SNI

SNI 03-1726 2002
R

Standar Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Standard)

Design method of earthquake resistance for buifdings

.'~ ~ . _:.tJ

res

Badan Standardisasi Nasionar (National Standardization Agency)

INTRODUCTION

Earthquake

Resistance

Design Method for Houses and Building, SNI-03-1726-1989

is

currently 10 years old and building designers have considered it to lack capability of current technological development. Thus, this method requires revision and shall be adjusted to civil engineering knowledge so this method will stay accurate in usage.

Furthermore,

the

awaited

SNI design

can

be completed

satisfactorily

with

the title

"Earthquake Resistance Design Standard for Building Structures" , which is expected to satisfy the challenge resistance for building. in building construction works, particularly concerning earthquake

Finally, we would like to thank all parties who have helped in formulation of the Earthquake Resistance Design Standard for Building Structures, particularly to the Authors led by Prof. Dr. Ir. Wiratman Wangsadinata

Jakarta, October 2001

Head of Building and Construction Engineering Committee

SNI03-1726-2002

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 2 3 3.1 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 7 7.1 7.2 COVERAGE Reference Terms and Notations Terms General req uirements Design earthquake and building category Regular and irregular building structure Ductility of the building structure and nominal earthquake loading Factored load design and strength Capacity Design. Type of soil and propagation of earthquake wave Seismic zone and response spectrum Effect of vertical earthquake Building structure general design "
,

1 1 1 1 11 11 12 1~ 17 17 17 19 ';:!4 24 24 25 25 25 26 27 27 27

Upper and lower structuros Earthquake load supporting structure Floor level as a diaphragm Eccentricity of center of gravity aqains! the rotation center of storey floor. Structure rigidity Limitation of fundamental natural frequency period Effect of P-Delta Earthquake loading direction Regular building structure design

28 28 28 29

Equivalent static nominal earthquake load Fundamental natural frequency period Equivalent static analysis Irregular building structure design · ,

29 29 30 31

Terms for dynamic response analysis Response spectrum order analysis

7.3" Time history dynamic response analysis

SNI 03-1726-2002

ij

6 Design of regular building structure A.7 Irregular shear wall design A.5 Building structure general design A.48 51 53 55 56 5~ B.9 The effect of earthquake on lower structure A.1 9.1 Coverage A. architecture components and machine and electrical installation APPENDIX A: 39 39 40 .5 The effect of Design Earthquake APPENDIX A: EXPLANATION A.1 Building Structure Performance Service Limit Performance Ultimate Limit Performance " 32 32 32 33 8.8 8.2 9.4 General Terms A.3 Terms and Notations A.10 The effect of earthquake on secondary components.2 Explanation of factored load and strength design for foundation 61 62 SNI03-1726-2002 iii .1 Safety coverage 10.2 9 9. architecture components and machine and electrical installation 36 36 36 between components cut off of machine and equipment 36 36 37 10.S Building structure performance A.1 Factored load and strength design for foundation B.3 I::arthquake effect on the lower structure Earthquake loading from the upper structure 33 35 35 Earthq uake loading from the moment of inertia Earthquake loading from surrounding soil 10 The effect of earthquake on secondary components.3 Correlation 10A Automatic 10.2 1 ie down 10.

Capacity reduction factor 38 61 62 $ for pile and bore pile foundation SNI03-1726-2002 iv ...... 16 18 Table 4 Table 5 Types of soll........... Coefficient ~ lim iting the fundamental natural frequency period of building structures 27 Table 9 Structure extra strength {actor f2 and total extra strength factor f contained in the building structure 34 Table 10 Performancefactor of components for secondary and 38 architectural components Table 11 Performance factor of components for machine and electrical installation Table P. 12 15 Ductility parameters of building structure Maximum ductility factor.................................................... maximum earthquake response factor...................... extra resistance factor and total extra resistance factor of several types of building system and subsystems.....LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Significance Factor I for various building and construction' categories Table 2 Table 3 :.....2 Capacity reduction factor $ for pad and raft foundation type...................i Table P........... Peak acceleration of base rock and peak acceleration of soil surface for each Indonesian Seismic zone 19 22 24 Table 6 Table 7 Tabie 8 Design Earthquake Response Spectrum Coefficient \V to calculate vertical earthquake response factor Cv..........................

column feet. 44 54 Figure P.... Moment .5 Nominal level shear force diagram along the height of building.....3 Design Earthquake Response Spectrum Load-deflection diagram (V-O)diagram of building structure Distribution of the Bell-Shaped In (R. (Ou ) Component.. 23 42 43 Figure 2 Figure P.2 Figure P.deflection diagram of a plastic joint at column feet or shear wall feet 57 SNI 03-1726-2002 v . 21 .LIST OF TABLES Figure 1 Indonesian Seismic zones with base rock peak acceleration with a reoccurrence period of 500 years.1 Figure P. Ideal collapsing mechanism of a building structure with plastic joints formed on beam ends..4 Figure P.

Civil Engineering Structures such as bridges. National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHERP) Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulation for New Buildings and Other Structures.to prevent tenant discomfort for building tenants during light to medium earthquakes. 1.1 This standard is intended as a replacement of Indonesian National Standard SNI-031726-1989 to later become the minimum requirements of earthquake resistance design for building structures. wall sand piers of harbor. 199"8 Uniform Building Code (USC). the definitions apply in this standard are: SNI 03 . the Directorate General of Cipta Karya. "Earthquake Resistance Design Method for Houses and Buildings". 2 Reference This standard uses references of documents: . International Conference of Building Officials.to reduce buildir. Feb.1 COVERA~E 1.1 Terms Except for non conformity or there is no connection with those defined in this Standard. off-shore oil structure. . the Oftlce of the State Minister of Civil Works. April 1997 3 Terms and Notations 3.Provisions.No. Part 2 . so the buIlding is repairable. and other non-buildings.to maintain at all time vital services of building function. Part 1 . 1997 Edition. Volume 2.SNI -03-1726-1989. . One storey house and other non-technical buildings.Commentary: FEMA 302. 3 of 1997. . The Directorate of Technology Education.g damage due to light to medium earthquake.Building with uncommon structure system or buildings still requiring proving of their worthiness.2 The design requirements of earthquake resistant building structures defined in this standard do not apply for the following buildings: . Buildings using base isolation system to absorb earthquake effect on the upper structure.to prevent human casualties by the collapse of building because of a strong earthquake.2.1726-2002 Page 1 of63 . 1997 Edition. irrigation building. 1. except for building structures defined in Article 1.3 This standard has a purpose that the building structure which its earthquake resistance is desiqned conforming to this standard can function: . Structural Enginzering Design Provisions.

SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 2 of63 .ve 3. which have been described from distribution of dynamic maximum level shear force along the height of the building received from a 3 dimensional linier elastic dynamic response analysis.1 light earthquake An equipment with occurrence probability of only once or with about 60% probability along the bullding's life.1. 3. 3.1.5 propagation analysis an analysis to perform amplification of earthquake wave propagated from the base rock depth to the soil surface. which values are increased slowly until exceeding the loading capacity which first causes yield (plastic joint) in the building structure. 3.1.1 Analysis 3. the light earthquake reoccurrence period is also 50 years.1. where the total dynamic response of the building will result as a superposition of maximum dynamic response of each order which will result through a Design earthquake response spectrum. related to regular building structure properties which practically act as a 2 dimensional structure.3. so its dynamic response is practically only determined by its first various response and can be displayed as the result of equivalent static earthquake load.1. where the effect of Design Earthquake on the building structure is considered as static loads which catch at each center of gravity of each floor.1. with data of soil above the base rock and input earthquake movement on the base rock as the input data.1.1.2 static push over analysis on a building structure a 2 dimensional or 3 dimensional linier or non-tinier static analysis method.3 equivalent static earthquake load analysis on regular building structure 2 3 dimensional linier static analysis by revlewlnq equivalent earthquake static loads. 3.7 llnier time history dynamic response analysis an analysis method to determine the history of dynamic response time of a 3 dimensional building structure which acts fully elastic to ground movement due to the Design Earthquake on nominal earthquake loading level as an input data.1.1. and then further load increase experiences large elasto-plastic shape change until reaching a condition of about to collapse. W2.1.1 1.6 response spectrum order analysis an analysis method to determine a 3 dimensional building structure dynamic response which acts fully elastic on an earthquake effect through an analysis method known as the response spectrum order analysis.1. This means that for a common building life of 50 years. 3.1. where the dynamic response in each time interval is calculated using a direct inteqration method or can be through a order analysis rr:ethod.4 equivalent static earthquake ioad analysis on irregular building structure a 3 dimensional linier static analysis by reviewing equivalent earthquake static loads.

Nevertheless. and by extra strength contained in the structure.2. 3. floor. Thue. which are: the number the load probability has been exceeded in a time period. According to this standard.1.2. designed dead load usually set in building structure loading standards can be considered as the nominal dead load.nd movement due to the Desiqn Earthquake on nominal earthquake loading level as an input data where the dynamic response of each time interval calculated using a direct integration method. SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 3 of 63 . beams.2 3.1. machines and equipment which are an inseparable parts of the building which overall value is such so the probability to be exceeded in a certain life span is limited on a particular percentage.1. 3. the probability to exceed the load is in the building life span of 50 years and is defined to be 10%.6. columns. roof.1.1. finishing. probability to exceed the load is in the building life span of 50 years and is defined to be 10%.non-linier time history dynamic response analysis an analysis method to determine the history of dynamic response time of a 3 dimensiona1 building structure which acts fully elastic (llnier) or elasto-plastic (non-linier) to groL. by the structure ductility level experiencing the earthquake. Generally.al is 1. 3. the building ductility level can be determined contorming to needs.1 nominal live load working on the building structure load occurring due to occupation or usage of the bullding. nominal earthquake load is the bad by the effect of Design earthquake causing the first yield in the building structure.2. including walls and partitions. while the extra strength factor f1 for bulldlnq structures in gene. Nevertheless. the probability that the load has been exceeded in the building life span of 50 years is 10 % and earthquake which causes it is called Design Earthquake (with a reoccurrence pericd cf 500 years).8 nominal earthquake in general nominal earthquake load is determined by 3 factors. Generally.2 Nominal Load 3.1. which is later reduced by an extra strength factor f1. by loads from people or movlnq objects or machine and equipment and components which are not a fixed part of the building which overall values arc such as 30 the probability to exceed the value in a certain time period is limited to a certain percentage. designed live load usually set in building structure loading standards can be considered as the nominal live load.3 nom inal dead load load from its own weight of all fixed building parts.

Ratio between height and width of shear wall cannot be less than 2 and the width cannot be less than 1.3. so the building structure will still stand.1726-2002 Page 4 of 63 .4.4 partial ductility all building structure ductility levels with intermediate ductility factors for fully elastic building structure of 1. where the structure is capable of post elastic deflection when reaching the condition of near the most severe collapse.1. while maintaining sufficient strength and rigidity. 3.5 m. which collapsing is caused by the bendir.3 fully ductile a building structure ductility level.1.2 Assembled reinforced concrete shear wall a building structure subsystem which main function is to withstand shear load due to the Design earthquake.3. where the yield moment value dan reach a limited increase due to strain hardening.0 and for fully ductile building of 5. 3.1 ductility capability of a building to endure big post-elastic deflection repeatedly and alternately due to earthquake loading over earthquake load which cause the first yielding.3.3. 3.3 Ductility 3. 3.1.1 cantilever reinforced concrete shear wall a building structure subsystem which main function is to withstand shear loaci due to the Design earthquake. The ratio between breadth and height of connecting beams may not exceed 4.3. 3. albeit at the condition of near collapsing.4. where each yield moment can experience almost all fully due to strain hardening. SNI 03 .1.2 ductility factor ratio between the maximum deflection of the building structure when reaching the condition of near collapsing and building structure deflection when the first yielding occurs on the building structure.1. consisting of two or more shear walls connected by connecting beams which collapsing occurs with a certain ductility by the occurrence of plastic joints at both end of the connecting beams and at the feet of all shear walls.1.3.1.1.4 Shear wall 3.g moment (not by shear force) with the occurrence of plastic joint on its foot. which is by reaching a ductility factor of 3.

by the building ductility value ~ it experiences and load and material extra strength factor f1 included in the building structure. In a subscript denotes the magnitude of design or shear wall. i:1a subscript denotes a fully elastic condition. Theoretical eccentricity between the Genter of gravity and center of rotation of floor levels of a building structure. Earthquake Response Factor value from the Design Earthquake Response Spectrum for fundamental natural frequency period of the building structure. Designed eccentricity b between the center of gravity floor levels of a building structure Concrete electricity modulus Nominal earthquake load which value is defined by the probability to exceed the load in a certain period. in subscript denotes the lower structure.1726-2002 Page 5 of 63 . In a subscript denoting concrete property Earthquake Response Factor state in gravity acceleration which value depends on the natural frequency period of the building and which curve is shown in the Design Earthquake Response Spectrum. C1 d dj On e ed E. Nominal dead load which can be considered to be equal to the design dead load set in building structure loading standard. and center of rotation of Ar b c C C. Numerator in the hyperbolic equation of C Earthquake Response Factor in the Design Earthquake Response Spectrum The larqest horizontal magnitude of building structure map on the examined level.2 A Am_ Ao Notation Design Earthquake peak acceleration at nominal loading level as the input earthquake for rlynamic response analysis of time history of building structure Maximum response speed of maximum Earthquake Response Factor at the Design Earthquake Response Spectrum Soil surface peak acceleration due to the Design Earthquake which depends on Seismic zone and type of soil where the building structure is located. En SNI 03 . Vertical Earthquake Response Factor to get equivalent static nominal vertical earthquake load on a building structure that has a high sensitivity to gravity load.3. measured perpendicular to earthquake loading direction. Horizontal deflection of the ithfloor from the results of 3 dimensional analysis of the building structure due to equivalent static nominal earthquake load catching at the center of gravity at storey floor levels.

a ratio between . g denotes the floor level-or soil layer level. at the center of f1 f2 Fb Fi Fp Equivalent static nominal horizontal earthquake load catching at the center of gravity of the secondary component. Building significance factor. to adjust the reoccurrence period of the earthquake related to the adjustment of probability of the exceeding of the effect for the life time of the building an adjustment of the building age. Building significance factor to adjust the earthquake building age adjustment. maximum earthquake load due to the Design Earthquake which can be absorbed by the building structure when reaching the condition of near collapsing and nominal earthquake ioad. Extra strength factor due to building structure hyperstatic which causes redistribution of forces by the formation of plastic joints which is not simultaneously synchronized. Equivalent static nominal horizontal earthquake load due to own inertia force catching at the center of gravity at the level of each basement floors of the building basement structure. f Steel elasticity modulus (=200 GPa) ' Total extra strength factor included in overall building structure. Equivalent static nominal horizontal earthquake load catching th gravity at the level of the ·i floor of the building upper structure.1726-2002 Page 6 of63 . Extra strength factor in materials contained in a building structure due to constant loading and cross section dimension and excessive installed material strength which value is defined as 1. in a subscript denotes a rolling moment.6.E. ratio between maximum earthquake load due to the effect of Design Earthquake absorbable by the building structure when reaching the condition of near collapsing and earthquake load when the first yielding occurs. architecture component and machine and electrical instauatlon in the most dangerous earthquake direction. reoccurrence period related to 12 SNI 03 . Gravitational in a subscript acceleration. 11 Building siqniftcartce factor to adjust earthquake reoccurrence period of the requirement related to adjustment of probability of occurrence of the earthquake during the life of the building. a multiplication factor of Design Earthquake effect at various building categories.

depending on el~vation of its position to latera! clamping level. normal force in general Test on the ith soil layer N Weighted average value of the Standard Penetration Test of soil layers above the base I cck witn soil layer thickness as the weight value.t the feet cf all columns and all shear walls. due to the effect of Design Earthquake. and shear wall feet when the structure. on column feet. Initial yield moment of plastic joint occurring Initial yield moment of plastic joint occurring on shear wall feet. m M Mgm live load defined in the Total soil layer above base rocks. experiences the first yielding. Result value of Standard Result value of Standard Penetration Penetration in a a Test Oil a soil layer.' architecture component or machine and electricity installation. n N Floor number of the top level (top floor). component. Nominal moment of building structure component Initial yield moment of plastic joints occurring at the ends of building structure components.k In a subscript denotes a building structure column Coefficient value of amplification of secondary response. subscript denotes nominal value. p In a subscript denotes secondary and electrical installation. Nominal live load considered to be equal to designed building structure loading standards. Bending moment in general Maximum rolling moment of the upper structure of a building working on the lower structure at lateral clamping level when the upper structure is at the condition of near collapsing due to implementation of total extra strength factor f contained in the upper structure or due to final yield moment effect on plastic joints 8. column feet. total floors of the buiiding structure. architectural component or machine SNI03-1726-2002 Page 70t63 .

Building structure natural frequency period stated in seconds which determines the magnitude of Earthquake Response Factor of the building structure which curve is displayed in the Design Earthquake Response Spectrum. Earthqu<:!ke reduction factor for earthquake loading at x-axis direction on irregular building structure Earthquake reduction factor for earthquake loading at y-axis direction on irregular building structure. each is multiplied by the load factor. each multiplied by the reduction factor. which is a combination of nominal load. produced by nominal strength of its components. Maximum earthquake reduction factor to be given by one type of system or subsystem of a building structure. denotes subsystem. produced by he ultimate strength of its components.P Component performance factor. or machine and electrical installation in its performance during or after the earthquake happens. depending on ductility factor of the building structure. Nominal strength of a building structure. a ratio between maximum earthquake load due to the Design Earthquake on the fully elastic building structure and nominal earthquake load due to the effect of Design Earthquake on ductile building structure. each without multiplication by a reduction factor. Ultimate loading on a building structure. structure. architectural component. Ultimate strength of a building structure. an irregular building structure representative earthquake reduction factor. PI On Qu R Rm Rn Ru Rx Ry s S~ Sui Su ti T S N I 03 . In a subscript. Thickness of the ilh sol layer. Plasticity index of clay Nominal loading on a building structure. each without multiplication by the load factor. or steel Non flowing shear strength of scil layer Non flowing shear strength of the i_Ih soil layer Weighted average non flowing shear strength with soil layers as the weight value. produced by combination of nominal loads. which is a combination of ultimate loads.1726-2002 Page 8 of63 - . that is the nominal strength. reflecting secondary component significance level. Earthquake reduction factor.

u In a subscript denoting ultimate value. Nominal basic shear force due to earthquake load working on a particular building structure subsystem at the base level. Shear wave speed at the iln soil layer v Equivalent static nomina! basic shear load (force) due to the effect of Design Earthquake working at the base level of regular building structure with general ductility level. Maximum earthquake loading due to the effect of Design Earthquake which is absorbable by full elastic building structure on the condition of near collapsing. SNr 03 . Weighted average propagation speed of shear waves with soil layer thickness as the weight value.Fu ndamental natural frequency period of reqular or irreg ular building structure stated in seconds. Nominal basic shear force due to the effect of Design Earthquake at nominal loading level working at y-axls direction at the ground level of an irregular building structure.1726-2002 Page 9 of63 . calculated based on fundamental natural frequency period of the reqular building structure. Maximum earthquake loading due to Desiqn Earthquake effect absorbable by the building structure at the condition of near collapsing with implementation of total extra strength factor f included in the building structure. Nominal basic shear force Nominal basic shear force due to the effect of Design Earthquake at nominal !oading level working at x-axis direction a the ground levei of an irregular blJilding structure. 'Nhlch is the natural frequency period at the changing point of diagram C from the flat line to hyperbolic curve at the Design Earthquake Response Spectrum. Propagation speed of shear wave. Corner natural frequency period. Effect of Design Earthquake at nominal loading level for building structure with general ductility level. effect of Design Earthquake when the first yielding occurs inside th'e structure which has been reduced with load and material extra strength factor f1.

YD (gamma-D) YE (gamma-E) YL ( gamma-L) SNI 03 -1726·2002 Page 10 of63 . x Coordinate axis direction indicator (also in subscript). Elevation of the secondary component position. Weight of basement floor of the lowers structure of a building. Load factor for nominal live load. resulting in the component value which probability for exceeding is limited on a particular percentage. including corresponding live load. Elevation of the n peak level of a building structure from lateral clamping level. including corresponding live load. including corresponding live load. architecture component or machine and electrical installation.Nominal basic shear force working at the ground level of an irregular building structure with general ductility level. calculated based on the building's structure fundamental natural frequency period. Reliability index. in subscript showing loading on the first yielding in the building structure. Weight of the ith floor level of the upper structure of a building. where Ru is the examined ultimate building structure strength and Qu is the ultimate loading on the building structure. : Nominal basic shear load working at the base level of irregular building structure wit general ductility level. Weight of secondary component. Elevation of the ithfloor of a building structure frem lateral clamping level. a number which if multiplied by the t r. architecture component or machine and electricity installation from lateral clamping level. Load factor for nominal dead load. Load factor for nominal earthquake load. Total building weight. then is reduced from tehe component average value. calculated based natural frequency period of the building structure. (RufQu) component distribution standard deviation . y (gamma) y Genoralload factor. Coordinate axis direction indicator (also in subscript).

11 (eta) IJ.ollapsing. according to Seismic zone.1 This standard defines the effect of Design Earthquake that must be examined in the building structure design and various parts and components in general. Multiplication factor of building structure deflection caused by the effect of Design Earthquake at nominal loading level to get maximum building structure deflection when reaching the condition of near collapsing. Multiplication factor of building structure deflection by the effect of Design Earthquake at nominal loading level to get a building structure when the first yielding occurs.m) (zeta) Maximum deflection of the building structure by the effect of Design Earthquake when reaching the condition of near r. ratio between maximum deflection of building structure by the effect of Design Earthquake when reaching the condition of near collapsing and building structure deflection when the first yielding occurs.Om (delta . the effect of Design Earthquake on it must be multiplied with an significance factor I with the_equation of: 4.1. depending of the Seismic zone. For various building categories. Deflection of the building structure by the effect of Design Earthquake when the first yielding occurs. The Design Earthquake is defined to have a reoccurrence period of 500 years.1.m) Oy (delta .. albeit in near collapsing condition. depending on the probability of building structure collapsing for the life of the and expected age of the building. Summing sign General strength reduction factor Multiplication coefficient of peak acceleration of seil surface (including its significance factor) to get a vertical requirement response factor. (mu) J-lm (mu-m) s (ksi) a (sigma) L (sigma) ~ (phi) \jI (psi) 4 General requirements 4. Multiplying coefficient of total floors of the building structure limiting the fundamental natural frequency of the building structure.1 Design earthquake and building category 4. c:. so its probability in the 50 years building life span is 10%. Ductility factor of building structure. Standard deviation of the en (RulQu) where Ru is the examined ultimate building structure and Qu is the ultimate loading on the building structure. Maximum ductility factor value applied by a system or subsystem of building structure.2 SNI 03 -1726·2002 Page 11 of63 . overall building structure must stay erected. Due to the effect of Design Earthquake.

(1)

Where I, is the Significance Factor to adjust the reoccurrence period of the earthquake related to probability adjustment of the earthquake occurrence for the life of the building, whl:e 12 is the Significance Factor to adjust earthquake reoccurrence period related to the building age adjustment. The significance factors 11, 12, and I are defined according to Table 1.

Table 1 Significance Factor I for various building and construction categories

Building category
~----------::-----:---:---c-.,.----_----, __

L
:-;-I

Significance factor I~_ 1.0 1.0 1.4

I

General building, such as for residential, trade, and!

12

i

13

~~

I

1.0 1.6 1.0

1.0 1.6 1.4

Monument and monumental buildin s Post earthquake important buildings such as i hospital, clean water installation, power plant, I emergency rescue center, radio and television I facilities L__ Buildings for storing dangerous goods such as gas, oil products, acid, toxic materials. Chimneys, towered tanks 1

I

1.6 1.5
I

1.0 1.0

1.6 1.5

I

Note: For all building structures which usage permit is issued prior to effectuation of this Standard, the Significance Factor I can be multiplied by 80%.

4.2 Regular and irregular building structure 4.2.1 A building structure is defined as a regular building under the following terms: Height of the building structure measured from lateral clamping level may not be more than 10 stories or 40 m. Shape of the building is rectangular without protrusion, if there is an protrusion, the length of the protrusion does not exceed 25% of the largest size of the building structure in the direction of the protrusion. The building structure map does not show any corner notch, if there is a notch, the length of the side of the notch does not exceed 15% of the largest size of the building structure in the notch side direction.

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The building structure system is formed by the lateral load bearer subsystems which direction is perpendicular to each other and parallel to orthogonal main axis of overall buildinq structure map. The building structure system does not show a leap of the front plane, if a leap of the front plane, size of the structure map of the buildir.g protruding at each direction is no less than 75% of the largest size of structure map of the lower building part. In this case, roof house structure which is less than 2-storey tall is not necessarily considered to cause front plane leap. The building structure system has regular lateral rigidity, without any soft level. Soft level is a level, where its lateral rigidity is less than 70% of lateral rigidity of the levels above or less than 80% of average lateral rigidity of 3 levels above. In this case, lateral rigidity of a level is the shear force which if working at that level, will cause one unit of inter-level deflection. The building structure system has regular floor weight, which means that each floor has a weight of no more than 150% of floor weight of the floor above or below it. Weight of roof or roof house does not need to satisfy this term The building structure system has vertical components of continuous lateral load support system, without shift of its center of gravity, except if the shift does not exceed more than half the component size in the shift direction. The building structure system has continuous storey floors, without hole or opening which area is 50% of all storey floors. If there is any level floor with such hole or opening, the amount may not exceed 20% of total level floors. For regular building structure, the effect of Design Earthquake can be examined as the effect of equivalent static earthquake load, so according to this standard, its analysis can be done based on equivalent static analysis. 4.2.2 Building structure which does not satisfy the terms according to Article 4.2.1, is defined as an irregular building structure. For an irregular building structure, the effect of Design Earthquake must be examined as a dynamic earthquake loading, GO its analysis must be done based on dynamic response analysis.

4.3 Ductility of the building structure and nominal earthquake loading 4.3.1 Building structure ductility factor J..l is a ratio of maximum deflection to the building structure due to the effect of Design Earthquake when reaching the condition of near collapsing (Om) and building structure deflection when the first yielding Oy occurs, which is:

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(2)
In equation (2), f.l = 1.C, a ductility factor value for building structure acting fully elastic, while is the maximum ductility factor value applicable by the respective building structure system according to Article 4.3.4.
~lu

4.3.2

If Vc is the maximum loading due to effect of Design Earthquake absorbable by a fully elastic building structure in the condition of near collapsing Vy is the loading that causes the first yielding in the building structure, then with the assumption that the fully ductile building structure and fully elastic building structure show equal maximum deflection 8m in the condition of near collapsing, the following correlation applies: V == Vc
y

F

(3)

Where 4.3.3

)l is

the ductility factor of the building structure.

If v; is the nominal earthquake loading due to effect of Design Earthquake which must be examined in building structure design, the following relation applies:

V
!1

:=;

_y

V
f

= _c

V

1

R

(4)

where f1 is the load and material extra strength factor included in the building structure whlch value is defir.ed as: (5) and R 1sthe earthquake reduction factor according to equation:
(6)

In the equation (6), R = 1.6 is the earthquake reduction factor for fully elastic building structure, while Rm is maximum earthquake reduction factor the respective structure system can apply according to Article 4.3.4. Tabie 2 shows the R values of various urelated values, with terms that the values cannot exceed their maximum values conforming to Article 4.3.4.
)l

and R

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SNI 03 .0 1.4 3.5 The building structure ductility factor ). the representative earthquake reduction factor of the building structure for the earthquake loading can be calculated as a weighted average value with shear force.0 4.3.. 4.5 5.l in the building structure can be selected according to needs.3.8 Fully ductile 3. Table 3 define ).4 2.6 For bulldillg structure subsystem types not written in Table 3.5. but may not be taken more than the maximum ductility factor applicable by each building structure system or subsystem.2 8.0 I I I 4.0 4. along the corresponding maximum reduction Rm.lm applicable by several building structure system and subsystem types. for example by defin:ng them from static push over analysis). its earthquake response factor and ductility factor vales must be defined by rational' method. 4.1726-2002 Page 15 of63 .3. 2.5 If in the direction of earthquake loading due to effect of Desigr. with summing covering all existing building structure subsystem tvpes.5 Partially elastic 3.-----:_:.___ --- _.0 8.2 I .3 5.6 6.0 5.Table 2 Ductility parameters of building structure Building structure performance level ~elastic I ~-- -----~~--.4 7.6 2. is the earthquake response factor of each building structure subsystem and Vs :s the basic shear force supported by each of the building structure subsystem.0 4.-------~----1. held by several subsystem types as the weight magnitude according to the equation: R= L:Vs IVs/Rs m Where R.----~--.5 4.. This method can only be used if the ratio between earthquake response factors of existing building structure subsystems does not exceed 1.5 R 1. Earthquake the building structure consists of several different building structure subsystems.

'2. and 6 1.~ 2.5 8.'":"'eS:'..e moment suppor.rac~ng sys.::~i7'0r.5 6.8 concrete beam 4.6 : I I 2.-[ ~. Soecial moment bearir.a!:o!1 snear wa:: 39' 2..-. Reinforced concrete special moment bearing frame (nOlfor Zone 5 and I 5.="':::..O AS!eel 5.2 5. M 3..::"!.B 2. I I 3.PDC:":.6 5. Steel eccentric oracina frame e.8 2. . Reinforced concrete shear wall support space room.o~ _ ____@_____ ~.8 2.Table 3 Maximum ductility factor.8 .2 2.5 8.2 2.8 2.7 ! {A ~.8 2. Shear wa!1 ~ R~ln(o. Rp.jng system w~!c..8 2.2 2..5 I I I 1. I 6.5 b. Steel I ..c«d concrete with reinforce~ ..8 7..__1&_ 2. nncrete sp9cial moment bearing frame Re~nforced concrete with steel common moment b.1726-2002 Page 16 of 63 .1 ~. Partially wall ductile connected reinforced concrete 4.2 7.8 2. Ste"!1 eccentric bradna frame a.2 6.4 52 5. Common bracinc frame bracing frame.ra\t':~a~i~:"a:!tc2. -r-r-' a S'eet b.d I 2. 3uHding IA strucarrn sys~em which baslca'y has a. Re1n~crced ccncre~e (not for Zo:-:e 5 & 6) RaE I 28 2.6 4. common moment bearing frame ith 3. Steel with steel special moment bearing frame b. 4. wa.8 2.::c7:!:1=g~--:-::-w=al.C I 22 2. Sleel b.I?~erallo.8 2. Concrete medium moment bearing frame 3..2 3.a:.::r.'coes ~O! r.0 3. Double system .5 ~. I i 8.2 3. .3 2.5' 4T I I I 4.teel special rncrnent bearing frame b.7 2. ReInforc:ed concrete not for Zoroe 5 a!ld 6' 4. Steel open frame 2.2 5.o:7· ~.8 2.2 2. SUDOO~ all g:'3yi!a~!of1a: reeds _a:e~a: :oa::i is neld by :he shear wa'l i 3. Reinforced concrete2.a 3"3 ! ~.Suopor!i~g wati sys!e:"':1 I.8 I I i 4. Ductile ecnnected reinforced concrete shear wall 6.6 3.ppor.B 2.3) both systems must be designed 10 support jointly all lata~al load by consideling interaction Idouble system.8 ? I .D-pO~S •• R€in~o r cec corerete R~ :::::::.'" 6.8 ioad SIl?pO~r~g room !'"a.2 2.=:-.4 6.e:-:-: II.8 ~.1 4. Lateral load is suppo-ted by lr.8 a. par. Reinforced concrete with reinforced concrete co-nrnon moment b"arlng frame (not for Zone 5 a~d6l ~ial concentric bracina tra".5 6.0 2. The rnomen. maximum earthquake response factor.8 2.8 2.::ppcr:e~:i by ~he shear wall or 3.3 shear z.. Reinforced concrete with reinforced concrete of concrete medi'Jm moment bearing frame 2. BlJUding structure system and subsystem Details :.3 1 6. supporting frame must be c~sis~ed separately to be able to support at least 25% of all lateral load.0 5. or "c":-adng frame.S 2. (conslsUng 01:1) space (rame lha: supports all gravitational -+ I - .0 5. e::-::. wall Soecisl moment bearing frame a.-.8 2. Steel b.s 2. With steel special moment !Jearing frame 'b.5 3.". s:.!ilever column structure system Common reinforced concrete not for Zone 3..6 '4.0 2.5 .:S~U:::PO=O::r':-. .4 steel "earn frame 1.g frame with moment supporting frame. Reinforced §i 65. bealing frame c.oracl~g s"'.~ve a ?O~PI~:e g.5 4.5 5 5.B ! [ ~ 5.8 .2 2. ~a~e!'a! load ls s:. I of earthquake load bearinq system u. extra resistance factor and total extra resistance factor of several types of building system and subsystems.w:7. Fully ductile canute . 4.5 8. Shear wall and frame intera<::ion system 7..t:::s'-!e::eT: ::!e=~:::s!:::o:::c-::c-::".5 5. 3:clClng frame w~e!9 1he .ieularly through a bending mechanism. Steel ".3 5. Single subsystem (plane strucaire subsys~em forming building structure) system overall d.8 2.ith ..t-"io"a:. Fully ductile connected reinforced concrete $~ear wail 4..ls or o.Ja!.6 4.2 2.8 ~:=!.5 4. Partially ductile cantilever reinforced concrele shear 3.ing frame. Common bearing frame a.4 3.6 1.aclng frame- frarne sys-:.8 2.inforced concrete cpen frame concrete open frame with pre-stress 3.5 2..5 5. .~} lateral' load support in form of shear wall or bl1lcir.a=-.::d.-~ {~q:. I . ~ ."i:"Iig-:ir". Common moment bearing frame a. Onlv . r reinforced concrete shear wall 7. a.0 5.6 4. Skat h! concentric b~. Moment supporting ira-ne sys~em (A structure system whioh basically has a C<lmplete gravitational load support space room.5 4.e SNI 03 .al load 2. Cantilever column bundjng structure system: (A strutrure us:nq canzlever column to nooo~. Reinforced concrete 4.e a..-..6 load .8 2.6 2. c.. Steel with steel common moment bearing frame Ca . 2.5 e. Steel witn steal common moment beanno trame with relnforced concrete c.ompfete g~avi!aUor.e:. 5.2 2.

4.fer loading cornbinaticn by dead load and earthquake load: (12) where YD. the effect of Design Earthquake SNI 03 .for loarfing combination by dead load and live load: (11 ) .3.6. 4.1 Factored load design and strength By stating that the ultimate strength building structure as of a building structure and ultimate limit of the (8) (9) where <I> is eth strength reduction factor.5 Capacity Design Building structure must satisfy the requirements "strong column weak beam. Nevertheless. Input earthquake accelerogram examined in this analysis must be taken from recording of soil movement due to the earthquake 4. the following ultimate limit condition must be satisfied: (10) 4. 4. 4. the Factored Load and Strength must be done by examining the ultimate loading at the building structure as follows: . YL.4. y is the load factor and On is the nominal loading at the building structure.2 By stating nominal dead load as On.6. Rn is nominal strength of the building structure.1 Except if the sol layer above the base rock satisfies defined requirements in Article on the soil surface must be determined from the analysis result of earthquake wave propagation from the depth of the base rock to soil surface by using input earthquake movement with peak acceleration for base rock according to Table 5.4. so prcbability of existence of heavier loads in the fife span of the building are limited to a particular percentage. and nominal earthquake load. which values are defined in the building structure loading or in applicable concrete or steel standards.4. and nominal earthquake load as En. Implementation of this requirement in the concrete structure design and steel structure are defined in the applicable concrete standard and steel standard..3 Nominal dead load and nominal live load stated in Article 4. and YE are load factors of nominal dead load. nominal JIve load.4. nominal live load as Ln. designed dead load and designed live load defined in the building structure loading standard can be considered as nominal loads.1726·2002 Page 17 of 63 . then according to the Factored Strength and Load Design.4 4.2 are loads which values are such as.6 Type of soil and propagation of earthquake wave 4." which means that when the bullding structure bears the effect of Design Earthquake. plastic joints the building structure can only occur at beam ends and at column feet and shear wall feet.

6. topographical. or has a shear wave propagation speed Vs reaching 750 mls or there is no other rock layer underneath which as a shear wave propagation speed of less than that. each profile with soft sol having total thickness Special Soil In table 4. at least 4 accelerograms of 4 different earthquakes must be examined.andSu thickness with PI>20.received at a location which mimics the geological. and Su < 25 kPa Requires s~ecjal evaluation at each location. To reduce uncertainty about this location condition. and seismotectonic condition of the location of the examined building structure. <50 of more than 3 m or. 1940 in Califormia. if for the layer at a maximum thickness of 30 m the requirements in table 4 are 4.6.1726-2002 Page 18 of63 .2 Base rock is the rock layer below the soil surface that have the lowest N Standard Penetration Test result of 60 and there is no other rock layer below it that has a lower Standard Penetration Test value.N. are weighted average values according of the components with soil layer as the weight that must be calculated to the following equations: (13) (14) S N I 03 . wn. vs. one of them must be taken from the EL Centro N-S Earthquake recorded on May 15._ AverageStandard Penetration TestResult - AverageNonflowing shear strength SIl (kPa) I N -- v« ~ 350 15 N~50 SII ~ 100 50 ~ Su < 100 175~vs~350 Vs < 175 s N < 50 N <15 s. and Soft Soil. Soil types uppermost satisfied: are determined as Hard Soil.3 T a ble 4 T y pes a f SOl'I Soltype Hard Soil ~--Mediurn S0i: Sofl:Soil Averageshearwave propagationspeed .?: 40% . Medium Soil. 4.

propagation 4.12 0.38- Requires special evaluation at each location SNI 03 .24 0.20 0..05 0..10 0. 4. For special type soil. soil with high organic content with thickness of more than 3 m.6.03 0.32 0.Su '= _- Iti . and Seismic zone 6 has the highest earthquake level.7.23 0. turf.36 0.28 0.1.4. which average values for each Seismic zone is defined in Figure 1 and Table 5. special soil also includes soil with high liquification potential. the soil surface peak acceleration or each Seismic zone and for each soil type is defined in Table 5.30 0.2 Table 5 Peak acceleration of base rock and peak acceleration surface for each Indonesian Seismic zone of soil Seismic zone Peak acceleration of base rock ('g') Peak acceleration of soil surface Ao ('g') Hard Soil' Medium Soil Soft Soil Special Soil 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.20 0. clay with 35 kPa <So< 50 kPa with thickness of more than 30m. Furthermore.18 0. Sui is the non flowing shear strength of the ithsoil lauer and m is total number of soil layers above the base rock.6. very sensitive clay.30 0.7 1 Indonesia is oivlded to 6 Seismic zone as shown in Figure 1.4 Special Soil mentioned in Table 4 is types of soil that do not satisfy the requirements written tn the table.1. where Seismic zone 1 is the area with the lowest earthquake level.28 0. peak soil surface acceleration must be determined from the analysis result of earthquake wave propagation according to Article 4.25 0. Wn in the soil natural water content and Su is the examined soil layer non flowing shear strength.o_1~_ m m (15) Itj/Sui i=1 where ti is the ithsoil layer.36 0. fragile low cemented sand. If the soil surface peak acce!eration Ao cannot be achieved from the wave analysis as mentioned in Article 4. Vsi is the shear wave propagation speed through the ith soil layer.34 0.15 0.08 0.7 Seismic zone and response spectrum 4.04 0. This Seismic zone distribution is based on peak acceleration of the base rock due to effect of Design Earthquake with a reoccurrence period of 500 years. Nl is the standard penetration test result of the ithsoil layer. in Table 4.. 4.1726-2002 Page 19 of63 .33 0.15 0. Besides. PI is the plasticity index of clay.:i=c.:.

To determine the effect of Design Earthquake on the building structure.2.1.1.4. for each Seismic zone CoT Design Earthquake Response Spectrum is defined as shown in Figure 2. where Ao is the peak acceleration of soil surface according to Table 5.3 and basic nominal shear force as a dynamic response for all varieties participating on irregular building structure according to Article 7.3 Peak acceleration of base rock and peak acceleration of soil surface Ao for Seismic zone 1 set in Figure 1 and Table 5 are defined as the minimum acceleration to include in the building structure design to ensure minimum robustness of the building structure. 4. For T :: D.7. the C equals AD.1726-2002 Page 20 of63 . C is the Earthquake Response Factor stated in gravity acceleration and T is the natural frequency period of the building structure stated in seconds.2.4 S NI 03 . In the figure. nominal basic shear force as a dynamic response of the first order at irregular building structure according to Article 7.1. which is the equivalent static nominal basic shear load at a regular structure according to Article 6.7.

or I.c:: .I (J) .: t: I' -R ~.I rJ C o N ..!:!:! C c o C (Il Q.1Q-o.('oj <ll OJ n. I'J ~~ «") ~"'---4---'-----'r-'---'----'-'-'-!--~-!~j.At'J. '§' (Il Q. o Z U) ...r::.c d ~ r:. oOc>C'oo 9.'. ~~~~~~ c:I r..~ g_ '0 r ~ ..I II] _C L! .. '~ -..J:! . Q.~ E (Il Q..I a_ t.I .a . v.tb O_ tn...

83 0.5 second.95' SNI03-1726-2002 Page 22 of 63 . the Earthquake Response Factor C according to Design Earthquake Response Spectrum defined in: Article 4.for T >Te (18) with Ar::: Am Te (19) (17) In table 6.70 0.50 0.85 0.080 0. and soft soil types respectively. 4. the Earthquake Response Factor C is defined by the following equation: .90 1_ At 0.55 0.54 Am 0.7.4.45 0.5 second Medium Soil To::: O.6 By defining maximum response acceleration Am as Am::::2.70 0.7.5.90 0.85 0.42 Am 0.74 and Article 4.4.83 Ar 0.E· second Soft Soil To::: 1.7.50 0. Te C:::Am .60 0. both in soil movement characteristic or its structure ductility level .72 0. the values of Amand Ar are written tor each Seismic zone and soil type.10 0.05 0.95 Ar 0.13 0.75 0. there is an uncertainty.7. Table 6 Design Earthquake Response SpectruiTI ! Saismic zone Hard Soil To::: 0. and 1.C eecond 1 2 3 4 I S 6 1 Am 0. the value is taken not less than its maximum value for the respective soil type.42 0.5 Considering the short natural frequency period of a s T s 0.35 0.20 0.for T:-:.2 second.30 0.90 0.23 0.38 0.33 0. then by considering Article 4.23 0. medium.50 0.6 second.20 0.0 second for hard.3D 0. In the short natural frequency period range. 0.15 0.5 Ao (16) and corner natural frequency period Te of 0.

.6 I.~ «Medium (Hdrd soil) o o --I 07. . ~:I~ (Hard soil) .0 2.~ O. .u 1-.OS (I -_ j. o'.9~ 0. --_ .18 / r~ <.SO.90 0...?l c>o.~o(Hard soil) I SCil~ I P. 2}.83 0.5 0.36 3G O.. <\ ..o z.00 O.2 O..Seismic zoneJr-r "'-'1'-'-'---'~ ~ h f"--' .O T---7 Seismic ZOIle 5 Cr~ T Q.1 I.(Soft soil) ~:12.96 T--~ (Soft soli) soil) - naJ c~ t C 0.O J.IO~ 0.(' r.l><! ..U c .30 o~ (Hard 5011) 0.<) :!.50..n 0 0.23 0.2 O. .'V T--7 r--------:-------l s.f ._~ D.Q . 0.2' 0.\ c .0 ~. I ° 0.G 1.28 0'.~s+/-H---. T .21 .36 0.n (\ll . Seismic zone ~ ~ c. (I 0. Figure 2 Design Earthquake Response Spectrum SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 23 of63 .O 3.0 2... .15 Seismic zone 4 .~(Medium soil) T r C 0.o T~ h 2. I .0 T-'7 1 Jfi I t C 0.H.0 (Medium :<:':' ~ '\ : c=~ T Seismic zone 6 (Soft son) I soil) f Cw~~ (n~~d soil) o. I O..6 1. / .3U c• ~p(Medium soil) (Soft soil) ~ :C (Hard soil) Q. 0. ..55 o.0 11.S 0.0 0 (I.so (Soft soil) T \ O.'10 0.(Medium c r o. . I \5s" ~ : O.6 1.) Seismic zone 3 0.

while I is the building Significance Factor according to Table 1.8. If soil-structure interaction analysis is not done. and Ao is the peak acceleration of soil surface according to Table 5.7 0.1726-2002 Page 24 of 63 .1 calculated by the equation: Cv:= V Ao I (20) 4. the earthquake load from its own inertial force and earthquake load from its surrounding soil. consisting of basement structure .8 .and lor its foundation structure.6 0.5 0. 5. the upper structure and lower structure of a building structure can be analyzed against the effect of Design Earthquake separately.if exists . the lower structure can be considered as a separate structure underground loaded by combination of earthquake loads from the upper structure.2 must be where the \If coefficient depends on the Seismic zone where the building structure is located and defined according to Table 7.5 0. The C1 vertical earthquake response factor mentioned in Article 4.8.5 0.1._ ~ Buildillg structure general design 5. while the lower structure is all building structure parts located underground. On buildings without basement. All lower structures must be calculated to bear the effect of the Design Earthquake. and long span cantilever beam. Furthermore.2 5.8. canopy. and gravitational load.1 The upper structure of a building is ail building structure located above ground level. in form of equivalent static nominal vertical earthquake load to be examined whether it wcrks upward or downward which value must be calculated as a multiplication C vertical Earthquake Response Factor.4. where the upper structure can be assumed to be laterally clamped on base ground level.1 Upper and lower structu res 5.1. Table 7 Coefficient \If to calculate vertical earthquake response factor C.2 SNI 03 . assembly foundation footing plane and the upper plane of pile foundation heads.1 8~ilding structures that have high sensitivity to gravitational load sauce as balcony.1. L Seismic zone 1 2 3 4 \jJ 5 6 0. clamping level of the upper structure can bo assumed to occur on the direct foundation footing. including the corresponding live load.8 Effect of vertical earthquake 4. transfer beam at high raise building structure supporting gravitational load from two or more levels above it and long span pre-stressed concrete beam must be calculated against vertical movement of soils surface due to effect of Design Earthquake.

1 of center of gravity against the rotation center of storey floor. must also be designed against deflection of building structure system due to effect of Design Earthquake on a fully elastic building structure.5 5. shear wall. 5.2 5. which must be calculated for effect on the horizontal earthquake load distribution at all existing storey structure system. nominal basic shear load due to effect of Design Earthquake working on open frames may not be less than 25% of total nominal shear load working in the direction of the earthquake load.2. other than to QJ'a\titationalload. In designing the upper structure or lower structure of a building on the effect of Design Earthquake. not depending of ductility level the upper structure has. where R is the earthquake reduction factor of the building structure and 1. For this. will experience a deformation in their planes due to horizontal earthquake load. because they contain hole or opening which area is more than 50% of all storey floor areas. In this case.2. 5.6 is the earthquake reduction factor for fully elastic structure (R=f1).3 5.3.2 Earthql!ake 5.3 Floor lev&i as a diaphragm 5.2.4 If imperfect clamping is assumed from the upper structure of the building on the building lower structure. floors without beams (mushroom floor) and their combinations.1 is only allowed if bearing participation of the earthquake effect is less than 10%.6 of deflection caused by nominal earthquake load on the building structure. floors.1 Floor level concrete roof and floor system with a bullding structure binding can be assumed to be very rigid in its plane and thus can be considered to work as a diaphragm on horizontal earthquake load.5.4 E::centricity 5.726-2002 Page 25 of 63 . the center of gravity is the resultant point of equivalent static load or dynamic earthquake force. must be calculated to bear the effect of Design Earthquake. Storey floors. beams. on the effect of Design Earthquake.1. both building structure subsystem and prts of building structure system such as the frame (portal). Ignoring the bearing of effect of Design Earthquake by one or more columns or building structure subsystem mentioned in Article 5.1 load supporting structure In designing a building structure against the effect of Design Earthquake. On the building structure design. the lower structure must act fully elastic. concrete roof and floor system which are not rigid in their planes. columns. In a structure system consisting of combination of shear w311sand open frames.2.1. 5. the lower structure may not fail before the upper structure.4. all building structure components. the building's upper structure must calculate against the effect of lateral or rotational deformation of the lower structure. SNI 03 -1. .3. which is against deflection of R/1. The center of gravity of storey floor of a building structure is the resultant point of dead load. the component or subsystem. including corresponding live load working at that floor.2 5.

33 e + O. the moment of inertia of the structure cross section can be determined to be equal to the moment of inertia of complete cross section with 3 cross sectional effectiveness percentage as follows: for open reinforced concrete frame column and beam for cantilever reinforced concrete shear wall for connected reinforced concrete shear wall * * * * : 75% : 60% : 50% : 50% : 80% wall component experiencing axial tension wall component experiencing axial compression connecting beam component with diagonal reinforcement: 40% connecting beam component with longitudinal reinforcement: 20% SNI 03 . measured perpendicular to earthquake loading direction.for 0 < e s 0.3 must be examined both in 3 dimensional static analysis and dynamic analysis. pre-stressed concrete and composite steel must be calculated against its rigidity.5. For this.4.1 In a building design against effect of Design Earthquake. ed (21) 5.4. 5.for e > 0.3 b: ed or .4. the designed eccentricity ed must be determined as follows: .1 b (23) (24) and selected between both which effect is the most determining for the examined building structure component or subsystem.05b or (22) and selected between both which effect is the most determining for the examined building structure component or subsystem: . 5. the effect of concrete cracking on structural components of reinforced concrete.17 e . a designed eccentricity ed must be examined.0.5 Strllcture rigidity 5. the storey floor will not rotate.3 b: ed=1.3 = 1. but only translates.1726-2002 Page 26 of63 . 1 b = 1.4 In designing 3 building structure against the effect of Design Earthquake. while the other levels not experiencing horizontal load will all rotate and translate.4. If the largest horizontal size of the building structure a the storey floor.5e+0..2 Storey level rotation center of a building structure is a point at the storey floor which if a horizontal load is working on it.5. is stated as b. Between the center of gravity and the center of rotation. designed eccentricity ed between the center of gravity and the center of rotation at the storey floor according to Article 5.

8.8.1 must be used in both 3 dimensional static and dynamic analysis. for the Seismic zone where building is located and its storey total n is accordir. where the large sideway deflection due to lateral earthquake load causing additional lateral load due to rolling moment occurring by gravity which meeting point deflects sideways. 5. which is a phenomenon appearing on flexible building structure. SNI 03 . depending on the coefficient r.8 Earthquake loading direction 5. 5.20 0.19 0. structural component rigidity defined in Article 5.g to the equation (25) where the coefficient r. the effect of earthquake loading in the main direction defined by Article 5.3 Concrete modulus of elasticity Ee must be defined according to quality (compression strength) of concrete used. but only with 30% effectiveness.7 Effect of P~Delta A building structure which height measured from the lateral clamping level is more than 10 stories or 40 m. limiting the fundamental natural frequency period of building structures Seismic zone 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 0. Table 8 Coefficient r.18 0. while steel modulus of elasticity is defined as Es = 200 GPa. .5. building structure against effect of Design Earthquake.5.15 5. 5. the fundamental natural frequency period T1 of the building structure must be limited. must be calculated against the effect of P~delta.2 5.6 Limitation of fundamental natural frequency period To prevent a usage of over' flexible building structure.2 To simulate the direction of any effect of Design Earthquake on the building structure.16 0. In designing.1 In designing building structure.1726-2002 Page 27 of 63 .5.8.17 0. is defined according to Table 8.1 must be assumed to be 100% effective and must be assumed to occur simultaneously with the effect of earthquake loading in the perpendicular direction on the main direction of the loading.5. the main direction of effect of Design Earthquake must be defin8d so it will give the largest effect on subsystem components' and overall building structure system.

while n is the number of the topmost level floor.1.1 E:quivaient static nominal earthquake load 6. 6.9 V must be distributed along the height of the building structure to be equivalent static nominal earthquake load according to Article 6. in form of equivalent static nominal earthquake load. Zj is the floor height of the ith floor measured from lateral clamping level according to Article 5.1. while the remaining 0.1726-2002 Page 28 of 63 . 6. 6. the equivalent static nominal basic shear load V occurring at the base level can be calculated according to the equation: V = C1i W1 R (26) where C1 is the Earthquake Response Factor received from the Design Earthquake Response Spectrum accorolnq to Figure 2 for fundamental natural frequency period T1. then 0.1.3.5 6.3 Nominal basic shear load V according to Article 6.2.1.1. including the corresponding live load.2 If a building category has a Significance Factor of 1 according to Table 1 and its structure for a main axis of the structure map and loading direction of Design Earthquake has a earthquake reduction factor R and fundamental natural frequency period T1. equivalent static nominal earthquake load V must be considered to work at the center of gravity of all building structure and tank and its contents.6 Regular building structure design 0. On the tank above the tower.2 Fundamental natural frequency period 6. while W1 is the building total weight.2 must be distributed along the height of the huilding structure to be equivalent static nominal earthquake loads Fj working at the center of gravity Citthe j!hlevel according to equation: F I =_~Zi L~Zi i=1 n (27) where Wj is the floor weiqht of the ithfloor including corresponding live load.1. which is defined further in the following articles.13.2 and Article 5.1 Fundamental natural frequency period of a regular building structure in each main axis direction can be determined using Rayleigh formula as follows: SNI 03 .1 V must be considered as a horizontal loads centralized at the center of gravity of the uppermost level.1.1.1 A regular building structure can be 'designed against nominal earthquake foading due to effect of Design Earthquake in the direction of each main axis of the structure map. 6.4 If the ration between the height of the building structure and its map size in the earthquake loading direction equals or exceeding 3.

d.5.2.2.3. defined using empirical formulas or from a 3 dimensional free vibration analysis result.2 R= v: +Vay x V~fRx + V.1 Terms for dynamic response analysis 7.1.(28) where Wi and Fi have the same meaning as mentioned in Article 6.1. which value can be calculated as a weighted average value of earthquake response factor for 2 direction orthogonal coordinate axis with basic shear force working on the building structure at each direction as the weight value according to equation: 7. working at the center of gravity of storey floors. the values cannot rliffer more than 20% of calculated values according to Article 6. 6.2 If the fundamental natural frequency period T1 of building structure for determination of the Earthquake Response Factor C1 according to Article 6. the effect of Design Earthquake on the building structure must be determined tlrwugh a 3 dimensional dynamic response analysis. the effect of the equivalent static nominal earthquake loads can be analyzed usinq a common 3 dimensional static analysis method where in this case it is called 3 dimensional equivalent static analysis. SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 29 of 63 . from the analysis result of the 3 dimensional free vibration. 6. nominal earthquake loading due to effect of Design Earthquake can be displayed as equivalent static nornlnal earthquake loads F.2.1.3 Equivalent static analysis Considering that on regular building structure. 7 Irregular building structure design 7.2.1. at least the first (fundamental) order movement must be dominant in the translation.1. Irregular buifding· structure ductility must be defined to be representatively representing a 3D structure ductility. and Vxo is the earthquake response factor and basic shear force for earthquake loading in x direction .1 For irregular buildinq which dues not satisfy the requirements stated in Article 4.1. This method can only be used jf the ratio between earthquake response factor values for the 2 earthquake loading directions do not exceed 1.while Rx and V/ is the earthquake response factor and basic shear load for earthquake loading in y direction. is the horizontal deflection of the ith floor stated in mm and 'g' is the gravitational acceleration defined to be 9810 mrn/sec". fRy (29) Where R. To prevent the response of building structure on earthquake loading dominant in rotation. The ductility level can be stated in a representative earthquake reduction factor R.

1 Irregular building structure dynamic response calculatlcn on nominal earthquake loading due to effect of Design Earthquake can be done usir. if their difference is less than 15%.7. Summing of order responses mentioned in Article 7. summing of the order responses can be done using a method called Square Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS). while R is the representative earthquake reduction factor from the respective building structure.3.1 for irregular building structure which has adjacent natural frequency periods. The natural frequency period must be considered adjacent.1.2 7. SNI03-1726-2002 ' Page 30 of63 . total vibration order examined in the order response total using this method shall be such that mass participation in producing total response must reach at least 90%.3 The final value of building structure dynamic response on nominal earthquake loading due to effect of Design Earthquake in a particular direction cannot be taken less than 80% of the first order response value.2. and R is the representative earthquake reduction factor of the respective building structure.g a response spectrum order analysis using a Design Earthquake Response Spectrum according to Figure 2 which ordinate value is calculated with a correction factor liR. the value nominal level shear force due to effect of Design Earthquake along the height of the building structure from the analysis of response spectrum in an particular direction.8V1 ~1 V1 (32) where V1 is the nominal basic shear load as the first order dynamic response only and V( is the nominal basic shear force from the performed response spectrum order analysis result. If the building structure dynamic response is stated in nominal basic shear force V.2 Response spectrum order analysis 7. In this case.C11wt R (31) with C1 is the Earthquake Response Factor resulting from the Design Earthquake Response Spectrum according to Figure 2 for the first natural frequency period T1. must be calculated with a Scale Factor: Scale Factor = -- 7.2. must be done 'Jsing a method known as the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC). where I is the Significance Factor according to Table 1. For irregular building structure which has a significantly different natural frequency periods.2. To satisfy the requirements conforming to Article 7.3 O. 7. while W1 is total weight of the building including corresponding live load. I is the Signitlcance Factor according to Table 1. the requirements can be stated according to the following equation: (30) where V1 is the nominal basic shear force as the first order response on due to effect cf Design Earthquake according to equation: V1 -.1.2.

simulated soil movement can also be used.3. must be taken from the soil movement record caused by the earthquake received at a location with similar geological.3. their diagrams are modified conservatively first to get a better distribution of equivalent static nominal earthquake loads along the length of building structure.1 If required. at least 4 accelerograms of 4 different earthquakes must be examined. so its peak acceleration value A becomes.4. 7.1726-2002 Page 31 of 63 .5 SNI 03 .2. Input earthquake accelerogram examined in the time history linier and non-linler dynamic response analysis.4 7. the requirements in Article 7. which if necessary. from the nominal level shear force diagram or curve due to effect of Design Earthquake along the height of the building structure which value has been adjusted according to Article 7. the structure absorbance to calculate can be determined as 5% of critical absorbance.3.3. This equivalent static nominal earthquake loads can then be used in a common 3 dimensional equivalent analysis.2 A=Aol R (33) where Ao is the peak acceleration of soil surface according to Table 5.4 If required. 1940 in California. Furthermore. 7. Because soil movement caused by an earthquake at a location cannot be predicted precisely. as an input earthquake. 7. topographical.2.3 Time history dynamic response analysis 7. For designing a building structure through the time history !inier dynamic analysis to the effect of Design Earthquake on nominal earthquake level. where the original soil surface acceleration of the input earthquake must be scaled. can be done using a 3 dimensional dynamic analysis method in form of time history linier and non-linier dynamic response with an earthquake accelerogram quantified as the movement of input soil.3.3. To reduce the uncertainty about this location. where . one of-which must be an accelerogram of the EI Centro NOS Earthquake recorded at May 15.7. only here Vt is the maximum basic shear force occurring at the ground level resulting from the time history response analysis result done.0 is the peak acceleration of soil surface according to Table 5 and I is the Significance Factor according to Table 1.3 must also be satisfied and thus the Scale Factor used is similar to that defined in Artlcle 7. while I is the Significance Factor according to Table 1.1. the original soil surface acceleration from the input earthquake must be scaled to the nominal earthquake loading level. 7. In this analysis.3. calculation of irregular building structure dynamic response on the effect of Design Earthquake. and seismotectonic condition with the location where the examined building is located. a time history non-linier dynamic response analysis must be done. R is the representative earthquake reduction factor of the respective building structure.3 To study the post-elastic properties of the building structure on effect of Design Earthquake.2. the respective equivalent static nominal earthquake loads can be determined (a difference of shear force from 2 consecutive levels). thus its peak acceleration value will equal Aol.

2.for irregular building structure:' ~= O.02 of the respective storey height. to limit the occurrence possibility of building structure collapsing which can cause human casualties and to prevent dangerous collisions between buildings or between earthquake load parts separated by separation space (diiatation clearance). 8 Building Structure Performance 8.1 Service limit performance of a building structure is defined by the inter-level deflection due to effect of Design Earthquake. in all aspects. 8.7R Scale+actor (35) where R is the building structure earthquake reduction factor and the Scale Factor is as defined in Article 7.2 mm. besides to also prevent non-structural damage and discomfort for the inhabitants.1.1 Service Limit Performance 8. This inter-level deflection must be calculated from the building structure deflection due to effect of Design Earthquake which has been divided by a Scale Factor.2 Ultimate Limit Performance 8. whichever is lower.3" these deflection and inter-level deflection must be calculated from the building structure deflection because of the effect of nominal earthquake.2 To satisfy the building structure ultimate limit performance requirements.Parameters determining this simulated soil movement among else consists of soil predominant vibration period.1726-2002 Page 32 of 63 . the inter-level deflection calculated from the building structure deflection according to Article 8.2.025 of height of that level measured from the lateral clamping level.1 The ultimate limit performance of the building structure is determined by the deflection and maximum inter-level deflection of the building structure due to effect of Design Earthquake when the building structure is near collapsing. The separation distance between building must be determined at last-equal to total maximum deflection of each building structure at that level calculated using the method in Article 8. response spectrum configuration.1.7 R ~= . 8. Conforming to Article 4.1 may not exceed 0.2.for regular building structure: (34) 0. multiplied by a factor ~ as follows: .2. each of the distances may not be les than 0. 8.1. In all conditions. . in all conditions.1 may note exceed 0.D3 of height of the respective level or 30 R 8.2.3. inter-level deflection calculated from the building structure deflection according to Article 8.3.3 SNI 03 . movement duration and earthquake intensity.1.2. To satisfy the requirements of building structure service limit performance. which is to limit the occurrence of steel yielding and excessive concrete cracking.

1. = f = f1 f2 (39) 1.3. must be separated each other with FI separation clearance (dilatation clearance) which width is at least must equal total each deflection of the building structure parts at that level.2.83 + 0. maximum earthquake loading due to effect of Design Earthquake Vm can be calculated from nominal earthquake loading Vn according to equation: v. on the terms that the Il and R. 8. so it is always free from debris or obstructive objects.3. = fV n (38) where f is called total extra strenqth factor existlnq in the building structure. which is determined according to earthquake: with f1 values of f2 and f for various values of Il.5 9 Earthquake effect on the lower structure 9.2. The separation clearance as mentioned in Article 8.17 J.8.1 Earthquake loading from the upper structure 9.3.2. v. (37) Then by considering Article 4.6 as the extra strength factor of load and materials. Table 9 shows the SNI 03 . width of the separation clearance may not be set to be less than 75 mm.1726-2002 Page 33 of 63 .I. the lower structure may not fail earlier than the upper structure. the lower structure must be able to support maximum earthquake loading due to effect of Design Earthquake Vm absorbable by the upper structure in the condition of near collapsing according to t' equanon: Vm = f2 (36) where Vy is the earthquake loading due to effect of Design Earthquake causing the first yielding I the building structure and f2 is the extra strength factor of the structure due to the hyperstatics of the building which causes redistribution ot forces by simultaneous asynchronous plastic joint formation.1. along the respective earthquake reduction factor R.4 Two building structure parts not designed to cooperate as a unit in handling the effect of Design Earthquake. In all conditions. Width of the separation clearance must satisfy all execution tolerance.5 that due to effect of Design Earthquake. The structure extra strength factor f2 which value depends on the ductility factor value Il of the respective building and is defined according to equation: f2 = 0. values cannot exceed their maximum values according to Article 4.1. calculated using a method mentioned in Article 8.4.24 must be designed in details and performed in such a way.1 Conforming to Article 5.

6 6. each is calculated for the respective normal force. if My.0 4.70 1.35 1.5 5.5 20 2. where its interaction diagram N-M to calculate yield moment of each is calculated based on cross section dimension and strength of installed material.0 I i .3 2.2 With the equivalent static nominal earthquake load Fj on a building structure acting on the ith storey floor center of gravity and at the elevation 2j measured from lateral clamping level accordinq to Article 5. i i 1.4 2.51 1.2 8.k + wall LM J y.3.7 I I 1. Partially elastic I I R equation f (6) (equation (37) f (equation 39) 1. R is the earthquake reduction factor for fully elastic structure (R=f1) andn is the floor number of the highest level. the maximum nominal rofJirig moment loading from the upper structure on the lower structure acting fully elastic conforming to Article 9. SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 34 of63 .0 5.09 1 17 1. maximum nominal rolling moment loading of the upper structure on the lower structure must be calculated using equation: Mgm =. in this case.8 i i I i i I 9.6 column L My. This maximum nominal rolling moment works on the [ower structure along the corresponding normal load (vertical) and shear load (horizontal). Maximum nominal rolling moment according to equation (41) working on the lower structure along the respective normal load (vertical) and shear load (horizontal). 9.1.I 3. the rofJing moment worked by the final yield moment of all the plastic joints must be examined as a rolling moment loading possibility of the upper structure on the lower structure.0 8.7 2.( 1 1.Table 9 Structure extra strength factor f2 and total extra strength structure factor f contained in the building structure performance level Fully elastic .~1 i~1 n n (40) In equation (40).6 2.61 1.1.6 1.= .3 1.44 1.4 32 4.3 Consirlering that on the upper structure of the building which due to effect of Design Earthquake is in the condition of near collapsing a possibility of occurrence of plastic jolnts at all column feet and all feet of the shear walls exists.1 must be calculated according to equation: Mgm = (L F1Z.26 1.0 1.2 and Article 5:i.k is the plastic joint initial yield moment on shear wall feet.5 .d (41) In equation (41).5 3.0 4.4 7.75 I I 19 I 2.6 is the extra strength factor of load andmaterial f1and summing must be done covering all columns and all shear walls existing on the buildIng upper structure.2 2.5 I I I I Fully ductile 4.1. 1.8 5.00 1.0 2.1.6 2. =f2 L/~Z.

2. 9. The soil yield pressure working on the fully elastic lower structure must be concerted into nominal soil pressure by dividing it with the earthquake response factor R=f1=1.2.1. including corresponding live load. which must be ca!culated to load overall basement structure. is the one with the lowest value between those calculated according to equation (40) and equation (41). according to Article 9. the value of the maximum' nominal rolling is not necessarily bigger than nominal rolling moment value occurrinq due to effect of Design Earthquake on the building upper structure acting fully elastic. which value can be considered to have reached the soil yield pressure value along the basement depth. 9.2 Earthquake loadlaq frcm the moment of inertia 9. which depends on soil type and existence of basement. I is the Significance Factor of the respective building according to Table 1.9. which can be written according to equation: (42) lni equation (42).2 SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 35 of 63 . basement wall and other components of lower structure must be calculated against soil pressure of the front soil due to effect of Design Earthquake.3 Earthquake loading from surrounding soil 9. If the equivalent static nominal horizontal earthquake load due to own inertia Fb working on the center of gravity of basement floor and lower structure acting fully elastic cannot be determined using a more rational method.10 Ao I Wb (43) where Ao is the peak acceleration of soil surface due to effect of Design Earthquake according to Table 5.2.6 is the earthquake response factor for fully elastic structure (R=f1)' 9. But in all conditions.1. 9. the mass of the basement floors experience acceleration. it has its own inertial force working as a horizontal earthquake load on the basement floor level. it can be calculated from equation: Fb = 0.4 Maximum nominal rolling moment from the upper structure and on the lower structure acting the determining fully elastic.5 Considering that the upper structure of a building in real situaticn due to the effect of soil-structure interaction is not fully clamped on the lateral clamping level. R is the earthquake reduction factor of the respective upper structure and 1. and Wb is the weight of the basement floor.3.1 If a more rational method cannot determine.1.6 for fully elastic structure. it is intended that this imperfect clamping effect can be calculated ratlcnally.1 Considering that in the real condition due to the effect of soil-structure interaction by the effect of Design Earthquake between the lower structure and it surrounding soil kinematics and in inertial interaction exist.

r anchors must be welded or tied to panel reinforcements. Fai!ure of a secondary component. Objects stored in a museum and similar objects with high history or cultural values. Shear resistance due to gravity cannot be included in designing shear resistance of a component or installation against horizontal earthquake force. Interaction between secondary components. must be rustproof. the existence of side and bottom soil (foundation) can be examined by modeling them as shear springs. architecture components such as ornaments. an advice from an expert is required.4 Automatic cut off of machine and equipment If 'continuance movement can operation of a starts. architecture components and machine and electrical installation must be secured against the effect of Design Earthquake. must be of operation of a machine or equipment during the earthquake cause a siqnificance risk. while machine and electrical installation must continue to function during and after the earthquake. 10. For details of the tie down.3 10. must be tied tightly its building structure to withstand the effect of Design Earthquake.2 10. which are not structural components. architecture components and machine and electrical installation must be prevented by creating a separation clearance according to Article 8.9. 10 The effect of earthquake on secondary machine and electrical installation coverage components.1.3.1.1 Tie down Each secondary component. because these components can harm human if they fail. SNI 03 .3. the. 10.2 10. a system which automatically shuts down machine or equipment when a particular soil surface acceleration made.1 The secondary components. have sufficient ductility and tie down power.2. architecture components and 10.1726-2002 Page 36 of63 .4. and machine and electrical installation.1 Safety 10. 10. Tie down components. architectural components or machine and electrical installation designed against the effect of a particular earthquake.2.2. The properties of compression spring and shear springs must be described rationally from the corresponding soil and foundation data.1 Correlation betweencomponents The effect of one component on other correlated components must be considered. the existence of back soil must be examined by modeling it as compression springs and if required.3.2 10.2 10. including anchor bolts. pre-cast concrete panel and building external cover. In case of pre-cast concrete panels. may not cause failure on other correlated components and those designed aqalnst higher earthquake loads. must be tied and secured against the effect of Design Earthquake.2 In the calculation of the lower structure of a building as a 3 dimensional structure.

1 Each of the secondary components.5. If the natural frequency period ratio between both is between 0. 10.3. architecture components and machine and electrical installation. =1+- zp zn (45) where zp is the elevation position of the component or installation and z.1. except if a special analysis is done.1726-2002 Page 37 of 63 .4. is the elevation of bu!lding top flocr. while R is the earthquake reduction factor of the bearing structure and Kp and P are respective the response amplification coefficient and performance factor of the components defined in the following articles. both are measured from lateral clamping level according to a 5. the component performance facto.10. which value is adjacent to natural frequency period of the building supporting them must be avoided. where the weight of each is Wp. If it is calculated using a more rational method.6 and 1.5 The effect of Design Earthquake 10.3 The performance factor component P reflects the significance level of the component or installation in its performance during or after the earthquake occurs. If not defined using a mora rational method. the performance factor component p is determined" in Table 10 and Table 11.5. SNI 03 . architecture components and machine and electrical installation must be designed against an equivalent static nominal earthquake load Fp working in the most dangerous distance which value can be determined according to equation: F =SK P PWP R (44) where C1 is the Earthquake Response Factor from the Design Earthquake Response Spectrum according to Figure 2 for fundamental natural frequency period of the building structure bearing the secondary components.1. depending on elevation of its position on the building structure. P must be multiplied by 2.2 and Article 5. architecture components and machine and electrical installation. because they will cause dangerous resonance phenomenon. 10.5.4 The natural frequency period of secondary components.2 The response amplification coefficient reflects the response amplification components or installation against the response of building structure bearing response. 10.5. the response amplification coefficient can be calculated us!ng equation: of the not Kp K.

alcohol. water he<:7te-r--or--o""th-e-r--------equipment using high temperature combustion energy sources Liquid or gas tank above the tower for: toxic liquid or gas.5 2.6 7 8 Racks for storage of batteries and dangerous equipment Elevator machine. transformer.Jls--a-nd~p~a~rt~iti~o-ns-----------------------------------------------~------~ Wall bordered with exit corridors resistance against fire is required. Cantilever and support walls Walls and room separation partition 2. ----------------------'--- Table 11 Performance factor of components for machine and electrical installation Machir. over working areas and common restdences: 4. alkali.1726-2002 Page 38 of63 .--~S7e~p~a-r-a~tio-n--w-a7. insta!lation Performance factor of component 6 P High pressure tank. 2. 6. Clean water tank and chimneys integrated exceedlnq 10% of the building weight. with building with weight not 2 or public places where a particular factor 4 4 component P 2.5 8 3 3. along their tie down equipment. over an important room (surgery room in a hospital). glowing metal or other dangerous material' !ire water sprinkler 2. power station. Ornaments pre-cast concrete panel and building external cover.5 5 Distribution pipe system along its contents: tig htly lied for toxic and dangero us llq uid (lg htly tied fa r clean water flexibly tied for toxic and dangerous liquid flexibly tied for clean water 63 3 8 5 4 .5 2. 4. acid. Ceiling system hung on the building structure with coverage plate which weight exceeding 20 N per piece.5 Roof house structure or machine room on top of building. exit ccrrldcrs and public places Dr at places requiring a particular resistance against fire. 5. equipment which must instantly function after an earthquake 3 6 SNI 03 .e and electrical 1. burner.Table 10 Performance factor of components for secondary and architectural components Secondary and architectural components Performance --~1. electric motor control equipment. will pose risk of affected by an earthquake. furnace. Room equipment at the exit corridors or any equipment whic:. guiding rails Emergency occurs. Light fixtures and fitting tight fitting sway fitting· 2. steam boiler. Switchgear. 6 6 6 3.

while the old standards states it as 200 years. this article also defines the meaning of nominal load. Nevertheless. this article stresses on the cancellation of the old standard.2 This article states that this Standard does not apply for buildings mentioned in the article. Nevertheless. can be selected by the planner or bUilding owner. Several reasons will confirm this. Then . while in light earthquake. earthquake resistance of an existing building structure designed using the old standard generally still applies. Finally. in this standard. A. which is because of a strong earthquake. as long as their ductility values and other specific properties are adjusted. R 8. For example. the earthquake load to consider will be relatively lower than it is in this Standard for new buildings. that reinforced concrete shear wall can be made more ductile by connecting the wall to other shear S N I 03 .d Strength Design in designing the bullding structure component strength design. the occupancy comfort is still guaranteed.1726-2002 Page 39 of63 .1. Both. human casualties can be prevented.S Terms A. so there is no other interpretation about the analysis other than the one defined in this article.til1g buildings have run' part of their ages. Thus. In European literature. the Design Earthquake has a reoccurrence period of 500 years. while in this Standard. for fully ductility structure. Indonesian seismic zone map and response spectrum apply for both. exi!.1 Coverage A. so the earthquake loads to consider in the old and new standard do not differ much. considering that that the ductility factor value which define thc magnitude of earthquake load working on that structure for design. but because it did not collapse. a new definition is given about types of soil which differs with those in the old standard. with new soil type definition. This article in short explains the philosophy of earthquake resistance design of a building structure. particularly nominal earthquake load in relation to usage of Factored Load ar. Evidently. in the old standard.1. the earthquake reduction factor R according to the old standard is relatively lower than the value in this standard.1 ami Notations Notation In this article. This is important. this article also defines the meaning structure ductility which is vl?ry important to understand.3. its effect on a building structure gets worse. so the calculated earthquake load will approach each other more. Furthermore. because according to this standard. Third. definition of various types of analysis faced in the building structure earthquake resistance desiqn is given. SNI 03-1726-1989. the nominal load is called characteristic load. definition of soil types. R 6. in this standard are categorized into Medium Soil.Appendix A EXPLANA TION A. = = A. main principles defined in this Standard also apply for the buildings. Furthermore.5. so with the same risk of occurrence of building structure collapse in their remaining age. it is clear that the old standard cannot be used any longer. First. this article defines the meaning of reinforced concrete shear wall to remind the planner.1 With this effectuation of this Standard. It is known that if an earthquake reoccurrence gets longer. occurring darnaqa is repairable and building function vital services can still run.1. a structure will experience severe damage. many soil types which acccrding to the old standard is considered as Soft Soil.3 A.

A. or significance in their functions. which is about 50 years. power plant. tank above a tower). all important notations used in this standard is explained. A. due to various reasons and intentions generally have a life of less than 50 years. without any specialty. Buildings over 30 floors high. AA.walls through reinforced concrete connection beams as a device for plastification to occur. this Design Earthquake has a reoccurrence period of 500 years. emergency rescue center and radio and television facilities).2 This article adjusts the earthquake reoccurrence period which cause the buildings to reach the condition of near collapsing with building category. But the probability of occurrence of the earthquake during the life span of the building must be differentiated and all must be less than 10%. so 12 1.3. particularity. monuments and monumental areas have common functions. But builrjing life span differs. so through this article.1 This article gives a definition of Design Earthquake.1.0 and 12 = 1.0 apply (see Talble 1). without finding the article that firstly include the notation. according to the probability theory. 11 = 1. monument and monumental buildings have a long service life.Jildingsup to 10 floors high. B!. the probability of occurrence of the earthquake in the life span of the building is defined as 10%. of an earthquake (chimney. For building of this cateqory. Because multi storey buildings. without any specialty. clean water installation. With 10 % probability of occurrence in the 50 years buildinq life span. = SNI 03 . the one related to buildings that have common functions. where the age is considered to be 50 years. the users of this Standard can easily find the meaning of a notation.2 Notation In this article. but still standinq to prevent human casualties.4. Post earthquake important buildings (hospital. This reflects the first point of building st! ucture design phiiosophy according to Article 'I. particularity ur other significance in usage.4. even must be preserved for the future generation. so 12 < 1 because the earthquake reoccurrence period is less than 500 years. which have total storeys between 10 and 30. including its I multiplication. so 11>1 because the earthquake reoccurrence period is more than 500 years.1 Design Earthquake and building category A.1. building posing high risk to the environment if darnaqed by an earthquake (storage for dangerous materials) or endangering nearby buildings if it collapses because. This Design Earthquake causes the building structure to reach the condition of near collapsing. have a similar usability age with general function buildings.4 General Terms A. The combination of 11 and 12 for several building categories is defined in Table 1. so 11=1. so b > [1 because the earthquake reoccurrence period is more than 500 years.0 applies.0.1726-2002 Page 40 of63 .

on the regular building structure. If a building structure does not satisfy the terms defined in Article 4.4. the structure condition of near collapsing reached along the first yielding in the structure (8m = i3y).1) that the effect of earthquake on regular building structure by implementing Order Analysis method can be considered as a equivalent static earthquake load calculated only as its fundamental order dynamic response.1 A building structure can be categorized into regular building structure.3. ductility building structure has a r. For designing a building structure. the i1 value can be selected by the planner himself or the building owner. Building Structure Ductility and Nominal Earthquake Loading A. By implementing a Order Analysis method. Furthermore. the response on dynamic earthquake is a superposition of dynamic response of participating orders. It will be explained later (see A.2 v. The rnaximurn ductility value . Furthermore. Assumptions adopted in this article. if it satisfied the terms given in this article. while the second order movement will be dominant in translation in the other main axis. it is shown that on fully elastic structures. so it has a relatively larger fJ. as long as it satisfies 1.4.1. we are dealing with an irregular building. the effect of earthquake on the building must be analyzed dynamically.3.3. For irregular building structure.3. Thus.2.Um reachable by various structure systems is defined in Table 3.4. the first order movement will be dominant in translation in the direction of one main axis.. than the one assumed. to get a simple correlation between Vy and through fJ.elatively larger 8m than elastic building structure.4.0 ~ ~ sfJ. A.1. If for the 3D analysis coordinate axis is taken parallel to the direction of main axis of structure map. the 3D structure of regular building practically acts as a 20 structure in each of the main axis.1 From this article. This assumption is conservative.3 A. this article defines that not all types of building structure system can act fully ductile by reaching fJ. =: 5.4.A. This regular byilding structure is generally symmetric in the map with structure system formed QY system supporting lateral load with perpendicular direction and parallel to orthoqonal main axis of the map.6. SNI03-1726-2002 Page 41 of63 . see A. usually adopted in earthquake resistance design standards Jar building structure.4.m.2 Regular and irregular building structures A.2.2 A. then a free vibration analysis is done. is that ductility building structure and fully elastic building structure due to effect of Design Earthquake shows equal maximum deflection Om in the condition of near collapsing (constant maximum displacemerit rule).4.2. because in real condition. The adopted assumption is visualized in the load-deflection diagram (V-o diagram) shown in Figure P.4.1.

. .1. If Vc is known. . IR.v vc ------------ .. . there is always excessive structure component strength. values. . SNJ 03 -1726-2002 Page 42 of63 . I . . for example from analytical calculation through response spectrum dynamic response analysis. Visually. ~l R rv.1 Lead-deflection 4.... .6). In this case. t ~ . ._r. For building structure in general. This extra strength factor is formed by the installed strength of structure components to plan through the Factored Load and Strength Design.. but the required detailing will be simpler in correlation between components of the structure. . The Vn value is certainly will be lower than Vy in such so the environment V/Vn ratio represents extra strength factor and load and material f. V Fi~u!"e P. . Zj '-'7 'i'7 /7. .. the minimum value of f. . .3.3 diagram (V-C) diagram of building structure In this article. . is the multiplication of load factor and material factor used in the Factored Load and Strength Design. .. F·--7' . Ve. . Meanwhile. 0 On Oy /. -------- _ ~ __ RV • 11 Vm Vy VII --~-TI ______ -c-~~~~~~--~--~-1-~-L ductile . 11 and R is shown in Figure P . ..3.----- -_ . A.05 x 1. ' ' ' ' . . Vy. . we can certainly select a 11 value which is lower than its 11m value. then Vn ::: Vyff. the earthquake response factor value R changes following the change of 11 value conforming equation (6). .. .". which is f1 ::: 1.. for example by calculation of cross section capacity of installed components or from static push load analysis of overall structure.15 = 1. I ' ' ' '' : 0111 0 7. . Vn. alcnq the respective Rm values. _'-j- . nominal earthquake loading Vn is defined due to effect of Design Earthquake that must be examined in building structure design. I I . the material factor is the reciprocal of capacity reduction factor (= 1/~). so in general.2. . according to several researches. . Theoretically.. . In reality.4 This article defines Table 3 that contains the maximum ductility factor values 11m which can be given by several building structure system or subsystem types from the results of various researches.4. A lower selected 11 values shows a higher earthquake load to be absorbed by the building structure. -7 . ./. because total installed reinforcements OJ profiles is more than necessary. ~ I?->l C -7 . 11 is certainly must be known first (see A.2. . Equation '(4) 'is the basic equation to determine nominal earthquake loading at the building structure. For the later.l.3. -' .. = v. If Vy is known. contained in a building structure.. Table 2 shows the R values for various I. For each system or subsystem written in Table 3.. . then v.4. . the actual representative f1 value is about. . f1 > 1. . the correlation among Ve.

3.1 Factored Load and Strength Design In this article. the I'.4 A.2. A structure or structure component of a building is safe.2 Distribution of the Bell-Shaped In (Ru /Qu ) Component SNI 03 .. which shows the weighteci average value with base shear load working at each subsystem as the weight value. By introducing a reliability index p.ell in. After agreed in gelleral. various design standards define combination of <p and y values which can be different among standards.e n RulOu component shows a bel! shaped curve which has a standard deviation IT 38 shown in Figure P.:= 3 for loading combination by dead load and live load and at least p = 2 for loading combination by dead load.A. I Q" ) > Figure P. Factored Load and Strength Design is formulated in general with the following philosophy. so Vn can be calculated by dividing it by f1. that the capacity reduction factor <p and load factor y must show a value combination in such a way that the RJQu component value target is reached WIth the reliability index of at least p. the value must be found first using rational methods.4..4. yet satisfy the value target stated above. which generally have unknown ~ value. The distribution of the .4.4. It is based on this term. The representative R value of overall structure is then calculated from equation (7). from the analysis. en en Frequency t IE f I I I I 1 f I I ( Ba distribution • • llJ(R"IQ. a preliminary analysis of the building structure is required based on a random earthquake load (random R) to get the ratio of base shear load working on each subsystem..5 This article gives an opportunity to the planner to assemble overall structure system type from particular subsystem types with known R values.: I I Target value Average value . and earthquake load. live load. or Ru/Ou2: 1 or en Ru/Ou 2: O.) Probability of sxceedlnq . so IJ. for instance through a static push load analysis. A. Oy and Om can be found. For this. From this analysis. n RjOu component value targeted to have a particular probability to exceed can be stated as the average value of the RulQu component minus p cr multiplication as shown in Figure P. if Ru Ou 2: 0. Furthermore.4.2.3. Vy IS also known. can be calculated.6 A.1726-2002 Page 43 of63 . For uncommon structure system types.

the achievement of expected ductility level must be guaranteed. AA.1. because they are already defined in building structure loading standard lor in applicable concrete fsteel standards. Ideal collapsing mechanism of a building structure with plastic joints formed. it can be noted that accordi'ng to several researches. because to get an accurate distribution system. Thus. From the depth of this base rock.3. The same also applies to capacity reduction factors $ which values are not given in this Standard.4. The EI Centro Earthquake is taken as the standard.6. Thus.1726-2002 Page 44 of 63 . and 'IE are not given in this article.4.1 plastic [oint column beam plastic joint Figure P.A. Ideally. Furthermore.4.4. This means that due to effect of Design Earthquaxe.1 Soil Types and Propagation of Earthquake Wave Earthquake wave propagates through the base rock below the soil surface. because its acceleroqram contains a wide frequency. the earthquake wave then propagates to the soils surface while experiencing amplification.S. the collapsing mechanism of a building structure is as shown in Figure P. orr beam ends. plastic joints in the building structure may only occur on beam ends and on column feet and shear wall feet. their values defined as the design load value in various loading standards can be used. depending on how many layers of soil are over the base rock.2 Values of load factors 19.4. !t is this soil movement amplification that must be determined hy performing an earthquake wave propagation analysis mentioned in this article. Thus. because it has been determinedin applicable concrete and steel standards. 11. as long as the nominal values of both types of load are not yet available. In European literature. the research will require a long time (for the life of the building) to get an accurate distribution curve. This can occur by determining a requirement called "strong column weak beam" as defined in this article. at feast 4 accelerograms from separate earthquakes must be examined. SNI 03 . A. Not many researches have been done about nominal value of dead load and live load. have satisfied the targeted minimum ~ mentioned in AA. In this case. combination of load factors and capacity reduction factor defined I Indonesian standards.3 A.4.5 A. nominal load is called characteristic load. recorded at medium distance from the epicenter and with medium (not extreme) amplitude. Capacity Design The ductility factor of a building is a basis for determining earthquake load working on a building structure.4.3. column feet. this article stresses that each accelerogram contains uncertainty to be used at a location.6 A.

1726-2002 Page 45 of63 .4. earthquake magnitude at the epicenter. Because the properties of these soil types cannot be formulated in general.4.4. Considering that soil movement due to earthquake at a location cannot be predicted precisely. About the distribution of earthquake magnitude at the seismic zone.3 A. or epicenters.4. minimum and maximum amplitude and mathematical model of the earthquake event. If both criteria are available. which are the epicenters at subduction zone.AA. As the epicenter area. at least 2 of the 3 criteria must be available. In the this earthquake wave propagation analysis. Youngs (1997). where the criterion that produces the softer soil is the determining one. Medium Soil.6. the result value of the Standard Penetration Test N and non flowing shear strength SUoTo determine type of soil encountered.7 A. all their properties must be evaluated specifically at each location where the soil is found. This data is better known as the Gutenebrq-Rlcher magnitude frequency diagram. earthquake movement at the soil surface must be determined from the analysis result of earthquake wave propagation. The earthquake event is mathematically modeled following the Poisson function. considering that the N value is a standard data always found in geotechnical investigation result of a study. witl'1 examined local soil movement in form of peak acceleration of base rock. Thus. several types of function have been examined. generally the first definition is the one used.1 Seismic zone and response spectrum Indonesian Seismic zone Map included in this article is the result of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis done for all Indonesian areas based on the latest seismotonic available this time. attenuation function which gives a correlation between local soil movement. topographical and seimotonic conditions similar to location where the examined special soil is fcund. while to get the v« value. which are the result value of Standard Penetration Test N and shear wave propagation speed v«. This article stresses that at each Special Soil. The input data for this analysis is the location of earthquake source. From various researches. If all 3 criteria are available. and (15). vibration time period. This article gives a definition of types of Hard Soil. and distance from the examined location to the epicenter. distribution of earthquake magnitude at earthquake source areas.7. simulated earthquake vibration among else are predominant vibration period. A. the determining criterion is the one that results in a softer rock type. it is apparent that only the 30 m uppermost layer will decide the amplification of soil movement on the soil surface.S. As the attenuation function. it has been calculated bsed on available seismic data. the type of soil encountered must be supported by at least 2 criteria.4 A. at identified active faults. simulated earthquake vibration can be used. earthquake accelerograms must be taken from vibration record caused by existing earthquake or from a location with geological. This article gives' a clue about \tv'lich soil types are included in Special Soil. and Soft Soil based on three criteria: the shear wave propagation speed v«. the weighted average value of the 3 criteria must be calculated until reaching the depth of 30 m only. This determination of depth limit is also important to standardize the calculation of average value according to equation (13). all epicenters recorded in Indonesian seismic history have been examined. response spectrum configuration. and its earthquake intensity. Determining parameters in this. In this earthquake SNJ 03 .S. considering that more depth will result in higher average value. In practice. and Crouse (1991).2 This article gives a definition about base rock based on two criteria. which are those proposed by Fukushima & Tanaka (1990). (14). shallow epicenter at the earth's plate. special tests are required on the site. as an input earthquake. Joyner & Boore (1997).

in the building regulation of a neighboring country. among else are the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program of 1997 (NEHRP 1997) and Uniform Building Code of 1997 (UBC 1997). after determination are respectively 0. for T>Te.3. a short building structure (short T) in Seismic zone 'j on Medium Land with an earthquake response factor R of about = 7 (partially ductile) must be calculated against the earthquake response factor of 0. base rock is about equivalent to S1.30 g. A.10 g.13 I/R = 0.7.13 x 0. 0. where the Single Freedom Degree system is considered to have a critical absorbance factor of 5%. C follows SNI 03 . and Soft Soil. where the Seismic zone 1 is a zone totally free from earthquake. The C-T response spectrum defined in this article for each Seismic zone. t s 0.015. maximum response speed becomes identical with soil surface peak acceleration (C=Ao). This study has been done by several independent researcher groups. are determined according to Table 5. Medium S01l. so it matches the value defined in Slngapore. With this base rock acceleration. which is borcered with Earthquake Area 1. if we examine the NEHRP 1997. and Soft Soil is about equivalent to 82. 0. S3. (3) probability of an event in one year (Poisson function) and (4) reoccurrence period (which is a reciprocal of probability in one year). the response spectrum is a diagram providing relationship between maximum response speed of Sinele Freedom Degree system due to a particular input earthquake. while Hard Soil.20 g. The condition T=O means that the Single Freedom Degree system is very rigid and thus follows the soil movement completely. The earthquake risk probabilistic analysis result.7.15 g. then decreases asymptotically approaching T axis. is a diagram providing relationship between maximum response acceleration (=Earthquake Response Factor) C and natural frequency period T of the Single Freedom Degree system. C increases linearly from Ao to Am.5% from nominal dead load of the floor level. there is a term that correlates to the building robustness that is each building structure must be calculated against nominal horizontal loads at each floor !evel of 1. According to this Article 4.3 = A. Thus. For instance. one and another as a result of comparative study with foreign standards. the response spectrum shape shows a random function which for an increasing T.1726-2002 Page 46 of63 .4. as a function of absorbance factor and natural frequency period Of the Single Freedom Degree system. and thus it differs from the old standard.risk probalisistic analysis. and S4 respectively.4. Singapore. C has a constant value of C=Am. after plotted on the Indonesian map in form of contour lines of base rock peak acceleration with a reoccurrence period of 500 years (Design Earthquake reoccurrence period) later becomes a base to determine seismic zone borders. 0.03 g. for 0. and 0.7.2 Average base rock accelerations for Seismic zone 1 to 6. for T = 0. the soil surface peak acceleration (Ao) is determined for Hard Soil. So the required minimum earthquake load is the effect an earthquake which is not the Design Earthquake. Thus. In this article.4 Generally. A. The seismic zone map determined in this article is the averaging result of studies of all the aforementioned researcher groups. 0. Thus.25 g. This article is intended to give a minimum robustness to building structures in Seismic zone 1.2 second s Ts. the shape is standardized (idealized) as follows: for 0 s. (2) total probability in one year. where each result is a little different with the other.8/7 0. this article can be said to maintain the continuity of cross nation border regional seismic continuity.2 second. peak acceleration of base rock comes from calculation processes respectively as follows: (1) total probability by examining all possibilities of amplitude and distance.4. Medium Soil. shows a value which initially increases until reaching a maximum value.7.

0.cy period and ductility. Te. This article defines what components to examine against the effect of vertical acceleration of the soil movement.7.2 second. for T s Te. and 1.5 Ao is an average value considered suitable for design. A. Thus. according to Table 7. A.7. 0. Idealization of this hyperbolic function means that for T . the response spectrum correlates with the maximum response acceleration which has a fixed value. Equation (20) shows that in the vertical direction.6 second. so the value of the coefficient I. for Zone Area from 1 to 6. A.1726·2002 Page 47 of 63 . T 5. for Hard Soil. is called the corner natural frequency period.8 A. the earthquake response factor is considered to have been calculated.4. for 0 5. Thus.8. the problem is simplified by examining the effect of soil movement vertical speed due to the earthquake as an equivalent static nominal vertical earthquake load. from various investigation result. T.uer.4. while T >Te correlates with mc response speed which has a fixed value. In this case.5 From various investigations.5 second. In this equation. As the seismic of an area gets higher. the factor I is to be determined by the category of building we deal with.8. both in the soil movement characteristic itself or in ductility properties of the respective Single Freedom Degree system.5 to 0. the respective maximum response speed has a constant value. it is defined the C must be taken equal to Am.8. the corner natural frequency period Tc can be taken 0. Then. Q.0 second respectively. because there is an interaction between overall component response and structural response. Various investigation results show that Am ranges between 2 Ao and 3 A so Am = 2. the structure is assumed to completely follow soil vertical movement.4. not depending en its natural frec.4. it is apparent that for 0 5. Later. Thus. and Soft Soil types. The real dynamic response analysis of the components against the soil vertical movement due to an earthquake is very complicated. T $0.Jf with soil surface peak acceleration Ao.2 second. there are various uncertainties.Jf increases from 0. In this article. in this article. Medium Soil. experienced severe damage due to soil movement vertical acceleration.2 SNI 03 . the area is closer to the epicenter.the hyperbolic function C = Ac/T. it is also apparent that as a good approach.S A. soil movement vertical acceleration is defined as a multiplication of a coefficient I.1 The effect of vertical earthquake The experience form the Northbridge Earthquake (1594) and the Kobe Earthquake (1995) have shown that many building components that have a high sensitivity aqainst gravity load. It can be understood that the vertical component of soil movement due to the effect of the earthquake will relatively gets bigger if the examined location is closer to the epicenter.4.

2. This imperfect Clamping is in form of lateral and rotational deformation at the clamping level. must be defined based on J-l = 1 and R = f1 1. the participation can be ignored.4 Although soil-structure Interaction is not exarnmed. Thus.3 This article repeats the terms in Table 3 for double system.1. from its own inertia force and from the surrounding soil.S. nominal load on the lower structure as the effect of Design Earthquake. A. Nevertheless. . the upper structure can be considered to be clamped to the ground floor level.3 This article defines the lateral clamping level of the upper structure. if its iower structure has failed earlier.1726-2002 Page 48 of 63 . if there is no basement.1 structure In this article. both parts from subsystem or parts of overall structure system. It means that the open portals which have a relatively low lateral rigidity still have ~ particular minimum installed strength.S.1. the lower structure must be designed to act fully elastic all the time. A.2 By separating the examination of upper structure and lower structure.1.5 At each earthquake event. A.'1.2.A. while the lower structure can be examined as a separate 3D structure underground which experiences a loading from the upper structure.2 Earthquake load supportlnq A. A. it is impossible for a building upper structure to show a good behavior. if the building structure acts fully elastic. there is a complicated soil-structure interaction problem. it is stressed that all structure component. the component or structure system must be calculated against building structure deflection due to the effect of nominal earthquake. as applies for fully elastic structure- = A.5 . and certainly the effect of both 'In the upper structure must be calculated.2.2.5. Thus. SNJ 03 .2.1 In designing building structure with internal basement consisting of multi layers. there may not be structure components which participations are ignored in supporting the effect of the earthquake.5_.2 After it is proved that earthquake load support participation of a component or structure system is less than 10%.1 Upper structure and lower structure A. A.1. this article simplifies the problem by separating the examination of upper structure from the lower structure. must be calculated to support the effect of Design Earthquake. sometimes imperfect clamping on column feet and shear wall feet are considered.S.S. if several high raise buildings have one common basement.5. To prevent the occurrence of such phenomenon.6. The problem will get more complicated. to give a better guarantee of good resistance against earthquake .S Building structure general design A. Basically.5. A. except if it Satisfied Article 5.S.

both in static and dynamic analysis.ing structure map. the resulting design ed is certainly equal. Thus. The second component which is a function of the largest horizontal magnitude of build. considering that In reality. A.4. they are translations in each direction of coordinate axis and rotation through the level floor rotation center. there are degrees of freedom.1 With the assumption that level floors (as also concrete roof and floors with ties) working as a diaphragm. according to the degrees of freedom the building has (see A.S.S.3b). Examination of the center of rigidity is not relevant in the context of level floor rotation movement.2 The rotation center of level floors according to this article is unique foe each building structure and does not depend on earthquake load distribution along the height of the building structure. Correlated to the 2 aforementioned sources of diversion.S. differer:ce in structure rigidity value.3 This article defines a design eccentricity between the center of gravity and the center of rotation at each level floor. steel yield strength value. all the building structure (which means all levels and floors) does not rotate. At the limit of e = 0. The first component which is a function of theoretical eccentricity e is to handle the effect of first source.3 Level floor as a diaphragm A. while the second source is more dominant at high eccentricity ( e > 0. SNI 03 . which are translations in each coordinate axis direction and rotation through rotation center of the floor level. The center of rigidity of a building structure is a point at each level (between two floors) which if shear load of all levels working on the building jointly. and live load value and distribution. then on earthquake load of each storey level.O.1). the effect of Design Earthquake on a building structure must be analyzed in 3 D. The first source is a dynamic amplification due to non-linier structure behavior Oil post elastic earthquake loading step. The second source is the existence of rotation component of soil movement through a vertical axis. Due to the earthquake load working at the center of gravity located eccentrically on the level floor rotation center. Rotation center is not the center of rigidity or the center of shear as also known in structure enqineerinq.S. the design eccentricity ed consists of 2 component.4. thus. but only translates. dead load value. between the theoretically calculated and real condition values.3. The effect of the first source is more dominant at low eccentricity (O<e:$. the eccentricity can divert far from the theoretically calculated value. perpendicular to earthquake load direction b is to handle the second effect source. There are 2 sources of this diversion. tile center of rigiciity is rootunique for a buildifig structure.3. A. which means it has a tremendous rigidity on its plane. but depends on earthquake load distribution along the height" of the building structure.A.3. the level floor shows 3 types of deflection.1726-2002 Page 49 of 63 .S.3 b).

the method for determination of effective moment of inertia of structure component cross section is standardized.S.S.S. A.S structure rigidity A.S. which are: to prevent excessive P-Delta effect. but will not change its behavior. to avoid a too low installed structure strength (capacity).A.4 This article stresses that the design eccentricity between the center of gravity and the center of rotation must be examined both in static analysis and dynamic analysis.S.5. the less determining the earthquake load on gravitational load.S. A. the fundamental frequency period limit values of a building structure is defined as a multiplication of a coefficient S and total level n owned by the building. considering that the building structure with long fundamental frequency period absorbs low earthquake load (seen from C-T response spectrum) . overall structure rigidity is calculated through a uniform method. which is to ensure the comfort of occupancy and to limit the possibiiity of structure damage due to steel yielding and excessive concrete cracking and non structure damage. A. Giving penalty to a very flexible building structure by a prerequisite minimum C value on in the C-T response spectrum can actually add comfort.1 In this article.2 This article provides the terms about modulus elasticity of concrete Ec and modulus elasticity of steel Es. to prevent excessive inter-level deflection at maximum earthquake loadinq level. so occurring internal force in the structure components produce low installed strength. In this article. where the defined effective percentage of the cross section is based on the results of various researches. Limitation of fundamental natural frequency period Usage of an over-flexible building structure shall be prevented. There are 4 periods to limit the fundamental frequency period of a building structure. It is considered not reasonable to differentiate rigidity calculation into the two types of analysis.G SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 50 of 63 . It is considered not reasonable to differentiate the eccentricity in both types of analysis. In Table 8. to prevent excessive inter-level deflection on earthquake loading level which causes the first yield. natural frequency period) can also be studied through uniform criteria.S.3 A. so the effect of limitation of fundamental frequency period will decrease.1 applies both in static analysis and dynamic analysis to calculate deflection and natural frequency period of the building structure.4. which is to limit the possibility of structure collapsing which will cause human casualties. the coefficient S is defined as the function of Seismic zone seismic where the building structure resides. In this article.S.S. so the structure behavior (deflection. This article stresses that the effective moment of inertia as defined in Article 5. This is considering that the lower the seismic. it is done by limiting the value of the fundamental frequency period. Thus.

5. This condition is anticipated in this article by defining that earthquake lOading in the main direction 100% must be assumed to work slmuttaneousfy with earthquake loading in its perpendicular direction.7 The effect of P-Delta High raise buildings are generally flexible.4.1 Earthquake loading direction On regular building structure.0 the dynamic response of other orders can be ignored. This is done through a coordinate transformation with eigenvector matrix as its transformation matrix.2 A. According to this article. but examined 30%. Thus. A. where a higher order gives a lower dynamic response contribution in producing total dynamic response. the MDF system movement equations in form of interrelated simultaneous second order differential equations. from further description in Order Analysis. so an earthquake can cause significant large deflection which will bring significant of P-Delta effect. its fundamentaJ dynamic response is very dominant. where the building structure is formed by lateral load supporting subsystems perpendicular and parallel to orthogonal main axis of building structure map. With these two Simplifications. the P-Delta effect must be revi~wed if the height of the building exceeds 10 floors or 40 m. considering that the building structure is not too high (Jess than 10 storeys or 40·rn).B.1. fundamental order form can be considered to follow a linier line (not a curve any longer).5.6. each forming MDF system movement equations. Total dynamic response of the MDF system later shows itself as a superposltlon of dynamic response of each order. which is defined in this article. there are always 2 components of requirement load in each orthogonal axis direction working simultaneously. can be released from the interrelation to be separate equations. A. the main direction of earthquake loading must be found by trial and error by examining several possibilities. ::. SNI 03 ~ 1726-2002 Page 51 of63 . Earthquake loading direction on each building structure in reality is random.8. as explained in A. acting as a 2 D structure.1.6. Then. so generally.5.B A.A. By implementing the Order Analysis method.5.1 Equivalent static nominal earthquake load A.6 Design of regular bu~lding structure A. Non full and biaxial earthquake loading can bring a more complicated effect on the building structure compared to full and uniaxial earthquake loading. This dynamic response of each order forms a dynamic response of a Single Freedom Degree system. a building structure is modeled as a system of Multiple Degrees of Freedom (MDF). On a regular building structure.2. regular building structure dynamic response can be displayed as if it is a result of an equivalent static earthquake load. the main determinative earthquake loading main direction cannot be ensured beforehand.1 In dynamic response analysis of an earthquake effect.

S.i.2.6.1.4 A.2 Fundamental natural frequency period A.6. so it can be defined using a mediator of C-T Design Earthquake Response Spectrum set in Article 7.1 V installed at the top floor level simulates this whip effect.i.1 Considering that regular building structure in each main axis direction of practical structure map acts as a 20 structure.1. A.7. For a more accurate calculation. which frequently shows a whip effect. Equivalent static analysis This article only stresses that since earthquake loading on regular building structure takes form as equivalent static earthquake load. as stated by equation (26). its potential ene: gy is equalized with its klnetlc.i.5 A. A.A.6. Equation (27) is a part of equivalent static earthquake load description result mentioned in A.2 To determine equivalent static nominal earthquake load. calculation of over-the-tower tank is conservative.6. natural frequency period calculated with the Rayleigh formula is determined as the standard. The centralized load 0. from the' result of dynamic response analysis.2 This article sets how to define equivalent static base shear load V. as long as the result will not divert (upward or downward) more than 20 % of values calculated with the Ray!eigh formula. In this equation.S.2.enerqy. simultaneously giving the terms on how to distribute nominal base shear load V along the building structure height to be equivalent static nominal earthquake loads Fj• This article correlates with a relatively very flexible building structure in the earthquake direction (a "thin" building). its equivalent static earthquake load can also be described.3 A. building structure analysis on the earthquake loading is automatically done with a common 3D static analysis.1 . then its natural frequency period in each main axis direction can be calculated using Rayleigh formula according to equation (28) applicable for 20 structures that when in the condition of deflecting during vibration. the factor I is to determine the category of building we deal with.4). this equivalent static base shear load can be stated in the dynamic response of Single Freedom Degree system related to its fundamental order only. so further analysis can be done with a common 3D static analysis (see A. while R is from making the earthquake load to be nominal earthquake load conforming to selected ductility factor for the building structure. On irregular building structure.6. As seen from its description. related to equivalent static earthquake load mentioned in A.3 SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 52 of63 . A.4 (Figure 2).2.1.7. VViihthe terms in this article.6. distribution of its structure mass can definitely be calculated. The natural frequency period can be determined by other ways.S.6.1.

1.2. There are 2 superposition methods defined in this article.2 A. By performing a 3D free vibration analysis. this will not pose a problem with the availability of various sophisticated computer programs. Generally. sometimes it happens that total response on earthquake is smaller than its first order response. as long as participation of mass producing total response reaches at least 90%. High capability to analyze a complex structure should also be used to control the structure behavior in its response on earthquake. total dynamic response of MDF system is a superposition of several orders. total superpositioned order responses can be limited.1. From the analysis aspect. A. be corrected with a correction factor IIR to include the category of building faced and to make the earthquake load to be nominal earthquake load.7. Response each order defined through the Planned Earthquake Response Spectrum is the maximum response. order will reach maximum value at different times. highly irregular building structures are frequently found. 7. it can be seen how a structure behaves against earthquake.2 SNI 03 .A. 7 .2 An irregular building structure really acts as a 3D structure so representative ductility value which represents it must be known.1. the Response Spectrum ordinates must.2. On certain building structures. This reality enables us to use the Planned Earthquake Response Spectrum according to Figure 2 as the base to determine the respective each order response.7.1. This article defines how to superpos·ition rnaxlrnum response of the orders based on the result of various researches. but will not change its behavior. Such structure system must be repaired and rearranged by placing more rigid components around the map to increase rotational (torque) rigidity of overall structure system.7.1 In practice. Furthermore. This is related to Table 3 which more reflects 2C system ductility properties. This is caused by a higher order response which reduces the first order' response. which are methods known as A. this article sets that the response final value of each building structure cannot be taken less than 80% of its fust order response value.1726-2002 Page 53 of63 .1. Giving penalty to a twist structure by adding its earthquake load does increase security. where a higher order will give smaller dynamic response participation to total dynamic response. A. so the maximum response of the orders cannot be summed easily.7. To guarantee sufficient minimum strength (capacity) of installed structure.1· Terms for dynamic response analysis A.7.1 Response spectrum order analysis As explained in A6.7 l~reguJar shear wall design A. each forming a dynamic response of the Single Freedom Degree system. this sows a bad behavior and is very uncomfortable for the occupants when an earthquake occurs. This article gives a term on how to determine representative earthquake reduction factor R through a preliminary analysis for earthquake load in each direction of selected coordinate axis. the response of each. so the first order movement becomes dominant in translation. conforming to ductility factor f selected or the building. Only.3 A. in the Order Analysis method. If the first order movement has been dominant in rotation.

which if necessary.is only used to determine dynamic nominal level shear force due to effect of Design Earthquake. This way.. we can get a certainty about sign (work direction) of internal forces in building structure components. (design) Level shear force > Figure P4 : Nominal level shear force diagram along the height of building A. the factor I is to calculate the earthquake loading to be nominal earthquake loading.1 This article defines that to study building structure behavior for each second the earthquake works.7. A. 7. is modified first conservatively to get a better distribution of nominal earthquake load distribution along the height of the building structure (see Figure P4). . 7. response spectrum order analysis .2. SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 54 of 63 . peak acceleration of input earthquake must be scaled to be A as I equation (33). Internal forces in the ~uilding structure components come from common 3D static analysis based on equivalent static earthquake loads described from distribution of nominal level shear force received from prior dynamic response analysis. In this equation.3.4 By using this article. time history linier a[10 non-linier response analysis can be done. . A.Complete Quadratic Combination (Cae) and Square Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS) along their usage prerequisites.3 Time history dynamic response analysis A.3. in elastic of post-elastic.7.2 For nominal earthquake loading level where structure response still acts fully elastic.

7.1 A.2. where the structure response has entered elastoplastic level. Thus.S.S.S. This article is intended to prevent collision.A. This article is intended to prevent collision of 2 neighboring buildings.1. peak acceleration of input earthquake is fully equal to Ao. The EI Centro Earthquake is taken as the standard. due the fixed maximum deflection rule adopted in this Standard as mentioned above.4 SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 55 of 63 .3.B. this article allows usage of soil acceleration simulated as input earthquake movement in time history dynamic response analysis. as defined in this article. ~ ::: R as in equation (34).S. because its accelerogram contains a wide frequency.S.Iill ause heavy c damage. A. This article stresses.S Bui!ding structure performance A.1. The size of the clearance must definitely be sufficlent to prevent collision between parts which is not only \f1. determined by inter-revel deflection due to the effect of Design Earthquake which has been divided by a Scale Factor. many building severe damage occur because neighboring buildings collide.1 Service limit performance To limit the occurrence of steel yield and excessive concrete cracking and to prevent non-structural damage and discomfort.2 Ultimate limit performance A.8. For irregular building structure. that each accelerogram contains uncertainty to be used at a location. recorded at medium distance from the epicenter and with medium (not extreme) amplitude.3.2.2.S.3 For full loading level by the Design Earthquake.1 Because this Standard adopts fixed maximum deflection rule 8S described in A. structure deflection in the condition of near collapsing will result by multiplying the deflection caused by nominal earthquake load with the factor ~. From Figure P.4 A. This must be prevented by providing a sufficient intermediate space. As an alternative.7.1.2. it is clear that for reqular building structure. quantitatively the criteria of service limit A. A.3. From the experience with various strong earthquake occurrences in the past time. A simple formula to calculate structure deflection in the condition of near collapsing is enabled.2 This article stresses quantitatively the criteria limit of building structure ultimate performance. A. This is reflected by equation (35). This response spectrum defines performance of building structure.7.3 A.between 2 building structure parts separated by a dilatation clearance.4. then after the building structure deflection caused by nominal earthquake load is known from the structure analysis result. but can also change the calculated structure response. because the real deflection is not affected by the Scale Factor. at least 4 accelerograms from separate earthquakes must be examined.S A. The factor I is once more for calculating category of building under consideration.3.2 A. the effect of Scale Factor must be eliminated.2.

To make the rolling moment due to plastic joint yield moment to the nominal rolling moment.. particularly on column. so f2 .).9. this can only occur if the upper structure does not fail beforehand.1. experience rotation. On a fully ductility structure ( J-l . t).1). so human casualties can be prevented. Maximum nominal rolling moment from the upper structure on the lower structure which acts fully elastic is received form the maximum rolling moment by dividing it with R . Because the extra strength factor of load and material is f1 = 1. 5.::. experiences the first yield until reaching the conditlon of near collapsing. A.. Nevertheless. described from inclination angle uniformity rule. This process is visualized in the moment-deflection diagram of a plastic joint at the column foot or shear wall foot as shown in Figure P..f1.3).25.00. the lower structure must be able to support well loads worked by the upper structure when the upper structure is at the condition of near collapsing. On a fully elastic structure (u = 1). plastic joints.1 Earthquake loading from upper structure A.9.9 The effect of earthquake on lower structure A. due to effect of Design Earthquake. with fo as the strain hardening factor. according to various researches fa .foot and shear wall foot.1.::.1 From the philosophy of earthq uake resistance design for building structure.2.1).::. due the existence of extra strength factor f2 (see F:gure P.1. it is apparent (see A.3 SNI 03 . -"' -~- . clearance must be maintained so its function is A. Since the building structure.9. With these two limit conditions. Nominal rolling moment according this equation (41) certainly occurs along the respective normal (vertical) load and shear (horizontal) load. It is this maximum load V m that is defined in this article. while their yield moments increase from the initial yield moment My to final yield moment fa My. due to strain hardening of steel.3). For fully ductile building structure (u . 1. along the respective normal (vertical) load and shear (horizontal) load. there is nc force redistribution at all (no plastic joint forms). A.8.5. Other possibility is the occurrence of rolling moment worked by the yield moment working on plastic joints at the foot of all columns and on the foot of all shear walls. because yielding just about to occur. the maximum earthquake load can easily be calculated as a multiplication of nominal earthquake load and total extra strength factor f .::.::.6 as stated by equation (41) (see Figure P.f1 f2 stated by equation (38) (see Figure P. redistribution of forces take place.1726-2002 Page 56 of63 .00. Due to hyperstatics of structure and formation of plastic joints not occurring simultaneously.::. which is the earthquake response factor for fully elastic structure as defined by equation (40) (see Figure P.1. while for a fully elastic building structure (J-l = 1).5.::. the upper structure has been severely damaged.1.1.75.6. required. the favalue is not. automatically fo .13) that due to effect of Design Earthquake..::. This maximum load is mobilized on the earthquake load causing the first yielding Vy. because nominal moment can be calculated directly from the initial yield moment by dividing it with load and material extra strength factor f1 . but is still stands and not collapsing. where redistribution of forces occurs widely the structure extra strength factor according to various researches reaches f2.A.::.2 The highly dominant load worked by the upper structure on the lower structure is the rolling moment. Thus.1.9. equation (37) is produced to calculate f2 value for any J-l.S The size of the dilatation guaranteed anytime. which resulting in the structure extra strength factor.5.

S. as long as it is rationally accountable.2 Calculation of inertia force based in soil-structure. interaction analysis is a complicated subject.2 Earthquake loading from the moment of inertia kS. For practical design. this article gives the term.2. as stated by equation (42) (see Figure P 1 and P. each method that is rationally accountable can be used.S).S Moment .S. yet conservatively. nominal rolling moment according to earthquake (40) will not be mobilized fully.1 If the lower structure moves simultaneously with the surrounding soil when an earthquake occurs.S A. the definitive one is the smallest value. But in all aspects. because with the formation of plastic joint at all column feet and all shear wall feet. kinematic and inertial interaction occur between the lower structure and its surrounding soil causing the occurrence of the inertia force. This is what is stated in this article. equivalent static horizontal earthquake load due to the inertia force which works on the lower structure acting fufly 'elastic can be calculated. on how to approach. the lower structure will not experience any inertia forces. imperfect clamping on column feet and shear wall feet may be calculated. earthquake response factor for fully elastic SNI03-1726-2002 Page 57 of63 . A. How it is done is left to the planner.1. that is using equation (43). A.4 From the two possibllltles of the aforementioned rolling moment.9. the maximum nominal rolling moment value is not necessarily taken more than that occurring due to effect of Design Earthquake on the building upper structure acting fully elastic. In this equation.1.deflection diagram of a plastic joint at column feet or shear wall feet A.2.9. But because the soil-structure interaction always occurs which always causes the existence of movement difference.shear wall Figure P. Thus.

1726-2002 Page 58 of63 . Friction may not be relied on to withstand lateral load due to earthquake.1 0. but also on the effect of interaction with other components from the supporting structure. between the lower structure and its surrounding soil there is a changing difference of movement during the earthquake. this article gives a simple yet conservative term.2 Tie down A.9. it can also be a direct threat to the safety of the building occupants or can slow down the rescue attempt of the building's occupants or restrict fire fighting attempt immediately after the earthquake happens.10. architecture components A. soil compression on the basement walls and other components of the lower structure also change in values.1 The satisfactory behavior of non-structural components on earthquake effect is equally important with the support. which must be calculated not only on forces directly caused by the earthquake (inertia force). that soil compression from the front soil can be considered to have reached maximum value of soil yield compression value (identical with passive compression) along the basement depth.9~3. The critical part in this analysis is the determination of compression spring and shear spring quantitative properties.10 The effect cf earthquake on secondary and machine and electrical installation components.6. so the examined component can move sideways by the effect of horizontal direction soil movement component. The soil compression working on the lower structure acting fully elastic must be made nominal soil compression by dividing it with R = f1 = 1. against damage. which is the earthquake response factor for fully elastic structure.2.structure has been considered.1. SNI 03 .g which can be a part of the building economy value until it is feasible to be secured. Thus. For practical design. in case of failure or collapsing. Thus.1 Due to the interaction of soil-structure interaction.1 Safety coverage A. because the vertical downward soil movement component can eliminate friction resistance. each method which is rationally accountable can be used. A. 1 A. structure behavior itself.10.S.3.2 Historical articles is certainly must be saved against damage for the interest of the future generation~ A.2 This article gives a clue how soil-structure interaction must be examined to a limited extent. A. which represents the back.10.1 0. and bottom soil (foundation). As non-structural components filling a buildir.1 The main disadvantage in installation of no-structural components in a building is on the less tha: I adequate tie-down details.3 Earthquake loading from the surrounding soil A. This soil compression calculation is based on interaction analysis of soil-structure which is a complicated thing. Factor I in equation (43) is to calculate the category of building we deal with. side.1. A.

a dangerous disorder occurs. automatic machine cut off should happen on the pea acceleration of soil surface Ao applicable for the seismic zone where the machine is located. which causes the failure of the significance component function.10. A.1 If an important component is designed to withstand 2 relatively strong earthquake. A. for example the occurrence of liquid pressure or gas pressure build up beyond the limits in a process.1726-2002 Page 59 of63 . A.2 The response amplification coefficient Kp is intended to calculate the amplification of soil movement by the supporting structure.5. Automatic machine operation cut-off must also happen. A.5 The effect of design earthquake A.2 This article stresses the significance of maintenance of separation clearance between non-structural components and equipment to prevent interaction between them which endangers or causes severe loss. the design of correlated components which can fail by a fighter earthquake requires consideration. such objects shall be placed at lower level.5.4 Automatic Cut Off of Machine and Equipment Operation Several jndustrlal processes as existing on a chemical process or processes using gas or high voltaqe electricity 1Tl8Y pose a significance danger to the ger.A.10. A.3. outer panels and additional objects must be made ductile enabling these components to follow the supporting structure components without colliding each other. As an example.10.2.2 Ornament tie down equipment. Other factors can be calculated usinq a simple formula (equation (45)) and data found in the table (Table 9 and 10). SNI 03 . For this.1 Earthquake load to be calculated working on non-structural components is the equivalent static nornlnat earthquake load. if in the system. formula given in this article (equation (45)) is considered to give a sufficient result.3. so if possible. that it continues to obstruct operation of the equipment when this lighter earthquakes happen. wall standing by the side of an equipment ready to use in emergency situation and may be have collapsed on a far lighter earthquake level than the level required for the equipment.10. The Development Authority along the owner shall set an earthquake intensity level which causes a machine to stop operation automatically.era! public. which depends on the supporting structure itself.3 Correlation between com ponents A. As a guidance. if not stopped in heavy earthquakes.10. which basically comes from multiplication of component weight with several factors (equation (44)) which does not depend much data acquired from structure analysis of the structure support. The only support structure required is the fundamental natural frequency period T1 to determine the Eearthquake Response Factor C1 and earthquake reduction factor R.10.10. We need to realize that heavy objects on top of a building structure can experience big acceleration.10. This is to enable a direct design by the machine and electricity installation planner and pre-cast concrete panel manufacturers.

3 Non structural component performance factor P reflects the significance of the component.10. must be avoided. the examined amplification is only 2 times. indentical to the significance factor I for the building itself. component installed on a supporting structure which natural frequency period approaches the natural frequency period of the supporting structure.4 A non-structural S N I 03 .5.1 0.A. A. Near the resonance point. because it can produce a very high amplification. which will be intact when the Design Earthquake works. there is always absorbance that reduces the amplification. This is important to examine on risky equipment such as steam boiler and high pressure tank. Thus.5. the performance factor is to extend the earthquake reoccurrence period causing damage on the component. But in this article. the amplification can reach 25 times. because in practice.1726-2002 Page'60 of 63 .

. and according to Table P.55 0.4.Appendix 8 Factored load andstrenqth design for foundation 8. building foundation strength can be designed based on Factored Load and Strength Design Method.2. such as pad. which is a multiplication of capacity reduction factor ~ and foundation nominal strength Rn according to equation: (P. and bore pile foundation. pile.:::uu Design the following (P~1) foundation ultimate 8.4.4 where Ru is the foundation ultimate strength or ultimate support capacity.1 strength 8. Along the strength design of upper structure and lower structure.1.60 0. According to Factored Load and Strength limit requirements must be satisfied: -Ru.35 -0.1.3.50 .1726-2002 Page 61 of63 .4. or continued through pile or bore pile foundation to the supporting ground as on post foundation type.2) where Rn is defined through through direct load test. and Article 4.3 8.2 forpile and bore pile foundation Table P. raft. Article 4.1 for pad type.0. The nominal load On multiplied by the corresponding load factor y is the ultimate load Ou which works on the foundation conforming to Article 4.1 F ou ndation is the part of building lower structure which strength determined 8.1.2 of soil supporting by the the part. factor ~ for foundation is defined according to Table P.1 Capacity reduction factor ~ for pad and raft foundation type Soil Type Sand Clay Rock <P 0.1. continued directly to the supporting ground such as pad and raft foundation.5 a rational analytic or empirical calculation and lor Capacity reduction and raft foundation type.1.1. Nominal load On working on the foundation is nominal load working on lower structure.60 SNI 03 . 8.

2.0. for foundation structure strength calculation. Basically.55 . similar terms apply such as for upper structure and lower structure of the building.70 0.2.0. Design of upper structure and lower structure component strength using Factored Load and Strength Design. I Pile I I Bore pile Axial compression ~--- . shear only I ~ 0.55 Load properties .75 0.75 0. the Appendix of this Standard is intended to socialize the Factored Load and Strength Design as an alternative.55 ..1726-2002 Page 62 of63 .0.55 .55 . B. - Axial compression Itension Axial compression Axial compression Axial compression /tension Axial compression 1 : end only B.70 0.0.2 Capacity reduction factor $ for pile and bore pile foundation Foundation type Resistance strength source shear + end shear only end only : shear + end .2.0.55 . post) are certainly defined by the foundation material. Thus. raft.2 B. So. has been followed for a long time in practice in Indonesia. must taken equal to the one that applies for building upper structure and lower structure. nominal load at the lower structure is also the nominal on foundation transmitted to the supporting soil. Thus.0.1 of factored load and strength design for foundation Foundation strength is defined by strength of soils supporting the foundation.55 .70 0. This inconsistency should certainly be eliminated as early as possible. The Foundation Structure Strength itself (the footing.2 Explanation B.Table P. which is expected to replace the old method as soon as possible. But for foundation strength design.3 SNI 03 . load factors y which must be multiplied with nominal load Qn get ultimate load Qu on the Foundation. which generally is reinforced concrete. there is a strong tendency to keep using allowable tension or load.

is the permissible supporting load calculation. A standard calculation done in practice this far. In foundation engineering. Actually. ln European literatures. tension. The average ~ value in 8: range is taken if shear strength parameters from lab result test or direct load test until failure is used. where the supporting soil drastically starts showing a steep incline. load properties (compression. nominal supporting capability can be considered to be twice permissible supporting capability. Because a ~ vaiue cannot be determined. As an approach.2. because total load test in a project is generally limited. like foundation work quality. reliability of sell parameter and test method used to get them. where the supporting soil still shows an elastic decline. so it cannot be formulated generally.4 Foundation nominal strength can be interpreted as the strength. with sufficient extra strength for strength.8. requires the best consideration from the load-decline diagram shape.2. nominal strength is called characteristic strength. the ~ value in the range is taken if in nominal supporting capability the correlation with the Standard Penetration Test value is used. but in general this is not made possible.5 SNI 03 -1726-2002 Page 63 of 63 . shear). variation distribution of soil parameters. B.2. The amount of extra strength factor. foundation nominal strength must be defined probabilistically. the direct method to determine foundation nominal strength is by performing a load test and sets it from load-decline diagram. moment. The capacity reduction factor ~ highly depends on several things. calculafiun method of nominal strength or ultimate strength. but in a range. As we know. as shown in Table P. the foundation ultimate strength is lower than its nominal strength. Generally. the meaning of ultimate strength and nominal strength are often reversed.i and Table P. Thus.

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