig. 36 shows the same signal after applying FFT: The vibration level reaches the maximum of 0. a detectable increase in vibration levels will result. In the case of the defective bearing. Fig. (Thus increasing by 4 times) This conﬁrms that the increase in vibration analysis was caused by a defect in the outer race.that the motor is operating normally and no further action is required. Figure Vibration analysis waveform in frequency domain ofin frequency domaincm/sec and frequency in Hz). and pay certain attention to the vibration level at 77Hz since it’s the outer race defect frequency.049cm/sec and bellow. the increase in the level of vibration at other frequencies is because at the shops several other defects where introduced to the motor which made it hard to separate the increase due to different defects.

The fundamental frequency for the outer race defect bearing from equation (3) is found to be 77Hz. a detectable increase in vibration levels will result. Figure 16: limit test in time domain of defected bearing. 15: Vibration analysis waveform in time waveform in bearin (Amplitude inof defected bearing. (Amplitude in g and time in sec) In the above waveform it’s apparent that the vibration exceeds the normal level which calls for immediate inspection from a specialist to determine the fault. we will always start our testing a detectable increase in vibration levels will result. 275Hz.26Hz) on the spectrum graph and impact signals whose frequency is equal to outer race defect frequency (Wod). procedure with checking the time domain vibration levels. Smeismeh et al. Figure 15 shows the waveform of the time domain vibration level: 114 A. in the time domain waveform graph indicate that ball bearing outer race has a defect. (Amplitude in g and timein secand time in sec) The frequency spectrum of the vibration signal from outer race defect shows the peaks at 77Hz. and if necessary further inspection will be carried out using the zoom frequency analysis which allows more insight on the nature of the defect.levels. 350Hz. Since the magnitude of spectrum at various harmonic frequencies for the defective bearing is found to be quite distinct in comparison to good bearings. (Amplitude in g and time in sec) Existing of multipliers of the cylindrical rolling bearing outer race defect frequency (77. F test in time in time domain defected bearing. Figure In the case of the defective bearing. 144Hz. Figure 15: Vibration analysis domain of defected time domain cm/sec and frequency in Hz). 5 Conclusion Our project was successful in determining the presence of a fault. The right choice on the accelerometer. (Amplitude in g ). 225Hz. F IG . 425Hz and 475Hz. 15 the frequency domain the time domain vibration level: thenshows the waveform of levels. Figure 15: Vibration analysis waveform in time domain of defected bearing. In the case of the defective bearing. 16: Limit testdomain of of defected bearing. (Amplitude in g and time in sec) In the above waveform it’s apparent that the vibration exceeds the normal level which calls for immediate inspection from a specialist to determine the fault. and ICP circuit was an aid to accomplish a ready environment for reading vibrations and with . Figure 16: limit IG . data acquisition card.

093 0. 2: Frequency compositions of outer race defect for healthy and defected motor Figure (Amplitude in cm * 10 /sec and frequency in Hz) F5 0. weFFT and checking the vibration level in in frequency domain the alert the alert apply apply FFT and checking the vibration level frequency domain against against A Predictive Maintenance Tool: Vibration Analysis to Determine the Condition of Electric Machines 115 limits. (Amplitude in cm/sec and frequency in Hz) In the case of the defected bearings. we Now. figure 18 shows how the program bearing. limit this in frequency domain of defected bearing.023 0. vibration exceeded the limit: (Amplitude in cm/sec and frequency in Hz) In the case of the defected bearings. Figure 17: Vibration analysis waveform in frequency domain of defected indicates that the F IG .035 It is clear that the function indicates the points at which the vibration level exceeds the alarm limit of 178 cm/s and thus the limit test fails indicating the need for further analysis which will be carried out next in the zoom analysis. and at 77 the F2 3 defects where introduced to this section of the bearing. and pay certain attention to the vibration level at 77 Hz since it’s the outer race defect frequency.158outer race defect frequency. It is clear that the function indicates the points at which the vibration level exceeds the alarm Amplitude Amplitude limit of 178 cm/s and thus the limit test fails indicating the need RMS) (cm/sec − RMS) (cm/sec − for further analysis which will be Spectral Frequencies Corresponding carried out next in the zoom analysis.032 0. limits.098 certain attention to the vibration level0. and pay F1 0.105 6 7 Fo = 77.022 0. figure 18 shows how the program indicates that the vibration exceeded the limit: Figure 18: limit test in frequency domain of defected bearing. Figure 17: Vibration analysis waveform in frequency domain of defected bearing. F4 -3 0.033 0. F IG . and . 17: Vibration analysis waveform in frequency domain of defected bearing (Amplitude in cm/sec and frequency in Hz). We will compare the frequency waveform of the healthy and the defected bearing.09 1 TAB .26Hz 0. figures 41 and 42 compare the vibration F3 0.066 0. Healthy Defected We will compare the frequency waveform of the healthy and the defected 2bearing.Now.032 Hz since it’s0.11 5 F6 0.183 4 18:level at test frequency. 18: in cm * 10-3 /sec and frequency in bearing (Amplitude Limit test in frequency domain of defected Hz) (Amplitude in 10−3 cm/sec and frequency in Hz).

increase in the level of vibration at other frequencies is because at the shops several other defects where introduced to the motor which made it hard to separate the increase due to different defects. the defects.09.09 0.26 Hz F1 F2 F3 F4 0. Spectral Frequencies Amplitude ( cm/sec – RMS) Healthy Fo = 77.116 A. frequency = 77 Hz becomes 0. 350 Hz.098 0.023 0.022 0. the (Thus increasing by 4 times) increase in the level of vibration at other frequencies is because at the shops several other defects whereconfirms that the increase in vibrationitanalysis was caused by a defect in to different This introduced to the motor which made hard to separate the increase due the outer race. Smeismeh et al. Figure 19: Vibration analysis zoom waveform in frequency domain of healthy bearing -3 (Amplitude frequency domain of healthy bearing F IG . 225 Hz. the outer (Thus increasing by 4 times) race defect bearing from equation (3) is found to be 77 Hz. (Amplitude in cm * 10-3 /sec and frequency in Hz) Figure 20: Vibration analysis zoom waveform in frequency domain of defected bearing.032 0. After inducing the defect. 21: Frequency spectrum of a healthy compared to an unhealthy bearing. the vibration level at the defect This confirms that the increase in vibration analysis was caused by a defect in the outer race. 275waveform inin cmlevel atdomain The fundamental frequency for 0.158 0.09. 425 Hz and 475 Hz. The frequency spectrum of the vibration signal from outer race defect shows the peaks at 77 Hz. Figure 20: Frequency spectrum of a healthy compared to an unhealthy bearing F IG . 19: Vibration analysis zoom waveform inin cm * 10 /sec and frequency in Hz) (Amplitude in 10−3 cm/sec and Figure 19: Vibration analysis zoom waveform in frequency domain of healthy bearing frequency in Hzfrequency in Hz) (Amplitude in cm * 10-3 /sec and ).183 0. 10−3 cm/sec and 144 Hz.11 1 2 3 4 5 Corresponding Frequency . 20: Vibration Hz.033 Amplitude ( cm/sec – RMS) Defected ( x Fo) 0. Afteranalysis zoom (Amplitude frequency /sec defect frequency bearing (Amplitude in inducing the defect. Figure 20: Vibration analysis zoom waveform in frequency domain of defected bearing. frequency in Hz).066 0. the vibration * 10-3 the and of defected = 77 Hz becomes frequency in Hz) F IG .

Also we want to thank the lab managers. 7. Elsevier. Kumar P. 5.M. it can be concluded that if vibration monitoring is applied within regular selected periods. Integrated publishing: http://www.H. 32(8). 21.grundfos. (2003) Comprehensive Predictive Maintenance of electrical motors in Indian nuclear power plant. Al-Ghamda A.com/ content/neets/14177/css/14177_94. Soergel S. 8. Also. 539-55. Fuad Shihab for being helpful all the time whenever we needed any assistance. 244–256. (1996) An analysis of induction motor predictive maintenance techniques. our results and methodology seems satisfactory and providing results. further interpretation and analysis was possible.. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing. 1537-1571.com/doc/webnet/ professional_profile/pdf/7_Motor_ bearings.S. LabVIEW and frequency analysis.A Predictive Maintenance Tool: Vibration Analysis to Determine the Condition of Electric Machines 117 the help of LabVIEW. & Choudhury A. Carnero M. Tandon N. (1999). Ghassan Deeb Mr. in addition to human error in measuring the dimensions of the bearing. 301. nevertheless future work is needed to be fully able to determine the exact source of the defect. in addition to the lack of papers on similar techniques. Time waveform and frequency spectrum provide useful information to analyze defects in antifriction bearings. Yadava G. Our project seems perfect to detect a fault. 20(7). (1999) A review of the vibration and acoustic measurement methods for detection of defects in rolling element bearings.K. The distinct and different behavior of vibration signals from bearings with inner race defect. Khaled Joujou. Fouad Mrad. Mr. Tandon N. Mbab D. Motor bearings: http://net. References 1. however is a bit shaky in determining the exact origin of that fault. they always had time to make sure we are in the right track.tpub. Ali Chehab and Dr. Decision support systems. 3. Mr. 9. 17. Time waveform indicates severity of vibration in defective bearings. (2005) Selection of diagnostic techniques and instrumentation in a predictive maintenance program. Moreover. 6. Frequency domain spectrum identiﬁes amplitudes corresponding to defect frequencies and enables to predict presence of defects on inner race.. (2006) A comparative experimental study on the use of acoustic emission and vibration analysis for bearing defect identiﬁcation and estimation of defect size.C.htm . With the right apparatus. 469–480. we could read the vibration of any motor. 38(4). 28th Southeastern Symposium on System Theory SSST’96. & Manuhar V. In conclusion. International Journal of Nuclear Power. reveal the presence of a fault and the need for maintenance. & Rastgoufard P. our ﬁrst time contact to vibration levels. We would like to acknowledge the continues help and support from our supervisors Dr. Tribology International. impending failures can be easily detected.M. outer race and rollers of antifriction bearings. capable instrumentation and if vibration analysis is performed by experienced personnel. outer race defect and roller defect helps in identifying the defects in roller bearings. see its waveform in time domain and even in frequency domain after applying Fast Fourier Transform with the help of LabVIEW functions. Salam Abyad Mr. The drastic and immense increase in vibration levels read ﬁrst on the time domain and then conﬁrmed in the frequency domain by known data standards that show the motor’s operating condition. This is because equations use shaft speed by declared manufacturer but real speed of the shaft may be different from this speed in the moment of vibration measurement. Mobley R. Moreover. A case study. 2. the defect frequencies computed by the equations deviate to some amount from obtained-ones by measurement. (2007) A comparison of some condition monitoring techniques for the detection of defect in induction motor ball bearings. & Ramakrishna K. and placed their knowledge and experience in our use. Vibration Fundamentals. in Proc. Grundfos Motor Book.pdf 4. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing.