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! SUMMARY OF THE CASE Improving the Delivery of Care-A Department Leader’s Vision: The scope of this case example is more limited than the development of an integrated health care system but no less significant in terms of its impact on the people being served.) Her areas of responsibility included six patient-care departments: labor and delivery. Joan had been in her position for three years and was well respected throughout the organization for her innovative leadership style. Joan held a vision of women’s service in which care was organized around the family unit instead of segregated into four different departments. a director of maternal-child nursing in a five hundred-bed community hospital in a western state. she had established good relationships with employees in the various departments and had gradually hired new managers who more closely shared her values of employee empowerment and participatory leadership as well as family-centered maternity care. When Joan was recruited to this organization. postpartum. (She prefers to remain anonymous. the hospital’s market share for obstetrics began slowly regaining ground. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In spite of a traditional medical staff and administration who preferred to maintain the status quo. these departments were managed in a traditional fashion and were gradually declining in market share because their maternity services were basically unresponsive to customers’ requests. ! /! . neonatal intensive care. and two pediatric units. newborn nursery. As Joan and her new managers began implementing innovative programs and services. It involved Joan. During those three years.
Together they created a powerful new reality that improved health care in the area. Additionally. long before mother-and-baby care was the norm for women and newborn services. Joan’s situation is not unlike a change innovator who has a clear vision as to the trajectory and service differentiation of the service line being offered in order to gain market share in the population served. PROPOSING A SOLUTION A disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create a new market and value network. This example may not seem remarkable except that it took place in the early 1980s. this was the first such conversion in a region of several states and is today continuing to provide true family-centered care for those it serves. Employees volunteered and were then selected and trained. The implementation process proceeded smoothly. and within months the department had a waiting list of expectant parents. this change represented a major impact on postpartum and newborn nursery employees. In fact. many of whom believed they could not handle the change. Demand for this service was so intense that the hospital converted the original postpartum unit to mother-and-baby care two years later. commitment was difficult to gain because people involved held values that differed from Joan’s belief in maintaining the integrity of the family unit.! In several instances. and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network (over a ! 6! . It started with one individual’s vision but became possible only when those within the vision community shared the vision. A planning committee of employees and physicians worked out details for the expansion unit.
displacing an earlier technology. The automobile. an idea that Clayton M. “evolutionary. In this hypothesis. The mass-produced automobile was a disruptive innovation.e. the automobile was a revolutionary technological innovation. i. was not. because it changed the transportation market. a sustaining innovation does not create new markets or value networks but rather only evolves existing ones with better value. Sustaining innovations may be either “discontinuous” (Christensen. allowing the firms within to complete against each other’s sustaining improvements. because early automobiles were expensive luxury items that did not disrupt the market for horse-drawn vehicles. The term is used in business and technology literature to describe innovations that improve a product or service in ways that the market does not expect. but it was not a disruptive innovation.” For example..” This is the simplistic idea that an established firm fails because it does not “keep up technologically” with other firms.” The term disruptive technology has been widely used as a synonym of “disruptive innovation.e. ! 8! . because market disruption has been found to be a function usually not of technology itself but rather of its changing application. In contrast to disruptive innovation. 2003).” whereas disruptive innovations change entire “markets. “transformational” or “revolutionary”.. typically first by designing for a different set of consumers in the new market and later by lowering prices in the existing market. The current theoretical understanding of disruptive innovation is different from what might be expected by default. Sustaining innovations are typically innovations in “technology. or “continuous”.” but the latter is now preferred. 1997). i.! few years or decades). by itself. The market for transportation essentially remained intact until the debut of the lower prices Ford Model T in 1908 (Christensen. Christensen called the “technology mudslide hypothesis.
for which survival (not thriving) is the only reward (Christensen. The work Christensen and others during the 2000s have addressed the question of what firms can do to avoid oblivion brought on by technological disruption. the established firm in that network can at best only fend off the market share attack with a me-too entry. Disruptive innovation has brought affordability and convenience to customers in a variety of industries. start-up firms inhabit value networks. where it takes constant upwardclimbing effort just to stay still. followed by a discussion of some of the ! 9! .! firms are like climbing upward on crumbling footing. At that time. What they have shown is that good firms are usually aware of the innovations. The authors present a framework for categorizing and developing business models in health care. health care remains expensive and inaccessible to many because of the lack of business-model innovation. However. because they are not profitable enough at first and because their development can take scarce resources away from that of sustaining innovations (which are needed to compete against current competition). In Christensen’s terns. at least until the day that their disruptive innovation is able to invade the older value network. This paper explains the theory of disruptive innovation and describes how disruptive technologies must be matched with innovative business models. and any break from the effort (such as complacency born of profitability) causes a rapid downhill slide. it does not model reality. Christensen and colleagues have shown that this simplistic hypothesis is wrong. a firm’s existing “value networks” place insufficient value on the disruptive innovation to allow its pursuit by that firm. Meanwhile. but their business environment does not allow them to pursue them when they first arise. 1997).
but it also targets customers who are least attractive to the market leaders. We are often asked why. performance-hungry tiers of customers. and. The theory of disruptive innovation helps explain how complicated. it too begins to improve over time. customers of the sustaining company find that their needs can be met by the disruptive innovation. Successful incumbent firms will almost always choose instead to focus on offering sustaining products to their higher-paying. Before long. they are almost always introduced by new entrants rather than the dominant incumbents of an industry. affordable ones. Because disruptive products do not appeal to the best customers paying the highest prices. often before the incumbents and their leaders realize that their days are numbered.! reasons why disruptive innovation in health care delivery has been slow (Christensen & Hwang. expensive products and services are eventually converted into simpler. health care has not been disrupted to a significant degree already. are able to sweep away once-dominant firms with alarming regularity. one by one. Impact Of Disruptive Innovation On Value Disruptive innovation explains how upstart companies. with so many sophisticated medical technologies introduced every year. The reason is that technology has almost always been implemented in a ! :! . 2007). the leaders find themselves bereft of customers (Christensen & Hwang. Yet once the disruptive product establishes a foothold in the market. in an effort to deliver more affordable and -accessible solutions. Not only does this type of innovation take root in a portion of the market that is least demanding or not consuming at all. 2007).
gross and net profit margins. In other words.! sustaining manner in health care—primarily to help hospitals and doctors solve the most complex problems. but it does little to make health care more affordable and accessible. an established business model begins to determine the types of value propositions an organization can and cannot deliver. intellectual property (IP). To understand why this happens. the only instances when an original market leader successfully transitioned to becoming a leader in the new disruptive plane of competition occurred when the incumbent established an entirely autonomous business unit organized around the disruptive value proposition. mark-ups. and volumes necessary to profitably cover the costs of the resources and processes that are required to deliver the value proposition. processes. equipment. and affordably. conveniently. The starting point of a successful business model is its value proposition: a product or service that helps customers get a job done more effectively. processes emerge and become ingrained in the business model. and cash—required to deliver the value proposition. once the pieces of a business model have coalesced to deliver a particular value proposition. the causality of events begins to work in reverse—only value propositions that fit the existing resources.!This independent business was therefore allowed to create its own profit formula. There is nothing wrong with this. 2007). making money on lower margins than the parent company could. In our research on disruptive innovation. asset turns. Over time. Finally. ! . which defines the pricing. Managers then bring together a set of resources—including people. of course. As employees and other resources repeatedly work together to generate the product.! . a profit formula materializes. and profit formula of the organization can be successfully taken to market. we must start by analyzing what constitutes a business model (Christensen & Hwang. supplies.
stock exchanges. automobile manufacturing. into outputs of greater value. who is often quite willing to pay very high prices in return. results can be guaranteed or redone free of charge. advertising agencies. restaurants. and petroleum refining are examples of this type of business model. such as people. value-adding process businesses. raw materials. the companies that deliver value and make money are those that facilitate the effective operation of the network and its user transactions. which facilitate calls and data transfers among their customers. as well as the online auction site eBay. The business model is built to do this in repetitive ways so that the organization’s capabilities are embedded more in its processes than in its resources. Consulting firms. and facilitated user networks. Telecommunications companies. Mutual insurance companies are user network businesses—customers deposit their insurance premiums into a collective pool. 2007). as a whole they focus their attention on process excellence that can deliver high-quality services and products consistently at a lower cost.! while processes and resources were also markedly different because they were adopted under the new profit formula (Christensen & Hwang. Retailing. and many activities of banks are also user-network businesses. In general. and they take claims out of it!. Value-adding process businesses Facilitated user networks Finding The Right Business Models For Health Care The two dominant business models in health care—those of general hospitals and physician practices—are solution shops that emerged in an era when nearly all medical ! <! . Although some value-adding process businesses may be more efficient than others. In these types of businesses. Solution shops Solution shops are institutions built to diagnose and solve unstructured problems. A Typology Of Business Models Before describing what can and needs to be done in health care. business models can be categorized into three types: solution shops. and capital. These businesses transform inputs of resources. These solution shops deliver value primarily through the people they employ—experts who draw upon their intuition and problem-solving skills to diagnose the cause of complicated problems and recommend solutions—and successful firms are those that can attract the best talent Solution shop work tends to be unique for each customer. we present a construct for classifying and analyzing business-model innovation. User networks are enterprises in which the same people buy and sell and deliver and receive things to and from each other. equipment. research and development organizations. and many law firms employ this type of business model. and they are less affected than other types of businesses are by the variability that occurs when outcomes depend on people’s intuition. energy. Often.
The legacy institutions of health care delivery are jumbled!mixtures of multiple business models struggling to delivery value out of chaos. The firms that grew to become successful under specific regulatory conditions subsequently worked very hard to make sure that those Lack of a retail market Regulatory barriers ! 7=! . pervasive cross-subsidization. Coordination of care in!such a system is critical. and personal health records (PHRs). copayments. However. Challenges To New Business Models In Health Care Fragmentation of care Carving focused facilities and user networks out of today’s mixed models of health care deliver might indeed capture unrealized efficiencies and cost savings. but they also might fragment the delivery of care. This has long been the criticism of the third-party payer system. until we see business-model innovation in health care delivery in conjunction with HSAs. and one cannot simply plug in a new component and expect it to work. we will continue to see individuals paradoxically avoiding the healthy behavior that these vehicles were meant to encourage. 2007). Web-based decision-making software. customers rationally avoid spending their money on those services. excessive overhead. Health IT systems must serve as the connective tissue joining the various pieces of health care delivery into a coherent system that delivers continuity through safe. Disruptive innovation requires that a market of consumers carry proper incentives to shop for products and services that best meet their needs. are perhaps the best vehicle available today to encourage rational health care purchasing decisions. state certificate-of-need (CON) policies. coinsurance. telephonic services such as Revolution Health’s Nightingale service. these institutions have subsumed under their organizational umbrellas many activities that are perhaps better suited to businesses based on value-adding processes or user-network models. and an unacceptable amount of variability and medical error (Christensen & Hwang. in combination with high-deductible health plans. Health savings accounts (HSAs). In other words. it is important to recognize that the health care system comprises highly interdependent business models. satisfying relationships. but as long as the health care!delivery system remains costly and inconvenient. incorporating indecipherable systems of cost accounting. every company and industry that was eventually disrupted has had supporters who at one time lobbied against change and argued that disruptive enterprises could never offer more than substandard performance and unacceptable quality. HSAs do create proper incentives for healthy behavior. Well-known battles over federal moratoria on focused specialty hospitals. The role of care coordination can also be performed to varying degrees by a patient-centered medical home (PCMH).! care relied on the intuition of highly skilled professionals. and restrictions on physicians’ ownership of medical facilities have all involved impassioned claims by proponents of the status quo that disruptive change could jeopardize public safety for the sake of higher! profits. and dizzying combinations of deductibles. and limits have failed to create the true retail market necessary to generate shopping behavior. But over time. Interestingly. and the importance of interoperable health information technology (IT) cannot be stressed enough.
although often written with good intentions. returning to our original premise that it is a mistake to focus only on cutting costs when trying to fix the health care system.! conditions remained in their favor.” However. and it is the right prescription for the ailing U. Leadership in this aspect requires the rare ability to instill congruence between an organization and the states values and behavior. It wasn’t very long ago that General Motors lobbied for increased tariffs and quotas on Japanese imports. Moral or normal commitment explains at least partially ! 77! . Health care policymakers must recognize the hidden cost of supporting and renewing regulations that inhibit innovation over the long run. successful in their own right. However. arguing before Congress. regulators and payers often direct their attention to cutting reimbursement rates as the primary solution. many states do not allow nurses to interpret simple test results or write basic prescriptions. disruptive innovation has brought affordability and accessibility to industries ranging from steel making to personal finance. 2007). cutting reimbursement in an attempt to force the solution-shop business models of hospitals and physician practices to somehow figure out a way to become more efficient does little to improve health care delivery. LEADING A CHANGE INNOVATION PROCESS Now the other part of the matter is ensuring the commitment of the organizational members in the pursuit of finding and implementing the innovative process. and they become even less inclined to hand off work to value-added process businesses. inherently expensive medical care. but such regulations leave no room for value-added process businesses such as nurse-staffed retail clinics that can deliver better and more cost-effective care for a growing list of conditions. “What’s good for General Motors is good for America. Finally. Reimbursement The appropriate solution is to encourage the development of disruptive business models that can assume a greater share of the workload—not to force the old models of solution-shop medicine.S. hospitals and physicians struggle even more to fulfill their value propositions of providing complex. health care system—a treatment that is desperately needed and long overdue (Christensen & Hwang. leaving care delivery to be performed by physician-staffed solution shops. By coupling technological advances with appropriately matched business models. to twist and conform. This makes sense for complex illnesses that require the intuition of experts. For example. these regulations unintentionally trap health care in high-cost models of care. With lower reimbursement.
they are less open to new information.” Instead. Waterman also writes. For example. Leaders must be comfortable with employees making their own choices in their own time about the commitments they may because once people have made a choice. “If the most competent and trusted people won’t commit. executive behavior has not supported the organization’s slogan “patients first. Yet employees openly and disdainfully argue that the organization’s true value is quality physician care.! why this congruence is so critical. Commitment cannot be forced.” And forcing a choice prematurely is risky. research has demonstrated. People need more information in order to change a decision than to make one. the leader should take another look at the cause itself. because in numerous and highly visible examples over the years. We have all seen the effects of this at one time or another.” Employees choose whether or not to commit and follow the path indicated. A breach in moral commitment occurs when employees perceive the organization or leader acting in ways inconsistent with states beliefs or in ways significantly different from the employee’s values. what the physician wants rather than what the patient needs has guided decisions and action. one midsize community hospital in the Midwest states clearly that its most important value is quality patient care. Demanding compliance on a course of ! 7"! . It may be ill-conceived or stated in a misleading way. Waterman states “Choice is crucial to commitment. and this means that a leader must face the possibility that people may choose not to follow. What started as a catchy phrase meant to exemplify the organization’s values has become a liability in building employees’ commitment.
Commitment to this vision began with frequent discussions with all stakeholders. 2011). Joan’s long-held vision for a mother-and-baby unit was possible. LEARNING APPLICATION Employees who are engaged in their work and committed to their organizations give companies crucial competitive advantages—including higher productivity and lower employee turnover. An expansion was planned for an additional ten postpartum beds and a small nursery for newborns to be added to the maternity unit. Thus. wellpaying job and seeking a new job with greater challenge. Major educational sessions were offered to introduce the concept to key stakeholders.! action that requires employees’ full engagement and support is hazardous because it may preclude the possibility of ever achieving true commitment (Manion. it is not surprising that organizations of all sizes and types have ! 7/! . Commitment also reflects the importance of our values. When actions are in accordance with the values one hold. However. managers. the service Joan initiated was bursting at the seams. Holding the values of security and achievement simultaneously can lead to a crisis point in a career when situations force an individual to choose between remaining in a seemingly secure. The closest patient-care area available was a rehabilitation department in the next wing of the hospital. requiring more postpartum beds and bassinet space. events flow more smoothly (Manion. 2011). and physicians were all involved in planning discussions. Suddenly. Employees. this new patient-care unit was so small that staffing would be a significant problem unless employees were cross trained to care for either mother or baby. They guide daily decision-making and give a sense of direction in day-to-day existence. After three years.
for example. found that highly engaged employees are 1. To help you reap the benefits of an engaged. engaged employees may be more likely to commit to staying with their current organization. Clearly. But what are employee engagement and commitment.3 times more likely to be high performers than less engaged employees. These themes include employees’ satisfaction with their work and pride in their employer. 2006). As you will see. Software giant Intuit. the extent to which people enjoy and believe in what they do for work and the perception that their employer values what they bring to the table. some common themes emerge. 2006). everyday human resource practices such as recruitment. business consultant and former General Electric CEO Jack Welch recently cited employee engagement first. respectively (Vance. committed workforce at your organization. exactly? Though different organizations define engagement differently. In addition.! invested substantially in policies and practices that foster engagement and commitment in their workforces. ! 76! . and for designing and implementing effective engagement initiatives. The greater an employee’s engagement. Indeed. this report provides guidelines for understanding and measuring employee engagement. training. They are also five times less likely to voluntarily leave the company. performance management and workforce surveys can provide powerful levers for enhancing engagement (Vance. in identifying the three best measures of a company’s health. the more likely he or she is to “go the extra mile” and deliver excellent onthe-job performance. with customer satisfaction and free cash flow coming in second and third. engagement and commitment can potentially translate into valuable business results for an organization.
community and spiritual obligations. then they thoughtfully plan and carry out the actions required to fulfill them. employees and employers have traditionally made a tacit agreement: In exchange for workers’ commitment. goods. organizations would provide forms of value for employees.! Employee Engagement: Key Ingredients Many managers wonder how such an elusive concept can be quantified. familial. People are simultaneously committed to multiple entities. Commitment manifests itself in distinct behavior. When an entity or individual to whom someone has made a commitment fails to come through with the expected exchange. The term does encompass several ingredients for which researchers have developed measurement techniques. At the “personal disengagement” end. 2006). gifts. children. The sections following highlight some of these studies (Vance. In the world of work. there is much research on these elements of engagement—work that has deep roots in individual and group psychology. For example. as well as to their employers. money and property. Committing to the Work and the Company ! 78! . commitment has a rational element: Most people consciously decide to make commitments. they will get something of value in return—such as favors. people assume that in exchange for their commitment. including their spouses. These ingredients include the degree to which employees fully occupy themselves in their work. Some experts define commitment as both a willingness to persist in a course of action and reluctance to change plans. attention. intellectually and emotionally—in their work role. Occupying the Job Psychologist William Kahn drew on studies of work roles and organizational socialization to investigate the degrees to which people “occupy” job roles. How do people become personally engaged in their work activities? Why do they become more engaged in some activities than others? Scholars have proposed answers to these questions based on their studies of the psychology of commitment. supervisors and customers. Because commitments require an investment of time as well as mental and emotional energy. Commitment also has an emotional component: People usually experience and express positive feelings toward an entity or individual to whom they have made a commitment. educational. Reciprocity affects the intensity of a commitment. co-workers. Fortunately. He used the terms “personal engagement” and “personal disengagement” to represent two ends of a continuum. That is. affection. They also commit themselves to specific individuals. personal. people devote time and energy to fulfill their on-the-job responsibilities as well as their family. political and religious institutions. At the “personal engagement” end. most people make them with the expectation of reciprocation. the commitment erodes. often owing to a sense of obligation to stay the course. such as economic. as well as the strength of their commitment to the employer and role. Finally. individuals fully occupy themselves— physically. parents and siblings. they uncouple themselves and withdraw from the role. such as secure jobs and fair compensation.
And with reduced expectations of reciprocity. having broken both formal and psychological employment agreements. consumer demands for everhigher quality and investor pressures for greater returns on equity have prompted organizations to restructure themselves. For example. high labor costs.! Dramatic changes in the global economy over the past 25 years have had significant implications for commitment and reciprocity between employers and employees—and thus for employee engagement. 2006). are struggling to craft effective strategies for reviving employees’ commitment and thereby revitalizing their engagement (Vance. 10 Common Themes: How Companies Measure Engagement Employers typically assess their employees’ engagement levels with companywide attitude or opinion surveys. scarce and costly resources. Many companies. restructuring has meant reductions in staff and in layers of management (Vance. these changes have broken the traditional psychological employment “contract” and its expectations of reciprocity. 2006). Although restructuring helps organizations compete. At some companies. workers have felt less commitment to their employers. increasing global competition. Employees have realized that they can no longer count on working for a single employer long enough to retire. A sampling of the criteria featured in such instruments reveals 10 common themes related to engagement: 10 Most Common Themes Related to Engagement: • Pride in employer • Satisfaction with employer • Job satisfaction • Opportunity to perform well at challenging work • Recognition and positive feedback for one’s contributions ! 79! .
units-and your entire company? To engage workers as well as to benefit from that engagement. to devote resources to the HR practices you believe will generate “the biggest bang” for your investment “buck. Employee Commitment • How do you and other managers in your organization define commitment? • Are some employees in your company engaged in their work but not committed to the organization? Committed to staying with your firm but not exactly engaged in their work? Both engaged and committed? • To whom are your organization's employees committed? The company? Their supervisor? Co-workers? Team members? Customers? • What business results has commitment from employees created for your organization? For example. you need to consider potential return—that is. To help you get started.! • • • • • Personal support from one’s supervisor Effort above and beyond the minimum Understanding the link between one’s job and the organization’s mission Prospects for future growth with one’s employer Intention to stay with one’s employer Think about what engagement and commitment mean in your own organization. hiring and training costs? • What does your company do to reciprocate employees' commitment? Is the organization living up to its side of the bargain? Employee Engagement • How do you and other managers in your organization define employee engagement? • How do you know that certain employees in your company are engaged? Do they relish their jobs? Enjoy specific responsibilities or tasks? Willingly “go the extra mile”? • In teams. we review employer practices that affect employee engagement and commitment and examine ways ! 7:! . has commitment reduced turnover and. your organization must invest in its human resource practices. departments or business units in your company that have a large number of engaged employees. review the questions in “Food for Thought” below.” You must weigh how much engagement and commitment your company wants—and at what cost. what business results are you seeing? Higher productivity? Lower costs? Greater revenues? More efficiency? Lower turnover? Higher product or service quality? • Conversely. and what are the consequent costs for their teams. how do disengaged employees behave. Below. decreased recruitment. But just like other investments. therefore.
It’s money in the bank. • Reward risk takers. Strategies of People who Challenge the Process • Searching out challenging opportunities to change. ! 7. and improve. assigning critical tasks. Give them prizes. Strengthen people by giving power away. Achieve small wins that promote consistent progress and build commitment. Leaders also stay prepared – physically. Commit to changing three of the most frequently mentioned items that are hindering success.! . Give them the opportunity to talk about their experiences and share the lessons they’ve learned. Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to their values. and improve. grow. Praise them. interests. taking risks. and offering visible support. Modeling the Way: 7. developing competence. Recognize individual contributions to the success of every project. innovate. Suggestions for Improving in Challenging the Process • Hold a meeting with members and ask them what really annoys them about the organization. 2. Inspiring Shared Vision: 3. take risks. and dreams. 8. hopes. 4. grow. Encouraging the Heart: 9. and learn from the accompanying mistakes. 10. Experiments.! to manipulate these “levers” to influence engagement or commitment or both (Vance. They treat mistakes as learning opportunities. They innovate and experiment. • Experimenting. Set the example by behaving in ways that are consistent with shared values. Enabling Others to Act: 5. and emotionally – to meet whatever challenges may confront them. and learning from the accompanying mistakes. Challenging the Process Leaders are pioneers – people who search out opportunities and step into the unknown. providing choice. 6. innovate. Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust. 2006). Envision an uplifting and enabling future. Kouzes and Posner identified the 10 Commitments of Leadership: Challenging the Process: 1. They are willing to take risks. Search out challenging opportunities to change. Celebrate team accomplishments regularly. mentally.
Leaders make others feel important. They show others how mutual interests can be met through commitment to a common purpose.to ten-minute “vision speech” for your organization.” As a leader you can do the job alone. Strategies of People who Enable Others to Act • Fostering collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust. not individual efforts. strong. and offering visible support. revising and refining. They stress cooperative goals and build relationships of mutual trust. extraordinary things are accomplished as a result of group efforts. Write an article about how you’ve made a difference in the last decade – how you’ve contributed to your job. Keep the written speech in your daily planner. assigning critical tasks. Suggestions for Improving in Enabling Others to Act • Find ways to increase interactions among people who need to work more effectively together. Use it liberally. developing competence. ! 7<! . hopes and dreams. your organization. and your community. Through enthusiasm and skillful communication.! Inspiring a Shared Vision Leaders spend considerable effort gazing across the horizon of time – imagining what kind of future they would like to create. Strategies of People who inspire a Shared Vision • Envisioning an uplifting and ennobling future. Enabling Others to Act Leaders gain the support and assistance of all those who must make the project work or who must live with the results. • Strengthens people by giving power away. your family. • Enlisting others in a common vision by appealing to their values. as you feel moved to do so. • For the next two weeks. interests. “We” is an inclusive word that signals a commitment to teamwork and sharing. and influential. commit to replacing the word “I” with “we. providing choice. leaders enlist the emotions of others to share the vision. Teamwork and trust can only be built when people interact informally as well as formally. Suggestions for Improving in Inspiring a Shared Vision • Turn what you imagine about the future into a five. • Envision yourself ten years from now. Review it daily.
To continue to pursue the vision. • Celebrating team accomplishments regularly Suggestions for Improving Encouraging the Heart • Tell a public story about a person in your organization who went above and beyond the call of duty. • Set goals that are achievable. • Set goals that are achievable. Suggestions for Improving in Modeling the Way • Clarify your personal credo – the values or principles that you believe should guide your part of the organization. Check to see whether your actions are consistent with your team’s values. They keep projects on course by behaving in a way that is consistent with these values – by modeling how they expect others to behave. Post it prominently for everyone to see. Leaders also make it easier for others to achieve goals by focusing on key priorities and breaking down big projects into achievable steps. Tell people what the key milestones are so that they can easily see their progress • Clarify your personal credo – the values or principles that you believe should guide your part of the organization. • Keep track of how you spend your time. • Achieving small “wins” that promote consistent progress and build commitment. If you find inconsistency figure out what you need to do to align your actions with the values. Strategies of People Who Encourage the Heart • Recognizing individual contributions to the success of every project. ! "=! . If you find inconsistency figure out what you need to do to align your actions with the values. Encouraging the Heart Leaders must give encouragement and recognition if people who are to persist. people need heart. especially when the climb is steep and arduous. Check to see whether your actions are consistent with your team’s values.! Modeling the Way Leaders are clear about their business values and beliefs. • Keep track of how you spend your time. Make sure that you communicate your credo orally and in writing to your key constituents. Post it prominently for everyone to see. Strategies of People who Model the Way • Setting the example by behaving in ways that are consistent with shared values. Make sure that you communicate your credo orally and in writing to your key constituents. Tell people what the key milestones are so that they can easily see their progress.
Consistency and transparency of business dealing with people ensures that all transactions are honest. “Leadership is the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations. and subject to discernment which makes organizational members feel respected and valued for their contribution. But all these are ruled by open communication.! • Say “thank you” when you appreciate something that someone has done. The congruence between the leader’s intentions. Leading by example is perhaps the most effective way to create loyal followers. the goals of the organization and the direction it is going inspires trust among employees.” Practices of Exemplary Leaders Kouzes & Posner ! "7! .
org/content/27/5/1329. Learning Guide HCM603: Strategies for Healthcare Leadership – Chapters 1-2 [PDF File]. (1997). 2012 from http://myclasses. Retrieved on June 10.amazon. (2007). (n.edu/oca/l/tipsheets/10%20Commitments%20of%20 Leadership%20%20How%20to%20Improve%20Your%20Leadership% 20Style. 2012 from http://www.! References: California Intercontinental University. Retrieved on June 10. C. 2012 from http://www. and Hwang.). 2012 from http://content. The Innovator’s Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth [E-book].pdf Christensen. 27(5).caluniversity. Boston. The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause New Firms to Fail [E-book]. Retrieved on June 10.com/books/about/?id=SIexi_qgq2gC Christensen. MA: Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved on May 29. J.healthaffairs.com/The-Innovators-Solution-Sustainingebook/dp/B004OC07GW/ref=tmm_kin_title_0?ie=UTF8&m=AG56T WVU5XWC2 Christensen. Health Affairs.php/1/HCM_603/HCM_603_Strategies_for _Healthcare_Leadership.full.pdf Creating Excellent Organizations. 2012 from http://books. (2003). Retrieved on June 10.google.edu/file.pdf ! ""! .d. MA: Harvard Business School Press. Disruptive innovation in healthcare delivery: A framework for business-model innovation [PDF File]. C. Leadership Development Resources [PDF File]. Boston. C.drexel.
+the+leader+should+take+another+look+at+the+cause+itself.! Manion. (2006). J. CA: Joey-Bass.%E2%80%9D &source=bl&ots=M7ZhAQYhxc&sig=9nOGjg3uBh3VnvcOnZfyGvokrA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=53rVT5ntEYbY2gW1qibDw&ved=0CFUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%9CIf%20the%20most %20competent%20and%20trusted%20people%20won%E2%80%99t%20commit %2C%20the%20leader%20should%20take%20another%20look%20at%20the%2 0cause%20itself. From Management to Leadership: Strategies for Transforming Healthcare. Measuring and Increasing Engagement in Your Organization [PDF File].%E2%80%9D&f =false Vance.ashx. San Francisco. Employee Engagement and Commitment. [E-book]. VA: SHRM Foundation.com/Libraries/Employee_Recognition_Programs/Employee_ Engagement_and_Commitment. 2012 from http://www. A Guide to Understanding. 2012 from http://books. 3rd Ed.com/books?id=bgstOhMbFJ4C&pg=PA110&lpg=PA11 0&dq=%E2%80%9CIf+the+most+competent+and+trusted+people+won%E2% 80%99t+commit.google. R. (2011). +It+may+be+ill+conceived+or+stated+in+a+misleading+way.%20It%20may%20be%20illconceived%20or%20stated%20in%20a%20misleading%20way. Alexandria. Retrieved on June 12. Retrieved on June 10.sflb. ! "/! .cashort.
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