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HVAC Fundamentals & Testing

# HVAC Fundamentals & Testing

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HVAC
FUNDAMENTALS
AND TESTING
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HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
CHAYfER ONE: BASIC LA WS AND APPLICATIONS
INTRODUCTION . .......... . .... . . . ................ . ..•... 1·1
BASIC AIR LAWS ......• . . . . . . • ... ' ...... . .. • ... • . . . . .. . •... 1-1
PULLEY LAWS ........ . .............. . . .. . ............. . . 1-7
FINDING RPM INCREASE OR DECREASE BY AMPERAGE . .. . . . .• . .... 1-12
FORMULAS FOR ADJUSTING SHEAVES ....... . ...... . . . •.. , .... 1-14
PERFECT GAS LAWS ... . ............. , ., . . ....... . . . ...... 1-15
Pascal's Principle ......... . .. . ......................... 1-15
Charles's Law . .. . . . .. . ............... . ........ . ...... 1-15
Pressure Varies Directly with Absolute Temperature For a Constant
Volume .... .. ..... . . . ..... . .............. . 1-15
Gay-Lussac's Law . .. . . ... .......... . .................. 1-17
Volume Varies Directly with Absolute TemperabJre For a Constant
Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • .. . . . .. 1-17
, . Boyle's l..aw . ..................... . ................. . 1-18
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Pressure Varies Inversely with Volume if the Temperature Remains
Constant .............................. . ... 1-18
Effects of Changing Temperature, Pressure, and Volume at Same Time . ... 1- 19
HEAT TRANSFER ............ . .. . . . .......... . ..... .. ... . . 1-20
Conservation Of Energy . . • .. • • . .• ... . . •... ,. . . . .. . . ..... 1-20
Heat Flow ........... , •. . ... . , . .... , ... , . • . . • . . , . . .. 1-20
Conduction ..... . , ... ........................... 1-21
Convection . . ... . •...•...• .. .. .. ...•. .. " .. ..... 1-24
Radiation ...... • , .. • ... • ..... , ...•.... ,.. . . . ... 1-27
Insulation .............. . . . ......... • . . ...... . .. , . . .. 1-28
PSYCHROMETRIC PROPERTIES OF AIR .. . . , • • ... " . . . • ...• . . , .. 1-29
Psychrometric Chart ................••.... , ............. 1-30
SUMMARY . . . . . . ....... . ... . ... , ... , ' • . .. • .. .•...•..... 1-39
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HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
CHAPTER TWO: HVAC SYSTEMS
INTRODUCTION .. . . . ...... .. ........ • ... . . . • ........ . .... 2-1
PURPOSE OF HV AC ..• • ... . .. • .. . ... . .. . ........... • ...•.. . 2-1
Temperature .. .. ........... . ... . .•.........•..•.. .. ... 2-1
Humidity .. . . ................ .. ........... • ...... . ... 2-1
Suspended Particulates (Dust and Gases) . . . . .... . ..........•.... 2-2
AIR SYSTEMS . ........ .. ............. . . . .. . . . . ....... . . . . 2-2
Single Zone System ..........•.. . •....•..•..•......•.... 2-3
Variable Air Volume System .....•...•...... . • .. • .. . ...• . ... 2-4
Terminal Reheat System ...... • •. . .•...• . . • ......•........ 2-5
Induction System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . • . . . . . . . • . . . 2-6 ·
Dual Duct System ....... . ........ . . ..... . . .•. .• ...• .... 2-7
Dual Duct System (Low Velocity) .... . • ..... ... .. .. • . ... . 2-7
Dual Duct System (High Velocity) ... . .. . . . .. • .. .... • . .. . . 2-8
Multizone System . . ... . .. ... .. . ........ • ... . .. • ... • .... 2-9
FILTRATION SYSTEMS .... ... ... ........... . .. . ...... .. ..... 2-10
Fibrous Media Filters .............•... . ... •. .• . ......... 2-10
Electronic Air Cleaners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . . . . . • . . . • . .. 2-12
High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter ....... •. .• . .• . ..•..•.... 2-13
HYDRONIC SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . • . . . • . . • . . . • . . . 2-16
Low Water Temperature System (L TW) . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . • . . • . . . . . 2-16
Medium Temperature Water System (MTW) ... . . . . ..•..•........ 2- 16
High Temperature Water System (HTW) .. .. . .. . .... .... .. .. . ... 2-17
Chilled Water System (CW) .............. . • ...• . . . . .. . .... 2-17
Dual-Temperature Water System (DTW) . . . .... .. ..... . ..•..... 2-17
Series Loop System ... ... .... . ..... . . . .• •. . .• . . •. . . .... 2-18
One-Pipe System (Diverting Fitting) .....•.......•......•..... 2-19
Two-Pipe Systems . . .... . . ..... . . . ..•. .. • .. .. . .. . .• . .. . 2-20
Combination Piping System . .. . . . .. .. ........ . ...•..•.. . .. 2-22
Three-Pipe System . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . • . . • . . . . 2-22
Four-Pipe System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . • . . • . . . . . . . . 2-24
Hydronic Piping ... ...... .. .. . .. . .•• . ... . .•..• • .. . . .. . 2-26
Air Control and Venting .. . .•...•.. . .. .... ..... • ..... 2-26
Drains and Shutoffs . . . . . . . • • . . . . • . . • . . • • . . . . . • . . . . . 2-27
Balance Fittings .........•... • . . . . •. . ... . • .. ...... 2-27
Pitch . ... ....... . .• • . .•. . .• •. ....... . •.. ... ... 2-27
Strainers . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . 2-27
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HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
Thermometers . ..... . . •........... ... . ..... . . ... . 2-27
Flexible Connectors . . . . . . . . . • • . . . . • . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . .. 2-28
Pump Location . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER THREE: HVAC EQUIPMENT
INTRODUCTION ........................... .•. . .•. .. . .. ..
CRITERIA FOR EQUIPMENT SELECTION ...... . . • •• .. •. . .• . .....
Demand of Comfort or Process .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Energy Conservation . .............. . ... . ....... . ... . ... .
First CostlLife Cost ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . .
Desires of Owner, Architect, or Design Office .... . .. . .. ... ..... .
Space Limitations ...........................•...... •. ..
Maintainability ............... . ... . .. . .•..... . ..... • . .
Central Plant Versus Distributed Systems . ..•. .. •...•...• .. • .. ..
Simplicity and Controllability .......... . ... . .... • ...•......
HEATING ....... .. ... . ... . .....•.....•...•...•......•..
BOILERS ............ . ..•...•...•.... . •...•...•......•..
Hot Water Boilers ... . . . . . . . .. .... . . ... . ... . . . .. . .. . .. .
Steam Boilers ...........•...•....•• . ..•...•... . .. . . . .
ELECTRIC HEATERS . .. . .............•....•.. . • ...•... •.. .
2-30
3·1
3·1
3·2
3·2
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-4
3·5
3·7
3·7
3·7
3-7
TERMINAL HEATING EQUIPMENT ...... • . . ....... • .. . •.. • .... 3·9
Radiators and Convectors . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • • . . . . . . . . .. 3-10
Radiant Panels .......... . ... .. •• . . . . . . ...•... • . . •... 3-12
HEAT PUMPS ............. . . . • . . ..•.....•...•...•...... 3·13
Packaged Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . .. 3·13
COOLING ................ •.. . • ..... .. . .•.... •.. .. ..•.. 3·18
Refrigeration ......•.. • ...•...•.. ... •. .. • •.. • ...• . .. 3· 18
Steam Jet .......•.. . • .. . • .. . .. • .. . .... • . .. •... 3·19
Heat Sink ..............• . ....• . . .. •...... . .... 3-20
Absorption ... . .... ...... . . ... . .. .. • . . . • . . . . . .. 3-20
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HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
TABLE OF CONTENfS
Compressed Gas ..... ..... ... .... . . .. ... . ......• . ... . 3·23
Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . .. 3·23
CondenserlReceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3·23
Metering Device . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . .. 3·24
Evaporators . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 3·25
Chillers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . 3·28
Flooded Chillers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . . . .. 3·29
Direct Expansion (DX) Chillers . . . .. . .. . . . . • ... . .. . • . . 3·29
Package Chillers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3·29
Cooling Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . . • . . . . .. 3·31
Open·Circuit Cooling Towers . . . . . . . . • . . . . . • . . . • . . . • .. 3·33
Closed·Circuit Towers .... .. . . . .... .. •.. • ...•. ..•.. 3·34
Cooling Coils .................. • .. ........ • ...•..... 3·36
Plpmg ....................... . . . . .. •..... .... 3·36
Pumps . . ...................... • ..... • .. . .... .. 3·36
Pump Configurations and Types ..... . ..... .. .. • ..... .. 3·37
Performance Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . • . . • . . . . . .. 3·38
Pump Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . ." . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . • .. 3-40
AIR· HANDLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3·40
FANS ...... . .. ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3-41
Classifications of Fans. . . • . . . • . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . • . . • . . . . . .. 3·42
Fan Control ......... . ....• • . . . . ...• . . • . . .. . .• ...... 3-48
Fan Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • .. 3·50
Fan Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . • .. 3·50
Fan Characteristic Curves ... • .... •...•... ... •...... • .... 3·51
DUCTWORK ................•...•....•......•.......... 3·59
Classification .... . ..... . .• . . . .•...• . . . . . .• . . . . .. ... . 3·59
Duct System Accessories .. . • • ..... . . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . .. 3·60
SUMMARY
Turning Vanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . • • • . • . . .. 3·60
Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . • • . .. 3·64
Louvers . .... . ..............•... •. .• .. . •. .. •... 3·66
Grilles. Registers and Diffusers . . . . . . . . • . . • . . • . . . . . . . .. 3·67
Silencers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . .. 3·71
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3·72
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HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
CHAPTER FOUR: FIELD INSTRUMENT OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION ........ . ............... . ................ 4-\
AIRFLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICES . . . . . . . • • . . • . . . • . . . • . . . • . .. 4-\
U-Tube Manometer ............. . . ..••...... . • .. . ...... 4-\
InclinedNertical Manometer. . . . . . . . . . . • • . . • . . . • • . . . . . . • . . . 4-2
Micro-Manometer .... . ...... . . . .....• . .• . .. . •. .• . ..•. . 4-3
Pitot Tube . . .. ... . .. .. ..•......... • ..•...•...•...•.. 4-3
Construction .. . .... . • . ..• . .. . ... . •. . .•. . .•.. . •. . 4-3
Pitot Tube Use . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . • . .. 4-5
Use of Readings . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . . . . 4·9
Pitot Tube Duct Traverses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-11
Round Duct Traverses ...... ....... . •... • . . . • ...... 4- \3
SquarelRectangular Duct Traverses ......... . ....... . ... 4· 15
Correcting For Non-Standard Conditions. . . . . . • . . . • . . • . . .. 4·16
Pressure Gauge (Magnehelic) . . .. .......... • ...• . .. •...•.. 4-2\
Rotating Vane Anemometer . .....................•• . .•... 4-22
Bridled Vane Anemometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . • .. 4-24
Deflecting Vane Anemometer ....•...••.......•........ •.. . 4-25
Hot Wire Anometer . . .. ... . . ..•... . ....• . ..• . ......•.. 4-27
Smoke Devices ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . • . .. 4-3\
HYDRONIC MEASURING EQUIPMENT . . . • . . . . . • . . • . . . . . . . • . . .. 4-31
U-Tube Manometer .............. . • .. .. . ...• . . . . .. . ... 4-32
Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . .. 4-33
Differential Pressure Gauge . ......... .. . . . .. . . .. ......... 4-34
Venturi Tube and Orifice Plate (Flow Devices) ....•. ... •.. . . . ... 4-36
Annubar Flow Indicator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . .. 4-38
Calibrated Balancing Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . .. 4-39
Location of Flow Devices . . . ............ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-40
TEMPERATURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS. . . . . .• . . . • . . . • . . . . . 4-42
Glass Tube Thermometers ......................•.. ... ... 4-42
Dial Thermometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . .. 4-44
Pyrometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . .. 4-45
HUMIDITY MEASURING DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-46
Psychometric Measurement Devices ... . . . . ... . ... . ..... . .... 4-46
Dry Bulb Thermometer. . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . .. 4-46
Wet Bulb Thermometer .. .......•........•... . ..... 4-46
Psychrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . .. 4-47
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HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
Dew Point .. ........... . .....•...•. . . . . . . . . • . . . • . .. 4·50
Wick·Type Dewcells .... . .. ••. .• . . ... . ... •. . . • . .. . 4·50
Capacitance Probe Dewcell ...... •... . .. •. .•.. .•..... 4·52
Chilled Mirror Dewcell ..... •.. . •.. .. . . •. ... . .•. . .. 4·53
ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES .. .. . . . .. . • ..•• . . . . .... . .. 4·54
Volt-Anuneter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . .. 4-54
Insulation Resistance Monitoring ..... .. ... . .......•... . .... 4-57
Two Fundamental Properties of Insulation . ....... • .. • ......... 4-57
Factors Affecting Insulation Resistance ... . ..... • ... •. .. ... ... 4-58
Measuring Insulation Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-58
Conditions for Measuring Insulation Resistance . .......... . ...... 4 ~ 5 9
Instruments ... .. .......................•........... 4·61
Testing Guidelines .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4·61
MINIMUM VALUES AND FREQUENCY OF INSULATION
RESISTANCE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . .. 4·64
Minimum Insulation Resistance Value ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • .. 4-64
Frequency of Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . • . . . . . . . • . . .. 4· 65
Interpretation of Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . 4-65
ROTATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ... ..... • •. . •.. . • ... • .. 4·67
Revolution Counter (Odometer) . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . .. 4-68
Tachometers. Centrifugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . . .. 4-68
Tachometer, Chronometric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-69
Tachometer, Electronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-70
Tachometer, Photo. . . . . . . . . . • • . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . .. 4-71
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT. . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . 4-72
Vibration Probe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 4·72
Measuring Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . • . . . . . . . • . . . .. 4-75
Measuring Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-77
Measuring Velocity .......... . ..•...... • ...•... • .. 4-77
GAUGE MANIFOLD ......... .. ..... • . . . .. ....... ........ . 4-77
Using the Gauge Manifold ....•........•..•... . .. . ... . . .. 4-78
Special Attaching Devices ... . . . .. ... . • ... • . . . . ....... • .. 4·82
SUMMARY ....... . ......... .. ... . ... . ... •.... .. ....•.. 4·83
HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
CHAPTER F1VE: SYSTEM TEST AND BALANCE PROCEDURES
INTRODUCTION 5-1
AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT IN DUCTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . .. 5-1
Air Flow Measurement of Diffusers .... ............. ... . .. ... 5-2
Air Flow Measurements of Supply Grilles and Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Use of Hoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-3
Air Flow Measurement of Return Grilles and Registers ... . ... . ...... 5-4
Testing of Motor Amperage .... . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . . . • . ....... 5-5
Measuring Static Pressures .. . . ..... ....... ...... .. ...... . , 5-5
Testing of Hot and Cold Mixing Dampers .....• ... • . .. . . . .. . . .. 5-5
Testing and Setting Static Pressure Dampers . . . . . . . • . . . • • . . . . . . .. 5-5
Testing of Face Velocities Across Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . .. 5-6
Conditions of System During Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • • . . . • . . .. 5-6
Setting of Outside Air and Return Air Volumes . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-7
Testing of Ceiling Plenum Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . .. 5-8
Testing of Air Shafts. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • .. 5-11
Procedure for Testing Air Shafts ..... • •....•....... • .. .. •... 5-12
Procedure for Testing Shaft Wall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . .. 5-13
Fume Hood Testing .. . .................... • ........... 5-14
Air Distribution Duct Leakage Test ...•. .. . •...•. . . •. . .• . ... 5-18
Methods and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . .. 5-18
Test Equipment ........... • . .... • ... •. ..•... • .. . 5-19
Field Test Procedure . .. . . ... • . . .. .... . ....• .. . • . .. 5-19
Test Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . • . .. 5-22
HYDRONIC SYSTEM TESTING . ..... .. . ; . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . .. 5-22
Balance Procedure - General . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • • . . . • . . . . . . .. 5-23
Chilled and/or Hot Water Systems ..... .... ... . . ..• .. . . ..... 5-26
Condenser Water/Cooling Tower Systems ....•..••... •. . . •.. .. 5-27
Steam and Hot Water Boilers ... ... . .... • ...••... •... •.... 5-29
Heat Exchangers/Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . .. 5-30
Balancing Data Required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . .. 5-31
Water Balance with Coil, Control Valve and Measuring Station .... . • . . 5-33
GPM ESTABLISHED THRU COIL ..... . ....... . .. . .. . .. ... . ... 5-35
Cabinet Unit Heaters . . ........... ..•....... . • . .. . •. ... 5-36
Fan Coil Unit and Unit Ventilator .. • ............ . .... . .. . .. 5-37
Unit Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . .. 5-38
Pumps ...... .. ............ • . .. . . ....•. . . ..... .... 5-39
Chiller ... . ........ ... . .... • ... •• ... . ... • ... . .. ... 5-40
Cooling Tower ...•......•. . . . .. . . •. . . . • . . . • ... . . .... 5-41
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HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
HEPA FILTERS ... ... ............. . ...••. . ... .. .• •...•.. 5-42
Problems in HEPA Filter Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . 5-42
HEPA Filter Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . .. 5-45
HEPA Filter Testing Problems ..... .. ..•. . ....•...•... • .. . 5-45
HEPA Filter Test Procedures . .. ...•... • . ......... . ...... . 5-46
Summary of Method . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • • . .. 5-46
Prerequisites for Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-47
Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . .. 5-47
CHARCOAL ADSORBER REQUIREMENTS AND TESTING ... ...•.... . 5-48
Charcoal Adsorber Test Procedures .. .... . ... . ... .... . . . .... 5-51
Purpose ... . ..............•...•..•. ..•.. .•.... 5-52
Summary of Method .. ....... . • ...•.. •. .. . . . .• . .. . 5-52
Prerequisites for Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-52
Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . • . . . • . . . . . . .. 5-53
SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER SIX: SOUND AND VIBRATION TESTING
INTRODUCTION
Sound .. . ... . .......... . . . ... . ....... • ...... • •... ..
Sound Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound Pressure Level .. ...... . ... . .... . .. ... ... .. . . . . . . .
Loudness and Frequency .. . ... . .... . ... . .......... . ..... .
NC Curves . . .... . .. .. .... . • ....... . .. . .. . • .. .•. .....
Architectural Acoustics ..... . .•... • ... • ... • .. . .... . ......
Reverberation Time . .. . . ... .. .. . ... . .... ... . ..... . .
Sound Trap Selection . .. . ... • ...•... . ... .... • .... ..
Sound Testing ...... . ........ ......•• .. • ..... . . • . . . . .
Sound Testing Specification ........ . . . . ..... ... . . .. . .
VIDRATION ........ . . . . . ........ .• .. . • • .. . . . . • . ..• .. ...
Vibration Testing ... .. ......... . ....... . ...... . •.. . ...
Vibration Testing Procedure . ... . . . . . . . .. . ... . . .. . ... .
Vibration and N o i ~ Identification .... . . . . .... ... ...... .. .. .
Analysis Procedure ................... .. . .. . ... .. .
Vibration and Noise Source Identification . .... ... . ... .. .. .
Noise Analysis .. .. .. . . ........... ...... .. .... .. .
Relative Probability Ratings ...... . . . . . ...... . ... • . .. ... ..
Application of the Chart ... • ..... ...• .... . .. . ... • . ..
SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-53
6-1
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-10
6-10
6-11
6-12
6-13
6-15
6-16
6-24
6-26
6-28
6-28
6-29
6-29
(
l
HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
CHAYfER SEVEN: MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING
INTRODUCTION ............... .. . . ... . .................. 7-1
SYSTEMATIC TROUBLESHOOTING TECHNIQUES ........ _ _ ... _ . . .. 7-2
TROUBLESHOOTING FANS . .......... . . . ... .. ... _ ... _ . .. _ • .. 7-3
Noise ........... ... ... .... ... . . . . .. .... . .. . ....... 7-4
Performance Reduction . ... . .. . .. . . .. . . ... . .. ... ..... . ... 7-4
Checking for Spin . . . . . . . . • • . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . • • . .. 7-5
Rotation .......................................... 7-18
TROUBLESHOOTING ABNORMAL AIR CONDITIONING OPERATIONS ... 7-20
High Head Pressure ... .. .... . .... ... .. . ........ . .. . ... 7-22
Dirty or Partially Blocked Condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Air or Noncondensable Gases in System .... . • .. . • • .. • . . . . 7-22
Overcharge of Refrigerant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • • . . . • . .. 7-24
Insufficient Condensing Medium . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . .. 7-25
High Temperature Condensing Medium .. .. • . . ... ... .. . .. 7-25
Restricted Discharge Line . . .... . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . • . .. 7-25
Low Suction Pressure .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • • .. 7-26
Insufficient Air on Evaporator Coil ... . . ...• ... • .. . .. .. . 7-26
Poor Distribution of Air on Evaporator Coil. . . • . . . . . . . • . . .. 7-27
Restricted Refrigerant Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . .. 7-27
Undercharge of Refrigerant .... ... . . ....• _ ..• _ .... _ .. 7-28
Faulty Metering Device . . . ... .•.. . ... . •....•. . .. • ... 7-28
Low Discharge Pressure ...........•... _ .... • .... . . _ • . .. 7-29
High Suction Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . • . .. 7-29
Heavy Load Conditions ....... .... ... • • ... • ...... . . 7-29
Low Superheat Adjustment . . . . .... .. ..•...•.... _ . . .. 7-30
Improper Expansion Valve Adjustment ........ _ • . . . . . . . .. 7-30
PoorInstallation of Feeler Bulb ..... . ............ . .... 7-30
Inefficient Compressor .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-31
High Discharge Pressure on Capillary Tube Systems . . .•... • .. 7-31
SUMMARY 7-32
," ..
(
CHAPTER ONE
BASIC LAWS AND APPLICATIONS
I .
CHAPTER ONE
BASIC LAWS AND APPLICATIONS
OBJECTIVES
At the completion of this chapter, the student will be able to:
1. State the primary objective of HV AC.
2. Explain the fan laws as they relate to fan performance.
3. Define static and velocity pressure.
4. Calculate duct capacity.
5. Explain how the fan laws are used to determine the affect of
various fan speeds.
6. Use the fan laws to determine fan speed.
7. Given a change in rpm, be able to determine the charge in
amperage for a motor.
8. Given a change in cfm, be able to determine a new pulley
setting.
9. Explain Pascal's Principle.
10. Explain Charles's Law.
11. Explain Gay-Lussac's Law.
12. Explain Boyle'S Law.
13. State the first law of thermodynamics.
14. State the second law of thermodynamics.
15. State the three ways heat can flow.
16. Explain the relationship of thermal resistance and thermal
conductance.
17. Given two points of information on a psychrometric chart, be
able to determine the other five.
CHAPTER ONE
BASIC LAWS AND APPLICATIONS
INTRODUCTION
The primary objective of Heating, Vent ilati on and Air Conditi oning
(HV AC) is to control the characteri stics of the air in a cont rolled
environment. This chapter introduces the characteristi cs and properti es of air
that affect HVAC system des ign and construction. These bas ics must be
comprehended in order to proceed effecti vely with the course.
The glossary in the back of the text provides an extensive listi ng of
HV AC terms and should be referred to as needed throughout thi s course.
Standard Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning symbols are located in
Appendix A.
BASIC AIR LAWS
The performance of air handl ing, transmi ssion and distribution systems
will follow certa·in establ ished laws whi ch make it possible to calculate the
expected perfor mance of an air movi ng system aft er adjustment or changes
wit hin the system have been made.
Tllese laws are the most commonly used 10 system design and
balancing and are li sted in Figure 1- 1.
1- 1
FAN PERFORMANCE:
a. CFM vari es in direct proportion to RPM.
or CFM =
b. SP varies as the square of the RPM.
SP,
RPM2
RPM, ,
or SP, = SP
j
x =
SP
j
RPM; RPM
j
SP
or
RPM,
= RPM x -'
SP
j
c. Hp varies as the cube of the RPM.
= RPMf3
RPM
or RPM, = RPM x
,
d. BHP varies as the cube of the CFM.
BHp
_-,-I = CFMf3
BHp;
Figure 1-1 Air Laws
1-2
CFMf3
CFM
j
e. CFM & RPM vari es as the square root of the pressure ratio.
or RPM - RPM x
- /
f. HP varies as the square root of the pressure ratio cubed.
HP -
/ -
g. CFM varies as the square of the fa n size ratio (at given SP &
rating).
h. RPM vari es as the square of the fa n size rat io (at given SP &
rating).
RPM = RPM x
Figure 1· 1 Air Laws (cont ' d.)
l·3
I. HP varies inversely as the fan size ratio (at given SP &
rating).
J. CFM varies as the size ratio cubed times the RPM ratio.
x
k. SP varies as the size ratio squared times the RPM ratio
squared.
x
RPM
f
2
RPM
I
1. Hp varies as the size ratio raised to the 5th power times the
RPM ratio cubed.
x
Figure 1-1 Air Laws (cant'd.)
1-4
DVCfED AIR FLOW:
),
'Y' " .-
/

iii '1':1 "-
a. Total Pressure TP. \\\iJ
TP = SP (Static Pressure)
.,)
fI' \
+ VP (Velocity Pressure)
b. Duct Capaci ty CFM.
CFM = Duct Velocity FPM x Duct Area A
c. CFM varies in direct proportion to duct FPM.
=
FPM
_----'- f or CFM =
FPM f
I
d. SP varies as the square of the duct CFM and FPM.
SP
f
=
CFM
f
2
=
FPM
f
2
SP
i
CFM
i
FPM
i
CFM
f
2 FPM
2
SP
f
SP
i
x SP
i
X
f
= =
CFM
i
FPM
I
Figure I-I Ai r Laws (cont'd.)
[-5
e. CFM vari es as the square root of the static pressure rati o.
CFM -
f -
f. CFM varies in di rect proportion to duct area A (at given velocity).
CFM -
f -
g. Duct FPM vari es as the square root of the static pressure rati o.
FPM -
f -
Figure 1-1 Air Laws (coned.)
1-6
: .j
"
. ,
1 I
I .
. .
h. The velocity indicated is for dry air at 70"F, 29.9" Barometric Press ure
and a resul ting density of .075#/cu. ft.
Air Velocit y =
where:
Air Dens ity
where:
Pv =
D =
T =
11096.2
Pv
D
velocity pressure in inches of water
Air dens ity in - leu. ft.
=
1.325 x PB
T
Barometric Pressure in inches of
mercury
Absolute Temperature (indicated
temperature plus 460)
Figure 1-1 Air Laws (cont'd.)
[ ·7
The three main fan laws are identical to the three "pump laws".
PumQ Fan
V a N CFM a RPM
Hp a N' SP a RPM'
P a N' BHP a RPM'
where: V = vol umetric fl ow rate
CFM = air flow rate
SP = stati c pressure
P = power
BHP
-
horsepower
The above relationships are extremely useful in determining the affect
that varyi ng fan speed has on overall fan performance.
Static pressure is the pressure exerted by reason of weight or existence
of fluid or gas confined within a space. Velocity pressure, commonly
referred to as impact pressure is pressure exerted by air moving through a
confined space and impinging on a stati onary object. The sum of stati c and
velocity pressures is total pressure which is defi ned as total air "pressure"
energy or energy of the air within the duct relating to atmospheric pressure.
This pressure energy results in air flow within a duct, and if duct s ize is
known (area), then total duct air flow may be determined. Static and velocity
pressures are measured in inches of water gauge or inches of mercury.
Mathemati cally, these pressure relationships are:
TP =
CFM =
SP + VP
Duct Velocity (FPM) x Duct Area
1-8
Duct velocit y in fee t per minute is determined using ve locit y pressure
and a conversion factor to convert inches of water gauge to feet per minute
and will be discussed in detail unde r air fl ow measurement.
PULLEY LAWS
Dri ve sets for fans and blowers cons ist of a dri ver pulley on the motor
s haft , a dri ven pu ll ey on the blower s haft , and a belt or set of matched belts
to tra nsmit the power. Pulley formu las are usually given in pulley di ameters;
for accuracy, they s hould be considered in actual pitch di ameters.
Fi gure 1-2 s hows an exampl e of a fully closed
shows the same s heave in the full y open posi tion.
SHEAVE FULLY CLOSED
Figure 1-2 Full y Closed Sheave
1-9
sheave. Fi gure 1-3
CORNERS
BREAK CORNERS
Figure 1-3 Fully Open Sheave
Figure 1-4 is an example of a multiple groove pulley with fully open
sheaves.
F Open ~ SeN 9 - 1) + 2S
e
1------ ( N
g
~ No. of Grooves) -----
S e - " ~ I ~ -
Figure 1-4 Multiple Groove Pulley with Fully Open Sheave
1-10
c,""
Section
14JOV
1930V
2S30V
32JOV
4430V
Table I-I gives dimensions for standard variable sheaves.
Table 1-1 Variable Sheave Groove Dimensions
b, b, h, 20
Closed
0","
Minimum
( I nches) (Inches) (Inches) (Inches)
0.875 !. 0.005 1.582 !. 0.005 1.758 0.20
LlSB ! 0,005 2.142! Q,()()5 2.]4 1 0.25
1.563 :!: 0.007 2.823 :!: 0.007 3.0:'18 0.30
2.000 ! 0.007 3.665 ! 0.007 3.855 0.35
2.750 ! 0.007 5.132 ! 0.007 5.258 0.40
The four basic pulley laws are :
rpm P,
rpm Pm
dia P,
dia Pm
where:
diaPmxrpm
dia P
r
dia P, X rpm
dia Pm
dia Pm X rpm
dia P, X rpm
P, fan pulley or driven sheave
2a.
( Inches)
2.64
3.56
4.74
6.21
8.89
Pm = motor pulley or driver sheave
1-11
S. Open
Minimum
( Inches)
0.882
1.163
1.501
[.954
2.687
S
Minimum
( Inches)
1.765
2.325
l003
3.908
5.375
Pulley Speed-O-Graph for rapid calculations of the pulley laws is
shown in Figure 1-5. Using this nomograph, the speed or size of either
pulley can be determined when the other three factors are known.
1. Enter the chart from any given factor and follow the straight grid
line to the point where it intersects, on the diagonal, the other
given factor.
2. Follow the diagonal line to the point where it meets the third
given factor.
3. From this point of intersection, move along the straight grid line
to the fourth side of the margin for the solution.
EXAMPLES:
Example 1: Given:
Diameter of Drive = 3 in.
DIAMETER OF DRIVEN = 12 in.
rpm of Driver = 5000
FIND: RPM OF DRIVEN
1-12
R I ' ~ 1 or: TIll; driull" ( dl
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ
-. N ~ ~ ~ ~
,
~ 0-. N ~ ~ ~ ~
,
~ .
9000
8000
7000
'0
6000
SO SOOO
<0 4000

~ JO
JOOO
u
c
.- 25
-.
20
2000
·u
-
<

"
,
...
<
-.
·u
Q
-
~
, 0 1000
,
~
e-
.. 0
~
,

~
8 800
~
0
,
0
~
7
700
~
~
e-
O
600
~
~
e-
'"
~
~
5
SOD
0
c
'"
,
<00 ~
~
J
JOO
2 ZOO
100
/l IMt ETER or TIlE DRIVeN (0) -inches
Figure 1-5 Speed-O-Graph: Pulley Laws
1-13
Example 2: Given:
Diameter of Drive = 30 in.
DIAMETER OF DRIVEN = 4 in.
RPM OF DRIVER = 3750
FIND: rpm of Driver
Example 3: Given:
rpm of Driver = 1000
RPM OF DRIVER = 5000
Diameter of Driver = 10 in.
FIND: DIAMETER OF DRIVEN
1-14
I .
I
Example 4: Given:
rpm of Driver = 2500
RPM OF DRIVEN = 5000
FIND: Diameter of Driver
FINDING RPM INCREASE OR DECREASE BY AMPERAGE
To determine the percent of rpm increase or decrease by reading the
ammeter, the following formula applies:
rpm23
( )
Example:
A fan is turning 600 rpm and reading 20 amps. To deliver the proper
cfm it is necessary to increase the fan speed to 700 rpm. Find the new
amperage.
20 x ( 700)3 = 200 x 1.588 = 31.75 amps2
600
I-IS
Table 1-2 gives calculated data for thi s equat ion. Us ing the above
example, the increase in speed is 100 rpm; th is is an increase of 100/600 or
16.66%. By interpolati on the table shows that the original amps would have
to be mult iplied by 1.588, or 20 x 1588 = 31.75 amps.
Table 1-2 Rpm Increase/Decrease
(To determine the required change in fang speed multiply the measured amps by the given faclor )
% RPM Mult ipl y Amps % RPM Multi ply Amps
Increase By: Decrease By:
1 I
2 1. 06 2 0.94
3 1.09
,
0.92 J
4 1.13 4 0.88
5 1.16 5 0.86
6 1.19 6 0.83
7 1.23 7 0.80
8 1.26 8 0.78
9 1.33 9 0.75
to 1.33 to 0.73
11 l.37 II 0.70
12 1.40 12 0.68
13 1.44 13 0.66
14 1.48 14 0.64
15 1.52 15 0.61
16 1.56 16 0.59
17 1.60 17 0.57
18 1.64 18 0.55
19 1.69 19 0.53
20 1.73 20 0.5 1
21 1.77 21 0.49
22 1. 82 22 0.47
"
_J
1. 86 23 0.45
24 1.90 24 0.44
,-
- ) 1.95 25 0.42
30 2.20 30 0.34
35 2.46 35 0.28
40 2.75 40 0.22
45 3.05 45 O.t 7
50 3.38 50 0.12
1-16
1. Given a change in cfm, find the new pulley setting.
=
Example:
(
Cfm2) d
X P 1
cfml
Determine the new pitch diameter for 4000 frm when a fan output is
3500 cfm at a 10 in. pitch diameter.
10 = 11.43 In.
2. Given an increase in cfm, wi ll the new brake horsepower
l-17
Example:
Determine the new brake horsepower required to increase the cfm from
5000 to 5500 when the bhp is 0. 8 and the motor is rated at 1 hp.
= 1.06
Therefore, the motor needs to be changed to 1-1/2 hp.
3. Given a maximum brake horsepower, find the new pitch diameter
required to change from an ex isting pitch diameter.
3[j rnax bhP
2
y( bh )
PI
Example:
Determine the new pitch di ameter to bring a 1 hp motor up to
maximum when the present pd is 10 in. and bhp is 0. 8.
10 3jI.25 X 10 = 1.077 X 10 10.77pd
where:
pd = pitch diameter
bhp = brake horsepower
cfm = air quantity at the fan
1-18
PERFECT GAS LAWS
Pascal's Principle.
Pascal's Principle is defined as follows: "Fluid pressure is due to the
weight of the fluid pushing on an area. [t is normally measured in pounds
per square inch. If it is referenced to atmospheric pressure, it is psig.
Pressures below atmospher ic are measured in inches of mercury (in Hg). If
the reference point for pressures is below atmospheric it is a vacuum, then
the un its are in psia or in Hg abs.
The expansion and contracti on of solids and liquids wi th change in
temperature are enough that they must be considered in many si tuati ons. But
they are comparatively small, for the molecules of the solids and liquids are
held rather closely and not all owed to fly off by themselves. [n gases, the
expansion and contraction with change of temperature are very large
compared to those of solids and liquids. [n addition, the volume of the gas
varies with the container. A gas automatically fill s any container that it is
put into, regardless of whether the container is small or large.
Nei ther a liqu id nor a solid does this. A container for solids or li quids
can be partly filled, but a gas contai ner is always full.
Charles's Law
Pressure Var ies Directly with Absolute Temperature if Volume Stays the
Same
Because a gas adapts itself to its container, regardless of container size
or the amount of gas in the container, another factor is introduced -- pressure.
If the container is already filled, then a rise in temperature cannot cause an
increase in volume, but it does resul t in an increase in the pressure of the gas
against the inner wall s of the cyl inder.
1- 19
This change in pressure with a change in temperature can be easil y
calcu lat ed as long as the volume stays the same. The calcu lati on is very
simpl e: Gas pressure goes up at the same rate as the temperature. If the
temperature rises 25% or 1/4, the pressure goes up 1/4. [f the gas cools
down to 2/3 its temperature, the pressure does down to 2/3 of what it was.
Years ago, a scient ist named Charl es discovered thi s principl e, so it is called
"Char les' Law
rl

Charl es' Law says that if the volume remains the same,
pressure of a gas varies as the absolute temperature vari es.
illustrates Charl es' Law.
1 CU.FT.
70'F
700.0 PSIG
714.7PSIA
1 CU.FT.
gOT
727.0PSIG
741.7PSIA
Figure 1-6 Ill ustration of Charles ' Law
1-20
the absol ute
Fi gure 1-6
Gay-Lussac's Law
Vo lume Vari es Directly with Absolute Temperature if Pressure Stays the
.' Same
,
Now suppose that instead of having the gas in a steel cylinder that
keeps the gas from expanding, the gas is in a cylinder that has a loose bottom
that can slide up and down j ust like a piston in a compressor. If the gas in
the cyl inder is warmed, it can expand and push the piston downward, but the
pressure ins ide the cylinder remains the same, because the piston would
merely slide downward if the pressure inside the cylinder tended to become
greater than that outside the cylinder and below the piston.
Now we have a conditi on of the volume changing with change of
temperature, but the pressure re maining constant. This principle, known as
Gay-Lussac's Law, states that the volume changes with the change in
temperature. Figure 1-7 illustrates thi s principle.
700 PSIG
700 PSIG
707.dF
gOT
1 CU. FT.
1. 0 4 CU.FT.
Figure 1-7 Ill ustrat ion of Gay-Lussac's Law
1-21
Boyle' s Law
Pressure Varies Inversely with Volume if the Temperature Stays the Same
There is a thi rd condition: What happens to the pressure if the vol ume
changes but the temperature stays the same?
In the two previous conditi ons, the proporti on was direct; that is, the
pressure and volume went up as the temperature went up and down as the
te mperat ure went down.
In thi s third condi ti on, the temperature remains constant, and the
pressure goes down as the volume goes up, or vice versa, the pressure goes
up as the volume goes down. This relationship is called an inverse
proport ion, known as Boyle's Law.
For example, Figure 1-8 shows a cylinder with a loose piston. In the
piston shown in Figure 1-8(a), the volume of the cyli nder above the piston
is one cubic foot and the pressure is 20 psig or 34.7 psia. In Fi gure 1-8(b),
the piston has been slowly lowered twice as far, so now the volume is two
cubic feet. What happens to the pressure? It goes down in the same
proporti on as the volume went up.
70T
1 cu. FT.
3 4.7 PSI A
70T
2 cU.n.
17.35 P\$lA
Figure 1-8 Illustration of Boyle's Law
1-22
Effects of Changing Temperature, Pressure, and Volume at Same Time
[n Charles' Law, the volume remains constant and the pressure varies
with a change of temperature.
[n Gay-Lussac's Law, the pressure remains constant and volume varies
with change of temperature. [n Boyle's Law, the temperature remains
constant and the pressure varies with change in volume. All three of these
laws help us understand how pressures, volumes, and temperatures change in
containers of gas. In each of these three laws, one of the variables remains
constant: The pressure, the volume, or the temperature.
However, gases are not always so considerate: Pressure, volume and
temperature may change at the same time with none of them remaining
constant. Therefore, combination of these laws must be used, namely the
general law of perfect gases. Figure 1-9 shows an actual case where
pressure, temperature, and volume have changed.
70·F
1 CU.FT.
, .014.7 PSIA
@
40·F
2 CU.FT.
478.6 PSIA
@
Figure 1-9 lllustration of Temperature, Volume,
and Pressure Variations
1-23
HEAT TRANSFER
Conservation Of Energy
Chemical energy in coal can be changed into heat energy in steam.
Heat energy in steam is changed into mechanical energy in a turbine and then
into elect ri cal energy in a generator. Electri cal energy can then be changed
back into heat energy in a toaster, to mechanical energy in a motor, or to
chemical energy in a storage battery. In thi s example, all of the elect rical
energy in the motor did not go into mechani cal energy. Some of it was
"lost" as heat. We say "lost" , because we did not get any use out of the heat
of the motor. Actuall y it was not "lost", for the heat was energy, transformed
from electrical energy.
Energy cannot be destroyed nor created. It can merely be transformed
to or from some ot her kind of energy. This principle is known as the Law
of Conservati on of Energy, also known as the first Law of Thermodynami cs.
It is well to remember it, for it explains many things.
For exampl e, the Law explai ns efficiency. In changi ng the elect ri cal
energy in the motor, some went into mechanical energy (or power) and some
into heat. The efficiency is the percentage of the electri city that becomes
power. The mechanical energy (t he output energy) determines the effi ciency.
If three-fourths of the electrical energy became mechanical energy, then the
efficiency is 75%.
In a good boiler, over one-t hird of the heat energy in the coal burned
goes up the chimney or is radiated from the boiler; about two- thirds goes into
heat energy in the steam, so the effi ciency is about 60% to 65%. Efficiency
is the useful output energy from a machine, divi ded by the input energy to
the machine, and expressed as a percentage.
1-24
The speed with which heat transfers by means of conduction varies
with different substances or materials if the substances or materials are of the
same dimensions. The rate of heat transfer varies according to the ability of
the materials or substances to conduct heat. Solids, on the whole, are much
better conductors than liquids; liquids conduct heat better than gases or
vapors.
Most metals, such as silver, copper, steel, and iron, conduct heat fairly
rapidly, whereas other solids such as glass, wood, or other building materials
transfer heat at a much slower rate and, therefore, are used as insulators.
Copper is an excellent conductor of heat, as is aluminum. These
substances are ordinarily used in the evaporators, condensers, and refrigerant
pipes connecting the various components of a refrigerant system although
iron is occasionally
used with some refrigerants.
Heat transfer by conduction depends upon (1) the driving force, which
is caused by a temperature difference Il.T, and (2) the resistance to heat
transfer, which depends on the nature and dimensions of the heat transfer
medium. There are several ways to relate these parameters. One of the most
useful relates the rate of heat transfer Q to the cross-sectional area A, the
temperature difference Il. T and a quantity called the heat transfer coefficient
U.
Q =UMT
where: Q = rate of heat transfer (Btu/hr)
U = heat transfer coefficient (Btu/hr-ft
2
_OF)
A = cross-sectional area for heat transfer (ft2)
Il.T = temperature difference CF)
1-26
The rate of heat transfer Q divided by the cross-sectional area A is
commonly referred to as the heat flux. The heat transfer coefficient U is
equivalent to the reciprocal of resistance to heat transfer. The temperature
difference l>T is the driving force.
where
Heat Flux =
Q = l>T
A 1
U
Driving Force
Resistance
Q = heat flux (Btu/hr-ft')
A
l>T - temperature difference ("F)
U = heat transfer coefficient (Btu/hr-ft' -' F)
The heat transfer coefficient U is a measure of the resistance of the
medium to heat transfer. It depends on both the heat transfer characteristics
and the dimensions of the heat transfer medium. The heat transfer
characteristics of a material are measured by a property called the thermal
conductivity k. The thermal conductivity of liquids and solids depends on
temperature. For vapors, it depends also on pressure. Table 1-3 gives the
thermal conductivity for zirconium, aluminum and water at several
temperatures.
1-27
Table 1-3 Thermal Conductivity of Common Materials
Material Thermal Conductivity Temperature
(BtulHr- Ft-OF) (OF)
Zirconium 12.1 120
11.8 200
11.5 300
11.0 500
11.6 750
Aluminum 132 68
131 390
131 750
Water 0.343 32
0.393 200
0.4 300
0.356 600
The heat transfer coefficient U depends also on the dimensi ons of the
heat transfer medium. For the si mplest case of steady-state heat transfer by
conduction through a slab, the temperature profile is linear and the heat
transfer coefficient U equals the thermal conductivity k divided by the
thickness of the slab x. Thus, the basic relationship for heat transfer by
conduction through a slab can be written as follows:
Q = kA t.T
x
where: Q
=
rate of heat transfer (Btu/hr)
k =
thermal conductivity (Btu/hr-ft-OF)
A =
cross-sectional area for heat transfer (ft')
x =
thickness of slab (ft)
t.T =
temperature difference COF)
1-28
Metals with a high conductivity are used in the refr igeration system
itself because it is des irable that rapi d transfer of heat occur in both
evaporator and condenser. The evaporator is where heat is removed from the
conditioned space or substance or from air that has been in direct contact
with the substance; the condenser dissipates thi s heat to another medium or
space.
Convection
In convecti on, heat is transferred by motion of the heated material itself
and is limited to liquid or gas. When a materi al is heated, convecti on
cur rents are set up within it. The warmer port ions ri se, s ince heat brings
about the decrease of a fluid 's densi ty and an increase in its specific volume.
Figure 1-10 shows a generali zed diagram of heat transfer by
convection. It involves the transfer of heat between a surface at temperature
T, and a fl ui d at temperature T" referred to as the bulk temperature of the
flui d. The exact definit ion of the temperature of the flui d T, is the
temperature fa r from the surface. For boiling or condensati on, T, is the
saturati on temperature.
'!-<;..-- SURFACE
t
FLOW
Figure 1-10 Heal Transfer by Convection
1-29
The basic relationship for heat transfer by convection has the same
form as that for heat transfer by conduction.
where
Q
h
A
t.T
=
=
=
=
Q = hN.T
rate of heat transfer (Btu/hr)
heat transfer coefficient (Btu/hr-ft2_0F)
cross-sectional area for heat transfer (ft')
temperature difference ("F)
The heat transfer coefficient h, more precisely referred to as the
convective heat transfer coefficient, has been measured and tabulated for the
commonly encountered situations for heat transfer by convection. Table 1-4
shows representative values of the convection heat transfer coefficient h.
Table 1-4 Representative Values of the convective
Heat Transfer Coefficient
Operation Heat Transfer Coefficient
(Btu/hr-ft
2
- OF)
Drop-wise condensation of Steam 5000 - 20,000
Film condensation . 1000 - 3000
Boiling of water 300 - 9000
Heating of water 50
- 3000
Superheating of steam 5 - 20
The temperature difference t. T in heat transfer by convection is the
difference between the temperature of the surface T, and the bulk temperature
of the fluid T
b
.
1-30
Ai r in a refri gerator and wa ter being heated in a pan are examples of
the resu lts of convection currents (see Figure 1- 11). The air in contact wi th
the cool ing coi l of a refri gerator becomes cool and more dense and begins to
fa ll to the bottom of the refri gerator. [n doing so, it absor bs heat from the
food and the walls of the refri gerator, which through conduction, has picked
up heat from the room .
............
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. ':::: :::;:;;; ..: .. ;:;;".' .
. :.;.:.;.;.;.:.;.;.;.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.;.:.;.:.:
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,/:::::::::::::,:i
................. . .... ... .................. .............................. .
... ..... .......... ........................... . .......... , ... .
...... .............. . ............. .............................. - .............. ,
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.. ...............
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.... ...........
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. ............... ..... .".':: ..... :::::: ...";; ........... . .
..... ... .......... . ...................... . .
. . . . . .. . ............................ ::. ':. ''-:. '. ''-: ..... '.'.-::: ...... :. ': .. : .
. .......................................................... .
.................................................
. :: .... :::. ' .. :::. ' .. :: .... ::. ':. ' .. :. '. '. ;'. '. '. '. , ': .. :: ...... ::. ; '. '.-. '. ''':.':. '. ':::.; '::.
Figure 1-11 Convect ion Currents
1-3 1
After heat has been absorbed by the air, it expands, becoming lighter,
and rises until it again reaches the cooling coil where heat is removed from
it. The convection cycle repeats as long as there is a temperature difference
between the air and the coil. [n commercial-type units, baffles may be
constructed within the box so that the convection currents will be directed to
take the desired patterns of air flow around the coil.
[n the case of the evaporator, the product or a ir is at a higher
temperature than the refrigerant in the tubing and there is a transfer of heat
downhill. In the condenser, the refrigerant vapor is at a higher temperature
than the cooling medium traveling through or around the condenser, and here
again there is a downhill transfer of heat.
Plain tubing, whether copper, aluminum, or another metal, transfers heat
according to its conductivity or "k" factor, but this heat transfer can be
increased through the addition of fins on the tubing. They increase the area
of heat transfer surface, thereby increasing the overall efficiency of the
system. [f the addition of fins doubles the surface area, it can be shown that
the overall heat transfer should itself be doubled, when compared to that of
plain tubing.
Water heated in a pan is affected by the convection currents set up in
it through the application of heat. The water nearest the heat source becomes
warmer and expands. As it becomes lighter, it rises and is replaced by the
other water which is cooler and more dense. This process continues until all
of the water is at the same temperature.
Convection currents are natural, and, as in the case of the refrigerator,
a natural flow is a slow flow. [n some cases, convection must be increased
through the use of fans or blowers. [n the case of liquids, pumps are used
for forced circulation to transfer heat from one place to another.
1- 32
A third means of heat transfer is through radiation by waves similar to
light or sound waves. The sun' s rays heat the earth by means of radiant heat
waves which travel in a straight path without heating the intervening matter
of air. The heat from a light bulb or from a hot stove is radiant in nature and
is felt by those near them, although the air between the source and the object,
which the rays pass through, is not heated.
If you have been relaxing in the shade of a building or a tree on a hot
sunny day and move into direct sunlight, the direct impact of the heat waves
will hit like a sledge hammer even though the air temperature in the shade
is approximately the same as the sunlight.
At low temperatures, there is only a small amount of radiation and only
minor temperature differences are noticed, so radiation has very little effect
in the actual process of refrigeration itself. But the results of radiation from
direct solar rays can cause an increased refrigeration load in a building in the
path of these rays.
Radiant heat is readily absorbed by dark or dull materials or substances,
while light colored surfaces or materials reflect radiant heat waves, just as
they do light rays. Wearing apparel designers and manufacturers make use
of this by supplying light-colored
materials for summer clothes.
This principle is also carried over into the summer air-conditioning field
where, with light colored roofs and walls, less of the solar heat will penetrate
into the conditioned space, reducing the size of the overall cooling equipment
will be absorbed by translucent or opaque glass.
When radiant heat or energy is absorbed by a material or substance, it
is converted into sensible heat - that which can be felt or measured. Every
body or substance absorbs radiant energy to some extent, depending upon the
temperature difference between the specific body or substance and other
1-33
substances. Every substance will radiate energy as long as its temperature
is above absolute zero and another substance within its proximity is at a
lower temperature.
If an automobile has been left out in the hot sun with the windows
closed for a long period of time, the temperature inside the car will be much
greater than the ambient air temperature surrounding it. This demonstrates
that radiant energy absorbed by the materials of which the car is constructed
is converted to measurable sensible heat.
Insulation
In the section on heat transfer by conduction, it was pointed out that
certain substances are excellent conductors of heat, while others are poor
conductors. The poor conductors are classified as insulators. Any mater ial
that deters or helps to prevent the transfer of heat by any means is called and
may be used as insulation. Of course, no material will completely stop the
flow of heat. If there were such a substance, it would be very easy to cool
a given space down to a desired temperature and keep it there.
Such substances as cork, glass fibers, wool, and polyurethane foams are
good examples of insulating materi als; but numerous other substances are
used in insulating refrigerated spaces or buildings. The compressible
materials, such as fibrous substances, offer better insulation if installed
loosely packed or in blanket or batt form than if they are compressed .or
tightly packed.
The thermal conductivity of materials, the temperature to be maintained
in the refrigerated space, the ambient temperature surrounding the enclosed
space, permissible wall thicknesses of insulating materi als, and the cost of the
various types of insulation are all points to consider in selecting the proper
materials for a given project. Most service personnel are not involved in the
select ion or the installati on of insulating materi al in a refrigerati on
application, but they may come in contact with different types of insulati on,
and under var ious condit ions.
1-34
Insulation should be fire and moisture resistant, and also vermin proof.
Large refrigeration boxes or walk-in types of coolers are usually insulated
with a rigid-type of insulation such as corkboard, fiber glass, foam blocks,
and the like, while smaller boxes or receptacles might be filled or insulated
with a foam that flows like a liquid and expands to fill up the available
cavity with foam.
Low temperature boxes require an insulation that is vapor-resistant,
such as unicellular foam, if the walls of the refrigerated enclosure are not
made of metal on the outside. This foam ensures that water vapor will not
readily penetrate through into the insulation and condense there, reducing the
insulating efficiency. The most common unit for evaluating insulation
materials is thermal resistance (R) or resistance to heat flow. Basically
thermal resistance "R" is the inverse of thermal conductance "k". R = 11k.
The units for "R" are (hr)x(ft") x ("F).
BTU x in
Psychrometric PROPERTIES OF AIR
Psychrometry is the science and practice of dealing with air mixtures
and their control. The science deals mainly with dry air and water vapor
mixtures.
Psychrometry deals with the specific heat of dry air and its volume.
It also deals with the heat of water, heat of vaporization or condensation, al)d
the specific heat of steam in reference to moisture mixed with dry air.
Tables and graphs have been developed to show the pressure,
temperature, heat content (enthalpy), and volume of air and its steam content.
The tables and charts are based on one pound of dry air, plus the water vapor
to produce the air conditions being studied.
1-35
A standard pressure of 29.92 m. Hg. abs. IS used as the standard
atmospheric pressure.
Psychrometric Chart
The psychrometric chart in Figure 1-12 is probably the best way of
showing what happens to air and water vapor as these properties are changed.
The chart is published by ASHRAE and is one most commonly used in the
industry. Some manufacturers have developed their own charts which vary
only in style and construction but the relationship of the air properties are all
the same.
..

/
.I
" ' I "" ' ;' , "',' "I
" " r
'." ... , .. . , .... ,... .. [
." i
d
,t "
..
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ffi'''ffi' lfll l'' ' I I.
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; to
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.
••. . . , "
,." .. .. ... - , ... .... . __ . -.-.
. _-_ ..... __ .•.
"'--' -' -" ' -
Figure 1-12 Psychrometric Chart
1-36
To make this chart, all we do is start with the ordinary temperature
scale called the dry bulb temperature. Just extend the thermometer scale as
shown in Figure 1-13. Note on the actual chart that these lines are not truly
perpendicular. This is done so that other lines will come out straight instead
of curved.
'"

::J
'"
>-
a:
0
"-
,
8
-
.

Figure 1-13 Thermometer Scale
Next the horizontal scale is set up according to the amount of water
vapor mixed with each pound of dry air. This scale (Figure 1-14), called the
humidity ratio, is expressed in pounds of moisture per pound of dry air.
in units of grains of moisture per pound of dry air. To convert pounds of
moisture to grains of moisture simply multiply the reading in pounds by a
conversion factor of 7000. We know that air can hold different amounts of
moisture depending on its temperature; if it is holding all the moisture it can
(100%), it is termed saturated.
1-37
(
-------------j 0.030
-------------40.015
- ____________ ...-....J 0.002
Figure 1-14 Humidity Ratio Scale
o
z
:::>
o
-0..
;:0:
W
00..0:
- -
>-W«
«0:)-
CI:::J0:
)->-0
>-'C'
- o ~
~ : 2 0
:2V1
:::>0
IZ
:::>
2
From the ASHRAE Guide and Data Book we can find out exactly how
much moisture air can hold at saturated conditions. Following is a simple
table taken from this reference book:
SAlURATEO HUMIDITY RA 110 HUMIDITY RA 110
TEMPERA lURE Lb/lb OF Gr/lb OF
t DB DRY AIR DRY AIR
70' 0.01582 110.74
7Z' 0.01697 118. 79
75' 0.01882 131.74
78' 0.02086 146.02
80' 0.02233 156.31
82' 0.02389 167.23
85' 0.02642 184.94
Returning to the psychrometric chart construction. we can now plot
saturation points (Figure 1-15) for each condition of dry bulb temperature,
and when these are connected they form a curve or saturation line.
1-38
~
- -- - - - - --- 0.02642 0
>-
--- - --- --- 0.01882 ~
>-
---------- 0.01582 ~
a
~
::>
r
70 75 85
DRY BULB of
Figure 1·15 Saturation Points
Assume an air sample (point A, Figure 1-16) with a dry bulb
temperature of 80°F, holding 77.0 gr of moisture. If we were to heat the air
without adding moisture, the point would move to the right on the horizontal
line, showing an increasing dry bulb temperature but an unchanging moisture
content.
HUMIQIF Y
,
' A
COOl --', '-- HEAT 17. 0
DEHUMIDIFY
81) FD8
Figure 1·16 Air Sample
1-39
If we were to add moisture (humidity) without changing the dry bulb
temperature, the point would move vertically up. If the moisture were
reduced (dehumidifying), it would move vertically down. If temperature and
moisture were added, the point would move up and to the right, and if the air
were cooled (without changing its moisture content), the point would move
horizontally to the left.
Continuing the example, if the air sample is cooled, it eventually
reaches the saturation line (Point B, Figure 1-17) where it cannot hold any
more water vapor, and on further cooling some water would start to
condense. That temperature is just below 60"F, or about 59.7"F. This is
known as the dew point temperature of the sample. It can be read from the
vertical dry bulb index temperature. In summary, at point B, we have a
59.7"F dry bulb temperature, a 59.7"F dew point temperature, and a moisture
content of 77.0 gr of moisture per lb of dry air.
DEW POINT
TEMP.
,
B COOLED A
59. 7 so
~ F DB
Figure 1-17 Saturation Line
Now if the sample is further cooled, for example to 50"F dry bulb,
moisture will condense out and following along the saturation line to point
C (Figure 1-18), where it will have a dew point of 50"F and a humidity ratio
of only 53.2. Thus, the sample has lost 23.8 gr of moisture. It has been
cooled and dehumidified.
1-40
50" 59.7· 80"
~ F DB
77,0
53, 2
Figure 1-18 Saturation Line
A practical example of this process is a cold supply air duct (Figure
1-19) running through a moist unconditioned area. Will the duct sweat and
need to be insulated? Assume the air temperature inside the duct is 55°F and
the unconditioned air surrounding the duct is at 95°F with 99.4 gr of moisture
content. This condition means that the outside air would have a saturated
(dew point) temperature of 67°F. Thus, as the 55°F duct temperature cools
the air touching its surface to below the 6rF dew point, condensation will
likely occur. Depending on conditions, it will be necessary to take some
corrective action using appropriate insulation to prevent sweating.
DUCT
TE. MP
~ S F

•••
• •

CONOENSATION
WILL OCCUR
UNCONQITIONEO
,-- AIR AROUNQ
DUCT AT 9S·'F
ANO 99,4
'.
z
a
~ - .... -.- 99.4 ........
<"
, ~ 0
I z ~
I • •
_ __ ..... - - - _ - _ 64.4 ~ a:
a
u
9S'F
Figure 1-19 Cold Supply Air Duct
1-41
The next element in our chart is the construction of relative humidity
lines for partly saturated conditions (Figure 1-20). We know the relative
humidity is 100% at the saturation line. Lines for 80%, 60%, 40%, etc., can
be plotted, since we know specific moisture contents in relation to
temperatures. As an example, one pound of air at 75°F dry bulb will hold
131.74 gr of moisture (point A) at saturation (100% relative humidity). Point
B (50% relative humidity) can be located at approximately 65.87 gr moisture
(1/2 of 131.74 gr). The same method can be used for each dry-bulb
temperature, and eventually a connecting line is drawn that represents a 50%
relative humidity for any chosen condition of a dry-bulb temperature. Similar
lines can be drawn for different relative humidity conditions. We already
know how useful it is to be able to express relative humidity, since it affects
human comfort.
7S' F DB
Figure 1,20 Relative Humidity Lines
Unfortunately, it's not practical or convenient to measure the amount
of moisture content or dew point of the air except under laboratory
conditions, so we need to plot another element that will give us an easier
method. It has been noted that the wet bulb temperature also reflects the
1-42
amount of moisture in the air. The rate of evaporation on the sling
psychrometer determined the wet bulb depression below the dry bulb
temperature or the wet bulb temperature and from Table 1-5, we can
determine the relative humidity.
For example, Table 1-5 showed that for an 800 dry bulb temperature
and an 11
0
wet bulb depression (69"F actual measured WB), the relat ive
humidity is 57%. Transferring this information to our psychrometric chart,
we can plot point A (Figure 1-21).
Table 1-5 Psychrometric table: Percent Relative Humidity
from Dry Bulb Temperature and Wet Bulb Depression
.... , D',,,,, ..
" ... ,.
, , , , ,

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, 10 II 11 !J
"
J} t'l7 II
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90 19 ,9 60
ro "
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1-43
75
69° WB
60 -(
50
-'
/
.
.'
,
,
-,
,
,
"
'-{
50 60 70 76 80
of DB
Figure 1-21 Constant Wet Bulb
If we were to cool the dry bulb temperature to 76° and the wet bulb
temperature actually stayed at 69" on the sling psychrometer, we now have
a WB (wet bulb) depression of only 7"F, and, from Table 1-5, a relative
humidity of 70%. Point B can now be located. By connecting points A and
B, we create a constant wet bulb line. This process could be repeated over
and over until a complete grid of wet bulb lines fill the chart. Wet bulb
temperature is read at saturation temperature line, because at that point it can
hold no more moisture and becomes the same as the dry bulb and dew point
temperatures.
This completes the construction of the simplified psychrometric chart
(Figure 1-22). Although it is not 100% accurate, this description should help
you understand the relationship of the lines on the real chart. Fortunately,
precise and accurate information has gone into the construction of the
ASHRAE chart, and it may be used with confidence. Remember, if any two
of the five properties of air are known, the other three can be found on the
psychrometric chart by locating the point of intersection of the lines
representing the two known conditions.
1-44
SUMMARY
en
>--'
CI::;)
Oen
HUMIDITY
Figure 1-22 Simplified Psychrometric Chart
In this chapter, we learned that the primary objective of HV AC is to
control the characteristics of air in a controlled environment. In
understanding those characteristics, we learned about the laws that govern
those characteristics.
We looked at the Basic Air Laws which tells us about how fans
perform under varying conditions and how that effects the flow of air through
ductwork. We next discussed the Pulley Laws and their use in determining
air flow and power consumption. After learning about the Pulley Laws, we
went in to the discussion of the Gas Laws: Charles, Boyles, Gay-Lussac and
how that are put together to come up with the perfect gas law which is used
to understand how pressure, temperature and volume effect a gas. We briefly
discussed Pascal's Principle, which explains how a liquid acts under pressure.
1-45
· .
We learned the first and second law of thermodynamics and how they
relate to heat transfer. The three methods of heat transfer are conduction,
convection and radiation. The last topic discussed was the psychrometric
properties of air and how those properties are used to make the psychrometric
chart, which we use for determining relative humidity and dewpoint. This
is used to give you the necessary background to understand the following
chapters.
1-46
CHAPTER TWO
HV AC SYSTEMS
CHAPTER TWO
HV AC SYSTEMS
OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this chapter, the student will be able to:
I. State the three main environmental characteristics that are controlled
in an HV AC system.
2. List the ways a hydronic system may be classified.
3. State the purpose of filters in an HVAC system.
4. Describe the various filter types.
CHAPTER TWO
: HVAC SYSTEMS
I'
i INTRODUCTION
r
,
There are many different types of HV AC systems. The purpose of this
chapter is to introduce you, the student, to these systems. We will be studying the
overall construction and use of these systems. In the following chapter, we will
study how each component is sued in the system as a whole. We will be discuss-
ing the following topics:
Purpose of HV AC
Air Systems
Filtration Systems
Hydronic Systems
PURPOSE OF HVAC
The purpose of HV AC is the control of an enclosed environment. The three
main environmental characteristics that are controlled are:
• Temperature
• Humidity
• Suspended particulates (dust and gas)
{ . Temperature
Controlling the temperature of an environment involves the transfer of heat
from one area to another. Increasing or decreasing the temperature of the
environment can be accomplished by any of several methods. We will talk about
some of these methods later in this chapter.
Humidity
The amount of water vapor contained in air is measured by relative
humidity. Relative humidity is a ratio of how much water vapor is in the air to
how much the air can hold at a specific temperature and it is expressed as a
percentage. The lower the relative humidity, the more tendency the air has to
2-1
draw water from existing sources. When cold air is heated, its ability to hold
additi onal water is increased. For thi s reason when providing a HV AC system for
personnel, a humidifier is typically provided in conjunction with heaters to control
the humidity in the designed range.
Suspended Particulates (Dust and Gases)
The final characteristic which is generally included in HV AC system design
consi deration is the cleaning of the air. This is accomplished through ventilation
and filtrati on. Dust, gases and odors are unsatisfactory elements in environmental
air, and as such they must be cont rolled. We will talk about some of the methods
to control suspended particulates later in this chapter.
AIR SYSTEMS
There are many different types of air systems used to deliver the conditioned
air to the areas or spaces requiring it. The single and dual duct systems are the
two basic types of air duct systems that are used for distribution of conditioned air.
The single duct system supplies air to each area at a constant ·temperature.
Temperature control is obtai ned by adjusting the volume of the supply air
furnished. The dual duct system provides warm and cool air in separate ducts .
Individual room or area temperature control is obtained by adjusting the amount
or ratio of warm and cool air being mixed and introduced to the environment.
The advantages of each system must be considered when selecting basic
design. The single duct system is obviously less expensive to install. However,
an evaluation of the operating costs should be made.
Efficiency of operation in the dual duct system often provides a cheaper
overall cost. The systems we will discuss are:
• Single Zone
Vari able Air Volume
Terminal Reheat
Inducti on System
Dual Duct
• Low
• High
• Multi zone
2-2
, "
Single Zone System
The simplest form of a single zone system is a single conditioner serving a
single temperature controlled zone. A single zone system responds to only one set
of space conditions. Its use is limited to situations where variations occur almost
uniformly throughout the zone served or where the load is stable. A single zone
system would be applied to small department stores, small shops in a shopping
center, individual classrooms of a small school, computer rooms, etc. Figure 2-1
shows a schematic of a single zone central unit.
QFVAVBOX ~
( TYPICAL EACH BRANCHI I
o
A
UTOOOR
IA INTAKE

OUTDOOR AIR DAMPER j
-
POSSIBLE r SUPPLY FAN
rPREoHEAT COIL
,
,
" .
rz
. ,
."
~
..
..
~
e.
\... FIL TERS
t
"-RETURN AIR DAMPER
r-
-
'""
-1
,
I
HEATING
,COIL
..h-
,./
COOLING COIL !
-
/
SUPPLY
~ " , , - ~ I A TE RMINAL
. ,
"
, '
, -
u .......
\ ,
- -
EXHAUST LOUVERS \
texHAUST DAMPER 1- ~ RETURN AIR REGISTER
L POSSIBLE RETUAN
AIR FAN
Figure 2-1 Single Zone System
2-3
Variable Air Volume System
Control of dry-bulb temperature within a space requires that a balance be
established between the space load and the air supplied to offset the load. To
maintain the balance you can choose between varying the supply air temperature
or varying the volume as the space load changes. Variable air volume systems
may be applied to interior or perimeter zones witb common or separate fans
systems, common or separate air temperature control and with or without auxiliary
heating devices. It is possible to vary zone air volume only, while keeping fan and
system volume constant by dumping excess air into a return air ceiling plenum or
directly into the return air duct system. Figure 2-2 shows a schematic of a
variable volume system.
ouraOOA
AlA !NlAKE 7
(
CooUNG
SUPPl Y
SUPPLY
FAN I
HEATING
COIL
-
OUTDOOR
AIR DAMPEA
EXHAUST
DAMPER 1
EXHAUST
LOUVEA 7
\
\ .... FIL TEAS
"--RE TURN AIR
DAMPER
POSSIBLE RETURN
l AIR FAN
rJ.
,
, ,
. - -
T
COOLING
COIL
AIR DUC T
\. BYPASS
SOXES
T
RETURN AIR
REGISTER
Figure 2-2 Variable Volume System
2-4
Terminal Reheat System
The reheat system is a modification of the single zone system. Conditioned
air is supplied from a central unit at a fixed cold air temperature designed to offset
the maximum cooling load in the space. The control thermostat simply calls for
heat as the cooling load in the space drops below maximum. This system is
generally applied to hospitals, laboratories or spaces where wide load variations
are expected. Figure 2-3 shows a schematic of a terminal reheat system.
OUTDOOR
AIR INTAKEj
POSSIBLE
[PREHEAT COIL
r
COOLING COil
SUPPLY fAN
;i;1
_ 1==+i#=nr===&I=={==
B::
AEHEATCQll · 1
REHEAT COil 2-.
OUTDOOR I
AIR DAMPER ...J
EXHAusr\
LOUVERS
"

AETURN AlA DAMPER

DAMPER
TO ZONE· 1
T
- \ POSSIBLE RETURN/EXHAUST
AIR FAN
\
SUPPLY
AlA TERMI NAL
TO ZONE 2

REGISTER
Figure 2-3 Terminal Reheat System
2-5
Induction System
Primary air is discharged from nozzles arranged to induce room air into the
induction unit approximately 4 times the volume of the primary air. The induced
air is cooled or heated by a secondary water coil. Induction type units are
generally located under the window to offset winter downdrafts. Figure 2-4 shows
a schematic of an induction system.
OUTDOOR
AlA INTAKE 7
OUTDOOR J
AIR DAMPER
EXHAUST t
DAMPER
eXHAUST
LouvEAS
\ FILTERS
'-RETURN AIR
OAMPER
CooUNG
COIL
t
SECONDARY 11
WATERCQIL 'l
INDUCTION _ . : INOUCED I 1j
UNIT : .... AIR - POSSIBLE AETURN
'\ AIR FAN
I j// F ,.... - - - SPACE LOAD
'-; I "
' ... -."..' '-RETURN AlA
AEGISTER
Figure 2-4 Induction System
2-6
(
Dual Duct System
The dual duct system comes in two types: low velocity and high velocity.
We will take a look at each.
Dual Duct System CLaw Vel ocity)
The dual duct system conditions all the air in a central apparatus and
di stributes it to conditioned spaces through two parallel mains or ducts. One duct
carri es cold air and the other duct carries warm air, thus, providing air sources for
both heating and cooling at all times. In each conditioned space or zone, a mixing
valve controlled by a room thermostat mixes the warm and cold air in proper
proportions to sati sfy the prevailing heat load of the space. Figure 2-5 shows a
schematic of a dual duct system (low velocity).
HEAliNG COIL
POSSIBI.E SUPPLY
ourooon ' . .• PRE .. HEAT COil \" FAN _
INTAKE 1 \ \
- u:·=
ouraOOR
AIR DAMPER
EXHAUST
O' MPERI
E)OI"U!)T
LOU'IERS 1
:1 r
COOLING COIL
LFll TEAS
I
t
"R
DAMPE R
POSSIBLE AE l UAN
(AIR FAN
r--'-,
,
' ., I
T
HQT DuC T -
,
... ,
COLD Ducr 1-
-
TO ZONE I fa ZONE l
1E!5F
I
I
RETURN AlA
REGISTERS
Figure 2-5 Dual Duct Low Velocity System
2-7
Dual Duct System !High Velocity)
Dual duct high velocity systems operate in the same manner as the low
velocity systems except that the supply fan runs at a higher pressure and each zone
requires a mixing box with sound attenuation.
a dual duct system (high velocity).
r\
,,"'v ,("\
::,.6 '
:-". ;:o. .. pF
",If '0
Figure 2-6 shows a schematic of
-{-' "
\ ::/,(cI' J /
1\0 "It'
DO
!\
'0.
HEATING CQ1l-,
OUTDOOR"
AIR INTAKEl
POSSl8LE
[PRE. HEAT COtl
SUPPLY
\ FAN
\
T
-
OUTDOOR
AIR DAMPER
;'
,.
"
EXHAUST t
DAMPER
"-FILTERS
, T
i II [I I
'--Y / tr (>
'-RETURN AIR
DAMPER
POSSIBLE RETURN
r AIR FAN
TO , TO 2
"HAUS< 1 I
LOUVERS f SPACE LOAD / .

- ,
RE TURN AI R
nEGlsrERS
Figure 2-6 Dual Duct High Velocity System
2-8
.' -.
,
f
I
Multizone System
The multizone system is applicable for serving a relatively small number of
zones from a single central air handling unit. The requirements of the different
zones are met by mixing cold and warm air through zone dampers at the central
air handler in response to zone thermostats. The mixed conditioned air IS
distributed throughout the building by a system of single-one ducts as shown In
Figure 2-7.
OUTDOOR
AIR INTAKE 1
HEATING COIL IHor DECKI
,- - - - - - - - - - - - - _L - - -
I I PI.\!'.
I \ .
: i DAMPERS
I 1-\
POSSIBLE : rSUPPlY \ ---",
HEAT COil i FAN 1 : _ ,
-
!2
" / TO INDIVIDUAL ..J
: ZONES

OUTDOOA "...J
AlA DAMPEA
2 rs:
-.'
I 9. ,.. I DAMPERS
: COOLING
I
COil
T
EXHAUST t
DAMPER 7
EXHAUST 7
LOUVERS
t ____ __ __ ___ ______ . jCOLDDECKI
AlA '-MULTI ZONE
UNIT
POSSIBLE RETURN
f_ AlA FAN
COMMON
RETUAN
r
/
\
I
..
Figure 2-7 Multizone System
2-9
FILTRATION SYSTEMS
When the environmental air is to be recirculated, filtration is used to remove
undesirable elements. Filtration allows previously conditioned air to be cleaned
while maintaining desirable characteristics (temperature and humidity) thus
increasing the system's efficiency. '
The placement of filters in HV AC systems obviously produces a differential
pressure that system fans must overcome. The magnitude of this differential
pressure can drastically reduce air flow and, therefore, system energy efficiency.
Several methods of filtration are available for use in environmentally controlled
systems. The types of filters we will discuss are:
Fibrous Media Filters
Automatic Replacement Air Fitter\$
Electronic Air Cleaners '.
High Efficiency Air Filters
Activated Carbon filters
Fibrous Media Filters '
.! " . '--
, '- . \/, -....::::..
.. "- .-. "
Fibrous media filters (Figure 2-8) are"composed of a coarse fiber material
such as fiberglass, metal mesh, or vegetable fibers. The ..• ir to be filtered is forced
through the material where and other similar sized particulates become
trapped in the matrix. Depending-on the type of fibrous material used, it may be
washed or replaced when dust impedes the air flow. As . dust,'s trapped in the
filter material, the effectiveness of the filter increases (the passageways for the air
get smaller), but the drop increases creating a higher
demand on the system's blower unit. ",
2-10
Figure 2-8 Typical Fibrous Media Filters
In some circumstances, it is necessary to continuously provide a clean filter.
The used filter may be rolled up and discarded or cleaned and reused. Some
systems include a mechanism to clean the filter which is arranged ina continuous
belt (Figure 2-9). This system maintains a constant pressure drop and cleaning
efficiency.
Figure 2-9 Automatic Replacement Air Filter
2-11
Electronic Air Cleaners
By passing air through an electric field (typically 12,000 volts) particulates
receive a charge. When the charged particulates are subsequently passed through
a matrix of oppositely charged plates, the particles are attracted and collected on
the plates. Figure 2-10 diagrams this process. The plates may be removed for
cleaning or washed in place periodically. Figure 2-11 shows a typical electronic
air cleaner.
..
, .
,1-
.'" -."
, .. '
Figure 2-10 Electronic Air Cleaning Process
2-12

\- .
I I I
I I I
I I I
IjIL.,
.
'. ;L---,
''-''-\-'' \ y---'
\ \
I \ \
I \

Figure 2-11 Industrial Electronic Air Cleaner
High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter
The high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is the most efficient air
cleaning system commercially available. Although it was developed for the
nuclear industry, it has been found to be extremely useful in the medical and
electrical fields.
HEPA filters provide a minimum efficiency of 99.97 percent on 0.3 micron
particulates . (A micron is one-millionth of a meter.) The filter media is typically
a fibrous material with a high surface area to volume ratio. Design velocities are
held down to about 5 feet per minute. This increases the particulate holding
characteri stics of the filter. In the fabrication and installation process of HEPA
filt ers care must be taken to insure that all air that passes through the unit goes
through the filter material. No cracks or voids may exist which allow unwanted
particulates to avoid filtration.
HEPA filters are actually a specialized fibrous materi al filter. Figure 2-12
shows a box HEPA filter (HEPA filter bank.)
2-13
Figure 2-12 Box HEPA Filter
2-14
Activated Carbon Filters
Activated carbon filters are commonly used to remove gases and vapors
from recirculated air. The process involVed is adsorption where the carbon
adsorbs the paniculate in a Sponge-like process. Figure 2-13 shows a typical
activated carbon filter.
Figure 2-13 Activated Carbon Filter
2-15
HYDRONIC SYSTEMS
A hydroni c or all-water system is one in which hot or chilled water is used
to convey heat to or from a conditioned space or process through piping connect-
ing a boiler, water heater or chiller with suitable terminal heat transfer units
located at the space or process. All water systems may be classified by tempera-
ture, generation of flow, pressurization, piping arrangement and pumping
arrangement.
In terms of flow generation, hot water heating systems are of two types (I)
the gravity system, in which circulation of the water is due to the difference in
weight between the supply and the return water columns of any circuit or system;
and (2) the forced system in which a pump, usually driven by an electric motor,
maintains the necessary flow. Water systems can be either once-through or
recirculating systems .
Examples of how water systems are classified according to temperature are
discussed below.
Low Water Temperature System (LTW)
A hot water heating system operating within the pressure and temperature
limits of the ASME boiler construction code for low pressure heating boilers. The
maximum allowable working pressure for low pressure heating boilers is 160 psi
with a maximum temperature limitation of 250"F. The usual maximum working
pressure for boilers for L TW systems is 30 psi, although boilers specifically
designed, tested and stamped for higher pressures may frequently be used with
working pressures to 160 psi. Steam-to-water or water-to-water heat exchangers
are also often used.
Medium Temperature Water System (MTW)
A hot water heating system operating at temperatures of 350"F or less, with
pressures not exceeding 150 psi. The usual design supply temperature is approxi-
mately 250' to 325' F, with a usual pressure rating for boilers and equipment of
150 psi.
2-16
High Temperature Water System (JITW)
A hot water heating system operating at temperatures over 350"F and usual
pressures of about 300 psi. The maximum design supply water temperature is
400" to 450' F, with a pressure rating for boilers and equipment of about 300 psi.
It is necessary that the pressure-temperature rating of each component be checked
against the design characteristics of the particular system.
Chilled Water System (CW)
A chilled water-cooling system operating with a usual design supply water
temperature of 40' to 55'F and normally operating within a pressure range of 125
psi. Antifreeze or brine solutions may be used for systems (usually process
applications) which require temperatures below 4O"F. Well water systems may use
supply temperatures of 60"F or higher.
Dual-Temperature Water System (DTW)
A combination hot water heating and chilled water cooling system which
circulates hot andlor chilled water to provide heating or cooling using common
piping and terminal heat transfer apparatus. They are operated within the pressure
and temperature limits. of L TW systems, with usual winter design supply of water
temperatures about 100' F to 150"F and summer supply water temperatures 40"F
to 55' F.
Generally, the most economical distribution system layout has mains that are
run by the shortest and most convenient route to the terminal equipment having the
largest flow rate requirements and branch or secondary circuits are then connected
to these mains.
Water distribution mains are most frequently located in corridor ceilings,
above hung ceilings, wall-hung along a perimeter wall, or in pipe trenches, crawl
spaces or basements. Water system piping need not be run at a defutite level or
pitch, but may change up or down as required by architectural or structural needs.
Water system piping may be divided into two arbitrary classifications:
• Pipe circuits suitable for complete small systems or for terminal or
branch circuits on large systems.
2-17
Series Loop
One-pipe
Two-pipe reversed-return
Two-pipe direct-return
• Main distribution piping used to convey water to and from the
terminal units or circuits in a large system.
Two-pipe direct-return
Two-pipe reversed-return
Three-pipe
Four-pipe
We will discuss each type of system in the remainder of this chapter. Also
because of the unique nature of hydronic systems, we will also discuss hydronic
plpmg.
Series Loop System
A series loop is a continuous run of pipe or tube from supply connection to
return connection. Terminal units are a part of the loop.
Figure 2-14 shows a system of two series loops on a supply alld return main
(split series loop). One or many series loops may be used in a complete system.
Loops may connect to mains or all loops may run directly to and from the boilers.
Water temperature drops progressively as each radiator transfers heat to the
air, the amount of drop depending on radiator output and water flow rate. The
true system operating water temperature and flow rate must be known to calculate
the average water temperature (Awl) for each unit on the loop. If all terminal
units are in series on one loop in one zone of interconnecting air space, the entire
set of units can be sized at the A WT of the loop. One floor of a small dwelling
with open interior doorways is such an interconnecting space. If individual units
on a loop are in separate enclosed spaces, each unit must be sized to actual A@
for that unit.
2-18
Pump
-Soiler
~
1
Figure 2-14 A Series Loop System
A decrease in loop water flow rate increases temperature drop in each unit
and in the entire loop. Average water temperature shifts downward progressively
from first to last radiator in series. Unit output gradually lowers from first to last
on the loop. Consequently, comfort cannot be maintained in separate spaces
heated with a single series loop if water flow rate is varied. Control of output
from individual terminal units on a series loop is impractical except by control of
heated air flow. Manual dampers can be used on natural convection units;
automatic fan or face-and-bypass damper control can be used on forced air units.
One-Pipe System (Diverting Fitting)
One-pipe circuits use a single loop main (see Figure 2-15). For each
terminal unit, a supply and a return tee are installed on the same main. One of the
two tees is a special diverting tee which creates a pressure drop in main flow to
divert a portion of main flow to the unit. One (return) diverting tee is usually
sufficient for up feed (units above main) systems. Two special fittings (supply and
return tees) are usually required for down feed units to overcome thermal head.
Special tees are proprietary; consult manufacturer's literature for flow rates and
pressure drop data.
2-19
(
Ii
(
1
One Special Return Fitting
I'-
-
(Upfeed)
l
i
Boiler
i ' - ~
~
---.I
, ~
l;) Pump
r-
:
_J
Downfeed (Two Special Fittings)
Figure 2-15 A One-Pipe System
One-pipe circuits allow manual or automatic control of flow to individual
connected heating units. On-off rather than flow modulation control is advisable
because of the relatively low pressure and flow diverted. Length and load imposed
on a one-pipe circuit are usually small because of the limitations listed.
Two-Pipe Systems
Two-pipe circuits may be direct-return (return main flow direction is
opposite supply main flow; return water from each unit takes the shortest path
back to the boiler) as shown in Figure 2-16, or reverse-return (return main flow
is in the same direction as supply flow; after the last unit is fed, the return main
returns all water to the boiler) as shown in Figure 2-17. The direct-return system
is popular because less main pipe length is required; however, circuit balancing
valves usually are required on units or sub-circuits. Since water flow distance to
and from the boiler is virtually the same through any unit on a reverse-return
2-20
, .
system, balancing valves are seldom adjusted. Operating (pumping) cost is likely
to be higher with direct return because of the added balancing fitting pressure
drops at the same flow rate.
..
z
...
y
..
X
t
Terminal/
Unrts
Pump
Boiler
,
!
or
I
'-
/ Chiller
Figure 2-16 Direct-Return Two-Pipe System
...
T
...
S
...
R
-
J
Terminal ,/
Units
Pump
Boile,
or
'-_.I
Chiller
Figure 2-17 Reverse-Return Two-Pipe System
2-21
Combination Piping System
The four basic arrangements exist only to describe function; one type can
grade into another; a piping system can contain from one to all four types and,
thus, cannot be described as a particular type. Figure 2-18 illustrates a primary
circuit and two secondary pumping circuits. As pipe lengths and number of units
vary and as circuit types are combined, basic names for piping circuits become
meaningless; flow, temperature and head must be determined for each circuit and
for the complete system.
Control
i
rerminal/
t
t
Unit
J· Way control
\
Valve lor
secondary crfC1Jlt
t Common

Flow
Common Flow

Pump Secondary
..
Pump
...
B C
Balance Cock
0 E
Boiler
0'
F
...
Chiller
A
::>ump
Figure 2-18 Example of Primary and Secondary Pumping Circuits
Three-Pipe System
The three-pipe system satisfies variations in load by providing independent
sources of heating and cooling to the room unit in the form of constant temperature
primary and secondary chilled and hot water.
2-22
The unit contains a single secondary water coil. A three-way valve at the
inlet of the coil admits the water from either the hot or cold water supply, as
required. ne water leaving the coil is carried in a common pipe to either the
secondary cooling or heating equipment. The usual room control for three-pipe
systems is a special three-way modulating valve which modulates either the hot or
cold water in sequence, but does not mix the streams. The primary air is cold and
at the same temperatures year-round.
During the period between seasons, if both hot and cold secondary water is
available, any unit can be operated within a wide capacity range from maximum
cooling to maximum heating within the limits set by the temperature of the
secondary chilled or hot water. Any unit in the system can be operated through
its full range of capacity without regard to the operation of any other unit in the
system, recognizing the operating cost penalty that will result from simultaneous
heating and cooling loads. All units are selected on the basis of their peak
capacity requirements.
The return mix three-pipe room unit is provided with a singl,e coil which
receives either hot or cold water. A modulating three-way valve at the inlet to the
unit admits either hot water or cold water to the secondary coil (see Figure 2-19).
from open to fully closed and the cold port gradually moves from fully closed to
open. The valves are constructed so that at mid-range there is an interval in which
both ports are completely closed. Room control action is the same during all
seasons.
2-23
.: ... (e.o<
I "- Ly E
\
"'COMMON
[!}
UNIT
r",(>I""OST.1.1
"OT
" " A r E ~ ~
SUPPLY
C()t.lIolON
SECONDARY
"",TEfl C01L
VALvE
co..o '."ER ~
SuPPLy
Figure 2-19 Return Mix System Room Unit Controls .
Four-Pipe System
Four-pipe systems for induction, fan-coil or radiant panel systems derive
their name from the four pipes to each terminal unit. As noted before, the piping
includes a cold water supply, cold water return, warm water supply and warm
water return. The four-pipe system satisfies variation in cooling and heating to the
room unit in the form of constant temperature primary air, secondary chilled water
and secondary hot water.
The four-pipe terminal unit is usually provided with two completely
separated secondary water coils, one receiving hot water and the second receiving
cold water. The coil s are operated in sequence by the same thermostat. The coils
are never operated simultaneously, and the unit receives either hot water or cold
water in varying amounts, or else no flow is present. This is shown in Figure
2-20. During peak cooling and heating, the four-pipe system performs in a
manner similar to the two-pipe system, with essentially the same operating
characteristics. During the peri od between seasons, any unit can be operated at
any capacity level from maximum heating, if both cold water and warm water are
being circulated. Any unit can be operated at or between these extremes without
regard to the operat ion of any other unit.
2-24
..!.,
UNI r
THERMOSTAT
L';)"
_or
"or
wATER
WATER
SUPPLY
AETURN
I"IOT COIL
"
CONTROL
VAl.vE
,
COLO COIL
COLO
WAT(Q COLI:
RETURN wATER
0 SUPPl Y
A- SEPARATE COILS
-
T
UNI T T"ERMOSTAT
(R
Hor
_OT
WATER
wATER
RETURN
SUPPl Y
COMMON
SECONDARY
;;
\ 2 - POSI TlON
WATfR COIL
S E ~ U E N C E )
COLO COLO
wATER
DIVERTI NG vALVE
WATER
RETURN
VALVE
SUPPLY
Figure 2-20 Four-Pipe System Room Unit Control
2-25
Since the primary air is supplied at a constant cool temperature at all times,
it is sometimes feasible for fan-coil or radiant panel systems to extend the interior
system supply to the perimeter spaces, eliminating the need for a separate primary
air system.
Figure 2-20 shows another unit and control configuration which is sometimes
used. A single secondary water coi l is provided at the unit, and three-way valves
located at the inlet and leaving side of the coil admits the water from either the hot
or cold water supply, as required, and divert it to the appropriate return pipe.
This arrangement requires a special three-way modulating valve, originally
developed for one form of the three-pipe system, which controls the hot or cold
water selectively and proportionally but does not mix the streams. The valve at
the coil outlet is a two-position valve open to either the hot or cold water return,
as required.
When all aspects are considered, the two-coil arrangement provides a
superior four-pipe system. The operation of the induction unit controls is the same
year-round. Units with secondary air bypass control are not applicable to
four-pipe systems. .
Hydronic Piping
Because of the nature of water systems, we will discuss some of the
components that are associated only with hydronic systems. A further discussion
of some of these components will follow in Chapter Three.
Air Control and Venting
If air and other gases are not eliminated from the flow circuit, they may
cause air binding in the terminal heat transfer elements and noise in the piping
circuit. High points in piping systems and terminal units should be vented with
manual or automatic air vents. As automatic air vents may malfunction, valves
should be provided at each vent to permit service without draining the system.
The discharge of each vent should be piped to a point where water can be wasted
into a drain or container. If a plain expansion tank is used, free air contained in
the circulating water should be removed from the piping circuit and trapped in the
expansion tank by a boiler dip tube or other air separation devices. If a diaphragm-
type tank is used, all air should be vented from the system.
2-26
Drains and Shutoffs
All low points should be equipped with drains. Provisions should be made
for separate shutoff and drain of individual equipment and circuits so that the
entire system does not have to be drained for service of a particular item.
Balance Fittings
Balance fittings should be applied as needed to permit balancing of
individual terminal and major sub-circuits. Such fittings should be placed at the
circuit return when possible.
Piping need not pitch but can be run level, providing flow velocities 10
excess of 1.5 feet per second are maintained.
Strainers
Strainers should be used where necessary to protect the elements of a
system. Strainers placed in the pump suction need to be analyzed carefully to
avoid cavitation. Large separating chambers are available which serves as main
air venting points and direct strainers ahead of pumps. Automatic control valves
or spray nozzles operating with small clearances require protection from pipe
scale, gravel, welding slag, etc., which may readily pass through the pump and its
protective separator. Individual fine mesh strainers may, therefore, be required
ahead of each control valve. Condenser water systems without water regulating
valves do not necessarily require a strainer. If a cooling tower is used, the strainer
provided in the tower basin will usually be adequate.
Thermometers
Thermometers andlor thermometer wells should be installed to assist the
system operator and to use for troubleshooting. Permanent thermometers with
correct scale range and separable sockets should be used at all points where
temperature readings are regularly needed. Thermometer wells should be installed
where readings will be needed only during start-up and balancing.
2-27
Flexible Connectors
Flexible connectors are sometimes installed at pumps and machinery to
reduce pipe vibration and to allow for expansion and contraction of system piping.
Vibrations are transmitted through the water column across a flexible connection
and reduce the effectiveness of the connector. Flexible connectors, however,
prevent damage caused by misalignment of equipment piping flanges.
Gauge cocks should be installed at points where pressure readings will be
required. It should be noted that gauges permanently installed in the system will
deteriorate due to vibration and pulsation and will not be reliable when needed,
unless periodic inspection and calibration is performed.
Pump Location
Pump location varies with the size and type of system. A pump in the boiler ,
return is acceptable for small systems when pump head is low (12 foot head or
less), the compression tank is on the boiler (or a nearby main), and the highest
piping and radiation is maintained at a static pressure greater than full pump head.
@ese conditions apply to most residential systems.
When pump head is equal to or greater than the difference between boiler
fill and relief valve discharge pressures, or when highest piping or radiation can
be at a static pressure less than total pump head, the pump must be located on the
supply side of the boiler, with the compression tank at the pump inlet, as shown
in Figure 2-21. This assures that pump cycling will not cause a vacuum at the
topmost system points to allow air to be introduced into the system. Pump
cavitation is prevented by locating a properly sized compression tank near the
pump inlet that supplies a positive pressure to the pump suction.
2-28
(
Oil"'"
*
I
I
I

STM!lOb\$
GU( .... LY(
'LOW Oil .(IG.U[O C ..
40JI,IS""O Cotl<
GLOI( "'LY[
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, ___________ L ____ _
I
Figure 2-21 Boiler Piping for a Multiple-Zone,
Multiple-Purpose Heating System
2-29
SUMMARY
In this chapter, we learned the purpose of an HV AC system and how it
controls an enclosed environment for a specific purpose. We do this by con-
trolling temperature, humidity, and suspe!lded particulates. Then we learned about
the different types of air systems, hydronic systems and the different types of
filters that are used in HV AC systems.
2-30
CHAPTER THREE
HVAC EQUIPMENT
CHAPTER THREE
HVAC EQUIPMENT
OBJECTIVES
At the completion of this chapter, the student will be able to:
1. List the eight requirements that are looked at for the selection of
equipment and/or HVAC system.
2. List the heat sources that are used in a HV AC System.
3. Explain how terminal heating equipment heati ng is controlled.
4. Explain the basic principle of how a heat pump operates.
5. Given a diagram, be able to explain the basic cycle of the
following cooling systems:
a. Steam jet
b. Heat sink
c. Absorption
d. Compressed gas
6. Explain the purpose of the following equipment used in a cooling
system:

Piping
Pumps
Fans
7. State the purpose of a cooling tower.
8. Identify the three types of fan control.
9. Given a diagram of an HV AC System, identify the maj or
components used.
CHAPTER THREE
HVAC EQUIPMENT
INTRODUCTION
The equipment used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning comes
under three major headings which cover all the equipment in an HV AC
system. Those major headings are heating, cooling, and air-handling.
In this chapter, we will cover the criteria used for equipment selection
along with the following topics:
• Heating
• Cooling
• Air Handling
CRITERIA FOIt EQUIPMENT SELECTION
The criteria for the selection of equipment and/or HV AC systems are
basically the same. It requires that these eight requirements be looked at:
1. Demands of comfort or process.
2. Energy conservation, code requirements.
3. First cost versus life cycle cost.
4. Desires of owner, architect and/or design office.
5. Space limitations.
6. Maintainability.
3-1
7. Central plant versus distributed systems.
8. Simplicity and controllability.
The problem-solving process used in the evaluation is done so that the
Demand of Comfort or Process
These include temperature always, humidity, ventilation, and
pressurization sometimes, and zoning for better control if needed. In theory,
at least, this criterion should have a high priority. In practice, the "comfort"
requirement is sometimes subordinated to first cost or the desires of someone
in authority. Process requirements are more difficult and require a thorough
inquiry by the HVAC designer into the process and its needs. Until he fully
understands the process, the designer cannot provide an adequate HV AC
system. Most often, it will be found that different parts of the process have
different parts of the process have different temperature, humidity, pressure,
and cleanliness requirements; the most extreme of these can penalize the
entire HV AC system.
Energy Conservation
This is usually a code requirement and not an option. State the local
building codes almost invariably include requirements limiting the use of
new, nonrenewable energy. Nonrenewable refers primarily to fossil fuel
sources. Renewable sources include solar, wind, water, waste processing,
heat reclaim, and the like. The strictest codes prohibit any form of reheat
(except from reclaimed or renewable sources) unless humidity control is
essential. Most HVAC systems for process environments have opportunities
for heat reclaim and other ingenious ways of conserving energy. Off-peak
storage systems are becoming popular for energy cost savings through these
systems may actually consume more energy than conventional systems.
3-2
First Cost/Life Cost
First cost considers only the initial price, installed and ready to operate.
It ignores such factors as expected life, ease of maintenance and even, to
some extent, efficiency, though most energy codes require some minimum
efficiency rating. Life-cycle cost includes all cost factors including first cost,
operation, maintenance, replacement, and estimated energy use, and evaluates
the total cost of the system over a period of years. The usual method of
comparing the life cycle costs of two or more systems to convert all costs to
"present worth" values. Typically, first cost governs in buildings being built
for speculation or short-term investment. Life-cycle costs are most often
used by institutional builders - schools, hospitals, government - and owners
who expect to occupy the building for an indefinite period.
Desires of Owner, Architect, or Design Office
Very often, someone in authority lays down guidelines which must be
followed by the designer. This is particularly true for institutional owners
and major retailers. Here the designer's job is to follow the criteria of his
employer or the client unless it is obvious that some requirements are
unsuitable in an unusual environment. Examples of such environmental
conditions are: extremely high or low outside air humidity, high altitude
(which affects AHU and air-cooled condenser capacity) and contaminated
outside air (which may require special filtration and treatment).
Space Limitations
The architect can influence the HV AC system selection by the space
he makes available in a new building. In retrofit situations, the designer
must work with existing space. Sometimes in existing buildings it is
necessary to take additional space in order to provide a suitable HV AC
system. For example, in adding air conditioning to a school it is often
necessary to convert a classroom to an equipment room. Roof-top systems
are another alternative where space is limited, if the building structure will
support such systems. In new buildings, if space is too restricted, it will be
desirable to discuss with the architect the implications of the space limitations
3-3
in terms of equipment efficiency and maintainability. There are ways of
providing a functioning HVAC system in very little space, such as individual
room units and roof-top units, but these systems often have a high life-cycle
cost.
Maintainability
This criterion includes equipment quality (mean time between failures
is a commonly used term); ease of maintenance (are high maintenance items
accessible? Is there adequate space around it for removing and replacing
items?). Roof-top units may be readily accessible if there is an inside stair
and roof penthouse, but if an outside ladder must be climbed the adj ective
"readily" must be deleted. Many equipment rooms are easy to get to but too
small for adequate across or maintenance. This criterion is critical in the life-
cycle cost analysis and in the long-term satisfaction of the building owner
and occupants.
Central Plant Versus Distributed Systems
Central plants may include only a chilled water source, both heating
and chilled water, an intermediate temperature water supply for individual
room heat pumps, or even a large, central air-handling system. Many
buildings have no central plant. This decision, in part, influenced by
previously cited criteria and is itself a factor in the life-cycle cost analysis.
In general, central plant equipment has a longer life than packaged equipment
and can be operated more efficiently. The disadvantages include the cost of
pumping and piping, or, for the central AHU, longer duct systems and more
fan horsepower. There is no simple answer to this choice. Each building
must be evaluated separately.
Simplicity and Controllability
Though listed last, this is the most important criterion in terms of how
the system will really work. There is an accepted truism that "The operator
will soon reduce the HV AC system and controls to his level of
3-4
understanding." This not to criticize the operator, who may have had little
or no instruction about the system. It is simply a fact of life. The designer
who wants or needs to use a complex system must provide for adequate
training - and retraining - for the operators. The best rule is: never add an
unnecessary complication to the systein or its controls.
HEATING
Heating is the first word in the HV AC acronym. It is the most
important part because without heating there would be difficulty in surviving.
Proper design of the heating system is even more critical than that of
ventilation or cooling. The history of man began to develop with the
discovery of fire which increased his ability to survive in a harsh
environment. In modem heating system design, the two things of primary
concern are proper sizing to achieve comfort and system reliability. Capital
and operating costs and pollution control are of secondary consideration.
Energy conservation and operating costs go together and have a considerable
effect on life cycle costs.
In a modem heating system, heating can be provided by:
1. Fuel fired boilers that produce steam, hot water, or thermal
liquids for direct or indirect use.
2. Furnaces, unit heaters, duct heaters, and outside air heaters which
provide hot air for direct circulation to the conditioned space.
3. Waste heat furnaces and boilers which utilize the waste energy
from some other source such as an incinerator or refrigeration
equipment.
4. Solar energy collectors, both passive and active, which heat either
water or air, and in some cases, solid materials.
3-5
5. Heat pumps, either liquid or air.
6. Direct-fired radiant heaters, either electric or natural gas.
End users are provided heat by:
1. Direct air - furnaces, duct heaters, outside air heaters, reheat un
its, ducted heat pumps.
2. Indirect air - coils and air-handling units, fan-coil units, unit ve
ntilators.
The topics that will be covered in this section of the chapter are:
• Boilers

Hot water boiler
Steam boiler
Electric Heaters
Terminal Heating Equipment
Heat Pumps
Packaged heat pumps
3-6
BOILERS
Boilers can produce low, medium, or high-temperature water, low-
pressure steam, high-pressure steam (including process steam), and thermal
liquid.
Hot Water Boilers
Low-temperature water boilers (to 250"F) are the most widely used type
for residential, apartment, and commercial construction. Medium temperature
water boilers (250 to 310°F) are generally applied to industrial and campus-
type facilities. High-temperature water (310 to 400"F) is used for extended
campus-type facilities and industrial process facilities. It is often used where
there are significant end-user steam requirements at pressures of 100 psi or
more. Thermal liquid heaters are primarily found in industrial applications
where both space and process heating are significant loads.
Steam Boilers
Low-pressure boilers (15 psig) are generally found in commercial,
apartment house, and single-unit industrial facilities. They are used for
space heating and domestic hot water, through end-use heat exchangers.
High-pressure steam applications (15 to 150 psig) are generally found in
campus-type facilities, hospitals, and industrial plants where there are
significant process requirements. Cogeneration high-pressure steam boilers
are in the range of 600 to 900 psig with some degree of superheat in order
to obtain good turbine efficiency. Waste heat from the turbine is used for
space heating, domestic hot water, and process requirements.
ELECTRIC HEATERS
A unit heater is a package which includes a heating element and a
circulating fan. It is designed for installation in or adjacent to the space to
be heated. Units are made for horizontal discharge (Figure 3-1) or vertical
discharge (Figure 3-2). Most unit heaters have propeller fans. Units with
centrifugal fans may be used with duct work to extend the area of coverage.
3-7
Figure 3-1 Horizontal Unit Heater
Figure 3-2 Vertical Unit Heater
3-8
The heating element may be a steam or water coil, or may be direct-
fired using fuel gas or electric resistance. Gas heaters require proper venting
and safety controls. Unit heaters are normally controlled by means of a room
thermostat which starts the fan and energizes the heating element
simultaneously.
A duct heater (or duct furnace) is a unit heater with out a fan and is
installed in a duct or plenum. The duct heater depends on an AHU fan for
air circulation. It may be the primary heating element - in the main duct or
AHU plenum - or may be used for zone reheat control in branch ducts.
Many package air-handling systems use duct heaters.
An outside air heater is a unit heater or duct heater used for preheating
outside air, as required for exhaust make-up or combustion. To prevent
freeze-up gas or electric heating is used, with gas preferred on an energy cost
basis. In some installations, codes allow the use of unvented heaters - all the
heat and products of combustion are in the air stream, but so diluted as to
pose no danger. This situation requires that all of the supply air be
exhausted.
Radiant unit heaters have no fans and utilize radiant heating rather than
convective heating. For this purpose they are installed overhead and
equipped with special high-temperature surfaces which radiate primarily in
the infra-red spectrum. They are used mostly for "spot-heating" at work
stations in otherwise unheated or poorly heated buildings. Another use is for
heating of outdoor areas where people need to wait or stand in line, such as
under theater marquees or in amusement parks. Radiant heating is a very
efficient and economical method of achieving a level of comfort in an area
which would be difficult or impossible to heat satisfactorily in any other way.
TERMINAL HEATING EQUIPMENT
Terminal heating equipment is equipment installed in or contiguous
with the area served. In general, the heating source is remote - water or
steam is used - but electric resistance heating is common. Duct heaters and
3-9
some heat pumps can also be included in this category. In many cases, the
terminal equipment is used for both heating and cooling.
A radiator is a heating device which is installed in the space to be
heated and transfers heat primarily by radiation. The most common example
is the sectional cast-iron column radiator. There are many thousands of these
in use throughout the world, although in new installations they have been
source is hot water or low-pressure steam (5 psig or less). Small "electric
radiators" include water and an electric immersion heater.
Radiators are rated in square feet of radiation or EDR (equivalent direct
radiation). One square foot EDR is equal to 240 btuh for steam at one psig
or 180 btuh for water at 200"F. These ratings are no longer readily available
but may be obtained from the Hydronics Institute, formerly the Institute of
Boiler and Radiator Manufacturers. Some representative data are available
in the ASHRAE Handbook.
Radiators are controlled in several ways:
1. Manually, by means of a globe valve.
2. Automatically, by means of a modulating or two-position valve.
Self-contained valves are very popular for this application.
3. In zones, by means of a zone control valve, sometimes with solar
compensation. With zone control, orifices are used at radiator
supply connections to ensure uniform distribution of steam
throughout the zone.
4. Some small systems are controlled by cycling the boiler or hot
water pump.
3-10
5. Steam heat may be controlled by means of vacuum system. This
requires a closed system in which the absolute pressure may be
varied by means of a vacuum pump in the condensate return.
The steam system may then be operated at sub-atmospheric
pressures with a consequent reduction in steam temperature.
A convector is a heating device which depends primarily on gravity
convective heat transfer. The heating element is a finned-tube coil or coils,
mounted in an enclosure designed to increase the convective effect (Figure
3-3). The enclosure (cabinet) is made in many different configurations,
including partially or fully recessed into the wall. The usual location is on
an exterior wall at or near the floor. Capacity depends on geometry - length,
depth, height - and heating element design, as well as hot water temperatures
or steam pressure. Ratings are usually based on the test methods specified
in "Commercial Standard CS 140-47, Testing and Rating Convectors." Refer
to manufacturers' catalogues for specific data.
Flecess ____
.. Wall face
Front panel with
-- integral grilles
_ Fin-tube heating
L,---- element
~
/ Floor line
Figure 3-3 Convector
Baseboard radiation is designed for wall mounting in place of the usual
baseboard. It is either a fin-tube system, similar to a convector but much
smaller, or a cast-iron section, designed with convective heat channels to
exterior walls. Blank covers may be used for appearance if the capacity if
not needed.
3-11
Finned-tube, or finned-pipe, radiation uses larger tubing or pipe - 1-1/4"
to 2" size - with fins bonded to the pipe. The fins are typically 3-1/2" to 4-
1/2" square. The system is used mostly for perimeter heating, particularly at
glass areas. Heat transfer is by convection and a variety of enclosure types
are available; some examples are shown in Figure 3-4. Special enclosures
are often made to suit an architectural decor.

0
W<Jllline
-
Cover
grille
Fin,plpEt healing
elemlnl
0'
A. Flal 101' cover S. SeDping lOp coyer
Figure 3-4 Typical Fin-pipe Enclosures
E .. p .. n.ded
r mel a! cover
- - - -,

C. E"panded melal cover
All of these heating elements may use either low pressure steam or hot
water as the heating source. Either one-pipe or two-pipe distribution systems
are used, though two-pipe is more common in modem practice. Zoning by
exposure, using solar compensated sensors, is a frequent practice. Electric
baseboard radiation is also available. It is sometimes more economical, for
example, in an all-electric situation or where steam or hot water is not
available.
A radiant panel is a heating surface designed to transfer heat primarily
by radiation. There may also be a convective component, and in the case of
3-12
floor panels, convective transfer may be predominant. Panels may be located
in the floor, wall, or ceiling and may occupy part or all of the available area.
Panel surface temperatures are limited by the physiological response of the
building occupants. That is, too high a temperature may result in an
uncomfortably warm feeling. Typical limitations are 80" to 85°F for floor
panels, about 100"F for wall panels, and 120" to 13O"F for ceiling panels.
The heating source is hot water or electrical resistance heating cable. Hot-
water supply temperatures should be consistent with the panel temperature
limitations; for floor panels, for example, supply water temperature should be
no more than 100°F.
Factory-assembled sidewall and ceiling panels and panel systems are
available. Most panels are field fabricated using electrical heating cable,
copper tubing, or steel pipe imbedded in the construction. For concrete floor
panels, steel pipe is used (3/4" or 1" size), because steel has an expansion
coefficient similar to that of concrete. Corrosion at the concrete-pipe
interface can be severe. Electric heating cable may be used. ·Ceiling and
.< wall panels use 1/2" to 3/4" copper tube or electric cable. Air venting is a
serious problem, especially with floor panels.
Control systems are conventional, since radiant-heat-sensitive devices
are not readily available. Floor panels are very difficult to control, since the
relatively large mass provides a slow response.
HEAT PUMPS
A heat pump is a mechanical refrigeration system arranged and
controlled to utilize the condenser heat for some useful purpose, typically
space heating. Systems may be packaged or built-up, air-to-air, water-to-air,
or water-to-water. Earth-coupled systems are also used.
Packaged Heat Pumps
A packaged heat pump is factor-assembled system designed to provide
either heating or cooling, as needed. The standard refrigeration cycle is
modified as shown in Figure 3-5. The key to the operation is the reversing
3-13
valve. In the cooling position, refrigerant flow is directed first to the outdoor
coil, which becomes the condenser. The liquid refrigerant then bypasses
metering device no. 1 and flows through metering device no. 2 to the indoor
coil. The metering device is a thermal expansion valve, throttling tube, or
some other method of reducing the pressure. The indoor coil then becomes
the evaporator and cooling is provided. With the reversing valve in the
heating position, refrigerant flow is reversed, the indoor coil becomes the
condenser and provides heating; heat is extracted from the outdoor air.
Changeover from heating to cooling may be automatic but is usually manual.
Most packaged heat pumps are air-to-air. Heating capacity decreases as
outdoor air temperature decreases.
While most air-to-air heat pumps will operate satisfactorily down to
zero degrees F outdoors, auxiliary heating will be needed except in very mild
climates. Figures 3-6 and 3-7 illustrate the procedure for determining the
auxiliary heat requires. Figure 3-6 shows the method of calculating the net
heating load as a function of temperature. For buildings with 24-hour
occupancy, solar heat effects should be ignored. Note that the net heat loss
is less than the calculated heat loss because of internal heat gains due to
people, lights, and other sources. In Figure 3-7, this net heating load is
plotted against the heat pump capacity from manufacturer's data as a function
of temperature. The shaded area is the excess of load over capacity,
requiring auxiliary heat. Almost any fuel can be used for auxiliary heat, but
electric resistance is the most common.
In a water-to-air package heat pump, a water-to-air heat exchanger is
substituted for the outdoor coil. A central source for heating or cooling the
water can then, in effect, provide the auxiliary heat. Systems of this type are
used in apartment houses and hotels to allow maximum control of the room
environment by the occupant. The water temperature is controlled at a range
of values - perhaps 70°F to 85°F - which is suitable both as a heat source and
heat sink for the heat pumps. In mild weather when some units are in
heating mode while others are cooling, the central boiler and cooling tower
may be idle.
3-14
f'
, ,
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r
, "

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,,.
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1.4.'81"'9 (I".,...;"
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:-w

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Cooli ng mode
In(lOO'
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t
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I
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.....
I
,,",-
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Hnl,ng mod.
Figure 3-5 Packaged Heat Pump Cycles
3-15
During the 1950s and 1960s, several large office buildings were
constructed using water-to-water heat pumps, with capacities up to several
hundred tons. These systems typically use well water. Two wells are used,
one for supply and one for disposal. One possible arrangement is shown in
Figure 3-8. The supply and disposal wells are manually selected. Well
water and return water are mixed, for both evaporator and condenser, on a
temperature basis. Under some conditions, this system can become an
internal source heat pump - that is, when the exterior zone heating and
interior zone cooling loads are in balance, or nearly so, little or no well water
is needed. Internal source heat pumps without wells are used where there is
sufficient internal cooling load to supply the net heating requirements under
all conditions. Excess heat is disposed of through cooling towers.
HR CHO
C>lS HS
,
.... - --- --,
,
,
,
- - -r;;;-t - - To C_n\$Ol'
,... - ---t.:...J
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..... """'''
WINS .n<! """"'.
Figure 3-8 Large Building Heat Pump, with Water Well Source
3-17
, .
;,.. ..
COOLING
There are many types of cooling systems. In this section of the
chapter, we will give you an introduction to the equipment that is used in
cooling systems, The topics that we will cover are:
• Refrigeration
• Chiller
• Cooling Towers
• Cooling Coils
• Piping
• Pumps
Refrigeration
Several different methods are used to cool air directly or indirectly, In
this section of the chapter, we are going to study the equipment that is used
in the various cooling systems. The purpose of this is that the student will
understand how this equipment fits into the whole picture of the operation an
HV AC system. Equipment from the following systems will be discussed
along with a brief description of how each system operates;

Steam Jet
• Heat Sink
• Compressed Gas (Chillers)
3-18
Steam Jet
The steam jet refrigeration system may be used if an abundant supply
of high pressure steam is available. The equipment that is used in the system
is a nozzling jet (which works like an air ejector), a tank with an inlet and
outlet for water supply to it. (Figure 3-9) The process creates a partial
vacuum in a tank by nozzling a jet of steam over the single opening
(aspiration). This reduced pressure in the tank permits water to boil at a
substantially reduced temperature (40-50"F). The heat required for
evaporation is extracted from the cooling water which is pumped through the
tank.
P
ST
co
\.11,1 1

r.MI

Tl' 1-1 f\ 1'£ r.

(1)1: I
Go Or

STEAM NOZZ LE

......

'-..
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0.1 TOC . 2?SI:'
COOL WATf.? TO

,
lI IP- CONn I TIO. II NG
EQutPttENT
4s
o
r
.......
40
o
-S0of
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Figure 3-9 Steam Jet Refrigeration System
3-19
LOW P

STEN'

RESSURE
TO CONI
i '
, .
Heat Sink
The heat sink method of providing air conditioning requires a large
body of cool water, usually subterranean or drawn from dee I lakes. The
equipment that is used in this system is a pump, piping and hydronic coils.
The cool water is circulated through hydronic coils and subsequently provides
cooling to the controlled environment.
Absorption
The absorption systems utilizes a liquid with a low boiling point such
as ammonia on water under a low vacuum. The equipment that is used in
this system is a chiller, which is divided into four sections: the evaporator,
absorber, generator and condenser, heat exchanger and three pumps. We will
discuss the function of each piece of equipment.
Chiller
As noted from the above paragraph, the chiller is divided into four
sections. The function of each section is:
Evaporator -
Absorber -
Generator -
Condenser -
The purpose of the evaporator is to cool a liquid for
use in an air-conditioning system,
The purpose of the absorber is to provide an area
where the absorbent can absorb the refrigerant and
also store the excess absorbent.
The function of the generator is to concentrate the
absorbent by removing some of the refrigerant from
the dilute absorbent solution.
The function of the condenser is to condense the
refrigerant vapors from the generator back into a
liquid and that condensed liquid is returned to the
evaporator.
3-20
Heat Exchanger -
Pumps
The function of the heat exchanger is to make
the absorption cycle more efficient. It does this
by bringing the warm, concentrated absorbent
solution coming from the generator in contact
with the relative cool dilute absorbent from the
absorber. This lowers the heat input needed for
input to the generator and increases the
efficiency of the system.
There are three pumps usually associated with an absorption system.
These pumps are used to circulate the fluids between the following
components and are named for the component in which they service.
Because all absorption systems work basically the same, we will
describe the operation of the lithium brome cycle.
Refer to Figure 3-10 as you go through the cycle. It will help you
understand what is happening in each area of the absorption chiller.
Let's start the cycle by creating a vacuum in the absorber and
evaporator, and starting these pumps. Water will boil at 40"F. -45°F with
a vacuum of 29.53 inches of mercury (Hg). As the refrigerant (water) is
sprayed on the 55°F chilled water coil, the refrigerant boils and absorbs the
heat from the chilled water. The refrigerant vapor is then absorbed by the
lithium bromide, and becomes weaker. To have continuous operations, the
evaporator. To do this, the generator pump is started and a steam valve is
opened. The generator pump forces the weak solution through the heat
exchanger (where the weak solution is preheated and the strong solution from
the generator is cooled), then into the generator. Steam is used to make the
refrigerant (water) go into a vapor again where it condenses into pure water
in the condenser. As the refrigerant level rises in the condenser, the float
opens to return the refrigerant into the evaporator for continuous operation.
3-21
'"
"
'"
'"
. ~ .
HlAT VCCHAHGIIt
Figure 3-10 Lithium Bromide Absorption System
3-22
C"'ll( O
LIOUIO
Compressed Gas
The compressed gas type of refrigeration system is the most used in
every day application and the one most people are familiar with and the one
we will discuss the most about. Just as with the other type of refrigeration
system, we will look at the major equipment that is used to make the system.
The topics that we will cover are:
• Compressor
• Metering Device
• Evaporators
Compressor
The compressor removes the vapor from the evaporator, compresses
and heats the vapor. This raises the pressure and temperature of the vapor
so that it can be condensed at ordinary climatic temperatures. The
compressor then discharges the vapor to the condenser. There are four
primary types of compressors: reciprocating, rotary, screw and centrifugal.
Regardless of the type of compressors, they all do the same thing and they
are the heart of the compressed gas cycle.
The condenser transfers heat from a place where it is not wanted to a
place where it can be discarded. The condenser is a coil of metal tubing
which is exposed to a cooling medium, such as water or fan-forced air. the
cooling medium absorbs enough heat from the vapor to condense it. There
are three types of condensers normally used and the are water-cooled, air-
cooled, and evaporative.
3-23
Receivers are installed to collect the liquid refrigerant as it leaves the
condenser. In some models, the lower section of the condenser is used as the
receiver. A receiver serves as a stowage for refrigerant, maintains a liquid
seal on the liquid line, and vents any air or non-condensable gases back to
the condenser.
Receivers are usually designed to be large enough to hold the complete
charge of refrigerant required to operate the unit. They are equipped with
stop valves on the inlet and outlet lines to permit the serviceman to pump the
unit down when work it to be performed on another component in the
system. The liquid refrigerant is then collected and directed to the metering
device.
Metering Device
The metering device is a device that limits or controls the flow of
refrigerant passing through it on its way back to the evaporator. By
controlling the flow, the pressure is reduced so that the liquid will again boil
at low temperature in the evaporator.
So that the refrigerating unit may operate automatically, an automatic
metering device must be placed in the circuit between the liquid line and the
evaporator. This control reduces the high pressure in the liquid line to the
low pressure in the evaporator. The six main types of automatic metering
devices are:

Automatic Expansion Valve (AEV or AXV)
Thermostatic Expansion Valve (fEV or TXV)
Thermal-Electric Expansion Valve (11IEXV)
Low Side Float (LSF)
High Side Float (HSF)
Capillary Tube (Cap. Tube)
3-24
Evaporators
The evaporator or cooling coil is the part of the refrigeration system
where heat is removed from the product; air, water, or whatever is to be
cooled. As the refrigerant enters the passages of the evaporator, it absorbs
heat from the product being cooled and, as it absorbs heat from the load, it
begins to boil and vaporizes. In this process, the evaporator accomplishes the
overall purpose of the system - refrigeration.
Manufacturers develop and produce evaporators in several different
designs and shapes to fill the needs of prospective users. The blower coil or
forced convection type evaporator is the most common design; it is used both
in refrigeration and air-conditioning installations. The six main types of
evaporators are:
• Plate
• Bare Tube
• Finned Tube
• Fixed Convection
• Dry
• Flooded
Figure 3-11 shows the basic compressed gas cycle and use with the
following cycle description will help you see and understand how the cycle
works.
Liquid refrigerant enters the metering device which separates the high
pressure side of the system from the low pressure side. This valve regulates
the amount of refrigerant which enters the cooling coils of the evaporator.
Because of the pressure differential, as the refrigerant passes through the
metering device, some of it flashes to a vapor.
3-25
IlEAT
fnOM
CONTROlU:O
EIlV l OONKENT
LOH PRESS URE S I DE ~ ~ ft! GI! PRESSURE S I DE:
SATUR.I\TED GAS I SUPE RHEATED V/I.POR
~ t
EVAPORATOP CONDENSE [l
COMP r..ESSOR
LIQUI D REfRIGERANT AT ....J
E)( P ANS ION r;,()(}-_____ ----'Hc:I.::GH::....:.'.:.:RE:.:S.::S.::URE:=-_---'
VALVE '<..Y
I.J" ! ~ ~ , > , \ \I;;i q ~ o < '
Figure 3·11 Basic Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle
IIEAT
From the metering device, the refrigerant passes into the evaporator,
The boiling point of the refrigerant under the low pressure in the evaporator
is lower than the temperature of the space in which the cooling coil is
installed, This causes the liquid to boil and vaporize, picking up latent heat
of vaporization from the space being cooled. The refrigerant continues to
absorb latent heat of vaporization until all the liquid has been vaporized. By
the time the refrigerant leaves the cooling coil, it has not only absorbed this
latent heat of vaporization but has also picked up some additional heat - that
is, the vapor has become superheated.
The refrigerant leaves the evaporator as low-pressure superheated vapor.
The remainder of the cycle is used to dispose of this heat and convert the
refrigerant back into a liquid state so that it can again vaporize in the
evaporator and absorb the heat again.
The low-pressure superheated.vapor is drawn out of the evaporator by
the compressor, which also keeps the refrigerant circulating through the
3-26
system. In the compressor, the refrigerant is compressed from a low-
pressure, low-temperature vapor to a high-pressure, high temperature vapor.
The high-pressure vapor is discharged from the compressor into the
condenser. Here the refrigerant condenses, giving up its superheat (sensible
heat) and its latent heat of condensation. The refrigerant, still at high
pressure, is now a liquid again. From the condenser, the refrigerant goes to
the metering device and the cycle begins again.
Figure 3-12 shows a graphic illustration of the pressure-temperature
relationship for the refrigerant R-22, during each phase of its cycle.
Referring to Figure 3-12, the evaporator state is the point at which the
boiling liquid refrigerant enters the evaporator and absorbs sensible heat form
the chill water return. As heat is absorbed, the liquid becomes completely
vaporized and rises above its saturation temperature. At this point, the vapor
is said to be "superheated".
The superheated vapor is then compressed. Compressing the vapor
raises the pressure-temperature state of the vapor which preconditions it for
the condensation process.
Condensation is the exact reverse of evaporation, and serves to expel
the heat absorbed by the refrigerant, and to condense the refrigerant vapor
back to liquid form for reuse by the evaporator.
Liquid metering is the final stage of the refrigeration cycle. Metering
allows just the right amount of refrigerant to enter the evaporator so that the
proper cooling and superheating takes place.
3-27
f
, ,
"0
'"
""
90
84 90
"-
°
~
-
a

-
~
Co
E
~
f-
70
eo
.,
'"
'"
"
<0
0
-<0
."
.JO
Chillers
Superheated
state vapor ----•. ,
. 0"
.., '
~ ,
state
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - ~ .
,,0 - ~ . 1'1
(84°F. 153.2 psig)
Liquid zone
Ev'ror,tor,tat.
(50 F. 84 p,lg)
Subcool ed
state liquid
o 10 10 30 ~ &0 60 10 ao 90 lao 110 110 1.30 '''0 1 ~ 1110
84 psig 153.2 psig
Pressure, psig
Figure 3·12 Pressure-Temperature Chart for R-22
The term chiller is normally used in connection with a complete chiller
package - which includes compressor, condenser, evaporator, internal piping
and controls; or for a liquid chiller (evaporator) only, where the water or
brine is cooled,
Liquid chillers are of two general types: flooded and direct expansion.
There are several different configurations including shell-and-tube, double
tube, shell-and-coil, Baudelot (surface), and tank-with-raceway. For HVAC
applications, the shell-and-tube configuration is most common.
3-28
Flooded Chillers
A typical flooded shell-and-tube liquid chiller is shown in Figure 3-l3.
Refrigerant flow to the shell is controlled by a high- or low-side float valve
or by a restrictor. Water flow rate through the tubes is defined by the
manufacturer but is generally in the range of 6 to 12 fps. Tubes may be
plain (bare) or have a finned surface. The two-pass arrangement shown in
most common, although one to four passes are available. The chiller must
be arranged with removable water boxes so that the tubes may be cleaned at
regular intervals, because even a small amount of fouling can cause a
significant decrease in heat-exchange capacity. Piping must be arranged to
allow easy removal of the water boxes.
Direct Expansion (OX) Chillers
In the OX liquid chiller (Figure 3-14), the refrigerant is usually inside
the tubes with the liquid in the shell. Baffles are provided tei control the
liquid flow. The U-tube configuration shown is typical and less expensive
than the straight-through tube arrangement but can lead to problems with oil
accumulation in the tubes if refrigerant velocities are too low. Refrigeration
flow is controlled by means of a thermal expansion valve.
Package Chillers
A complete package chiller will include compressor, condenser,
evaporator (chiller), internal piping, and operating, and capacity controls.
Controls should be in a panel and include all internal wiring with a terminal
strip for external wiring connections. In small packages - up to 100 tons -
motor starters may also be included. Some units with air-cooled condensers
are designed for outdoor mounting; freeze prevention procedures must be
followed. Units with water-cooled condensers require an external source of
condensing water.
3-29
II
Tube
sheel
Tubes
Aelflgeranl
SUChon
Shell Aelngeranl
liquid in
"
"
.' '
Figure 3-13 Flooded Liquid Chiller
LiqUId oul
Tube
sheet
Liquid In
_ LIQUId
'"'
_ liqUId
'"
Rehigerant
Aelrogerant
tiquld In
Figure 3-14 Direct-Expansion chiller (U-tube type)
3-30
Chillers with reciprocating compressors are found mostly in the 5-to-
100 ton range. Though larger units are made, economics usually favor
centrifugal compressor chillers in sizes of 100 tons or more. Screw
compressor systems are made in a limited range of sizes, as contrasted with
centrifugal compressors. Motor starters are usually separate from the
centrifugal or screw packages may be turbine-driven but more often use
electric motors. The typical system is direct-driven at 36500 rpm. Wye-
Delta motors are used for reduced voltage starting. In larger units or 1000
tons or more, it is not unusual to use high-voltage motors; the lower current
requirements allow smaller wire sizes and across-the-line starting. An
unusual drive system is that used on one of the 8500-ton chillers at the
Dallas-Ft. Worth airport. The utility plant manager replaced the original
steam turbine driver with 5000-hp, 4160-volt, variable-speed, variable-
frequency electric drive. The chiller capacity was reduced to 5500 tons,
more in line with the actual load.
Cooling Towers
A cooling tower is a device for cooling water by utilizing the
evaporative cooling effect of the water. The cooled water may be used for
many purposes but the principle concern in this book is for its use as a heat
sink in a refrigerant condenser.
The two main types of cooling towers are open circuit and closed
circuit, described below. There are also two basic configurations: cross-flow
and counter-flow. In either arrangement, the water enters at the top of the
tower and flows downward through it. In the counter-flow arrangement, the
air enters at the bottom and flows upward. In the cross-flow arrangement,
the air enters at one side, flows across the tower and out the other side.
Towers may be forced- or induced-draft, using fans (Figure 3-15), or
natural draft, using convective chimney effects. Typical of this latter group
are the large hyperbolic towers seen at many power plants, Figure 3-16. In
a forced-draft tower, the air is blown into the tower by the fans; in the
induced-draft tower, the air is drawn through the tower.
3-31
.... ir
'"
Wiuer
sprays
,,,
-
I
Wat er
----J out
Figure 3·15 Forced-Draft Cooling Tower
Air
i out
Water
sprays
Figure 3·16 Natural-Draft Cooling Tower
3-32
Towers are spray-filled, with the water distributed through spray
nozzles, or splash-filled, where the water flows by gravity and splashes off
the tower fill material. In either case, the idea is to maximize the
evaporation efficiency. The most important factors in this effort are 1) the
effectiveness of spray or splash in atomizing the water, 2) the internal tower
volume in which air and water corne into contact, 3) the air flow rate through
the tower, and 4) the water flow rate. Tower fill material used to be
redwood. Now most fill material is made of PVC or some similar plastic.
The two terms relating to tower efficiency are range and approach. The
range is the difference between entering and leaving cooling water
temperatures. For HVAC practice, this is usually 1000F, although gOF to 15°F
are used. Approach is the difference between the leaving cooling water
temperature and the ambient wet-bulb temperature. This is usually between
6 and 1000F, with gOF being typical.
Open-Circuit Cooling Towers
In Figure 3-17, it can be seen that there is only one water circuit, with
a portion of the cooling water being evaporated to cool the remainder.
Because the water is exposed to air, with all of its contaminants, and absorbs
oxygen, which is corrosive to most piping, the water must be carefully
treated. To avoid increasing the concentration of solids as water is
evaporated, blowdown must be provided: a portion of the water is wasted to
the sewer either continuously or intermittently. A blowdown rate equal to the
evaporation rate is considered normal. Ideally, treatment additives and
blowdown rate should be controlled automatically by a system which
measures water quality and solids concentration.
3-33
L
r
"
ij
i
I
!
,
i
Water
r
Air out
Water
'"
'0
1
1
---I
I--
Air
A"
'0
'"
--,
Water
'"'
I--
Figure 3-17 Cross-Flow Cooling Tower
Closed-Circuit Towers
The closed-circuit tower (Figure 3-18) is desigued to mlmmlze
corrosion and fouling in the cooling water circuit by making this a closed
circuit. The cooling water flows through a bare tube coil in the tower and
coolant water in a separate circuit is sprayed over the coil and evaporated.
This is essentially the same system as the evaporative condenser previously
described. The coolant water circuit is open and needs treatment and
blowdown. Because of the temperature differential through the tube wall,
this system is slightly less efficient than the open circuit, but the lower
fouling effect improves the performance of, and decreases maintenance on,
the condenser. This tower usually has a higher first cost than the open circuit
tower.
3-34
'I' ' I'
/1\ /1\
(
C
Bare pipe coil ~
J'o
Ai r in ~
<6
~ Wale, sump wil
make-up and bl
Pump
Figure 3-18 Closed-Circuit Cooling Tower
3-35
cs
CR
h automatic
owdown
l.
Cooling Coils
A cooling coil is a finned-tube heat exchanger for use in an air-
handling unit. Chilled water, brine, or refrigerant is inside the tubes and air
is blown over the outside, across the fins and tubes. When used with
refrigerant, this element is the "evaporator" in the refrigeration cycle and is
called a direct expansion (DX) coil.
Piping
Piping systems are the means by which thermal energy fluids are
transported from one place to another. The type of fluid and its temperature
and pressure influence and limit the choice of piping materials. Most
systems are closed - that is, the fluid is continually recirculated and no
makeup is required except to replace that lost due to leaks. Steam systems
are partly to completely open - as when the steam is used for a process or
humidification - and require continuous makeup. Cooling-tower systems are
open and need makeup to replace the water evaporated in the tower.
Closed systems require some means of compensating for the changes
in volume of the fluid due to temperature changes. Expansion (compression)
tanks are used.
Piping must be properly supported, with compensation for expansion
due to temperature changes and anchors to prevent undesired movement.
Pumps
Centrifugal pumps are used in HV AC for circulation of chilled, hot and
condensing water, and brine. They are also used for pumping steam
condensate and for boiler feed.
The operating theory of centrifugal pumps is exactly analogous to that
of centrifugal fans. The rotating action of the impeller (equivalent to the fan
wheel) in a scroll housing generates a pressure which forces the fluid through
the piping system. The pressure and volume developed are functions of
3-36
pump size and rotational speed. For higher pressures, multistage pumps are
used.
Pump Configurations and Types
The majority of the centrifugal pumps used in HVAC work have a
backward curved blade impeller (Figure 3-19). For pumping hot condensate,
a turbine-type impeller is used to minimize flashing and cavitation.
Most pumps are direct driven at standard motor speeds such as 3500
rpm, 1750 rpm, and 1150 rpm. Typical arrangements include combinations
of alternatives such as end-or double-suction, in-line or base mounted,
horizontal or vertical, and close-coupled or base mounted. Vertical turbine
pumps are used in sumps, Le., in cooling-tower installations.
Larger inlet dia. '"
lower NPSH
required
Rolati on
----
Number 01 vanes
may vary
Figure 3-19 Backward-Curved Pump Impeller
3-37
In general, in-line pumps are used in small systems or secondary
systems, such as freeze-prevention loops. Base-mounted pumps are used for
most applications. Double-suction pumps are preferred for larger water
volumes over 300 to 400 gpm, because the purpose of the double-suction
design is to minimize the end thrust due to water entering the impeller.
Performance Curves
A typical pump performance curve (Figure 3-20) is drawn with
coordinates of gpm and feet of head. The curves show the capacity of a
specific pump-casing size and design at a specific speed (rpm) and with
varying impeller diameters. The same impeller is used throughout, but when
it is "shaved" (machined) to reduce its outside diameter, the capacity is
reduced. This allows the pump to be matched to the design conditions. The
graph includes brake horsepower curves for standard size motors, based on
water with specific gravity of 1.0. For brines, or liquids with other specific
gravities, the horsepower must be corrected in direct proportion to the
specific gravity change. Also shown are efficiency curves.
9
• 6
, ,

<
,
60
.,'"
9'"
. '"
"
,
,
I I
./

c.6 ,

, "
'----<:.. ,
' ..,
, ,\11
I
I -

...
r 19""
"--
--.l

0.,

"
"
,
,
\
I
-r....,
'----

"

,,\ ;;OI-lP
.
'lit 01 m"",.,um
K
;BHP
l BltP
1
""
JOO <00
Figure 3·20 Pump Performance Curve
3-38
The point at which a pump curve intersects the zero flow line is the
shutoff head. At this or a higher head, the pump will not generate any flow.
If the pump continues to run under no-flow conditions, the work energy input
will heat the water. The resulting temperature/pressure rise has been known
to break the pump casing.
If the speed of the pump is varied, the result will be a family of curves
similar to Figure 3-21. These data are needed to evalua!e a variable-speed
pumping design.
60
L- ",,"'" 1d""''''Y j."
~
50
I ~ f l n l
"
"
-
;
0

<

,.
"
~
---
20
~ p m
'0
t--
850 rpm
o
o
'00 '00
,00 500 600
C;>(I:tC,ly ,n GPM
Figure 3-21 Pump Speed versus Capacity and Head
3-39
Pump Selection
In order to select a pump, it is necessary to calculate the system
pressure drop at the design flow rate. Losses include pipe, valves, fittings,
control valves, and equipment such as heat exchangers, boilers, or chillers.
The design operating point or a complete system curve can then be plotted
on a pump performance curve. Usually several different pump curves will
be inspected in order to find the best efficiency and lowest horsepower. In
general, for large flows at low heads, lower speed pumps - 1150 rpm or even
850 rpm - will be most efficient. For higher heads and lower flow rates,
1750 rpm or 3500 rpm will be preferable. Multistage pumps may be needed
at very high heads. Always select a motor HP that cannot be exceeded by
the selected pump at any operating condition, e.g., the HP curve should be
above the pump curve at all points.
When two or more identical pumps are installed in parallel. The
performance curve for two pumps has twice the flow of one pump at any
given head. When the system curve is superimposed, it can be seen that the
curve for one pump will intersect the system curve at about 70 percent of the
design flow rate and about half of the design head. Similar curves can be
drawn for three or more pumps in parallel.
Two or more identical pumps in series provide twice the head at any
given flow rate. The flow with one pump will be about 75 percent of design
flow. However, unless a bypass is provided around the second pump, the
system curve will change somewhat with only one pump running, due to the
pressure loss through the second pump. A bypass should be provided around
both pumps to allow one to operate while the other is being repaired or
replaced.
AIR-HANDLING
I It stands to reason that an air-handling unit of some kind is an essential
k.
part of an air-conditioning system. So if the student understands the
equipment that is used in air systems, it will help him understand the overall
3-40
view of HV AC. In this section of the chapter, we will be studying about the
equipment used in air handling. The topics that will be covered are:
• Fans
• Ductwork
FANS
A fan is a device used to cause a current of air by movement of a
broad surface or a number of such surfaces within a sealed plenum. From
this definition, the function of a fan can be stated as a device which moves
air or gas from one place to another. In doing so it overcomes the resistance
to flow by supplying the fluid (gas or air) with the energy necessary for
continued motion. The resistance to flow is caused by duct configuration, the
fluid being at rest, etc.
Large central station boilers, regardless of fuel and method of firing use
mechanical draft fans. Forced-draft fans supply large amounts of fresh air
for combustion. Induced-draft fans remove combustion products. These are
a few types and uses of mechanical draft fans in a power plant.
A fan moves a quantity of air or gas by adding sufficient energy to the
air stream to start motion and overcome resistance to flow. The bladed rotor
or impeller does the actual work. The power required depends on (1) the
volume of gas moved per unit time, (2) the pressure difference across the fan,
and (3) the efficiency of the fan and its drive. The topics we will cover
under fans are:
• Classifications of Fans
• Fan Control
• Fan Drives
• Fan Laws
• Fan Characteristics Curves
3-41
Classifications of Fans
There are two basic types of fans; centrifugal and axial flow. The axial
flow fan (Figure 3-22) moves the gas in a path parallel to the fan rotor.
These fans operate most efficiently with a low resistance to flow and so
provide a high volume of air at low head pressures. Axial fans are normally
used as forced-draft fans in a balanced-draft system.
I NLE T BOX
MOTOA
ROTOR ASSEMSL '(
REMOVABLE UPPER
FAN HOUSI NG
DI FFUSER
DR I V E SHAF T
REMOVABLE VAR IABLE ·PI TCH
MAIN BEARING ASSEMBL'T'
Figure 3·22 Axial Flow Fan
The centrifugal or radial fan (Figure 3-23) moves the gas perpendicular
to the fan rotor and operates most efficiently in a high head situation. The
centrifugal is suitable for a forced-draft or pressurized system where induced
draft fans are not .
3-42
3-43
~
-
I-
:J
a..
Z
a:
IJJ
~
0
a..
It is cheaper and lighter and, therefore, requires less power. This can be seen
on Figure 3-24. Also, because of its size and weight it is more easily
controlled.
J
4
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
/
~ 7
/
, , ~ V
AXIAL FLOW FAN
-
/
~
oJ'
."..
/
••
~
~
V
V'
..,.
7
./
'"
--
V
10
I I I I
o 10 20 30. 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Figure 3-24 Typical Fan Power Curve
3-44
-
"*-
-
>-
u
z
UJ
-
u
u..
u..
UJ
The blades of an axial fan are generally smaller than those of a
centrifugal fan and the construction is such that a variable pitch control
system can be easily installed. This type of control allows for a rapid change
of output and increased efficiency over the centrifugal fan as shown in Figure
3-25.
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
o
I
-""-
~
~
.;
~
V
."
~
AXIAL FLOW FAN
/
V'
l.. ......
,...
-
r-
a 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Figure 3-25 Typical Fan Efficiency Curve
3-45
The main disadvantage of an axial fan is that it requires high rotational
speeds to generate the required air flow. This can result in noise pollution.
However, the primary problem with high speeds is that the fan must be a
precision machine which means that it can fail quickly and catastrophically
with little or no warning.
is more durable because of its lower rotational speeds, and it can supply air
at high head pressure more efficiently than the radial machine. The axial
machine can change the pitch of its rotating or stationary blade. Whereas the
centrifugal (radial) fans blades establishes the fan's use and a particular fan
is chosen for a specific system.
There are three basic blade shapes used in a fan: a forward curve, a
straight blade and a backward curve. These shapes and the effects on the
velocity are shown in Figure 3-26.
flow. This type of fan operates at an efficiency of 50% or less. The forward
blade curve is a general purpose fan best used for medium pressure
applications. The fan is fairly quiet during operation because of the low tip
speed.
The backward curve blade fan can produce higher discharge pressures
than the straight blade fan or the forward curved blade fan. Horsepower
requirements are maximum at 60% airflow. Above or below 60% airflow the
horsepower requirements are less than maximum.
3-46
v vr
r---=
v
(al FORWARD·CURVED
(bl STRAIGHT
v,.,
(cl BACKWARD·CURVED
v = Absolute velocity of air leaving blade
(shown equal for all three blade types)
Vb = Velocity of blade tip
Figure 3-26 Types of Centrifugal Fan Blades
3-47
Fan Control
Very few instances of operations permit fans to operate continuously
at the same pressure and volume discharge rates. Therefore, to meet the
requirements of the system, a convenient means of varying the fan output
becomes necessary. Common methods of controlling fan output are damper
control, variable speed control and inlet vane control. In some cases, a
combination of controls are used. Damper control provides variable
resistance in the system to alter the fan output. However, damper control is
inefficient because of the excess pressure energy which must be dissipated
by throttling. The advantages to damper control are:
1. It has the lowest first cost of all control types.
2. It is easily operated and adapted to automatic control.
3. It incorporates the least expensive type of fan drive, a constant
speed, induction type AC motor.
4. It has continuous rather than a step type of control, which makes
it effective throughout the entire range of fan operation.
Variable speed control is the most efficient method of controlling fan
output since it also reduces power consumption. Speed control results in the
same loss in efficiently throughout the entire, fan load range. The loss in
effectiveness depends on the type of speed variation. Commonly used
variable speed systems include magnetic couplings, hydraulic couplings,
special mechanical drives, variable speed DC motors, variable speed AC
motors and variable speed steam turbines.
Magnetic couplings consist of two windings in a housing with a
variable field. A change in field strength varies the slip and consequently the
~ speed of the fan.
3-48
A hydraulic coupling varies slip by varying the hydraulic pressure as
the speed of the driver changes. The variable pitch V-belt and the variable
speed planetary transmission are examples of special mechanical drives.
Two-speed AC motors can be used to supplement damper control.
Two-speed AC motors cost less than the variable speed AC drives and
improve fan efficiency when coupled with a simple damper control.
Inlet vane control (see Figure 3-27) regulates air flow entering the fan
and requires less horsepower at fractional loads than outlet damper control.
The inlet vanes give the air a varying degree of spin in the direction of wheel
rotation enabling the fan to produce the required head at proportionately
lower power and, therefore, greater efficiency. Although vane control offers
considerable savings in efficiency over damper control at any reduced load
it is most effective for moderate load changes close to full-load operation.
Inlet vane control is often used for full load operation, and efficiency
Inlet vane leakage often makes it difficult to reduce fan air flow at low
loads when using a single speed fan drive. Therefore, a supplementary
damper is used to increase the control range of the vanes. Th is is especially
applicable to forced-draft fans where a wide load range is required.
INLET VANES
AIR FLOW
Figure 3-27 Inlet Vanes
3-49
Fan Drives
Electric motors are normally used for fan drives because they are less
expensive and more efficient than any other type of drive. For fans of more
than a few horsepower, squirrel-cage induction motors are most common.
This type of motor is relatively inexpensive, reliable and highly efficient over
a wide load range. It is frequently used in large sizes with a magnetic or
hydraulic coupling for variable speed installations. For some variable speed
installations, particularly in the smaller sizes, wound rotor (slip rings)
induction motors are used. If a DC motor is required the compound type is
usually selected. The steam turbine drive costs more than a squirrel-cage
motor but is less expensive than any of the variable speed electric motor
arrangements in sizes over 50 horsepower.
Fan Laws
Fan laws were introduced at the beginning of this course and can be
stated as follows:
1. Capacity is proportional to the fan speed, or: CFM a RPM.
2. Pressure or head is proportional to the square of fan speed, or SP
a RPM'.
3. Power is proportional to the cube of fall speed, or HP a RPM' .
To help you in understanding how the fan laws are applied, the
following problem is provided.
A fan delivers 10,000 cfm at a static pressure of 2 inches of water
when operating at a speed of 400 rpm. The required power input is 4
Bhp. Find the speed, pressure and power of the same fan system if
15,000 cfm are desired. Assume constant fan efficiency over varying
flow requirements.
3-50
Using the first fan law, speed is proportional to capacity, the new speed
can be found as follows: CFM a RPM
so: RPM,
= RPM, x CFM., _ 400 rpm x 15,000 cfm
CFM, 10,000 cfm
= 600 RPM
Using the second fan law, speed square is proportional to pressure, the
new pressure can be found as follows: SP a RPM
2
so: SP, = SP,
RPM)
--::-:c---'--' = 2 in.
RPM,
600 rpm
2
400
rpm
= 4.5 in. of water
Using the third fan law, speed cubed if proportional to brake
horsepower, the new power requirement can be found as follows: BHP
a RPM)
so: BHP, = BHP,
Fan Characteristic Curves
RPM)
-="..:..' = 4 BHP
RPM,
= 13.5 BHP
600 rpm)
400
rpm
Fans are tested by their manufacturers and the results of the fans
operations are presented in characteristic curves. The curves may include the
variation in head, capacity, power and efficiency for a constant speed or can
be a family of curves for a series of constant speeds. By careful review of
3-51
the various types of fans and their characteristics curves the most correct fan
for a given system can be selected.
Within a given class or type of fan there are certain general
characteristics that are common to the many different designs. These
characteristics are power, pressure, and efficiency. The curves in Figure 3-28
show the variation in power, pressure and efficiency for differing capacities
at a constant speed for an axial-flow fan. The fairly constant power output
over a wide range of capacities is common to most axial-flow fans. Thus,
there will be little tendency to overload the driving motor regardless of the
change in conditions under which the fan operates. This is called a non-
rate for an increase in resistance or pressure. The efficiency of such a fan
is generally somewhat lower than that of centrifugal fans except at low
pressure. By varying such things as the pitch diameter, and width of the
blades, the point of maximum efficiency can be varied to cover a wide range
of conditions.
w
0:
::J
(j)
(j)
:2 :::!
::J Cl.
:2 0
xZ
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z Cl.
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u (j)
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wO
Cl.I
J II I
:- SOUND LEVEL-RELA TlV
E Itvr
r--, f::....S,1y
11 0
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
f'I>o.
HORSEPOWER
......
....-
........
TOTAL PRESSURE
¥.

2
"""-
\>-"

"""
-<-\>-"-td/
S t.<J::--'" "-
c, c,''<: t ic"" "'
"\,c, c,-\
'9",0''''- i\ "'
1-'<: s"\\>- ,,,-":<
/' "c,
'9",
10
V "-' I
00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PERCENT CAPACITY
Figure 3-28 Axial Flow Fan Characteristic Curve
3-52
The characteristics of a radial-tip centrifugal fan are shown in Figure
3-29. the power increases with a decrease in pressure and an increase in
capacity, but the increase is not sharp enough to overload the motor if proper
selection of the motor is made. Generally, the characteristics of the radial-tip
centrifugal fan will be a compromise of the backward-curve-blade and
The backward-curved-blade centrifugal fan will have characteristics as
shown in Figure 3-30. Best efficiencies are obtained with rotors having
backward-curved blades and the power curve for these rotors shows a non-
capacities. The point of maximum efficiency occurs at the point of
maximum power. Above 50% of the maximum capacity a increase in
capacity will decrease the pressure sharply. This fan is excellent for forced-
draft service, for, as the fuel bed of a furnace closes and restricts the flow of
air from the fan, the fan pressure will rise sharply. This increase in fan
pressure will tend to open the fuel bed to admit more air to the' furnace.
as shown in Figure 3-31. If reasonable care is exercised in figuring the
conditions under which the fan will operate, a motor can be selected to
point of maximum pressure.
The straight-blade fan's discharge pressure rises from full flow to a
maximum at no flow, where it falls off, as shown in Figure 3-32. The
maximum efficiency occurs near the fan's maximum pressure.
Figure 3-33 represents a modification of a backward-curved-blade fan.
The pressure characteristic does not have a steel slope, nor does the
horsepower curve have a distinct hump, resulting in maximum efficiency
obtainable over a wider operating range.
3-53
140
W
130
ec
120
:J
til
110
til
:!w 100
:Jg:
90
:Eo
xZ
80

70
:Eec
u.
W
60
oS
50
... 0
za.
40
WW
u
tll
30
ecec
wo
20
a.J:
10
0

1'0
Sr

,0 Ss.
V
" (C'.s- -'9
"-
.-
N\E.OIANIC.
M
-
,""-
r-... .
to I: 1:1 '\"

s::::
S l': ,t"-.:.£I to I\' C Y
"1lfc 1\
/ q..,S'c.'?Y \.

C)-I'-. '
/
.,/
"
I\.
'r'f'
(lJZ)'\J
,.
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PERCENT CAPACITY
3-54
PERCENT CAPACITY
Figure 3-30 Backward·Curved·Blade Fan Characteristic Curve
3-55
I
'"

_r--
I-SOUNO
a:
::J
1 10
(/)
(/)
100

90
::Ja..

80
xZ
70

60
'"
50
.... 0
40
Za..
wW
30
u(/)
a: a:
20
",0
a..l:
10
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,A
rO r 4t
"
/" ......... ..!:..RfSSUR
./
"" ...... S,. f
/'
MECHANICA&C
/'
J' S,. ·"
V
......
L C,," EFFICIENCY-
./ ....... ""Ie "'

/
......;:. f'ss

I
,

It -
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PERCENT CAPACITY
Figure 3-31 Forward-Curved-Blade Fan Characteristic Curve
3-56
UJ
a:
110
::J
Vl 100
Vl
:2
UJ
90
::Jg:
80
:20
xZ
70
««
60
:2 a:
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50
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>-0
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UVl
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rorA,
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l/'""
"'" S

rX'"
MECHANICAL lie
EFFICIENCY I
/'"
.....

-
,....
V l'\.""-s> --
)-...
V
Sr
..q ric .sv
)
1Clfl\tc»
/
.."....,..
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'rl

"-
0:
1

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 I no
PERCENT CAPACITY
Figure 3·32 Straight-Bladed Fan Characteristic Curve
3-57
UJ
1 10
a:
::::>
100
(f)
(f)
90

80
::::> a. .
70
xz
60
<1:<1:

50
u..
UJ

40
1-
0
30
.."a.
- UJ
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10

a.I
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TOTAL p . ?O\f'J
t
?
STATIC PR -;: RfSSURE: 'r\O?St
E:SS
URf
..... _ 11. .

:i!: .......... c. 1'/.

SiAiICEFFICIENCY......

C).-
-'

....

.'\...
V
If

I'\. '\
/
R\'\
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10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PERCENT CAPACITY
Figure 3·33 Backward-Bladed Fan Characteristic Curve
3-58
DUcrwORK
Air duct is an enclosed conduit through which air is moved from one
place to another. In this section of the chapter, we are going to discuss the
equipment that is used. The following topics will be covered:
• Classification
• Duct System Accessories
Classification
Air duct design is broken into high and low pressure classifications by
the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
(SMACNA). Most of the low pressure standards also apply to high pressure
work. High pressure standards are intended for heavier industrial systems
High pressure duct is classified as having a static pressure rating greater
than or equal to 3 inches of water. Leakage is limited to 1 percent. Low
pressure duct design covers pressures up to 2 inches of water.
Table 1-1 shows the specific breakdown of the SMACNA Pressure-
Velocity classifications.
Table 1-1 SMACNA Pressure-Velocity Classifications
SMACNA Duct Static Velocity
Standard Class Pressure Limits
High High
Ion
> 2000 FPM
High Medium 6" > 2000 FPM
High Medium 4" > 2000 FPM
High Medium 3" < 4000 FPM
Low Low 2" < 2500 FPM
Low Low 1" < 2500 FPM
Low Low as' < 2000 FPM
3-59
The use of the velocity to classify duct construction and design is not
common. Velocity classifications are used to describe the system or
individual duct run. Traditionally 2000 feet per minute is used to separate
high and low velocity classifications.
Duct System Accessories
Several accessories are used in the process of distributing the air to
make the operation more efficient. These include dampers, louvers, vents,
diffusers and silencers. Each of these components performs a specified
function within HV AC air ducting.
Turning Vanes
Turbulent air flow increases the amount of friction encountered in the
movement of air. By minimizing turbulence, thereby creating laminar flow,
the overall efficiency of the HV AC system is increased.
Turbulence occurs when changes in flow direction are encountered.
Figure 3-34 graphically indicates what happens to air flow through a typical
elbow. The air entering the elbow is laminar. The portion of the flow which
travels along the outside edge of the elbow follows the curve of the outside
wall. Air entering on the inside edge continues straight until it runs into the
air stream on the outer edge. This collision sets up eddies which increase the
friction loss.
To overcome this situation vanes can be installed to direct the air flow
around the elbow (Figure 3-35). The vanes create a series of smaller elbows
which reduce the amount of turbulence. In some rare instances, splitters can
be used to actually establish smaller elbows (Figure 3-36). Splitters and
vanes are also used to maintain a laminar flow with uniform pressure
distribution when a tee or other fitting is near the downstream side of an
elbow. This process is shown in Figure 3-37.
3-60
Figure 3-34 Turbulent Air Flow in Elbow
Figure 3-35 Reducing Turbulence with Turning Vanes
3-61
I ~ - - ; - RADIUS
/'
WID/TH /'
I DEPTH
tV
Figure 3-36 Reducing Turbulence with Splitters
3-62
I
~
I
~ ~ ~ !

~ !

~ ~ .

---..

Figure 3-37 Pressure Distribution with Vanes
3-63
Dampers
Dampers are used to limit the amount of air low through a duct ·or
piece of equipment. Three basic types are found in HVAC distribution
a schematic representation of each basic type.
,
\/ \ \/'.
-
,
-
;
,
,
\/ \
i':
,
,
-
,
/\:
~
-
, ,
\/ \ \/\
I
,
-
,
/
-
,
, ' ~ :
\/\
PIVOT
,
-
,
-
-
,
-,
\/\ \/\
, ,
""RALLE L
OPPOSED
3D,DE
Br..;"OE
/
/uv'
/.1IIIf1'V
r ~
O\v
\
Figure 3·38 Damper Types
3-64
Parallel blade dampers normally are used when only full-open or full-
shut conditions are required. When parallel blade dampers are in a partially
open position they tend to direct the air flow to one side of the duct, thus
causing uneven pressure distribution.
Opposed blade dampers are best suited for situation where the air flow
(volume) is to be regulated. They do not create the uneven air flow that a
condition exists.
Pivot (or splitter) dampers generally are used to direct desired air
volume flows at a duct branch (Figure 3-39). Pivot dampers are not
commonly used due to the force required to move the damper. Parallel and
opposed blades have approximately equal forces acting on each side of the
rotating axis (Figure 3-40).
- - 1
\
\
'--""-.. __ -1 ././ ______
Figure 3-39 Pivot Damper at Branch
3-65
'.
INDIVIDUAL
PARALLEL
OR OPPOSED
NOTE:
AIR FLOW =
( NO EXTERNAL STABILIZING ------
FORCE REQUIRED)
STABILIZIlIG
FORCE
DASHED ARROW INDICATES VELOCITY PRESSURE
FORCE VECTORS AT BLADE AXIS IS NOT SHOWN
Figure 3·40 Forces Acting on Damper Blade
Louvers
Louvers are similar to dampers in appearance. The blades, however,
are fixed. Louvers are installed where intake or exhaust air is vented through
the external walls. They may be ducted or simply used for ventilation. Their
primary function is to keep rain and snow from entering the building. In
addition, louvered openings are often equipped with screens or mesh to
prevent insects, birds, animals and trash from entering the ventilation system.
Figure 3-41 shows a typical louver configuration.
3-66
fRN1E
. ~ = = = = = = I
~ l = = = = = l
t
4"TYP
SCREEN OR MESH
Figure 3-41 Typical Louver Configuration
Grilles, Registers and Diffusers
At the tenninal ends of an air duct system (where the conditioned air
is withdrawn from or introduced to the controlled environment) vents are
installed to control the distribution and collection of conditioned air. The
term "vent" is a general expression for any apparatus which permits transfer
of air due to pressure gradient.
In HV AC distribution systems, the term grille applies to a flush-
mounted grid. A typical grille is shown in Figure 3-42 when dampers are
added to the duct side of a grille, the assembly is known as a register. A
typical register is shown in Figure 3-43. Grilles and registers are used on
both supply and return duct systems.
3-67
I '
I
I
l ,
; ,
i :
[
Figure 3·42 Typical Grille
3-68
. ~
~
~
IEEEEEEEEEEB
Figure 3-43 Typical Register
3-69
When the blades of a grille are arranged so the air flow is spread out
and distributed into the controlled environment, it is known as a diffuser.
Diffusers may be fixed or adjustable blade variety. Diffusers are only used
on the supply side. Figure 3-44 shows a typical ceiling supply vent with a
diffuser and damper.
, .\
l
(-
I ~
.... ~
.......
"
"-
/
'\
/
/ \
I \
I
/ \\
/ ~
Figure 3-44 Ceiling Supply Vent with Diffuser and Damper
3-70
Silencers
Fans and air flow can create unwanted noise which is carried by the
HV AC duct system. To eliminate this noise, devices are installed to baffle
and adsorb the sound. The most basic of the silencers is an expansion box
with the entrance and exit ports skewed as shown in Figure 3-45. Other
silencing methods include encasing noisy equipment in insulated boxes and
lining the inside of the duct with insulation. Noise generators produce sound
waves at a reduced pressure variance and, therefore, impede the movement
of discernable noise.

SHEST METI\L EOX
WI TH
BOARD I DE
Figure 3-45 Basic Silencer Box
3-71
,
,
,-
I "
,
I
,,,
SUMMARY
This chapter has discussed the equipment used in heating, cooling and
air-handling in HVAC systems.
Along with this discussion, we also looked at the criteria used to select
this equipment. It is important that you understand how this equipment is
used and how they basically operate. This information will be of value to
you in understanding how a HV AC system operates when all this equipment
is used together in a system.
3-72
,
,
' ..
.,
CHAPTER FOUR
FIELD INSTRUMENTATION OVERVIEW
CHAPTER FOUR
FIELD INSTRUMENTATION OVERVIEW
OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Discuss the operation and applications of the following air flow
measuring devices:
a. Manometers
b. Pitot tubes
c. Pressure gauges (magnahelic)
d. Anemometer
e. Smoke devices
f. Venturi tube and orifice plate
2. State the purpose of and methods used for performing duct
traverses.
3. Perform traverse calculations including actual air flow,
temperature, altitude, and barometric pressure corrections.
4. Identify various temperature ineasurement devices and describe
their construction and operation.
5. Given two known variables, find all other air properties from the
psychometric chart.
6. Define "dew point" and describe the operation of dew cell
measurement instruments.
7. List the electrical parameters measured on HV AC components
and the methods used for each measurement.
8. Identify the instruments used for measuring the speed of HV AC
motors, compressors and fans.
CHAPTER FOUR
FIELD INSTRUMENTATION OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
The instrumentation necessary for HV AC work varies with the extent
to which you get involved with the maintenance and testing of HV AC
systems. Instruments for the measurement of air flow, water flow, rotational
speed, temperature and electricity are tools of the trade for those who install,
test and balance HV AC equipment. Those tasked with long term
maintenance may also employ vibration measurement equipment in predictive
maintenance or noise testing equipment to ensure that the noise from fans,
blowers, etc. does not exceed legal limits for noise in the work place.
Like any other tools or equipment, their usefulness depends on proper
operation and handling. Many of the instruments we are about to discuss are
delicate and require special care in storage, transportation and use. Always
follow the manufacturer's recommended intervals for calibration, and perform
a cal-check whenever the operation of an instrument is suspect. Some of the
instrumentation covered is of extremely simple construction and has been in
common use for decades. Modern electronic equivalents with direct digital
readout are also available which have several advantages in terms of set-up
ease, readout resolution, accuracy, etc., but are usually more expensive.
AIRFLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICES
U-Tube Manometer
The U-tube (Figure 4-1) manometer is a simple and useful means of
measuring partial vacuum and pressure, both for air and hydronic systems.
It so universally used that both the inch of water and the inch of mercury
have become accepted units of pressure measurements. A manometer
consists of a U-shaped glass tube partially filled with a liquid such as tinted
water, oil or mercury. The difference in height of the two fluid columns
4-1
denotes the pressure differential. U-tube manometers are recommended for
measuring pressure drops above 1 in. w.g. across filters, coils, fans, terminal
devices, and sections of ductwork. They are not recommended for readings
of less than 1.0 in. w.g. because of poor resolution in that range.
OVER-PRESSURE
TRAPS. WITH
~ SHUT·OFF COCKS
Figure 4-1 U-Tube Manometer Equipped with Over-Pressure Traps
Inclined/Vertical Manometer
The inclined and/or vertical manometer (Figure 4-2) for airflow
pressure readings is usually constructed from a solid transparent block of
plastic. It has an inclined scale that expands or lengthens the scale for a
given amount of fluid displacement, increasing resoluti on and allowing more
accurate air pressure readings from 0 io 1.0 in. w.g. and' a vertical scale for

Figure 4-2 Inclined-Vertical Manometer
4-2
All air pressures are given in "inches of water", which means that the
air pressure on one end of a U-shaped tube is enough to force the water
higher in the other leg of the tube. Instead of water, this instrument uses
colored oil which is lighter than water. This means that although the scale
reads in inches of water, it is longei than a standard rule. Whenever a
manometer is used, the oil must be at room temperature or the reading will
not be correct. The manometer must be set level and mounted so it does not
vibrate.
The manometer (or inclined draft gauge) is the standard in the industry.
It can be read accurately down to approximately 0.002 in w.g. and contains
no mechanical linkage. It is simple to adjust by setting the piston at the
bottom until the meniscus of the oil is on the zero line. This instrument is
used with a pitot tube or static probe to determine pressure or air velocity in
a duct.
Micro-Manometer
The micro-manometer is used in air system work to read accurately
very small differences in pressure. There are several types used, but the most
common contains two glass vials about 2 to 3 inches in diameter. A skilled
technician can locate one hook relative to the other within' +0.001" in .w.g." e •.. ~
The pointed needle or hook is adjusted until the point "dimples" the water
surface but does not break the tension. This instrument often is difficult to
use in the field because of its stability and leveling requirements, and where
the pressure has pulsations. The electronic micro-manometer is somewhat
easier to use.
Pitot Tube
Construction
The standard Pitot tube, shown in Figure 4-3, is used in conjunction
with a suitable manometer, to provide a simple method of determining the air
velocity in a duct. The Pitot tube is of double tube construction, consisting
of an inner tube which is concentrically located inside of the outer tube. The
4-3
outer "static" tube has 8 equally spaced holes around the circumference of the
outer tube.
5"· • ....
I: OOA
I
I
/
: c-kL
___ ---, ' §§, ,ei t ' ' 0
IS"
,.R @
"'-t ", a HOLES-O 04" CIA. J2 RAO
/
" EOUALlY SPACED NOSE SHALL BE FREE
W FREE FROM BURRS FROM NICKS ANO BURAS
SECTI ON A-A
other-Sizes 01 Pltot lubeS when reqUIred. may be !xlIII uSing the same geometriC
proporuons WI!h the thaI the SialiC onhces on sizes larger Ihan
INNER TUBING-APPROX.
1:8"00, 21 sa. SGA.
standard may not exceed .04" '" diameter. The ITIInllnUm Pll01lube stem (llameler
recogrllZeo unoer IhlS coae shall be . 10" , In no case snail me stem diameter
exceed ' ;30 cllhe lest duCI diameter
STATIC PRESSURE
__ OUTER TUBING
5< 16" 00 . APPROX. 18B& SGA.
'-TOTAL PRESSURE
Figure 4-3 Pitot Tube
Both tubes have a 90 degree radius bend in them located near the
measuring end to allow the open ended inner" impact" tube to be positioned
so that it faces directly into the airstream when the main shaft of the Pitot
tube is perpendicular to the duct and the side outlet static pressure tube outlet
connector is pointed in a parallel direction with airflow facing upstream,
4-4
The pitot tube is actually a head-type flow element which measures
fluid flow by creating a differential pressure. Figure 4-4 is an exaggerated
view of a pitot tube, showing how it functions inside of the duct. The inner
tube is· sometimes called the impact tube, or the total pressure tube, while the
outer tube is the static tube. As we began to explain, the pitot tube creates
a difference of pressure to measure flow (or, more directly, fluid velocity).
Per Bernoulli's equation, the square root of the difference in pressure is
proportional to flow. From Figure 4-4 we can see that the difference
between the total pressure (fp) and the static pressure (Sp) is the velocity
pressure (V p). The relationship between the pressures is expressed by the
equation Tp = Sp + Vp.
"
s,
I
c= ____ ,
--AIRFLOW , Tp-, ____ "\
... .
,
t II
"
s,
"
I I

T,
·1
I I .
I I
·1
..
I I •
s, v,
I I
s,
I !
How Preuuf' is lIIIerled on a Pilot Tube .
Figure 4-4 Pressure Relationships and the Pitot Tube
Pitot Tube Use
The Pitot tube is used for the measurement of airstream "total pressure"
by connecting the inner tube outlet connector to one side of a manometer; for
measurement of airstream "static pressure" by connecting the outer tube side
outlet connector to one side of a manometer; and from measurement of
airstream "velocity pressure" by connectors to opposite sides of a manometer
or draft gauge. This instrument is commonly used with a draft gauge,
manometer or micro-manometer. The pitot tube is a most reliable and rugged
4-5
instrument and is preferred over any method for the field measurement of air
velocity system total air, minimum outdoor air and maximum return air
quantities, fan static pressure, fan total pressure, and fan outlet velocity
pressures.
Several shapes and sizes of Pitot tubes are available for different
applications. A reasonably large space is required adjacent to the duct
penetration for maneuvering the instrument. Care must be taken to avoid
pinching the instrument tubing.
If static pressure, velocity pressure, and total pressure are to be
measured simultaneously, three draft gauges are connected depending on the
specific application.
. .... " ....

"'0'--
'U., f ' ~ ' - - - - _ . . /
,.
'-----Lf
A) Pitot Tube Connections for Supply Airstream
~ .
y
",
'0
", -
..
,.
• .. ·IOW

~
(:
/
~ ~
/).
/.-
"-.
..
-............
B) Pitot Tube Connections if Airstream is
Exhausted from Duct & TP is Positive
Figure 4-5 Pitot Tube Connections
4-6
''''' .
~
,, - ."
".
,
'"

"
MOl'lOW
)
/ " -._ .. _.- UI
('
~ .
.... ... ,
..... " .....
"" J
'"
C) Pitot Tube connections if Airstream is
Exhausted from Duct & TP is Negative
'.H' uN UIIU llSllIl(l1OII
SIIIIC HI""
flOW __
.. , IU", I' "
D) Filter Drop Hook-up
Figure 4-5 Pitot Tube Connections (Con' t)
4-7
INTAKE
IMPACT
CONNECTION
,
,
\
,
,
, +
,
,
FAN
MANOMETER
-------
+
DISCIIARGE
mPACT
CONNF.CTION
E) Fan Total Pressure Hookup
INTAKE
,
-
: .
,
FAN
. '.
IMPACT I ..... -- .. ' i. 1.
CONNECTI ON - I::::] =
[ibx::J
MANOMETER
. - -
+
DISCHARGE
.
,
. - ~ - . '
STATIC
CONNECTI ON
F) Fan Static Pressure Hookup
Figure 4-5 Pitot Tube Connections (Can't)
4-8
r
,
i
In conducting tests, it frequently is sufficient to measure only two of
these three pressures, since the third one can be obtained by simple addition
or subtraction. Care must be taken, however, so that the signs of the various
pressures are correct; supply duct pressures are positive, return and exhaust
duct pressures are negative.
If the airstream is exhausted from the duct, the static pressure is
negative and the hose connections will depend on whether the velocity
pressure is larger or smaller than the numerical value of the static pressure.
If it is larger, the total pressure will be positive; if it is smaller, the total
pressure will be negative (see Figure 4-5).
The various connections between the Pitot tube and the draft gauges are
frequently made with rubber hose. Caution must be used to ensure that all
passages and connections are dry, clean and free of leaks, sharp bends and
other obstructions. The branch ing out of the rubber hose can be
accomplished by the use of a T-tube or by the use of a 4-stem nipple adapter
which can be purchased as an accessory to the draft gauge.
Airflow velocity pressure (Vp) readings are obtained which can be
converted to velocities within the duct by using the following equation:
Where:
Example No.1
v = 4005 .;v;,
Duct velocity (fpm)
Velocity pressure (in. w.g.) at standard air
conditions
What is the duct velocity when the measured velocity pressure is 0.25
. ? .
In. w.g ..
4-9
Solution
v
V
=
=
4oo5.[V; =
4005 .t 0.5
4005 10.25
= 2003 [pm
To save time, a table like Table 4-1 which lists the "velocity vs.
velocity pressure" equivalents is often used.
Table 4·1 Velocities vs. Velocity Pressures
v._
v._
Ptt'uur. Velocity
Veloci!v
P'ftsure Velocity
v_. v._
VelOClly
PrHsure
V"loeity Pr.SSUl'e Ve-Ioc.ly P'enur l
"""
on. wg.
",m
,no "'9.
"""
" . .,
'''''
on, wg. 'Om m.,
300 0.01 20 ..
'"
'"''
' .90 !OSSO 1.512
""
3.32
,SO
0.01
""
0.27
""
'92 58"
1.95
" ..
3.37
."
'"
" ..
'29
,goo 0,95
58"
.. "
"" '"
<5,
0.01
2'"
'" ""
0.9]
""
202 H50
'"
500 0.02
22"
0.32
""
.. "
""
2."
""
3.51
'SO
002 2300 '03
" ..
.. 02
58"
2. 10
""
'55
600 002
" ..
,."
""
U).
56" 2"
""
'50
'SO
,OJ
""
,." .... 1.07 ,goo
'"
""
' "
,,,
'03
" ..
0.37
.'"
1.10
59"
2.21 ))00
'"
,,,
,0- 2500 0.]9
" ..
1.13
'000
".
))"
'"
""
,0-
25"
'"
'300
'"
6OSO 2.28 , .",
'" ." '05
2600 0.42
" ..
'"
""
2.32
'"SO
, ..
900
' 05 28"
, ..
"00
1.21
""
".
'900 '89
...
' 06 2>00 0.45
.. "
'"
6200
'"
7950
".
'000 '06 2> .. 0 .. C7
'500
1.26
625'
2.43
.'"
] .99
" ..
,0> 2800 0.49 ., .. 1,29 5300
",
8050
".
""
0.08 28 .. 0.51
.'"
1.32 6350 2.SI "00
'" " ..
0.08 2900 ' .52
.... 1.35
''''
2.55
I
""
".
''''
0.09 29 ..
,."
""
"JO
.. "
2.S11
.'"
4. Ig
>2"
0. 10
''''
' .56
" ..
1. 41
'500
'"
82"
.,.
"" '"
JO .. 0.51
.. " ".
" ..
2.67 .JOO
'"
" ..
'" ""
'50 .,,'
, .,
'600

.'"' '"
"00
0, 12
" ..
0.62
.'" .."
"" '"
.. "
.. ,
""
0. 13
''''
, ..
49S0 .. 53
""
28'
....
.. ,
' 500
0. 1'
J2"
' .66 sooo
' .56
""
28'
.""
...
)5" 0. 15
""
' .68 S050 1.59
'''''
2,88
" ..
'56
''''
0. 16
""
0.10
5>"
1.62
68" 2.112 .600
."
>6 ..
')) ,."
0.72
"" '"
'900
2.97
86"
.. ,
))"
0. 18
'<5'
D.H 5200
'"
69"
'"
,>0,
'"
)) .. 0. 19
35"
0.76
525'
U2
,'"
3.05
" ..
'"
)8" 02'
'" ..
0.79
"'''
'"
'05"
3. 10
.. "
<8,
)8"
0.21
""
0.81
"' ..
1.78
)),.
'"
.. ..
."
"00
0.22
""
,."
,.,.
"2
)) .. 3. 19
89"
.,.
""
0.24
""
0.85
, ...
1.85 >200
'"
8950
."
2000 '25
" ..
, ...
'''''
1.89 >2 .. 3.28 9000 ,OS
. ~ ("""')' Veloetty • 4005 V v. (Of) V, - 4005
4-10
To calculate t e actual air flow (cfm) in the duct, a series of velocity
an average duct velocity. The cfm is calculated by the following equation:
Airflow (cfm) AxV
Where:
A
V
Example No.2
Area of duct cross-section (sq. ft.)
Average Velocity (fpm)
A 30 " X 24" duct has an average velocity of 1825 fpm. What is the
airflow rate?
Solution
Airflow A x V = 30 x 24 x 1825
144
= 5 x 1825 = 9125 cfm
Pitot Tube Duct Traverses
If the velocity of the airstream under measurement were uniform, one
reading at any point would be sufficient. However, the air moving along a
duct wall loses speed because of friction, consequently the velocity in the
center of the duct will always be greater (assuming no special turbulent
motion). Since the velocity pressure is seldom uniform, a series of readings
must be taken across the duct section - called a duct traverse.
Various industry groups have described methodology for uniform
measurements in round ducts (tangential traverse) and square ducts, and in
the paragraphs that follow, the consensus that has been reached on proper
technique is described in the following paragraphs and figures that follow,
but here are some general pointers to remember when performing a pitot tube
traverse:
4-11
\
1. Ensure that a large enough space adjacent to the duct is available
for maneuvering the pitot tube.
2. Drill the holes for the pitot tube in a clear, straight duct section
providing at least 8 duct diameters upstream and 2 diameters
down stream of the pitot tube free of elbows, transitions or
reductions.
3. Drill probe holes 9/16 inch diameter (assuming standard 5/ 16 in.
pitot tube) to accommodate tube movement without chafing.
4. Plug holes when finished with snap buttons and square of duct
tape. (#5 bottle corks are often used in lined ducts.)
5. Check the impact and static holes regularly for plugging
(particularly with insulated ducts).
6. Check tubing for crimping or kinking, and especially at
connection ends for leaks.
7. Check gage or manometer for zero reading at level before each
set of traverses. Keep the manometer level.
\ '
\""'Velocity pressure readings are taken at equal intervals over a cross
section of the duct. Good practice indicates not less than 16 readings in any
duct and in larger ducts readings should be taken on not less than 6" centers.
The velocity pressures are then changed to velocity values, added together
and divided by the total number of readings to get the average velocity. Do
not average the velocity pressure readings. It is not unusual to make a
negative pressure reading in ducts with considerable turbulence. The
negative readings are added in at zero value but are counted in the number
of readings to obtain the average velocity. Assume a duct 16 positive
4-12
, .
Round Duct Traverses
For round ducts, the tangential method is the most common traverse.
The duct is divided into N zones of equal area by concentric circles of radii,
R
"
R2> R" etc., as shown in Figure 4-6. A series of ten readings is then
taken along the horizontal axis, and ten readings are taken along the vertical
axis. One practical aspect to be considered is how do you know where the
pitot tube is inside the duct? As Figure 4-6 shows, reading positions are
calculated from the center of the duct, as some position multiplier times the
radius of the duct. This is fairly common practice in the industry. Table 4-2
shows the calculated distance from the inside wall to the pitot tube reading
point for several duct sizes. Figure 4-7 shows a pitot tube marked for a 20"
diameter duct traverse, as per Table 4-2. The pitot tube should be marked
carefully with a China marking pencil or small strips of duct tape to facilitate
accurate placement of the tube for traverse readings.
PIlOT lUBE STATIONS INOICAIEO BY 0
ROUND OUCI
R[CTANGUlAR DUCT
Figure 4-6 Tangential Pitot Tube Traverse
4-13
Table 4-2 Calculated Ten Point Pitot Tube Traverses
for Round Ducts 12 to 40 in.
Trnern Point Humber 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
,
Multiplier: Distant. Irorn
Intlde Wlilio Pilot Point .025 .083 .146 .225 .342 .647 .774 .855 .918
Pipe Diameter
12
"
"
1
",
2l\ 41> 7%
'"
lOY, 11
z
13
0
"
11> 2 3 411 81> 10 11' 11 V.

14

\I I I> 2 3\-\ 4;-. g'/, IOV, 12 12V.

IS

\I 1114

3"
511 9r, 11'/,
12* 13*
16
>
\I' 2\1 3>1 5\\ lOY, 1211 1311 14*

18
"
I> II> 211 4V. 6\\ ,
In ... 13r. 1S1i 161>
20
0
"
I> III 21> 4V, 6Ya 13" IS\\ 17\\ 1811
" 22
"
1I III 3V.

5 7\\ 141(: 17 20V.
24

II 2 3V, 511 15* 18\\ 2011 22

26
0

% 2V. 311 51,1. av. 17'/. 20V, 22';' 23V.
28
z 1I 21f.
4"
611 ,Yo 1811 21'1. 23'1.
25*
30

II 2\\ 411 611 IOV,
19* 23V. 2S1I 27V,
0
32 • II 211 4\1 II 20V. 24* 29l.

34 • V. 2V, 5 7\1 11\1 22 26Y. 29 3 1'1.

36
x
V. 3 SYO 8V. 12v.. 23'1. 27'4 3m'. 33 u
z
38 I 3\\ SV, 811 13 24 II 2911 32\', 34 V,
40 I 3;, 51,1, 9 131\ 25',', 31 34\.
10
.975
II I>

13'1,
14'1.
15'1,
17V1
19'h
2B',
23%
2S1I
27V,
29V.
31 v.
331,<,
3S
37
39
• fm the I'itol Tube' for 3 tcn IIner.<r arr wOlked 10 Ihe ncarC1l cil!hrh •.
for .... ucts ollit! thi n li<l cd . the muhil'l iu . All figure, show" are in in(hn 1(1 Ihe illsidc
I
-
- \
I I I
1"-
/,
, ,
I I
I I I
PITOT TUBE
I I I I I
MARKINGS
I
.:-
I I I I I I
I I
,
I I I I I
I I I
i , ... -1 I
I I I I I
,
-!"--
I
I
I I
C

I I
" ...

,
I I
,
I II .. ·
I I
,
" .. -
,
I
I.
"",.
,
Figure 4-7 Marking the Pitot Tube
4-14
. ~ . ,
l
SquarelRectangular Duct Traverses
For square or rectangular ducts, traverse holes are drilled in one wall
of the duct in such a manner as to establish equal areas as shown in Figure
4-8 for a 48 in. by 36 in. rectangular duct. Note that no reading location is
more than six inches from another. The 48" x 36" duct in Figure 4-8 would
be measured at 48 equally spaced stations, and the pitot tube would be
marked accordingly to facilitate those readings. As with circular ducts, tables
are available for square/rectangular ducts which eliminate the need to
recorded and transferred into velocity values, added together and averaged.
I' 1-' +, +, +, +, +, +' -t' 1
!
• • • • • • •
,-
"- ,
• • • • • •
-+-
,
• • • • • • •
-+-
~ ,
!
• • • • • • • •
-+-
01°
,
• • • • • • • •
+
frvVV' " ~
,
• • • • •
~
'7"
,
,.;0
'NSlfll,l"'EtH PQflIS-

..

0
'8 '"'e ASI,IJl'NG STATIONS IN A_8 J6 over
Figure 4·8 Rectangular Duct Traverse
Note that testing/balancing professionals normally use traverse report
forms to record test point pressures/velocities and a map of traverse readings
to correlate the data and to act as a worksheet for determining reading
locations. Sample report forms for rectangular and round duct traverses are
included at the end of this chapter.
Example No.3
The following velocity pressures were obtained by making a horizontal
duct traverse of a 20 inch diameter duct. Find the following:
a: Average velocity __ _ b.
Air flow (cfm) ___ _
4-15
(fpm)
Vp (in. W.G.)
0.46
0.50
0.52
0.50
0.49
Solution
Vp (in. W.G.)
0.45
0.51
0.51
0.55
0.60
The following velocities were obtained from Table 4-1 and Equation
4-1.
Vp (in. W.G.)
0.46
0.50
0.52
0.50
0.49
V ave.
Airflow
Air flow
Velocity (fpm) Vp (in. W.G.)
2716 0.45
2832 0.51
2900 0.51
2832 0.55
2800 0.60
28.550 = 2855 fpm (a.)
10
AxV= r xV
144
3.14 (1OZ) x 2855
144
2.18 x 2855 = 6229 cfm (b.)
Velocity
2700
2850
2850
2970
3100
Correcting For Non-Standard Conditions
Table 4-1 equates velocity pressure to air velocity at standard
conditions, i.e., air at sea level, at 70"F, 29.92 in. Hg, with a density of .075
lbs/cubic foot. The temperature of the air under test obviously affects its
density, the air becoming less dense as it increases in temperature. To
correct for air at other than 70"F use the following equation:
4-16
" .
v
where:
.075
d
Actual Velocity
Measured Velocity
Actual Air Density at Test Temperature
Table 4-3 lists the Temperature-Density Corrections for Dry Air (at
29.92 in. Hg) for various temperatures. To correct for non-standard air the
correction factor in Column 6 is multiplied by the measured velocity.
Table 4-3 Temperature-Density Corrections
for Dry Air Atmosphere Pressure
2
,
4 5 6
_ .
DEGREOS DENSITY
VO,UI1 E CORREC1'IOH
FAREHIIEIT CELSIUS LBS/FTJ F'T Ill) R"Tto FACTOR'
)2 0 .00°7 12.)8 1.08
0·96
40 4.4 .0794 12·.59 1. 06 0 . .,
'"
21.1 .0149 1.00 1.00
100 )7·8 .0109 14.10
·95 1.0)
150 66.0 .0651 15·)6 .81 1.0,
200
9'
.0602 16.62 .80 l.IZ
250 121 .0559 17·88
."
1.15
)00 1'9
.052) 19.1)
."
1.20
'50 l??
.049<> 20·)9
."
1. 24
400 204
.0462 21.6,5 .62
1.27
450 2)2
.04)0 22.98
.,.
1.)1
500
260
.0414 24 . 1 ?
."
1.)5
550 288
.0)92 25·48 ·52
1.)9
600 ,16 .0)1.5 26.69 ·50 1. 41
""
)4'
.0)58 21·95 .48 1. 44
"'"
J71
29·21 .46 1. 47
150 '99
.0)28 )0 ,It] .44 1. 51
800 421
.0)15 J1. 7J .42 1.54
850 460
.0)0) )2.99 .40 1.!8
"'"
482
.0292 J4 . 24
·'9
1. 60
950
, , 6
.0282 )5·,51 .J? 1.&1
1000
5)8
.0212 )8.,. .)4 1.71
' Tn < .. "et. f .. r "0""'''.1 .. <,1 ' ''. 'ho CO" • • I;on (", M (,om «.Iu"." 6 ,he 1',11., ,wI><
n"' •• •• d
4-17
Table 4-4 lists the Altitude-Density Corrections for Dry Air at 70"F for
readings taken at other than sea level. The correction factor from Column
6 is multiplied by the measured velocity.
Table 4-4 Altitude-Density Corrections for Dry Air at 70°F
ALTITUDE, I NCKES or DENSITY VOLUME DENSITY COflRECTION
FEET MERCURY LBS/F1'J
IT) /IJl
RATI O FACTOR
-1000 )1 .02 .0775 12·90 LO)
0·913
Sea l evel 29·92 1) . 69 1. 00 1. 00
500 29·)9 .07)5 1) .60
.98 1. 01
1000 28.86 .0721 1),87 .,6 1. 02
1500 28. )) .0708 14.12
·'5
1.0)
2000 27·8.2 .0695 14·)9 .,) 1.04
)COO 26 .81 .0670 14·92 .8, 1. 06
4000 25·84 .0646 15.4a .86 1. Of
5000 24 .89 ,0622 16.08 .8) 1.10
6000 2).98 .0600 16.67 .80
1.12
;>000 2) ,09 . 0577 I? .J)
-77 1. 14
8000 22.22
.0550
18.18
· 7)
1.17
9000 21 .)8 ,°5)0 18.87
·7' 1.19
le,COO 20 . 58 . 0510 19.61 .68
1.21
"To co,n:C1 for non·,la"d .. d Ii, . mult ipl y 11M: corn:Cllon faao. (rom col umn
(, I". Pilol lllbc ,....ull •• d
4-18
, .. ,
Finally, changes in barometric pressure due to weather conditions, an
unknown height above sea level, etc. will effect the density of the air being
tested, and must be corrected for. Table 4-5, Barometric Pressure-Density
Correction for Dry Air lists the density of air at 25 different temperatures and
four different barometric pressures. The applicable correction factor can be
obtained from corresponding densities on Tables 4-3 and/or 4-4. If the
barometric pressure at test conditions is not shown on Table 4-5, then actual
air density can be calculated as follows:
Density 1.325 x barometric pressure (in. Hg)
air temp. COF) + 460"
This value for density is then used in our correction equation:
v V
.075
mX
d
Table 4-S Barometric Pressure-Density Correction for Dry Air
""'ROMETIIIC 'Il ESSUIlE.
INCHES OF WEIlCUR'I'
DECREES
FAHRENHEIT !9.9!" 29.jO 29 .00 lI. SO
COIlRESPONDINC ALR DENSITI ES
"
0.016 o.ou 0.0" o.on
'"
0.015 o.u. ) O.U.l 0.010
!O F o.on o.os! 0.010 0.019
'"
0.0' 1
. 0.0.0 0.019 0.071
'"
0. 019 0.011 0.011 0.016
'"
0.011 0.011 0.015 0.01'
.. , 0.016 0.015 0.0 14 O.OH
'"
O.OH 0.014 o.on 0.011
."
0.01' O.OH 0.011 0.070
""
o.on 0.011 0.010 0.069
'''' ,
0.01 1 1I.Ql0 0.069 0.061
1I0 F 0.010 0.069 0.06' 0.065
nO F 0.1l" n.on , .... 0.065
IlO F 11.061 0.066 O.II6S 11.\164
1'0 F
0.066 11.065
, .... O.OU
I SO F 0.065 O.1l64
,,.,
0, 061
160 F
0.064 h.ll6l 1I.06! 11.061
110 F 0.06} 0.061 0. 06 1 0.060
""
0.062 O.Oil 0.060 0.059
""
0 .061 11. \160 0.059 o.on
200 F 0.060 0.059 O.OSI O.OH
!IO r
1).059 iI.on O.OSI 0.0S6
no r 0.0" o.osa O.OH 0.0S6
!lo r O.Ola Il.O" 0.OS6 U H
l, or O.OH 11.0" o.oss 1"1.054
"29.' 1;' ... b. ffI ....
4-19
When correcting for non-standard temperature and barometric pressure
conditions, the individual correction factofs are multiplied to obtain a total
correction factor.
Example No. 4
.; - " . : r " ~ r
An exhaust system's average velocity as read by traverse is 3000 fpm.
The system is being tested at an altitude of 4000 ft and the air
temperature measures 250°F.
Find: the actual corrected air velocity
Solution
a. From Table 4-3, column 6, the temperature correction factor for
250"F is 1.15.
b. From Table 4-4, column 6, the altitude correction factor for 4000
ft above sea level is 1.08.
c. Multiplying both factors: 1.15 x 1.08 = 1.242
d. V = Vm x correction factor
v = 3000 x 1.242 = 3726 fpm, actual velocity
To summarize: to correct for non-standard air conditions, proceed with
the pitot tube traverse as if it were for standard air:
1. Record the velocity pressures, Vp, for each point.
2. Convert each Vp to velocity in fpm.
3. Total all velocities.
4. Divide the total of the velocities by the number of Pitot tube
readings to find the average velocity.
4-20
5. Multiply the average velocity by the necessary correction factors
to find the actual corrected velocity for the variance in air
density.
6. Multiply the corrected velocity by the duct area in square feet to
find the actual airflow in cfm.
Some rules of thumb for rough calculations:
1. To find the barometric pressure where the elevation is known
(but not on Table 4-4) use the approximated correction of 0.1
inch pressure reduction for each 100 ft. above sea level, eg:
1780 £t/ 100 ft x 0.1 inc. = 1.78 in. Therefore, barometric
pressure can be approximate as 29.92 in. - 1.78 = 28.14 in. Hg.
2. Allow a 2% increase in average velocity for each 10 degrees
above 70"F.
3. Another altitude approximation is to allow a 4% Increase In
velocity for each 1000 ft altitude above sea level.
Pressure Gauge (Magnehelic)
The magnehelic gauge (Figure 4-9) is an easy to use pressure gauge for
air system work which has many different pressure ranges from 0 to 0.25 in.
w.g. up to 0 to 150 in. w.g. Two different ranges (0 to 0.5 in. w.g., 0 to 1.0
in. w.g.) are the most commonly used. Readings should always be made in
the mid-range of the scale and the instrument should be held in the same
position as when "zeroed."
The "high" pressure connection is used (relative to the atmosphere) for
reading positive pressures and the "low" pressure connection for negative
pressures. By using both, it is possible to measure a pressure drop or rise
across components in HV AC systems.
4-21
Figure 4-9 Magnehelic Gauge
Rotating Vane Anemometer
The propeller or rotating vane anemometer consists of a lightweight,
wind-driven wheel connected through a gear train to a set of recording dials
that read the linear feet of air passing through the wheel in a measured length
of time. The instrument is made in various sizes: 3",4", and 6" sizes being
the most common (See Figure 4-10).
At low velocities, the friction drag of the mechanism is considerable.
In order to compensate for this, a gear train that overspeeds is commonly
used. For this reason, a correction factor or calibration curve must be used
and the correction is often additive at the lower range and subtractive at the
upper range, with the least correction in the middle of the range. Most of
these instruments are not sensitive enough for use below 200 fpm. Their
useful range is from 200 to 2000 fpm.
The instrument reads in feet, and so a timing instrument must be used
to determine velocity. A stop watch should be used to measure the timed
interval, although a wristwatch with a sweep-second hand may give
satisfactory results for rough field checks.
4-22
(
Figure 4-10 Rotating Vane Anemometer
It has been found that a two minute timed traverse gives better
averaging accuracy across the coil face or return air grille than the one
minute pass recommended by some industry groups. It is recommended that
two or more traverses be made across the air stream and then averaged. The
formula for air flow is:
Where:
cfm =
Ftm -
A =
F =
2
free face area of grill in ft2
instrument correction factor (provided by
manufacturer)
two minute timed interval
In the case of coils or filters, an uneven airflow is frequently found
because of entrance or exit conditions. The SMACNA recommends that this
variation be taken into account by moving the instrument in a fixed pattern
to cover the entire amount of time over all parts of the area being measured
so that the varying velocities can be averaged.
4-23
In practice it is quite difficult to end the pattern at precisely the proper
time. The SMACNA recommends that the area be traversed horizontally,
then vertically, and then end with an "x-type" pattern, so that if time runs out
and only one bar of the "x" has been completed, it will still be a satisfactory
ending point.
The Associated Air Balance Council (AABC) recommends a different
approach to obtain accurate anemometer re'ildings. They recommend that the
anemometer be held steady in the air stream for a given period of lime. The
average anemometer reading should be determined by marking the grille off
in sections, taking a reading in front of each section and averaging the
results. A true average reading cannot be obtained by moving the
anemometer back and forth across the face, because if the instrument happens
to pass over a dead spot or a section where the velocity is low after having
passed over one where it is high, the blades are likely to coast over the low
section.
Bridled Vane Anemometer
The Florite anemometer shown in Figure 4-11 is direct reading; that is,
it does not depend on a time interval. It measures velocity pressure and
displays velocity (fpm) on the gauge. The Florite anemometer may be used
in the same manner as the rotating vane anemometer except that discreet
velocity points are best, such as 8" x 9" grids over a particular area, reading
the velocities at each point. This will be very much like a velocity profile
reading obtained by a Pitot traverse. To take an approximate reading for a
rough balance, a traverse is made in a given time period for the area by
moving the anemometer around and visually averaging the velocities present.
This is an inaccurate method, but it is fast and it will put you in the "ball
park."
4-24
r
Figure 4-11 "Florite" Anemometer
Deflecting Vane Anemometer
Instead of depending on a swinging vane to deflect and indicate a
reading, the AInor 6000P velometer shown in Figure 4-12 operates on the
Pitot tube principle, pressure exerted on a vane which is free to travel in a
circular tunnel moves the vane and causes a pointer to indicate the measured
value on a scale. It is not dependent on air density because of the sensing
of pressure differential to indicate velocities. Note that the instrument is
provided and always used with a dual-hose connection between the meter and
the probes, except as noted below.
The model 6000AP set is an all purpose set which adequately meets the
needs of TAB work. Most major air distribution device manufacturers have
set up area factors based on its use. The velometer consists basically of the
meter, measuring probes, range selectors, and connecting hoses. The meter
is scaled through the following velocity ranges: 0-300; 0-1250; 0-2500; 0-
5000; 0-10,000 fpm.
4-25
Figure 4.12 Velometer Set
4-26
Three velocity probes are provided - the low flow probe, the diffuser
probe, and the Pitot tube. The low flow probe is used in conjunction with
the 0-300 fpm scale for measuring terminal air velocities in rooms or open
spaces, and to measure face velocities at ventilating hoods, spray booths,
fume hoods, and the like. The low flow probe is directly mounted to the
meter without the use of hoses. The diffuser probe is designed to measure
the velocity at diffusers, registers and grilles. The volume of air being
supplied or exhausted can be determined using the following formula:
cfm = fpm x K factor
Ai ·s!!.eh.a.as diffusers, grilles et cannot be_
a· .becauseJ,the. manufacturer-mtEt
test-eac4 and designate the--precise
. poiJljs on the diffuser where the instrument probe must be placed. The
technician must select the K factor for each diffuser type and size from the
manufacturer's specification sheet. The Pitot tube is used 'to measure
r velocities in ducts and at return air or exhaust air grilles. The low flow and
diffuser probes are shown in Figure 4-13 .
I
,

,
I
I .
; .
r
L.
Hot Wire Anometer
...... 1
-\JVJ f>'
c,t:'
The operation of this instrument depends on the fact that the resistance
of a heated wire will change with its temperature. The probe of this
instrument is provided with a special type of wire element which is supplied
with current from batteries contained in the instrument case. As air flows
over the element in the probe, the temperature of the element is changed
from that which exists in still air, and the resistance change is indicated as
a velocity on the indicating scale of the instrument (Figure 4-14).
4-27
(C) P, obe
Collar
(A,
AI, Flow
Dlrecl lon
Pointer
,B,
(A,
Ve loci ty
Sensing
Po, 1
Snap 0 11
Fins
/
(0,
Connec ting
Log
A) DIFFUSER PROBE
The velocity directional sensing port (A)
senses the velocity at the diffuse, register,
or grille.
The snap-off fins (B) allow you to
accurately position the probe vertically,
The probe collar (C) acts a s a stop when
connecting the probe to the Range
Selector, and the O-ring acts as a seal.
The connecting leg (D) is mounted into
the Range Selector.
B) LO·FLOW PROBE
An arrow (A) on the probe serves as a
reminder of the direction you must orient
the probe and the Meter when taking
measurements.
Figure 4·13 Velometer Attachments
4-28
Figure 4-14 Hot-Wire Anemometer
In addition to measuring air velocity, some instruments can measure
temperature, and also static pressure when a special sensing element is used.
The meters have several scales, and the instrument case usually ~ a s dials or
buttons to select the function and range.
An important part of using the instrument is that, before taking a
reading, it is necessary to adjust the meter to a zero setting.
The probe is quite directional when used for air velocity measurement.
It is therefore necessary to hold the probe at right angles to the air flow and,
when used with grilles and diffusers, to place the probe exactly as indicated
i by the manufacturer of the grille or diffuser.
i.
The instrument gives instantaneous spot readings and, as with other
instruments, a number of readings across the airstream are required in order
to determine an average velocity.
A device that covers the terminal device to facilitate taking air velocity
or airflow readings is called a "flow measuring hood".
The conical or pyramid shaped hood can be used to collect all of the
aIr discharged from an air terminal and guide it over flow measuring
4-29
instrumentation. Hoods generally are constructed so that the outlet tapers
down to an area of 1 square foot. An anemometer (velometer) tip is installed
in the neck to read cfm directly, regardless of the airflow quantity measured.
The balancing cone should be tailored for the particular job. To keep
weight to a minimum, aluminum is normally used. The large end of the cone
should be sized to fit over the complete diffuser and should have a sponge
rubber seal to eliminate leakage and to avoid ceiling marks. When balancing
a large number of ceiling diffusers of common size, a hood may permit
reading from the floor and eliminate the need for a ladder as does the
commercially made hood shown in Figure 4-15.
Figure 4-15 Flow Measuring Hood
1. They should not be used where the discharge velocities of the
terminal devices are excessive.
2. The hood redirects the normal pattern of air discharge which
creates a slight, artificially imposed, pressure drop in the
ductwork branch of the terminal device being measured.
4-30
3. Some of the larger hoods "get heavy" which could lead to
inaccurate readings because of leakage due to carelessness and
fatigue.
Smoke Devices
WARNING: Before using any smoke devices, the TAB
Technician must warn all people within the area
so that they are aware of its use.
These are devices generally used for the study of air-flows and for the
detection of leaks.
Smoke bombs come in various sizes with different lengths of burning
time from which highly visible, non-toxic smoke readily mixes with air
simplifying the observation of flow patterns.
When testing for leaks sufficient smoke should be used to fill a volume
15-to-20 times "larger than the duct or enclosure volume to be tested.
Smoke sticks and candles are convenient in that they corne in different
sizes and they provide an indicating stream of smoke. Some are like the puff
from a cigarette and others smoke continuously for a few minutes to a
maximum of 10 minutes.
Smoke guns are valuable in tracing air currents, determining the
direction and velocity of airflow and the general behavior of either warm or
cold air in conditioned rooms.
HYDRONIC MEASURING EQUIPMENT
Table 4-6 shows different types of measuring devices used in hydronic
applications. Each one will be described individually.
4-31
Table 4-6 Hydronic Measuring Instruments
Accuracy of
Instrument Recommended Uses Calibration Required Field
Measurement
U·Tube Measuri ng fluid pressure drops None (Zero adjust ment
Manometer through coils, chillers, condensers required for each sel-up)
and other heat exchangers, also
across orifices and vent uris.
Pressure The same use as the U-Tube By an approved tesl agency 1/2 of 1% or
Gauge Manometer but for higher every 24 months depending 1/2 of scate
pressures. on usage. division.
Di fferential Same as pressure gauge. Same as pressure gauge. l/2o[ l %or
Pressure 1/2 of scale
Gauge division.
Row Used for accuracy of measurement As required by the Depends on
Measuring in fluid system when installed manufacturer. instrument
Devices properly. used.
U-Tube Manometer
Since the pressure to be measured in hydronic systems are usually
considerably greater than those associated with airflow, manometers for
hydronic use usually contain mercury rather than water or oil. Manometers
of the type used in hydronic systems, usually have considerably greater scales
than those associated with airflow. A manometer of the type used in
hydronic systems is available in tube lengths up to 36 inches. When filled
with mercury, such a manometer can measure pressures up to 36 in. Hg., or
36 x 0.491 pounds per cubic inch = 17.7 psi, or 17.7 psi x 2.31 = 41 ft. w.g.
Manometers are, therefore, useful for measuring pressure drops through coils,
chillers, condensers, and other heat exchangers; also across orifices and
venturis. They should not be used for measurements under one inch of
water. (See Figure 4-16)
4-32
.,
••
. 3
3· Valvt Bypn:! luptn valvu Q)ifldCDwll h
Valve(DOptn, etOte
Sahty Rnt rva", IV . L' o .... d
Vol ume Whtn Ul1n9 Melcury)
U Tube (Usually Glau lor MtlCufy
and Pintle tor Tint ed Wiud
+2 Sule tU Tubl Inei St ile
o
-I
-,
-3
-4
-,
Vert ically Movublt wil li RUpet! 10
Fluid IMercury lor Wi llI D. P,
Tinttd Witt r lor A" li P)
Figure 4-16 U-Tube Manometer
One objection to the use of manometers is the possibility of excess
pressure, beyond the range or length of the manometer, which would blow
the mercury out of the tube.
Aside from the delay and expense of replacing the mercury, it is very
objectionable for mercury to enter the water system because it can cause
rapid deterioration of any copper (including copper alloys) that it contacts in
the system.
U-tube manometers are ideally suited for differential pressure
measurement on a small scale.
Pressure Gauge
The calibrated "test gauge" normally has a bourdon tube assembly made
of stainless steel, alloy steel, monel or bronze, and a non-reflecting white face
4-33
with black letter graduations. Test gauges are usually 3-1/2" to 6" diameter
with bottom or back connections. Many dials are available with pressure,
vacuum or compound ranges. The test instrument minimum accuracy must
be within 1% of full scale.
Dial gauges are used primarily for checking pump pressures; coil,
chiller, and condenser pressure drops; and pressure drops across orifice
plates, venturis, and other flow calibrated devices.
Pressure ranges should be selected so the pressures to be
measured fall in the middle two-thirds of the scale range.
The gauge should not ·be exposed to pressures greater than the
maximum dial reading. Sfmilarly, a compound gauge should be
used where exposed to vacuum.
Reduce or eliminate pressure pulsations by installing a needle
valve between the gauge and the system equipment or piping; if
large pulsating conditions occur. Also, if necessary, install a
pulsation dampener or snubber (available from gauge
manufacturers).
In using a gauge, apply pressure slowly by gradually opening the
gauge cock or valve, to avoid severe strain and possible loss of
accuracy that sudden opening of the gauge cock or valve could
cause, and/or to avoid a sudden release of pressure.
A cutaway of bourdon tube pressure gauge is shown in Figure 4-17.
Differential Pressure Gauge
In practically all cases of flow measurement, it will be necessary to
meaSure a pressure differential, that is, a pressure drop across a piece of
equipment, a balancing device, or a flow measuring device.
4-34
(
Movement
Sect or
Connecting
li nk.
2:- 0
0
Ca l ibrat ed
Scale
Figure 4-17 Bourdon Tube
A differential pressure gauge is a dual inlet, dual bourdon tube pressure
gauge with a single indicating pointer on the dial face which indicates the
pressure differential existing between the two measured pressures. It can be
calibrated in psi, inches w.g. or inches mercury. The Differential Pressure
Gauge will automatically read the difference between two pressures.
With a single gauge connected, the gauge is alternately valved to the
high pressure side and the low pressure side to determine the pressure
differential. Such an arrangement eliminates any problem concerning a gauge
elevations, and virtually eliminates errors due to gauge calibration.
Figure 4-18 shows the application of a gauge modification that uses a
single standard gauge and eliminates the need for subtraction to determine
differential. The gauge glass is calibrated to ft. w.g. at its outer periphery.
During operation, the gauge glass is left loose so it can be rotated. To
measure a pressure differential, the high pressure is applied to the gauge by
4-35
opening the valve to the high pressure side, and the gauge glass is then
rotated so that its "zero" is even with the gauge pointer. Next, the high
pressure valve is closed and the valve to the low pressure side is opened.
The gauge pointer will now indicate a pressure that is directly equal to the
pressure differential in ft. w.g. If the gauge is of large diameter, such as
8 inches, differential pressures can be read accurately to the order of 0.25 ft.
w.g.
,.,
Figure 4·18 Single Gauge for Measuring Differential Pressures
Venturi Tube and Orifice Plate (Flow Devices)
The venturi tube or orifice plate is a specific, fixed area reduction in
the path of fluid flow, deliberately installed to produce a flow restriction and,
therefore, a pressure drop (see Figure 4-19).
You would expect that it would take more pressure upstream to force
the fluid through the restricted opening. The faster the fluid is flowing, the
more upstream pressure is required. In this way, the pressure differential
(that is, the upstream pressure minus the downstream pressure) is related to
the velocity of the fluid. But the pressure differential must be equated to
4-36
gpm through the use of the orifice plate in order for the measurement device
to be useful. However, pressure drop is not equal to velocity (differential
pressure is not velocity pressure). By accurate measurement of the pressure
drop with a manometer at flow rates from zero fluid velocity to a maximum
fluid velocity established by a maximum practical pressure drop, a calibrated
flow range may be established. The flow range may then be plotted on a
graph which reads pressure drop versus flow rate (gpm, steam pounds per
hour, etc.) or the manometer scale may be graduated directly in the flow rate
values.
ORIFice
DIAMETER
o
DRAIN HOLE.
LOCATe AT BOTTOM
Of PIPE IF
ORI FICE IS USED
IN STEAM PIPE
ORIFICE SIZE
lDENTIFICA TION
PRESSURE
TAPPINGS FOR
INSTRUMENT
CONNECTIONS
ORI FICE Pl..A TE
AlA VENT HOLE:
LOCATE AT TOP
OF HORIZONTAL PIPE
IF CARRYING WI\. TEA
(A) ORIFICE PlATE
~ FLOW /' OI'1IFICE
(8 ) ORIFICE PlATE INSTALLED L _ I > - ~
BETWEEN SPECIAL
FLOWMETER FLANGES
FLOWMETER
FLANGES
Figure 4-19 Orifice as a Measuring Device
The diagrams in Figure 4-20 illustrate the difference between the
venturi tube and an orifice plate. The venturi tube, because of the
streamlining effect of the entrance and the recovery cone, produces a lower
pressure loss for the same flow rate.
4-37
'<ow
MOOIFIED TUBE
VENTURIIU9E
,

F'1
" I
ENTRANCE
",.,
RECOVERY

VEHlv mlveE
ORIFM:E ",-"IE

b TVRBUlENCE
, .
'<ow
VENACQHI RAC'A
ORIFICE PLATE
Figure 4.20 Flow Meter Types
The full venturi tube can be extremely accurate with no appreciable
system pressure loss, but it must then be extremely long. Unless such
accuracy is required, a modified version with shortened entrance and recovery
cones may be employed. The modified tube generally provides adequate
accuracy with acceptable system pressure losses (still less than the orifice
plate for the same accuracy) for environmental systems.
Annubar Flow Indicator
The Annubar Flow Indicator is a flow sensing and indicating system
that is an adaptation of the principle of the pitot tube. The upstream sensing
tube has a number of holes which face the flow and so are subjected to
impact pressure (velocity pressure plus static pressure). The holes are spaced
so as to be representative of equal annular areas of the pipe, in the manner
of selecting pitot tube traverse points. An equalizing tube arrangement within
the upstream tube averages the pressures sensed at the various holes, and this
pressure is transmitted to a pressure gauge. The downstream tube is similar
4·38
to a reversed impact tube, and senses a pressure equal to static pressure
minus velocity pressure at this point; this pressure is also transmitted to a
gauge. The difference between the two pressures, when referred to
appropriate calibration data, will indicate flow in gpm. A differential
pressure gauge is used to directly read the pressure differential.
Figure 4-21 Annubar Flow Indicator
Calibrated Balancing Valve
Another useful device is the calibrated balancing valve (Figure 4-22).
These valves perform dual duty as flow measuring devices and as balancing
valves. They are similar to ordinary balancing valves, but the manufacturer
has provided pressure taps into the inlet and outlet; and has calibrated the
device by setting up known flow quantities while measuring the resistance
which results from the different valve positions. These positions usually are
graduated on the valve body (as a dial) and the handle has a pointer to
indicate the reading. The manufacturer then publishes a chart or graph which
illustrates the percentage open of the valve (the dial settings), the pressure
drop and the resulting flow.
4-39
,
Figure 4-22 Calibrated Balancing Valve
Specialty devices that cover the entire range of instruments usually
prove to be useful, even though some are used only occasionally.
Location of Flow Devices
Flow measuring devices including the orifice, venturi, and other types
described above, and give accurate and reliable readings only when fluid flow
in the line is quite uniform and free from turbulence. Various texts provide
charts for standard piping configurations such as that in Figure 4-23.
4-40
f .
I
T
10
01 '"
1
• ORIFICE OR
-+-1
B.J...S. ruBE nJRHS OR
l-'
ORlACl OR A.OW N::,.J
/' :n
l
-=tB.j
2
,/
STRAlGHT[NING
2 Dl AM. LONG
ElBOWS OR TUBE lURNS
A
,

c Q2Q c . .,. 0.110
DIAMETER RAnD, !3
(C) FOR ORIFlCES AND FLOW NOZZLES
FITTINGS IN OIFFERENT PLANES
II
0. 80
r
JQ
w
a.
20 a:

:z:
"
;;:
i"
'"
10
W

cs
c

. ....
r,t
..- 'I
\rJ \ G\.
C
el)
Figure 4·23 Flow Meter Location 0 V I(

4-41
Pipe fittings such as elbows, valves, etc., create turbulence and non-
uniformity of flow. Therefore, an essential rule is that flow measuring
elements must be installed far enough away from elbows, valves and other
sources of flow disturbance to permit turbulence to subside and for flow to
regain uniformity. This applies particularly to conditions upstream of the
measuring element, and it also applies downstream except to a lesser extent.
The manufacturers of flow measuring devices usually specify the lengths of
straight pipe required upstream and downstream of the measuring element.
Lengths are specified in numbers of pipe diameters, so that the actual
required lengths will depend on the size of the pipe. Requirements will vary
with the type of element and the types of fittings at the ends of the straight
pipe runs, ranging from about 5 to 25 pipe diameters upstream and 2 to 5
pipe diameters downstream.
TEl\1PERATURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
Table 4-7 shows the most common types of temperature measurmg
devices. Each will be described individually.
Table 4-7 Temperature Measuring Instruments
Instrument Recommended Uses Calibration Required
~ u r a c y 01
Field Measurement
Glass Tube Used to measure temperature of None I/Zof 1% or I!Zof
Thennometers ai r or fluids. scale division.
Dial Used to measure temperature of Check: against mercury 1/2 of 1% or 1/2 of
Thermometers air or fluids. Ihennomeler. scale division.
Pyrometers Used to measure surface temperature Every 12 months. 1/2 of 1% or 1(2 of
devices such as pipe or duct. scale of division.
Psychrometers Used to measure both weI bulb and Non. 1/2 of 1% or 1/2 of
dry bulb temperatures to delennine scale division.
wet bulb depressi on and relati ve
humidity.
Glass Tube Thermometers
Mercury-filled glass tube thermometers have a useful temperature range
of from minus 40"F to 950"F. They are available in a variety of standard
temperature ranges, scale graduations and lengths.
4-42
I
l
The complete stem immersion calibrated thermometers, as the name
implies, must be used with the stem completely immersed in the airstream in
which the temperature is to be measured. If complete immersion of the
thermometer stem is not possible or practical, then a correction must be made
for the amount of emergent liquid column. Thermometers calibrated for
partial stem immersion are more commonly used in conjunction with
thermometer test wells designed to receive them or by inserting them through
small holes drilled in the ducts. No emergent stem correction is required for
the partial stem immersion type.
When the temperatures of the surrounding surfaces are substantially
different from the measured airstream, there is considerable radiation effect
upon the thermometer reading if left unshielded or otherwise unprotected
from these radiation effects. Proper shielding or aspiration of the
thermometer bulb and stem can minimize these radiation effects, as well as
careful location of the reading as shown in Figure 4-24.
Be sure to allow enough time for the thermometer to reach the
temperature of the fluid being measured. Always take several readings,
usually a few minutes apart. Assume that a reading is the final and correct
one only after obtaining the same reading at least twice in succession.
---
--" --"--
...
4-43
Dial Thermometers
Dial thermometers are made in a wide variety of dial sizes, stem
lengths, and temperature ranges. Their advantages are that they are more
rugged and more easily read than glass-stem thermometers, and they are
fairly inexpensive. Small dial thermometers of this type usually use a
bimetallic temperature sensing element in the stem. Temperature changes
cause a . the bend or twist of the element, and this movement is
transmitted. by a mechanical linkage. (See Figure 4-25.)
Figure 4-25 Dial Thermometer
The flexible capillary type dial thermometer, one variety of which is
shown in Figure 4-26, has a rather large temperature sensing bulb which is
connected to the instrument with a capillary tube. The instrument contains
a bourdon tube, the same as in pressure gauges. The temperatures sensor
consisting of the bulb, capillary tube, and bourdon tube, is charged with
either liquid or gas. Temperature dfunges at the bulb cause the contained
liquid or gas to expand or contract, resulting in changes in the pressure
exerted within the bourdon tube. This causes the pointer to move over a
graduated scale as in a pressure gauge, except that the thermometer dial is
graduated in degrees. The advantage of this type thermometer is that it can
be used to read the temperature in a remote location.
4-44
!
; '
,
f •
, .
,
Figure 4-26 Flexible Capillary Type Dial Thermometer
In using a dial thermometer, the stem or bulb must be immersed a
sufficient distance to allow this part of the thermometer to reach the
temperature being measured. Dial thermometers have a relatively long time
lag, so enough time must be allowed for the thermometer to reach
temperature and the pointer to come to rest.
Pyrometers
! . normally used in measurements of surface temperatures in
heating and air conditioning applications, use a thermocouple as a sensing
device and a milli-voltmeter (or potentiometer) with a scale calibrated for
reading temperatures directly. A variety of types, shapes and scale ranges are
available.
Electric type thermometers have an instrument case containing items
such as batteries, various switches, knobs to adjust variable resistances, and
a sensitive meter. Temperature sensing elements are remote from the
instrument case, and connected to it by means of wire or cables. Electric
4-45
flexibility as to temperature range. Additionally, some electric type
thermometers have multiple connection points on the instrument case, and a
selector switch, enabling the use of a number of temperature sensors which
can be placed in different locations, and read one at a time by use of the
selector switch.
It should be remembered that the surface temperature of a pipe or duct
is not equal to its temperature and that a relative comparison is more reliable
than an absolute reliance on readings at a single circuit or terminal unit.
HUMIDITY MEASURING DEVICES
Psychometric Measuremen t Devices
Dry Bulb Thermometer
Human comfort and health depend a great deal on the air temperature.
In air-conditioning, the air temperature indicated usually is Dry Bulb (DB)
temperature taken with the sensitive element of the thermometer in a dry
condition. It is the temperature measured by thermometers in the home.
Wet Bulb Thermometer
If a moist wick is placed over a thermometer bulb, the evaporation of
moisture from the wick will lower the thermometer reading. The temperature
indicated is known as "Wet Bulb" (WB) temperature. If the air surrounding
a wet bulb thermometer is dry, evaporation from the moist wick will be more
rapid than if the air is quite moist. Figure 4-27 compares dry bulb
temperature and wet bulb temperature taken at the same place and at the
same time.
When the air is saturated with moisture, no water will evaporate from
the cloth wick and the temperature on the wet bulb thermometer will be the
same as the reading on a dry bulb thermometer near it.
4-46
ORV
BULB
01''1' 8Ul8
WICI(
WET
BULB
TEMPERATURE
Figure 4-27 Dry Bulb and Wet Bulb Thermometers
However, if the air is not saturated, water will evapbrate from the wick.
In doing so, it will lower the wick temperature. Then, heat will flow from
the mercury to the wet wick and the reading will be lower.
The accuracy of the wet bulb reading depends on how fast the air
passes over the bulb. Speeds up to 5000 ft. /min.or 60 mph are best but
dangerous if the thermometer is moved at this speed. Also, the wet bulb
etc.). Errors as high as 15 percent may be made if the air movement is too
slow, or if too much radiant heat is present.
A hygrometer is an instrument used to measure the amount of moisture
in the air. By using a psychometric chart the relative humidity can be found.
Psychrometer
To insure that the recorded wet bulb temperature is accurate, airflow
over the wet bulb should be quite rapid. A device designed to whirl a pair
of thermometers, dry bulb and wet bulb, is called a sling psychrometer
(Figure 4-28). This instrument consists of two thermometers, a wet bulb and
a dry bulb. The wick on a sling psychrometer must be clean fabric,
preferably white.
4-47
weT BULB
j
i ..
c;;;;a..
t
DRyaULB
~
--
Figure 4-28 A Sling Psychrometer
Because evaporation is taking place from the surface of the wick, there
is likely to be deposit of lime substances on the wick. Therefore, to get
accurate measurements, a clean wick should be used. Also, use distilled
water on the wick. Sling psychrometers come in a variety of sizes.
There are certain places in which it is difficult to spin the psychrometer
(narrow passages, etc.). To obtain accurate results in these places, an
aspirating psychrometer (Figure 4-29) is used. With this instrument the air
sampled is blown over the wet and dry bulb thermometer by suction created
by an air pump.
A battery operated aspirating psychrometer is shown in Figure 4-30.
It has illuminated thermometer scales and a fan which draws air over the
thermometer bulbs.
4-48
Figure 4·29 Aspirating PSYChrometer
Battery Powered Aspirating PSYChrometer
4-49
Dew Point
Dew point is defined as the temperature at which a given sample of
moist air is fully saturated and begins to deposit dew. You can easily
observe this on a cool morning when you walk outside and see water on the
lawn. This is a result of the air temperature outside falling below the dew
point during the night. In many industrial processes, the dew point is a more
significant measurement than relative humidity.
Dew point temperature measurement is performed for many reasons in
industry. Many HV AC systems use dewcells to monitor humidity to measure
their effectiveness or to provide an input ' 0 their controls. The dew point
temperature is an indication of the moistur ; content of many gases; the dew
point o· instrument air systems is often monitored for this reason. Moisture
in the instrument air system can freeze in the ports of instruments and shut
down an entire plant. In power plants: dewcells are often used to monitor
remote, inaccessible areas for steam leaks and to monitor for cooling system
leaks in generators with hydrogen/water cooling systems.
Dew point sensors are available"iii many different styles, based on
several different operating principles. These are three of the most common
types of dew point measuring devices in use:
Lithium Chloride wick-type (Foxboro)
Capacitance Probe (panametrics)
Chilled Mirror (General Eastern) .-
Wick-Type Dewcells
The principle of operation of the Lithium Chloride Wick-type dewcell
is derived by moisture determination. The principle is based on the fact that
for every water vapor pressure, in contact with a saturated salt solution, there
is an equilibrium temperature. At the equilibrium temperature the salt
solution neither absorbs, nor gives up moisture. Below this equilibrium
temperature, the salt solution absorbs moisture. Above this equilibrium
temperature, the saturated salt solution dries out until the only crystals are
left.
4-50
, .
I
!
I..
I
.
i
..
A wick-type dewcell is shown in Figure 4-31. The typical element is
a thin-walled metal socket (to fit over an RID) covered with a woven glass
tape, and impregnated with lithium chloride. A low voltage (25 VAC)
alternating current is supplied to a pair of gold wires wrapped over the tape.
An RID is mounted inside the dewcell over which the socket, tape and gold
wires are mounted.
If the temperature of the dewcell element is below equilibrium, the salt
absorbs moisture from the atmosphere. The conductivity of the solution on
the tape between the gold wires increases, and as a result, current flows
between the gold wire "heating elements".
GOlD HEA nNG • •
BOBBIN ELEJ.AENT WIRES FlBERGlASS WICK
btfuiimrmmnl---;
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
,
,
,
RID BODY
t
ANO +2SV TO HEATER
Figure 4-31 Foxboro Dewcell
Next temperature of the dew cell element raises to the equilibrium
temperature. The RID measures the equilibrium temperature which is the
dew cell element temperature. The dewcell element temperature is converted
to dew point temperature using a chart supplied by the manufacturer.
Normally, response time of the dewcell is approximately 10-15 minutes
for a 25° step change. The dewcell itself cannot be calibrated; however, the
RID contained in the dewcell can be calibrated using normal RID
calibration procedures.
4-51
Capacitance Probe Dewcell
The capacitance probe type dewcell operates similarly to the lithium
chloride dewcell. The Panametrics hygrometers are typical of capacitance
type dew point measurement systems. The capacitance probe dewcell is
shown in Figure 4-32.
Figure 4-32 Capacitance Probe Construction
The sensor in a capacitance probe system consists of a specially
anodized aluminum strip, which provides a porous aluminum oxide layer and
a very thin layer of gold evaporated over the aluminum strip. The aluminum
base and the gold layer form the two electrodes of what is essentially an
aluminum oxide capacitor.
When the sensor is placed in a water containing environment, water
vapor is rapidly transported through the gold layer. The water vapor reaches
equilibrium on the porous walls of the anodized aluminum strip. The
equilibrium reached on the aluminum strip is related to the vapor pressure of
the water in the atmosphere.
4-52
The number of water molecules absorbed on the oxide structure
determines the conductivity of the porous wall . Each value of the porous
wall resistance provides a distinct value of electrical impedance which is a
direct measure of the water vapor pressure.
Solid state circuitry is used to measure the impedance and provides an
output in dew point temperature.
Chilled Mirror Dewcell
The chilled mirror type dewcell manufactured by General Eastern is
typical of the optical-thermoelectric humidity analyzers or "chilled mirror"
instruments available for dew point determination. It is also known as an
optical condensation hygrometer. The chilled mirror type dewcell is shown
in Figure 4-33.
...-- OPTlCAl BALANCE AQ..uSTNENT
(OUlPUT BIASED
TO CHili MIRROR
'llttEN a..£AR)
CONTROL
AJ,IPUFlER

•••••• • •••••
••••• • •••••
•••••• • •••••
••••• • •••••
lfD
REGULATlON
FRON OOPOINT 'JEr,W, TRANSOU(;[R
THERl.lOEl.£ClR1C
HEAT PUMP ORI\I{R
Figure 4-33 Chilled Mirror
4-53
In a chilled mirror type dewcell, a light emlttmg diode (LED)
illuminates the mirror surface. A photo transistor is located to observe the
reflection. A second LED/photo transistor optical circuit completes the
bridge circuit, and tracks the first opto-electronic pair over sensor (ambient)
temperature.
A control circuit amplifier amplifies the difference in "photo current"
and drives the thermoelectric cooler. The amount of mirror cooling is
therefore proportional to the difference in "photo current" (output of the
optical circuits). The optical bridge circuit is intentionally imbalanced for
maximum mirror cooling when the mirror is dry.
The mirror is cooled by the thermoelectric heat pump to the point
where dew forms. the formation of dew reduces the light seen by the photo
transistor observing the mirror reflection, reducing its current output. The
power to the thermoelectric heat pump is proportionally reduced. Dew
density increases to a point where an equilibrium condition exists and the
optical bridge is balanced.
At equilibrium the mirror temperature is maintained at the point where
the saturation vapor pressure equals the partial pressure of the water vapor
in the air.
At equilibrium no additional evaporation or condensation occurs. The
saturation pressure of pure water is a temperature dependent variable.
Measurement of the mirror surface temperature at equilibrium establishes the
dew point temperature.
ELECfRICAL MEASURING DEVICES
Volt-Ammeter
The testing, balancing and adjustment of a mechanical system requires
the measurement of voltages and electrical currents as a routine matter. The
units involved in such measurements are:
Voltage - volts
Current - amperes
4-54
The clamp-on type volt-ammeter is the type usually used for taking
field measurements. The clamp-on type volt-ammeter shown has trigger
operated, clamp-on transformer jaws which permit current readings without
interrupting electrical service. Most normally have several scale ranges in
amperes and volts. Two voltage test leads are furnished which may be quick
connected into the bottom of the volt-ammeter. Some of the volt-ammeter
models are also furnished with a built-in ohmmeter. The instrument should
be calibrated by an approved test agency every 6 months, and it should be
checked against a recently calibrated on each project.
Figure 4-34 ,-",ml?-'-Jn Volt-Ammeter
Figure 4-35 Measuring Amperage
4-55
When using the volt-ammeter, the proper range must be selected.
When in doubt, begin with the highest range for both voltage and amperage
scales.
Before using, be aware of the following safety precautions:
First
Second
Be careful not to contact an open electrical circuit. Hands
should never be put into the electrical boxes. Do not
attempt to pry wires over into position. Do not force the
instrument jaws into position. These precautions reduce the
risk of causing a short circuit which could injure both
equipment and personnel.
The inrush current required to start a motor is from three
to five times higher than the load rated full nameplate
current. Therefore, starting the motor with the instrument
attached can damage the instrument, unless 'the ammeter
has a sufficient range to withstand the high starting current.
of the starter. To determine the current of single phase motors, place the
clamp about one wire. When involved with three phase current, take
readings on each of three wires and average the results.
To measure voltage with portable test instruments, set the meter to the
most suitable range, and connect the test lead probes firmly against the
terminals or other surfaces of the line under test, and read the meter, making
certain to read the correct scale if the meter has more than one scale. When
terminals. The resulting single reading is the voltage of the current being
applied to the motor.
When reading three phase current it is necessary to apply the voltmeter
terminals to Pole No. 1 and Pole No. 2; then to Pole No.2 and Pole No.3;
and finally to Pole No. 1. and Pole No.3. This will result in three readings,
4-56
each of which will likely be a little different, but which should be close to
each other. For practical purposes they may be averaged.
If the average voltage delivered to the motor varies by more than a few
volts from the nameplate rating of the motor, several things can occur. A
rise in voltage may damage the motor and will cause a drop in the current
reading. A drop in the voltage will cause a rise in the current and can cause
the overload protectors on the starter to "kick out". In either case, it is
advisable to promptly report high or low voltage situations.
Insulation Resistance Monitoring
Insulation resistance monitoring has been recommended and used for
more than half a century to evaluate the condition of electrical insulation.
Whereas individual insulation resistance monitoring is of limited use, a
carefully maintained record of periodic measurements accumulated over
months and years of service is a trendable history of the · insulation's
condition.
Two Fundamental Properties of Insulation
Two properties of insulation are dielectric strength and insulation
resistance. These are two different and distinct properties of insulation and
no simple relation between them has been found. However, extremely low
values of insulation resistance, especially when measured values have
decreased sharply or steadily over a period of time, should be taken as a
warning that the dielectric strength may be low or may be decreasing to the
point where the insulation will rupture at the service voltage.
Dielectric strength is the ability to withstand potential difference and
is usually expressed in terms of voltage at which the insulation fails due to
electrostatic stress. Maximum dielectric strength values can be measured
only by testing to destruction.
Insulation resistance is the resistance to current leakage through and
over the surface of insulation. Insulation resistance can be measured without
4-57
damaging the insulation and furnishes a highly useful guide for determining
the general condition of insulation, but is, by itself, not entirely conclusive.
Measurements have shown that insulation resistance measurements at
moderate voltages may actually increase after the insulation has been broken
down by a high potential. Clean, dry insulation having cracks or other faults
may show a high value of insulation resistance but obviously is not suitable
for use. These limitations of insulation resistance values must be fully
reali zed when the condition of insulation is appraised by such values.
Factors Affecting Insulation Resistance
Insulation resistance measurements are affected by several factors:
Surface conditions
Moisture
Temperature
Magnitude of test direct potential
Duration of application of test direct potential
Residual charge in the winding
Measuring Insulation Resistance
There are two types of insulation resistance tests 1) a short-time test or
one minute test and 2) a comparative short-time test or a ten minute test.
The one minute test is used as a quick evaluation of the insulation
condition. Usually three readings are taken, one from each motor winding
phase to ground. If all of the readings are above acceptable minimum
insulation resistance values, the motor is considered operable for a
preselected period of time, usually six months to a year. The one minute test
may be performed 1) when the insulation resistance is assumed low due to
adverse operating condition, 2) before start up after being secured for an
extended period of time, 3) on a scheduled annual basis along with the ten
minute test to compute the polarization index and trend the insulation
condition, and 4) during a drying out process to determine progress (see
Figure 4-36).
4-58
100
80
~
"
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0
Cl
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"
60
ui «-<,
~ POLARIZA TlON
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INDEX
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I 2.0 OR MORE
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40
w
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0
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"
-'
20
:J
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0
0 20 40 60 80 100
TIME. HOURS
Figure 4·36 Drying Process of a Class B Annature Winding
The ten minute test is used with the one minute test to compute the
polarization index, which is the ratio of the ten minute to the one minute test.
The ten minute test, taken annually, also provides a highly reliable evaluation
of the motor insulation condition and can be charted, compared, and
interpreted to determine maintenance action and frequency of inspection. The
technique for the ten minute test is essentially the same as the one minute
test except that the test is performed for a longer period of time.
Conditions for Measuring Insulation Resistance
The conditions for performing insulation resistance testing will vary.
Whenever possible, the conditions below should be met:
4-59
The insulation surface must be clean and dry if the measurement
is to provide the information on the condition within the
insulation as distinguished from surface condition.
The winding temperature sliould be at least a few degrees above
the dewpoint to avoid condensation of moisture on the winding
insulation. It is also important that, when comparing insulation
resistance of machine windings, values be converted to a 40"C
basis.
It is not necessary that the machine be at a stand-still when
insulation resistance test are made. It is often desirable to make
insulation resistance measurements when rotating equipment is
subject to centrifugal forces similar to those occurring in service.
The test can be performed immediately after the machine is taken
out of service and while it is still rotating.
In certain cases, it is practical to make periodic insulation
resistance measurements while machines are rotating on short-
circuit dry-out, that is, when a small amount of current is passed
through the winding to allow it to warm up and dry out.
Whenever machines are rotating during measurement of
insulation resistance, precautions should be taken to avoid
damage to equipment or injury to personnel. These precautions
should include a tagout of the circuit breakers using a mechanical
means to prevent accidental energizing of the equipment.
Test records of a given machine should indicate any special test
conditions.
When data is being trended, every effort should be made to conduct the
test under the same conditions. This permits easier and more accurate
comparison. However, it is not always possible to duplicate conditions, but
if major deviations are recorded with the data, they can be factored into the
review. Along with the test results, the following information should be
recorded:
4-60
[
L
Motor nameplate data
Winding temperature
Ambient temperature
Relative humidity
Condition in the area
Whether the motor was in service prior to the inspection
Maintenance actions taken
Instruments
Direct measurement of insulation resistance may be made with the
following instruments:
Direct-indicating ohmmeter with self-contained hand or power-
driven generator.
Direct-indicating ohmmeter with self-contained battery.
Direct-indicating ohmmeter with self-contained rectifier using an
external alternating-current supply.
Resistance bridge with self-contained galvanometer and batteries.
Testing Guidelines
Generally two electricians carry out the one minute or the ten minute
tests. Before performing the test, the motor data and past history can be
reviewed to give an idea of what to expect and warn of past problems.
Next the applicable motor and related electrical equipment should be
identified and completely disconnected from all power sources and tagged.
Where possible, both disconnects and circuit breakers should be opened and
tagged (see Figure 4-37).
4-61
460 V ~
r- - - -t-
I
-,
i 600A CB
I
L_
r-
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I
I
I
I
I
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L_
-1---- _J FLOOR-MOUNTED
~ MOTOR
__ _ ...L, CONTROLLER
-- - - - - t ~ . _ - l - I _
I - DISCONNECT
I SWITCH
I (UN FUSED)
-- -- ----O+-110VC01L
200 HP
MOTOR
I
I
500 V
MEGOHMMETER
Figure 4-37 Meggering Diagram
4-62
At this point, a voltage tester should be used to test for live circuits and
residual voltage. Any residual voltage should be discharged to ground before
continuing the test. When using the tester, leads should be attached to the
appropriate terminal or ground using an· alligator clip, so only one hand is
required in the proximity of possible energized equipment.
.. ,
The insulation resistance reading can be ·taken at a point closest to the
zero. This serves as a check on the tester's accuracy.
Next, the ground lead is connected to the appropriate terminal or
ground (frame of controller). The other lead is placed in contact with each
phase terminal. It is recommended that each phase be isolated and tested
separately when feasible. Testing each phase individually gives a comparison
between phases which is useful in evaluating the phase to phase insulation
resistance.
When testing individual phases, the neutral end of each phase winding
should be disconnected and the phases not under test should be grounded.
Another method of testing each phase separately is to use guard circuits on
the phases not under test.
Tests may be made on the entire winding at one time, under certain
conditions, such as when time is limited. However, this procedure is not
preferred. One objection to testing all phases at a time is that only ground
insulation is tested and no test is made of the phase-to-phase insulation. The
phase-to-phase insulation is tested when one phase is tested at a time with
other phases grounded.
The connection leads, brush rigging, cables, switches, capacitors,
lightning arrestors, and other external equipment influence the insulation
resistance test reading on a machine winding to a marked degree. Thus, it
is desirable to measure the insulation resistance of a winding exclusive of the
external equipment on the machine.
4-63
method and then for temperature, to 40°C, so they can be compared with the
insulation resistance recommended minimum value of the complete winding.
Each phase tested/others ground - divide reading by two
Each phase tested/others on guard circuits - divide reading by
three
,
,
Readings taken on a scheduled basis can be plotted for trending the
winding's insulation resistance. Trending of readings is more important than
and can predict maintenance actions.
MINIMUM VALUES AND FREQUENCY OF INSULATION
RESISTANCE TEST
Minimum Insulation Resistance Value
Presently, the acceptable industry practice permits one megohm as the
absolute minimum value of insulation resistance. This value is for a 460 volt
motor. Motors with higher rated voltages will have a higher minimum
insulation resistance value.
The IEEE Standard 43-1974 recommends calculating the minimum
value from:
where:
kV =
kV + 1
recommended minimum insulation resistance in
megohms at 40°C of the entire machine
winding.
rate machine terminal to terminal potential, in
rms kil ovolts.
4-64
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, .
;
,
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L
, .
..
L
Note that the IEEE recommended value is always a value larger than
one and increases for machines with higher terminal to terminal potentials.
The actual complete winding insulation resistance to be used when comparing
to the calculated value must be corrected to 40"C.
In addition, special motors may have winding resistances lower than the
recommended since special materials may be used in the insulation. The
minimum insulation resistance value may be established by the manufacturer.
This information should be requested at the time of purchase.
The minimum value of polarization index for alternating current and
direct current rotating machines recommended by the Institute of Electrical
and Mechanical Engineers is:
For Class A (105°C): 1.5
For Class B (130"C): 2.0
For Class F (155°C): 2.0
Classes A, Band F correspond to the insulation system
that correlates the limiting temperature for that insulation. Insulation that is
subjected to higher temperatures will have an increased rate of thermal aging.
Frequency of Inspection
The current industrial practice is to test motors annually using both the
one minute and ten minute tests. The results are recorded for trending and
the polarization index is computed. Also, motors are tested using the one
minute test anytime the insulation resistances value is in question. Causes
for question may be operating in adverse conditions or standing idle for long
periods of time.
Interpretation of Results
Insulation resistance history of a given machine, made and kept under
uniform conditions, is recognized as a useful way of monitoring the
insulation condition (see Figure 4-38).
4-65

When the insulation resistance history is not available,
recommended minimum values of the polarization index or of the
one minute insulation resistance may be used to estimate the
suitability of the winding for an over potential test or for
operation. The one minute insulation resistance (corrected to
40°C) should be at least · that · of . the recommended minimum
insulation resistance value obtained from RM = kV + 1.
It is recognized that it may be possible to operate machines with
values less than the recommended minimum value; however, it
is not normally considered good practice.
In some cases, special insulation material or designs, not
injurious to the dielectric strength,. will provide lower values.
These special cases should be identified by the motor vendor
(Semi-conductor, high voltage- cable).
When the end windings of a machine are treated with a
semiconducting material for corona elimination purposes, the
observed insulation resistance may be somewhat lower than that
of a similar machine which is untreated.
/
"L-_'-_'-_-:---:
" .
nUl IYIA"S)
Figure 4·38 Insulation Resistance History
4-66
The insulation resistance of one phase of a three-phase armature
winding with the other two phases grounded is approximately
twice that of the entire winding. Therefore, when the three
phases are tested separately, the observed resistance of each
phase should be divided by two to obtain a value which, after
correction for temperature, may be compared 'with the
recommended minimum value of insulation resistance for the
complete winding.
If each phase is tested separately and guard circuits are used on
the other two phases not undeJ test, the observed resistance of
each phase should be divigrd by three to obtain a value, which,
after correction for temperature, may be compared with the
recommended minimum value of insulation resistance for the
complete winding.
For insulation in good condition, insulation resistance readings of
10 to 100 times the value of the recommended minimum value
of insulation resistance (RM) are common.
In application where the machine is vital, it has been considered
good practice to initiate reconditioning should the insulation
resistance, having been well above the minimum value, drop
appreciably to near that level.
ROTATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
A tachometer is an instrument used to measure the speed at which a
shaft or wheel is turning. The speed is usually determined in revolutions per
minute.
The several types of tachometers (fable 4-8) described below vary in
cost, in dependability, and in accuracy of results obtainable. One basic
difference between the different types of tachometers is that some read
directly in revolutions per minute (rpm), while others are primarily revolution
counters that must be used with a timing device such as an accurate stop
watch. Each will be discussed independently.
4-67
Table 4-8 Tachometer Types
Revolution Counter (Odometer)
The revolution counter is a small hand-held counting device that is
pressed to the center of a rotating shaft for a time period of from 30 to 60
seconds. Reasonable accuracy can be obtained by using a good watch with
a sweep-second hand where a stop watch is not available. This instrument
cannot normally be rest to zero, so that the measured shaft speed is the
difference between the initial and final instrument readings divided by the
time interval.
Many revolution counters cannot be used on shafts with flat ends. (Slip
and inaccurate readings are inevitable.) Some types feature a clutch
engagement in which a certain amount of force is required to activate the
recording mechanism. All must be used and coordinated with an accurate
timepiece.
Tachometers, Centrifugal
This type of instrument contains a centrifugally operated mechanism
that is similar to the fly-ball governor on a stationary steam engine, or the
governor on a gasoline engine. The instrument is held in contact with the
4-68

,
-.
rotating shaft, which then rotates the tachometer mechanism and moves the
pointer to give instantaneous indication on the dial, directly in rpm. This type
of tachometer will indicate properly regardless of the rotation of the shaft,
and a stop watch or other time device is not required.
Figure 4-39 Centrifugal Tachometer
Tachometer, Chronometric
The chronometric tachometer combines a revolution counter and a stop
watch in one instrument. In using this type of tachometer, its tip is placed in
contact with the rotating shaft. The tachometer spindle will then be turning
with the shaft but the instrument will not be indicating. To take reading, the
push button is pressed and then quickly released. This sets the meter hand
to zero, winds the stop watch movement, and then simultaneously starts both
the revolution counter and the stop watch. After a fixed time interval,
usually six seconds, the counting mechanism is automatically uncoupled so
that it no longer accumulates revolutions even though the instrument tip is
still in contact with the contact with the rotating shaft. After the meter hands
have stopped, the tachometer may be removed from the shaft and read. The
meter face has two pointers and two dials, the smaller one indicating one
graduation for each complete revolution of the larger pointer, and the reading
will be directly in rpm. Some instrument spindles must be rotating in order
to be reset without damage.
4-69
Figure 4·40 Chronometric Tachometer
Tachometer, Electronic
The Stroboscope is an electron ic tachometer that uses an electrically
flashing light. The frequency of the flashing light is electronically controlled
and adjustable. When the frequency of the flashing light is adjusted to equal
the frequency of the rotating machine, the machine will appear to stand still.
The stroboscope does not need to make contact with the machine being
checked, but need only be pointed toward the machine so that a moving part
will be illuminated by the stroboscope light and can be viewed by the
operator. The light flashes are of extremely short duration, and their
frequency is adjustable by turning a knob on the stroboscope. When the
frequency of the light flashes is exactly the same as the speed of the moving
part being viewed, the part will be seen distinctly only once each cycle, and
the moving part will appear to stand still. The corresponding frequency, or
rpm, can be read from a scale on the instrument.
4-70
Figure 4-41 Stroboscope
Tachometer, Photo
The photo tachometer is a relatively new concept in rpm measurement:
The instrument uses a photocell, or eye, which counts the pulses as the object
rotates. Then, by use of a transistorized computer circuit, it produces a direct
rpm reading on the dial indicator on the instrument's face. The instrument
in Figure 4-42 has a dual range of 0-2,400 rpm and 0-12,000 rpm. Several
features make it adaptable for use in measuring fan speeds. It is completely
portable and is equipped with long-life mercury batteries for its light and
power source. It weighs only about two-and-a-half pounds, with case and
batteries. It has good accuracy and any error can be reduced by using more
than one marker on the rotating device. Its calibration can be continually
checked on most jobs by directing its beam to a fluorescent light and
comparing the indicating reading against 7,200 on the 0-12,000 rpm scale.
4-71
Figure 4-42 Photo Tachometer
The photo tachometer does not have to be in contact with the rotating
device. It indicates instantaneous speeds, not average speed - whether
constant or changing - thereby reading the speed as it is. It is easy to use,
and easy to read. One need only place a contrasting mark on the rotating
device by using chalk or colored tape. It is good instrument to use on in-line
fans and other such equipment where shaft ends are not accessible. It also
has good application for use on equipment rotating at a high rate of speed.
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT
Vibration Probe
A vibration probe is used to indicate the displacement of rotating
equipment in an HV AC system. Larger facilities use vibration measurements
as the basis for predictive maintenance programs.
Causes of displacement or vibration in HVAC equipment include the
following:
4-72
,.
r
i
I
,
I
-
Unbalance of rotating parts
Misalignment of couplings and bearings
Bent shafts
Worn, eccentric or damaged gears
Bad drive belts and drive chains
Torque variations
Electromagnetic forces
Hydraulic forces
Looseness
Rubbing
Resonance
The vibration probe and meter cannot determine the problem but does
provide the data which indicates changes since the last reading. Once a
problem is detected, analysis is performed using more sophisticated equip-
ment. Typical meters for vibration probe analysis are shown in Figure 4-43.
r.::;:;71
~

Figure 4-43 Vibration Meters
4-73
The key item of a vibration pickup probe is the crystal. The crystal,
when subjected to pressure caused by vibration, deforms which causes an
electrical potential proportional to the applied force or pressure. This action
of generating a voltage from the force or pressure is the principle used in the
piezoelectric crystal. Piezoelectricity is a property of nonconducting solids
which have a crystal lattice structure that does not have a center of symmetry
to produce voltage. The crystal is a dynamic responding sensor and is not
suitable for steady-state conditions, therefore, it only responds on a vibration
pulse or change. A magnet may be used to attach the probe to the rotating
equipment. Other probes are permanently attached and provide constant
VELOCITY
PICKUP
CASE
-------- /"
- - - - - - - ~
COIL "RINO
CONNECTOR PINS
oOLCH' ... ".IFIL.LEDWITH SILICONE Dill
CONNECTOR'INI
-- , __ .. --- "..,>NVoN
.......
CRYSTAL
(COY CURRENT
P"OXIMITY PROIIE
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ACCiLIEAOMITlR
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Figure 4-44 Vibration Probe Schematic Representation
4-74
Typically the output from the crystal goes to an amplifier which then
transmits a usable signal for indication or control. A vibration probe using
this principle may be found on large forced-draft fan bearings.
Sometimes each bearing will have a permanently affixed vibration
probe which will feed information to a vibration monitoring panel on the
status of each bearing. The vibration probe may also be attached to a
tripping device should equipment vibrations become excessive. The
permanent probe is typically held to the equipment by a threaded connection
while the hand held probe is held to the equipment by a magnet.
Preventive maintenance requires periodic vibration and noise analysis.
The vibration test is important to the maintenance program in that vibration
is a good "machine-health indicator".
Measuring Vibration
The most significant vibration measurement points using the vibration
meter, will usually be at the bearings which support the major rotating
component(s), or on solid machine structure as near the bearings as possible.
These points are the best "transmitters" of the machine's vibration.
At a given measurement point (or bearing) on the machine, three
"standard" measurement positions of the pickup may be used. These points
are the best "transmitters" of the machine's vibration. These positions are
"Axial", "Vertical", and "Horizontal". The three measurements, when
compared with each other and/or with their previous values, can provide
important clues as to type or magnitude of possible problems. When
combined with analysis of the frequencies at which these vibrations occur,
the source of the vibration can be pin-pointed to the source of the problem.
Chapter 6 covers frequency analysis in more detail.
Methods for applying the pickup are listed below. Factors which may
affect the accuracy (or desired ability) of these methods are given
immediately after the list, and should be studied carefully.
4-75
1. Hand-held, with pickup directly against vibrating part.
2. Attached to machine with vise grip holder or magnetic holder
(optional pickup accessories).
3. Installed on 1/4-28 stud welded on or threaded to machine part.
(Mounting surface must be flat and stud square with surface to
When hand-holding the pickup (with or without probe installed), use
just enough force to prevent any chattering between the part and the pickup
(or probe) - don't "lean" against the pickup. Keep the pickup as steady as
possible while taking the meter reading.
Repeat measurements of a given. point are taken to show an change in
machine condition by comparing the measurement values. When taking
repeat measurements, it is important to use the same relative pickup position
each time, since a change in relative position can cause a change in the
comparative measurements. To ensure "repeatability" when using methods
1. or 2., make a practice of always placing the pickup in a reasonably true
horizontal or vertical plane when conditions permit.
If machine structure forces you to use an "unusual" position, be sure to
repeat that position for later measurements at the same point.
Methods of pickup will vary with machine RPM and pickup device.
The following is an example of speed limits (due to "resonance" limits of the
pickup accessories).
APPLICATION METHOD SPEED LIMITS
Attached with vise holder 720 to 8,700 rpm
Hand-held, with 9-in. probe 720 to 16,000 rpm
Attached with magnetic 720 to 37,200 rpm
4-76
Measuring Displacement
Vibration can be measured in terms of how far the part moves back and
forth. This is called the peak-to-peak displacement or simply the
displacement. This measurement of displacement is normally expressed in
mils.
Measuring Velocity
The vibrometer can also measure the vibration in terms of how fast the
part moves. This is called the peak velocity and is measured in inches per
second. Because the velocity is a function of both displacement and
frequency, it provides an added sensitivity to high frequency vibrations.
For instance, a vibration displacement of 0.1 mil results. in the same
meter reading when the frequency is 1800 cpm as it does at 18,000 cpm.
The velocity for 0.1 mil at 1800 cpm is 0.0094 in/sec but at 18,000 cpm the
velocity is ten times as large or 0.094 in/sec. This means that small
vibrations occurring at high frequency are easier to detect if velocity
measurements are used. Since troubles such as bad bearings and gears cause
vibration at high frequency, velocity measurements are extremely valuable.
GAUGE MANIFOLD
In troubleshooting and repairing a refrigerant system, the steps below
should be followed:
1. Attach a gauge manifold.
2. Evaluate performance of system. If repairs requiring opening the
system are needed, continue to next step.
3. Discharge systems refrigerant charge.
4. Open system and make repairs.
5. Pressure test system.
6. Evacuate and dehydrate system.
7. Charge system with oil and refrigerant.
8. Evaluate repairs made and trim the refrigerant charge.
4-77
All maintenance performed will include some of these steps. The
primary tool used in diagnosing the problems in a refrigerant system is the
gauge manifold.
Using the Gauge Manifold
The gauge manifold is a device that is used to evaluate a refrigerant
system. It checks the different pressures in the system so that a technician
can pinpoint problems. A typical gauge manifold is shown in Figure 4-45
with a schematic shown in Figure 4-46.
When connecting refrigerant lines or gauge manifolds to any refriger-
ating system, one must keep the system clean. The lines, gauges and
manifold must be free of dirt, moisture and air. The manifold should be
purged with the same refrigerant as is used in the system. The manifold and
connecting lines must be purged before the system service valve is opened
or before the piercing valve stem makes an opening in the tubing.
To check the pressure in a system, gauges must be connected to the
system without allowing air, moisture or dirt to enter. The procedure for
connecting gauge to a system depends on the system design. It is different
for each system. See Figure 4-47.
Some systems have both a suction service valve and a discharge
serv ice valve. See Figure 4-47 A.
Some have a suction service valve adaptor mounted on the
compressor. See Figure 4-47B.
Some do not have any service valves but do have a process tube.
See 4-47C.
Some have a process tube too short or not reachable. In such
systems it is necessary to attach a piercing valve to either the
liquid line, the suction line or both. See Figure 4-470.
4-78
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Figure 4-45 Gauge Manifold
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OIl. COMUINII
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Figure 4-46 Gauge Manifold Schematic
4-79
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Figure 4·47 Four Different Methods for Connecting a Gauge Manifold
System A with two service valves is the easiest for attaching gauges.
It also permits one to check both the low side pressure and the high side
pressure.
Referring to Figure 4-48 the most popular way to purge the service
lines is to loosen the line fitting on the system service valve at C, open valve
B and then open cylinder line valve E just a little. Repeat the same
procedure for valve D. The cylinder refrigerant will free or purge all the
lines and the manifold of air and moisture.
4·80
l
r- - - - - -- -. - - ------ -- - - -- --- - --- -. --,
((
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,
Figure 4·48 Valves on Gauge Manifold Opened to Purge Service Lines
When only one connection is to be made to the system, it is to the low
or suction side, at valve C. The flexible line between Band C is connected
to the system valve, C. However, the use of the gauge manifold allows one
to check both low side pressures when valve C is open and valve B is closed
and high side pressures when valve 0 is open and valve A is closed.
It also allows one to charge a system. Valves C and B are open;
cylinder valve E is opened slowly. It can also be used to evacuate the
system. Vacuum pump line is connected to the middle connection of the
gauge manifold; valve C is open and valve B is opened.
4-81
After installing the gauge manifold (if the unit will run), operate the
system through at least three operating cycles. Carefully record the suction
pressures, condensing pressures, evaporator temperature and the condenser
temperature. Many times this information is provided on packaged units.
Special Attaching Devices
Some systems do not provide for gauge openings. Therefore, special
attaching devices must be used to make it possible to use the gauge
manifold. Figure 4-49 shows a gauge manifold with a vacuum pump valve
and refrigerant cylinder valve added to the manifold.
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Figure 4-49 Gauge Manifold with Vacuum Pump Valve
and a Refrigerant Cylinder Valve Added
4-82
SUMMARY
4-83
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CHAPTER FIVE
SYSTEM TEST AND BALANCE PROCEDURES
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CHAPTER FIVE
SYSTEM TEST AND BALANCE PROCEDURES
OBJECTIVES
At the completion of this chapter, the student will be able to:
1. List the instruments used to measure flowrate in the following air
systems components:

Ducts
Diffusers
Supply grilles and registers
2. Describe the conditions of a system during tests.
3. List the four critical factors that are checked in balancing plenum
systems.
4. Describe the procedure for testing air shafts.
5. Describe the procedure for testing duct leakage.
6. List the checks that must be made before balancing a water
system.
7. Describe the general procedure for balancing hydronic systems.
8. Describe the basic procedure used to balance flow (air/water)
across the following components:
• Cabinet unit heaters
• Fan coil and unit ventilator
• Unit heaters

Pumps
• Chillers
• Cooling tower
9. Describe the two tests used to test HEPA filters.
10. Describe the charcoal adsorber test procedure.
CHAPTER FIVE
SYSTEM TEST AND BALANCE PROCEDURES
INTRODUcrION
In order for an HV AC system to operate properly, it must be tested and
balanced in accordance with proven procedures. This chapter discusses some
of the methods used to properly test and balance HV AC systems and
components. The areas that will be covered are:

Air Flow Measurement in Ducts
Hydronic System Testing
HEPA Filters Testing
AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT IN DUCTS
Air flow measurement in duct work should be measured In the
following manner and with the following approved instruments:

Pitot Tube and Inclined gauge Manometer
Pitot Tube and Magnehelic gauge
Pitot Tube and Velometer
Thermo-Anemometer
To establish air flow in ducts a complete traverse should be made using
the above approved instruments. The traverse should be made in a duct
having a minimum of four diameters in length from nearest transition duct
or other obstruction.
The cross section of the duct should be marked off in square areas of
equal proportions and the pitot tube inserted so as to be in the center of each
of 700 FPM or below should not be made with this type of instrument as
these readings will not be accurate. For readings of 700 FPM or below, the
5-1
micromanometer should be used in lieu of the inclined or magnehelic gauge.
A maximum of six inch squares should be used.
Air Flow Measurement of Diffusers
Air flows from diffusers should be measured with one of the foll owing
type instruments:

Alnor Velometer
Bacharach FloRite Scoop
Hoods when applicable as noted herein
The Alnor Velometer consists of a special blade vane in a case
containing calibrated scales over which a needle point moves correspondingly
to the pressure upon the blade vane. A variety of special tips are provided
and should be used as per the manufacturer's recommendations. The
instrument is found to be commercially accurate and durable for field use and
is not affected by minor temperature variations.
Each diffuser tested should be marked at locations of readings on face
or vane. The velocity meter inlet jet should be placed in the vena contract
of the face vanes of the diffuser. A minimum of six readings should be
made to determine average velocity in feet per minute. All future readings
and check readings should be made at the marked locations of each diffuser.
Air Flow Measurements of Supply Grilles and Registers
Air flow measurements from supply grilles and registers should be
made using one of the following approved instruments and methods:

4" Vane Type anemometer
4" Vane Type Bacharach FloRite Meter
Alnor Velometer
Hoods
5-2
grille in sections taking a reading in front of each section and averaging the
results. Readings taken by moving the instrument back and forth across the
face should not be used.
The manufacturer's published anemometer K factor of effective area
should be used in determining the total CFM being discharged.
The vane type Bacharach Velocity meter can also be used in the same
manner with the corrected factor.
The Alnor Velometer should be used with the correct tip and read at
the vena contract of the blades using the manufacturer's published velometer
factor of effective area.
Use of Hoods
Hoods should be used on perforated type supply diffusers. Hoods may
be used on standard supply or return diffusers for proportioning only. Final
settings and readings must be accomplished with the Alnor or Bacharach.
Hoods used on perforated diffusers should not exceed the particular size of
the diffuser face. Hoods should be constructed as per outlet manufacturer's
recommendations and used with the proper correction factors for each size
hood. The factor should be applied to the discharge free area of the hood.
When a hood is applied to an outlet a certain amount of backpressure
is introduced against the flow of air. Since the exact shape of these hoods
follows a carefully calculated design, you can determine just exactly how
much backpressure can be expected from each of the various sizes so that
correction factors can be applied to the results. For example, a 24" x 24"
hood funnels down to a 12" x 12" discharge opening at the bottom.
Obviously, this creates a 1 square foot free area where the velocity
measurements are read. However, the lab tells us that a 1/4" S.P.W.G. is
created by this particular size hood. Therefore, using 1.00 sq. ft. times the
velocity will not give an accurate reading of what the diffuser would be
handling without the hood's imposed S.P. Consequently the correction factor
5-3
of 1.25 is applied to the actual free area of the discharge end of the hood
increasing it from 1.00 sq. ft. to 1.25 sq. ft.
It has been determined that when a hood is applied to any given outlet,
the backpressure created by the hood causes the air to back up slightly
forcing more air to be discharged from some other outlet either in the same
zone or at the point of least resistance. This can be proven by testing two
outlets individually on the same branch duct and comparing the added total
against a traverse reading of the branch duct upstream from both outlets.
Without applying the correction factor as outlined above, the reading of the
traverse will be greater than the total of the two outlet readings.
NOTE:
Hood Size
at Top
24 x 24
20 x 20
16 x 16
12 x 12
24 x 12
Correction factors stated below are for average velocities.
When necessary to use a hood, a correction factor for that
hood, at the velocity being used, should be reestablished in
the field.
Hood Size Actual Corrected
at Bottom Free Area Free Area
12 x 12 1.00 1.25
lOx 10 .69 .83
8x8 .44 .50
6x6 .25 .28
12 x 12 1.00 1.25
When these factors are applied to the free area of the bottom end of the
hoods, the most accurate readings may be taken.
Air Flow Measurement of Return Grilles and Registers
The anemometer or Bacharach flow meter or velometer should be used
to determine the flow through a return intake by marking off the face of the
intake into sections as was done with supply grilles. The procedure for
testing returns and intakes is similar to the testing of supply outlets with the
exception of the effective area factor.
5-4
,
l.
Testing of Motor Amperage
To test motor amperage the test technician should use the clamp-on
terminals. If the motor terminals are not accessible, readings should be made
at the motor starter box or controller. Before the final reading is taken, fan
drive or vanes should be set in position of final operation. No readings
should be taken until the motor has come up to maximum speed after start
up. Readings should be taken on all three legs of three phase motors.
Measuring Static Pressures
To determine static pressure in ductwork, plenum chambers, across
filters or across coils, the inclined gauge or calibrated magnehelic gauge
should be used in conjunction with a static pressure tip. Insertion of the tube
end or the use of suction cups is not acceptable. Probes should be made in
areas considered to have a stabilized pressure. Preferably two or more
Testing of Hot and Cold Mixing Dampers
Each system that uses hot and cold mixing should be subject to the test
so that a leakage factor can be determined. A temperature sampling should
be made in the cold supply duct and in the main hot supply duct. With the
room thermostat calling for full cooling, air temperature should be read at the
outlet and compared to the temperature of the cold duct air. The same
procedure should be followed for testing of the hot supply duct but with the
' ~
use of full heating. !ii9rmal leakagetfactor, should,,oot. exceed 5%.
Testing and Setting Static Pressure Dampers
The setting and testing of static pressure dampers should be
accomplished in the following manner:
During the balancing of the system, the cold static dampers should be
held at a maximum open position of 90% with the system calling for full
5-5
cooling and with the hot dampers in the closed position. For the balancing
of the hot side the same positioning should be made with the hot damper on
call for full heating. The final settings of dampers should be made by
reading the static pressure required at the sensing tip when the air column at
all terminals is as specified on a call for full cooling. This procedure should
be reversed for the heating side. Arbitrary settings at gauges should be
avoided. This may involve a great deal of checking as the point of least
static is generally, but most certainly not always, at the end of the system.
Testing of Face Velocities Across Coils
The measurement of coil face velocities should be made using a 4"
vane anemometer. The test engineer must attach a long handle to the
instrument and avoid blocking any air flow motion. Continuous movement
across the face of the coil should be avoided. Individual spot readings at set
intervals should be made to establish averages. Coil face velocities at best
are not very reliable and should not be used as a method of establishing total
air except when it is the only available method.
Conditions of System During Tests
A. Determine the total amount of air required to flow across the cooling
coil and heating coil during maximum load conditions. If the cooling
coil is designed to handle the total CFM during maximum load
conditions, the system should be balanced with full air flow across the
cooling coil. If the design calls for a percentage of cooled air and
warm air across respective coils at maximum load conditions, the
systems should be balanced under these conditions. The above applies
to double duct systems.
B. Single duct or reheat type air supply systems should be balanced on a
full call for cooling.
C. All tests should be run with supply, return and exhaust systems
operating and all doors, windows, etc., closed or under projected
operating conditions.
5-6
, .
cooling coils operating (wet) in order that static pressure conditions
should be a maximum.
E. Allowances should be made for air filter resistance at the time of the
tests. The main air system should be at design air quantities and at an
air resistance across the filter bank midway between the design
specifications for clean and dirty filter conditions.
F. The room air supply and return or exhaust design'"
quantities for rooms with an air supply, return or exhaust under 1,000
CFM, and within ° and +5% in rooms where the total is 1,000 CFM
or more. In all cases, the total air quantity supply to any floor or major
zone should be at a maximum condition of + 10%.
G. Total system air quantities should be obtained by adjustment of the fan
operating speeds.
H. The deflection pattern of all supply outlets should be adjusted to insure
proper and uniform air distribution through the areas served by such
outlets.
l. All damper positions should be permanently marked after air balancing
is complete.
Setting of Outside Air and Return Air Volumes
Final balanced conditions must include the setting of outside air
quantities and return air quantities. Setting of outside air quantities must be
temperature methods. Where possible a duct traverse should be taken to
establish total O.S.A., or the use of 4" vane anemometer across outside air
intake may be used. The temperature percentage method of calculation may
be used whenever conditions of duct work or installation indicate improper
5-7
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Testing of Ceiling Plenum Systems (See Figure 5-1)
When air is delivered into the conditioned area through an acoustical
ceiling, balancing the air distribution system cannot end at the duct outlet into
the ceiling plenum. It must continue through the testing and adjusting of the
plenum and the ceiling tiles themselves.
The ceiling plenum supply system is essentially a sealed area or box
into which air is discharged at the required CFM with a predetermine
pressure established to force the air from this sealed area through the ceiling,
either by means of perforations in the tile itself or slotted runners that hold
the tile in place.
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Pl e num l uOOly 11)<1( '
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Pattern of
air distribution
through
plenum ceilinq
Figure 5-1 Pattern of Air Distribution through Plenum Ceiling
5-8
There are various types of ceilings on the market, but the principle of
air supply is essentially the same in all of them. Typical design of such a
system consists of a standard air handling unit or supply fan with a supply
ai r duct running to the various sealed plenum areas or boxes over the space
to be conditioned. Supply ducts terminate at the plenums, discharging the air
into these sealed areas above the ceilings.
There are four critical factors that must be carefully checked In
balancing this type of system:
1. Penetration of air supply through ceiling to comfort level 6 ft.
above the floor .
2. Even distribution of air over entire ceiling area inside plenum.
3. Required pressure to provide penetration through ceiling.
4. Final adjustment to air supply slots for correct velocities.
Here is a 6-step balancing procedure which, if followed, will enable the
test and balance engineer to assure the satisfaction of these four major factors
and to provide comfort conditions in the areas served:
1. Visual check, using high-powered light to check for leakage
between barriers and seals.
2. Instrument check to establish leakage through tile joints and
around perimeter area.
3. Instrument check to establish pressure in ceiling plenum at all
locations.
4. Instrument and velocity check at ceiling level 2 ft. below ceiling
level and at 6 ft. level above floor to establish correct velocity of
air movement in FPM.
5-9
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Figure 5-2 Test Set-up
5-14
"
I
Fume Hood Testing
A balanced hood and enclosure requires that the air flow through the
opening and enclosure itself be such that full protection is maintained without
interfering with the experiment or the personnel carrying on the experiment.
Minimum air flow conditions which will furnish this protection, yet not waste
conditioned or heated air, are also a requirement of good balanced conditions.
Two types of hoods are now generally in use. Type one introduces a
source of make-up air and uses a very minimum amount, if any, of the
surrounding conditioned air. The second type uses all surrounding air. In
either case the air that flows through the enclosure must utilize an exhaust
fan system to move this contaminated air to the out-of-doors.
To achieve good balance in either type of system, the exhaust fan and
supply air must be adjusted to accurate and correct amounts.
In general the following recommended face velocities should be applied
under balanced condition across the hood face:
1. Low Toxicity Levels ... .. .. . .... ... . .. . 50 FPM
2. Average Toxicity Levels ........... . ... . 75 FPM
3. Low level radioactive materials or
high toxicity levels .. . ...... .. .... .... . 100 FPM
4. Medium or high chemical toxicity levels ..... 150 FPM
Four separate tests must be made to properly balance fume hood
systems:
A. Determine and adjust face velocity across the hood face or
openmg.
B. Determine and adjust the exhaust air flow to out-of-doors.
5-15
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B.
C.
A.
B.
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Roof Line
.
Pitot traverse pasHia n.
Exhaust air reading a t hood.
Roo! line
Position of measuring spillage or
backdraft.
Using smoke gun application.
Figure 5-3 Fume Hood Schematic
5-18
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When hood enclosures are banked together in a given area, particular
attention must be given to the placement of air conditioning outlets. Placing
these outlets close to the hoods will cause excessive draft conditions and in
some cases, short circuiting of conditioned air. Optimum application is to
place air outlets on oppcsite ends of room areas allowing hoods to draw this
air across the room area. When hoods have a self-contained air supply,
attention to the above details may not be needed. Because of the possible
health hazards possible due to improper hood operations, hood operating tests
should be performed at least once a year. Inspection and test results
certificate should be placed in a conspicuous location by the testing agency.
Air Distribution Duct Leakage Test
Methods and Standards
To prevent the occurrence of leakage problems, the Consulting
Engineer should include a duct leakage test section in the specification which
would include a verification procedure and certification of tightness.
In most cases it is not practicable for the test and balance agency to
perform these tests as it would require having a test technician continuously
on the job as the ductwork is installed. From the standpoint of economy, it
is more practicable to have the contractor conduct tests in accordance with
AABC Test Standards, and have the agency verify the results obtained and
issue a certificate. "The degree of air tightness in high velocity ductwork
should not be compared with a water distribution system or gas system.
Some degree of leakage will exist regardless of all the precautions taken
during fabrication and installation, however, this leakage should be
minimized to a degree that will not cause excessive problems.
Duct tightness can be determined by the application of proper pressure
testing. When not otherwise specified, 1 % of the system air volume at 1.5
times the duct operating pressure is considered reasonably adequate.
5-19
Test Equipment
[n order to test sections of ductwork as it is installed, a portable means
of testing is required. The most practical type of test apparatus which will
facilitate field testing should consist of the following:
a. Source of High Pressure Air:
1. Rotary Type Blower Fan
2. High Power Tank Type Vacuum Cleaner
b. A Device to Measure Total Air Flow Accurately:
1. Calibrated Orifice Plate
2. Air Straightening Vanes
3. Pressure Tap and Receptacle Tube and Dampering Section
c. Instruments - Two Each
1. Magnehelic Gauge
2. U-Tube Manometer
3. Inclined Gauge
These items should be assembled into a portable device as shown in
Figure 5-4.
Field Test Procedure
1. Seal all openings in duct section to be tested.
2. Connect test apparatus to the test section of duct using a flexible
duct connection of hose.
3. Close damper on blower suction side to prevent excessive
buildup of pressure.
5-20
A"

Figure 5-4 Portable Test Apparatus
4. Start blower and gradually open damper on suction side of
blower.
5. Buildup pressure in the duct system being tested to the specified
test pressure. (Use 1.5 times duct operating pressure if not
specified.)
6. Read indicated pressure on the instrument that is connected to the
section of duct under test. (See Figure 5-4)
7. Maintain this pressure for ten minutes which will indicate audible
leaks.
8. Repair all visual and audible leaks. Shut down the blower and
release the pressure when making repairs.
5-21
9. Upon completion of repairs, build up pressure to test pressure and
read leakage pressure on the instrument connected across the test
apparatus orifice plate. (See Figure 5-4)
10. Leakage CFM is read by consulting the calibrated chart as shown
in Figure 5-5. If no leakage exists, zero pressure differential will
be indicated.
11. Leakage factor allowable (1 %) should be based upon the total
operating CFM of the section of duct under test.
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Figure 5-5 Variation of Air Flow Rate with Orifice Differential Pressure
5-22
Test Verification
The air conditioning installation or sheet metal contractor should engage
the services of a Certified AABC Test Agency to verify results and submit
a certification certificate attesting to the results obtained.
Tested sections of the ductwork should be visually marked by the
agency with a certification sticker and initials of the field test inspector.
Tests should be made before duct sections are concealed.
HYDRONIC SYSTEM TESTING
A schematic piping diagram should be made by the field technician
showing all locations of major components and flows required should be
marked at all locations.
The entire system must be cleaned by the installing contractor prior to
the start of balancing.
The following items must be checked before the start of balancing:
1. Check automatic fill valve setting and strainer.
2. Check expansion tank level.
3. Check all air vents at the coils and at the high points of the
system.
4. Position all automatic valves, hand valves and balancing cocks
for full flow through all coils, connectors and all items in the
system requiring circulation of chilled or hot water.
5. Set all controls to maintain coil water inlet design temperatures
with coil valves positioned for full flow through the coils during
5-23
d. When systems have multiple coil sections, where possible,
balance the water flow by establishing the design water pressure
drop across each col. An alternate method of balancing multiple
sections involves reading the water temperatures at each coil
section with insertion thermometers or contact pyrometer probes,
and adjusting the balancing cocks until uniform temperatures are
obtained.
Condenser Water/Cooling Tower Systems
a. With the system off, confirm that the water level in the tower
basin is at the correct level. On towers with variable pitch fan
b. With pump(s) off, observe and record the system static pressure
at the pump(s).
c. Place the system into operation and allow the flow conditions to
stabilize.
d. Record the operating voltage and amperage of all fan and pump
motors and compare these with nameplate ratings and thermal
e. Record the speed of each pump and/or fan as required.
f. With the pump(s) running, slowly close the balancing cock in
each pump discharge line and record shutoff discharge and
suction pressures at the pump gauge connections. Using the
shutoff head, determine (and verify) the actual pump operating
curve and the size of each impeller. Compare this data with the
submittal data curves. If the test point falls on the design curve,
proceed to the next step; if not, plot a new curve parallel with
other curves on the chart, from zero flow to maximum flow.
Make sure the test readings were taken correctly before plotting
a new curve. Preferably one gauge should be used to read
5-28
"
differential pressure. It is important that gauge readings be
corrected to center line elevation of the pump.
g. Establish uniform water distribution over the tower and check for
clogged outlets or spray nozzles.
h. Record inlet and outlet pressures of the condenser( s) and check
against the manufacturer's design pressure difference.
1. If there is a three-way valve used in the condenser water piping
at the tower, check the pressure difference through valve with the
water going both through the tower and/or through the bypass
line. Set the bypass lien balancing cock to maintain a constant
pressure at the pump discharge with the control valve set in the
full bypass position.
J. Start the tower fan and check rotation, gear box belts, sheaves
and water makeup valve. Check for vortex conditions at the
tower suction connection. Check and record fan motor amperes,
voltage, phase and speed.
k. Have the refrigeration system started. Verify the head and
suction pressures and compare with design. After operation
stabilizes under a normal cooling load, check and record the
condenser water inlet and outlet temperatures. Observe and
record the percent of load on compressor where possible.
l. After setting the three-way control valve (to control head
pressure) in the condenser water line (paragraph i above), verify
and record that it operates to maintain the correct head pressure
by varying the flow at the tower. On units that have a fan
cycling control verify that the fan cycles to maintain design
condenser water temperature. If fan inlet or outlet damper
control are used, verify that the dampers modulate to maintain the
design condenser water temperature leaving the tower.
5-29
m. When electric or steam coils are used in the tower basic with low
water cutoff controls to prevent freeze-up, verify that they will
function properly.
n. Take another complete set of pressure, voltage and ampere
readings on the pump system. If the pump capacity has fallen
below design flow, open the balancing cock at the pump
discharge to bring flow within 105-110% of the design reading,
if possible.
o. Make a final check of all pump and equipment data, and record.
p. After all balancing work has been completed and the system is
operating within plus or minus 10% of design flow, mark or
score all balancing cocks, gauges, and thermometers at final set
points and/or range of operation.
q. Verify the action of all water flow safety and shutdown controls.
Steam and Hot Water Boilers
a. Verify that the boiler(s) has been cleaned, flushed, and started;
that all safety and operating controls have been tested, adjusted
and set; and that the bumer(s) is operating properly.
b. With the boiler(s) operating under normal conditions, check the
following:

Boiler feed pump( s) or makeup water system( s) operation.
Boiler, burner and pump nameplate data.
Boiler control settings (operating pressures and
temperatures).
• Water flow rates and inlet and outlet temperatures (hot
water boilers).
5-30
l.
• Steam boiler water level proper and steady.
c. On initial runs, hot water systems normally require additional air
venting. Confirm that automatic air vents are operating and vent
ai r manually as required . .
d. Steam traps can be checked for proper operation with a
pyrometer.
e. Confirm that all automatic temperature control valves and steam
pressure reducing valves in the system are in the proper position
or mode of operation.
f. Confirm that all pipe strainers are clean.
g. The distribution of steam systems is set by the piping design and
layout; therefore, no field balancing is required.
h. Follow the basic procedures for hot water or steam system work
for items not mentioned above.
Heat Exchangers/Converters
a.
b.
c.
Determine the water flow pressure drop through the heat
exchanger for all circuits. With the measured differential
pressure, the water flow can be obtained from the manufacturer's
submittal data curves or tables. Adjust the water flow to design
conditions and record flow data.
Take inlet and outlet water temperature readings; check against
design data and record.
Check and record the steam pressure; check the setting and/or
operation of automatic temperature control valves, self-contained
control valves, or pressure reducing valves where used. Record
data.
5-31
d. Verify safety valve settings and operation.
e. Confirm that all pipe strainers are clean.
f. Check the operation of steam traps.
g. Check all automatic air vents; manually vent air as required.
h. Follow the basic procedures for hot water or steam system work
for items not mentioned above.
Balancing Data Required
1. Obtain the following Pump Data:
a. Pump Manufacturer
J.
b. Pump No., Model No., etc. k.
c. Impeller Size I.
d. Pump Curve
e. Motor Hp m.
f. Service Factor
g. Amperage n.
h. Voltage
1. Cycles o.
2. Obtain the following Coil Data:
a. Location and Designation
b. Design and Installed Data for:
1) CFM and BTU
2) GPM and Pressure Drop
Phase
RPM
Specified Pump GPM,
Running Amperes and
Voltage
Pump Suction and Dis-
charge Pressure
GPM
3) Water Temperature In and Out
4) Air Wet and Dry Bulb In and Out
5-32
c. From Tests
1) Air Volumes across Coil
2) Water Temperature In and Out
3) GPM from coil pressure drop, orifice, flow station or
control valve (Cv)
It is considered good practice to use this cross check on all main coils
regardless of whether or not flow station or pressure taps are provided.
3. Water Balance Final Report Data
Note:
a. 1) Pumps's flow and head
4) Terminal element pressure and temperature data
b. Field Data from Test and Balance
2) Pump running current, voltage and BHP.
3) Compare operating heads and BHP with pump curves
for verification of flow.
4) Flow station actual pressure drop and resulting flow
at final setting.
5) Compare with required pressure drop.
6) Check Cv of control valves through the coil and
through the bypass.
1) Compare Cv drops actual with required.
8) Test pressure drops, water temperature difference and
air temperature difference across terminal units.
9) Compare test figures with the required.
A heat balance should be run and reported on all main
coils. It is well to remember that pump heads, orifice
drops, etc. are a means of checking and balancing in an
attempt to obtain a given result. The heat balance is the
result.
5-33
Water Balance with Coil, Control Valve and Measuring Station
A. Install gauge cocks at "C", "0", and "E". They should be as
close to the valve as possible. (See Figure 5-6.)
B. Place the valve in the position for full flow through the coil.
Check to be sure that the valve has seated against the bypass
port. Connect the differential pressure gauge or manometer
across gauge cocks "C" and "0". (See Figure 5-6.)
C. Adjust the balancing valve "A" until the differential matches the
drop required with design flow and the control valve Cv. (See
Figure 5-6.)
O. Place the differential gauge between "C" and "E". Read and
record the coil pressure drop. (See Figure 5-6.)
E. Place the differential gauge between "0" and "E" and read this
differential with full flow through the coil. (See Figure 5-6.)
F. Change the control valve to full flow through the bypass and
adjust balancing valve "B" until the differential across "0" and
"E" is the same as it was with full flow through the coil. (See
Figure 5-6.)
G. Place the differential gauge across "0" and "F", read the
differential and calculate flow using Cv of the valve on bypass.
(See Figure 5-6.)
5-34
A " B - Balancing ":tlves
C, D, E, F, G & [I - ", auge Cock!
I " J - The rmomete r Wells
Figure 5-6 Composite Coil Diagram
This example illustrates the various possible ways a coil may be tested
for flow. It is a good practice to check by as many methods as are available .
Design
CFM
EDB
EWB
LDB
LWB
GPM
Drop Ft.
Water In
Water Out
. Installed COil
22,410
84
69
52.0
51.5
180
10.0 Max.
45
0
Control Valve C
V
Flow Station
Rinco 4" B
5-35
22,410
84
69
52.0
51.5
178
3.2 ft
45
0
58.4
0
80 Thm
100 Bypass
25" @ 178 GPM
FIELD TEST & SET
C to E
D to E
D to E
C to D
F to D
G to H
G to H
CFM
EDB
EWB
LDB
LWB
EW
LW
40.0 In. Set Valve A - Flow Thru Coil
14.5 ft. Test Thru Coil
14.5 ft. Set Valve B - Flow Thru Bypass
l1.2ft. Test Thru Coil
7.3 ft. Test Thru Bypass
28.0 In. Flow Thru Coil
28.0 In. Flow Thru Bypass
22,000
74.0
68.5
55.0
53.5
47.5
59.0
GPM ESTABLISHED THRU COIL
1. By Coil Drop
40" or 3.33' Test
185 GPM
2. By Valve Cv Thru Coil (C to D)
GPM
=
GPM
80 x
80 x 2.21
176 GPM
5-36
(Use Spec. Gravity of 1.0)
11.0
2.3 Test 11 ft.
;
,
,
;
L
(
r
f
3. By Flow Station - Rinco 4" B
28" Test Drop
190 GPM from Rinco Curve
4. By Total Heat Transfer
GPM - .BTU/CFM x CFl1
6TW x 500
Test
EWE _
LWE _
CFM =
LW =
EW =
T =
Cabinet Unit Heaters
Enthalpy
68.5 _
53.5 _
22,000
59.0
47.5
11.5
5-37
147.74
100.44 _
47.30 BTU/CFM
GPM=
=
47.30 x 22.000
11.5 x 500
181 GPM
1. Check rotation of the fan.
2. Read and record the pressure drop across the coil and adjust if
necessary.
3. Read and record the entering and leaving water temperature.
4. Read and record the entering and leaving air temperature.
Fan Coil Unit and Unit Ventilator
1. Set unit on high fan speed. Set outside air and thermostat on full
cooling for fan coil units and full recirculated air for unit
ventilators.
2. Measure the entering and leaving water temperature.
3. Measure the entering and leaving air temperature.
4. Measure the temperature or pressure difference.
5. Plot the temperature difference and balance flow or set design
pressure difference.
6. Re-read the temperature or pressure difference.
5-38
I
I
L
Note: A flow mounted unit is defined as an "under-the-window"
type. A ceiling mounted unit is defined as a "horizontal
ceiling-hung uni t" to accept a duct system or free blow.
Unit Heaters
--
....
-.--.
1. Check rotation of the fan.
2. Read and record the pressure drop across the coil and adjust if
necessary.
3. Read and record the entering and leaving water temperature.
4. Read and record the entering and leaving air temperature.
5-39
Pumps
1. Read and record the nameplate data.
2. Check for the proper rotation.
3. Read and record the current and voltage.
4. Read and record the operating pressures.
5. Adjust to the desired quantity.
5-40
Chiller
the presence of the chiller manufacturer's serviceman and to his
specifications.
2. Read and record the condenser water temperatures and pressure
entering and leaving the machine and adjust the cocks
accordingly.
3. Read and record the chilled water temperature and pressures
entering and leaving the machine and adjust the cocks
accordingly.
5-41
Cooling Tower
1. Read and record all nameplate data on the tower and pumps.
2. Read and record the current and voltage on the pump motors and
tower fan motors.
accordingly.
5. Read and record the wet and dry bulb temperatures of the inlet
and outlet flows.
6. Read and record the water temperatures of the entering and
leaving and make-up water.
5-42
. .
HEPA FILTERS
A HEPA filter is an extremely high efficiency filter for sub micron
particles and aerosols in the air. The minimum efficiency is 99.97% on an
0.3 micron particle. In the nuclear power industry, HEPA filters are
standardized to a common size and general construction. 24 in x 24 in x 11-
1/2 in (610 mm x 610 mm x 292 mm) with a flow from 1000 to about 1500
cfm (1700 m'lh to 2550 m'lh) is the universal standard.
Problems in HEPA Filter Use
The most common problems seen in design, operation, maintenance,
and testing can be grouped into a relatively compact list.
Designing HEPA banks with a complete absence of prefiltration or a
lack of sufficient prefiltration to protect them for a reasonable engineering
and economic life is a very common problem. HEPA filters are very high
efficiency "polishing" filters for a gas stream. They have relatively little
capacity on a mass basis when compared on an equal size basis, and even
lower on a cost basis, to a standard ASHRAE or NBS dust filter.
There is considerable confusion as to whether large (10 microns and
larger) or small (under 10 microns to submicron) particles will raise the
pressure drop faster. It is true that small particles, in the absence of large
particles, will quickly fill the very small spaces between the filter fibers in
the actual media and plug it to flow. The confusion arises in that this is a
rare situation in actual practice. The tightly folded media in filter
construction combined with the fact that only small particles are almost never
found without large particles, the large particles blind the face of the folded
media raising the pressure drop long before the small particles in the actual
media become the significant factor. This has lead, in part, to the lack of
Actual examples of poorly designed prefiltration systems in current
plants are: (see Figure 5-7)
1. A HEPA bank for an emergency supply system with no pre-
filtration of any kind, drawing air from Midwest farmland.
5-43
During plowing in dry weather, it could plug up from large
particles and fibers in hours, if not minutes, depending on wind
conditions.
2. The nearly universal use of HEPA filters after a carbon adsorber
bank (theoretically to catch carbon fines) with no prefiltration.
Depending on the specific carbon used at any given time, the
fines, if any, could be from quite large to very small. In either
case, a 95% NBS filter would be more technically justified, either
alone or as a first stage. In fact, this need for the HEPA bank is
being formally questioned at the present time.
NO GREATF.R
r mAN <5 C ~ · ) /
V
P
,!
R
H
E
~ F
E
AIR FLOW
I
L p
~
T
E
L-
A
/
R
INLET
5' -0'
PLENUM
/
--! ,!
CHARCOAL
L-
-
5'-0' 5' -0'
20 ")( 50" ACCESS
/
~ O O R (TYP.)
H
~
E
..
P
AI/(
\
OUTL T E
PLENUM
Figure 5·7 Ventillation Filtration Diagram
3. Large ventilation systems for major areas of plants, where any
type of particles could be generated, with only a single stage of
medium efficiency prefilters before the HEPA bank. These are
often found to need (or would be greatly improved by) an
additional stage of lower efficiency roll or bag filters to trap the
very large fibers and particles actually existing. Conversely,
some of these systems have only low efficiency prefilters that are
not of sufficient efficiency to protect the HEPA filters.
5-44
In the area of operation and maintenance, the common problems are
lack of understanding of the relative costs and importance of the prefilters vs.
the HEPA filters. First, the prefilters have no regulatory significance as far
as removal credit or requirements for testing. By Plant License requirements,
most HEPA banks must be subjected to rigorous, aerosol leak tests whenever
changed. It is, therefore, not simply the cost of the filters themselves to
compare on a cost/benefit analysis of when to replace filters, but the
regulatory (i.e., Plant License) significance of the HEPA bank and the cost
to test it . At times this is not fully grasped by the maintenance staff.
Pressure drop readings are the most common basis for prefilter changeout.
The frequency of the readings and the basis for the schedules vary greatly.
There has not been a formal program to check prefilter pressure drops after
an event that would reasonably be expected to cause excess prefilter load
and, therefore, reduced life. There have been cases where the pre filters were
so loaded with dirt and debris that they had failed, and the HEP A filters were
grossly loaded. Where the prefilters have not failed but are loaded in excess
of system design, the system flow is often below design standards.
There are many events or situations that can change the normal
particulate concentration in the airstream. In addition to the obvious ones of
grinding, sanding, cutting, etc., such things as working on pipe insulation
(fiberglass or "wool") or changing environmental conditions around the plant
will have a direct effect on the prefilter life. The example of pipe insulation
is quite real. A power plant had initially installed a HEPA filter system
without prefiltration to exhaust air from a "clean" area. During construction,
a great deal of pipe insulation was added in the area ventilated. This was
bare insulation with the fibers exposed, as there was to be no normal traffic
or access to this area. Fortunately, this potential problem was discovered by
a consultant and prefiltration stages were added. Operating experience has
shown most prefilters require at least annual changeout, which is very cost
effective compared to changing the HEPA filters annually.
devices that are not able to provide a good gasket compression and are
difficult to manipulate while fully dressed in anti-contamination clothing, and
lack of adequate space around the system housing are also common problem
areas.
5-45
HEPA Filter Testing
Tests of an individual HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter are
of two types. The test by the factory or quality assurance station is an
efficiency determination using a monodisperse challenge aerosol of 0.3 +
0.03 m diameter droplets. The minimum specification value for HEPA
filter efficiency is 99.97% efficiency (where efficiency equals 100 minus
percent penetration). Most filters today run about 99.97% efficiency. In the
efficiency test, the total filter is challenged at one time and a single reading
of penetration is obtained.
In-place field tests of installed HEPA filters are made with a
polydisperse DOP aerosol, and do not show the efficiency of the filters but
only reveal the presence of leaks in the system, scanning may be used if
necessary to locate the leaks. If the penetration observed in the test is
equivalent to the penetration established during factory testing, however, it
can be inferred that the particle-removal efficiency of the system is
equivalent to that of the individual filters. This is the basis for many persons
identifying the in-place test as an efficiency test. The in-place test is not an
efficient test and should not be so considered.
I-IEPA Filter Testing Problems
Testing is another major area where lack of understanding of HEP A
filters and basic aerosol physics contributes to system problems.
Even when a HEPA bank is to be tested, adequate provision seldom is
designed and built in to perform an acceptable integrated aerosol leakage test.
Where there is good prefiltration, the DOP aerosol usually must be injected
far enough upstream of the housing to obtain good mixing in the duct, pass
partly through the prefiltration stages, and then challenge the HEPA bank.
For large systems with high efficiency pre filters, this is a problem for DOP
aerosol generation, since a significant percent will be filtered out by the
prefilters.
There is then the problem of a downstream sample when an adsorbent
bank follows the HEPA bank (a common requirement). How is a
downstream sample obtained when there is only 3 to 5 feet between a HEPA
5-46
bank and an adsorbent bank? The nearly universal provision provided by
filter system vendors and accepted by both NE and utility engineers is an
access hole in the door or housing. The N509 standards and NRC
regulations 1.52 and 1.140 have clearly called for permanent test manifolds
or other provisions to allow the mandated leak tests, but such provision has
never been provided by the original vendor to date. Where they exist, they
have been added by the plant after startup has proven their need.
HEPA Filter Test Procedures
The in-place test is a leak test of the installed system and should not
be confused with the efficiency test of individual filters. This test is used
during acceptance testing of the air cleaning system, after any filter
replacement, or after any maintenance activity in the filter housing to verify
(1) that the filters have not been damaged, (2) that they have been installed
properly, (3) that there are no leaks in the mounting frame or ·between the
mounting frame and the housing, and (4) that the system contains no
bypassing (e.g., through defective or inefficient bypass dampers, through
adjacent plenums, or through penetrations, such as electrical conduits, which
penetrate the mounting frame) which would compromise the function of the
filters. The test is also made periodically in both operating and standby
systems to check on possible degradation of the filters or the filter installation
(e.g., development of cracks in the mounting frame or mounting-frame-to-
housing seal). This covers only the gross test but can be used as a basis for
the development of procedures for a shrouded test. The shrouded test is
sometimes used when extensive scanning of the bank (and therefore extended
release of challenge aerosol or gas) is expected. The shrouded test is valid
ONLY if a satisfactory pressure-leak test of the mounting frame has
previously been completed.
Summary of Method
With the system fan or an auxiliary blower operating, DOP aerosol is
injected upstream of the filters. Concentration measurements are made
upstream and downstream of the filters and percent penetration is calculated
from the ratio of DOP concentrations in the filtered air (downstream reading)
and the unfiltered air ' (upstream reading). If penetration is greater than the
5-47
value specified in the test procedure, the test is stopped and the system re-
inspected for leaks or bypasses. If leaks or bypasses cannot be located
visually, the fan and DOP generator are turned on again and the downstream
face of the mounting-frame-to-housing seal, the peripheries of the individual
filters, and finally the faces of the filters, in that recommended order, are
scanned. After location and correction of leaks and bypasses or, if necessary,
replacement of defective filters, the in-place test is repeated for record. The
test should be performed at the airflow required for each individual system.
Prerequisites for Test
The downstream sample point should be located, if possible, at a point
where a single-point sample, representative of the downstream concentration,
can be taken; this may be a point downstream of the fan or auxiliary blower,
or a point downstream of a flow disturbance which will provide adequate
mixing of the DOP-air mixture emitting from the filters in the bank. Where
it is impossible to obtain an adequate single-point downstream sample, a
multiple sampling technique is required. There must be adequate room and
safe working conditions for test personnel and equipment. Verify that DOP
shall be injected at a point far enough upstream to disclose any possible
system bypasses.
Apparatus
Dop Generator - An air-operated generator or gas-thermal generator
certified by the manufacturer to be capable of producing the droplet-size
distributi on required. The generator output and/or penetrometer adjustment
as specified in the test procedure shall ensure penetrometer sensitivity high
enough to permit detection of leaks at least two times smaller than the
maximum leak allowed by project specifications. The DOP concentration
shall not exceed the linear response capability of the detector.
Penetrometer - An instrument with a linear read-out , near-forward light-
scattering aerosol photometer having the following characteristics is
recommended:
5-48
I
, .
l
1. Threshold sensitivity to permit detection of test aerosol in
concentrations of at least as low as 10-
3
g per liter of air and
having a minimum reading at this concentration of 1.0% when set
on the most sensitive scale.
2. Capability of measuring concentrations of DOP in air of at least
10' times the threshold sensitivity of the instrument used for the
test.
3. For testing of systems larger than 1000 cfm installed capacity, a
sampling rate of at least 1 cfm.
4. Linear response from minimum detectable aerosol concentration
to maximum upstream concentration.
System fan or auxiliary blower capable of producing the airflow and
pressure specified in the test procedure.
Pleated bed and tray-type adsorbers cells shall meet the requirements
for Type I or Type II cells, respectively, of AACC CS-8; and for ESF
systems they shall be filled with an adsorbent, each batch of which meets the
requirements of Table 5-1.
1. Joints which are gasketed, caulked, or sealed with elastomeric
materials shall not be employed between the upstream and
downstream sides of the adsorbent bed, frames or any part of the
installation except for removable test canisters.
2. The adsorbent bed shall be so arranged that no air can bypass the
is 0.25 seconds per 2 inches bed depth. There shall be no
internal structures within the adsorbent bed, such as through-
bolts, where air bypass can occur.
5-49
3. Screens shall be supported by stiffeners which are external to the
adsorbent bed to assure uniformity and integrity of the bed.
4. Means shall be provided for filling the unit with adsorbent and
compacting it to uniform' packing density throughout all cross
sections of the bed. In a vertical direction, this density shall vary
only to the extent that the lower portion of the bed supports the
weight of the adsorbent placed above it.
5. All material in contact with the adsorbent shall be Type 300
Series stainless steel, or equivalent.
The capacity of an adsorber shall be determined by the equation:
c
Where:
C -
t =
A -
b
-
T
-
28.8 =
t(A - b)
28.8T
nominal capacity (cfm)
thickness of adsorbent bed (in.), normally > 2
m.
gross inlet or outlet screen area. The lesser of
the two shall be used (in.')
total area of baffles, blanks, and margins of all
screens (in.2)
residence time, seconds, in the stage required to
achieve the specified iodine DF, using the
specification normally 0.25 seconds per 2 in.
thickness
conversion factor
For ESF units, the adsorbent shall meet the requirements of Table 5-1.
5-50
Table 5-1 Performance Requirements and Physical Properties
of (unused) Activated Carbon
Test
Performance Requirements
Molecular Iodine, 30°C, 95% RH(I)
Molecular Iodine, 180°C
Methyl Iodine, 30"C, 95% RH
Methyl Iodide, 80"C, 95% RH(I)
Methyl Iodide, 13O"C, 95% RH(2)
Physical Properties
Particle Size Distribution
Ball Pan Hardness
CO, Activity (on base)
Apparent Density
Ash Content (on base)
Ignition Temperature
Moisture Content
pH of Water Extract
NOTES:
Test Method
ASTM 03803
ASTM D2862
ASTM 03802
ASTM 03467
ASTM D2854
ASTM D2866
ASTM D3466
ASTM D2867
ASTM 03838
'Tests shall be performed only for qualification purposes.
Acceptance Value
0.1 % penetration, maximum
99.5% retentivity, minimum
3% penetration, maximum
1 % penetration, maximum
2% penetration, maximum
Retained on #6 Sieve: 0.1 %
using 8 x 16 maximum
U.S. Mesh Retained on #8
Sieve:-5.0% maximum
Through #8, on #12 Sieve:
60% maximum
Through #12, on #16 Sieve:
40% minimum
Through #16 Sieve: 5.0%
maximum
Through #18 Sieve: 1.0%
maximum
92 minimum
60 minimum
0.38 glcm
3
minimum
state value
330°C minimum
state value
state value
2Test shall be performed only for qualification purposes on activated carbon to be installed in
primary containment cleanup· system.
5-51
Efficiency, in the usual sense, cannot be measured for adsorption
systems. Adsorption is time dependent and therefore instantaneous
contaminant-removal efficiency is meaningless. True efficiency tests are run
tracer having similar properties and composition of those of the contaminant
of interest (e.g., radioactive elemental iodine or methyl iodide). The tagged
challenge gas is mixed with air and flowed through a sample bed of the same
thickness as the beds in the system, at the same airflow rate as the airflow
through the beds in the system. The amount of challenge gas retained over
a specified period of time (usually 2 hours), compared to the quantity in the
unfiltered air establishes the efficiency of the adsorbent for that particular
contaminant gas (adsorbate). Because of the difficulty of handling
radioactive materials, this type of test is generally not made in the field.
Factory tests of full size cells and in-place field tests · of installed
systems, using a refrigerant-gas, are leak tests only. The tests are designed
to determine only the amount of leakage through or around the adsorbent in
the cell (factory test) or through or around the installed bank of cells (field
tests). Poor-performance adsorbent is not detected by these tests.
Penetration values shown on individual cells by the manufacturer,
unlike the penetration values shown on HEPA filters, do not indicate
contaminant-removal efficiency, but only leak-tightness. Therefore, the
contaminant removal efficiency of an installed adsorber system cannot be
inferred from the penetration values shown on the individual cells, as can be
done with HEPA filters.
The efficiency of the individual cells and of the installed system can be
assumed to have a given value only on the basis of the tests made on
representative samples of the adsorbent used in those cells and systems. An
installed system can be assumed to have an efficiency equivalent to that of
the sample only if:
5-52
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1. The sample is actually representative of all of the adsorbent in all
of the cells in the system.
2. All of the cells are filled properly in accordance with a qualified
filling procedure which will ensure a "tight pack".
3. There are no leaks or bypasses in either the individual cells
(factory tests) or the installed system (field tests).
Purpose
This test is used for both acceptance and surveillance leak-testing of the
installed adsorber stage. If samples of adsorbent are to be taken for
laboratory testing, remove such samples prior to this test, and restore stage
to operating condition.
Summary of Method
A refrigerant tracer gas is injected into the air stream upstream of the
adsorber bank, tracer concentrations are determined downstream and upstream
of the bank, and penetration (percent leakage) is determined from the ratio
of downstream to upstream concentration at time zero.
Prerequisites for Test
The downstream sample point should be located at a point where a
single point sample, representative of the downstream concentration, can be
taken; this may be a point downstream of the fan or auxiliary blower, or a
point downstream of a flow disturbance which will provide adequate mixing
of the tracer-air mixture emitting from the adsorber stage. There must be
adequate room and safe working conditions for test personnel and equipment.
Verify that tracer gas will be injected at a point far enough upstream to
disclose any possible system bypasses.
5-53
Apparatus
Tracer Gas. R-ll is preferred; R-1l2 (or RlO1l2A) is an acceptable
alternate.
Tracer Gas Detector. The tracer-gas detector shall have demonstrable
capability to distinguish the tracer gas from background.
Tracer Gas Generator. The tracer gas output shall be at least 4 times
the Minimum Workable Threshold Sensitivity (MWTS) of the tracer gas
detector divided by the maximum acceptable leak rate, expressed as a fraction
of total system airflow. The MWTS is the concentration of tracer gas which
will produce response on the readout of the tracer gas detector. The
generator output shall be held within +20% of the pre-set value.
System Fan or Auxiliary Blower. Capable of supplying required flow
rate.
SUMMARY
[n this chapter, we have discussed some of the tests that are done to
ensure that an HV AC is operating properly. It is important to remember that
the results from a test is only as good as the data collected and the
experience of the tester.
The first major topic was on Air Flow Measurement in which we
discuss the different instruments used on supply and exhaust grilles and
registers to the testing of air flow in a duct using the Pitot tube and the
procedures used to do the test.
We next covered testing of hydronic systems. It is very important to
remember to balance the hydronic system prior to balancing the air fl ow in
an HV AC system and that a small change in one area can cause a big change
in all HV AC systems. Prior to doing any changes on the air flow or water
in an HV AC system, we should anticipate those changes and check that we
get the desired results.
5-54
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Along with balancing of air systems, we looked at the test we do to
make sure that the quality of air is also right. The checks/tests we covered
were the tests on HEP A filters and charcoal filters.
5-55
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CHAPTER SIX
SOUND AND VIBRATION TESTING
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CHAPTER SIX
SOUND AND VIBRATION MEASUREMENT
OBJECTIVES
At the completion of this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Discuss the purpose of performing and usefulness of vibration
measurement and signature analysis.
2. Discuss ' the importance of sound measurement, methods of
controlling sound levels and the characteristics affecting sound
level strength.
3. Describe the procedure for the performance of sound
measurement.
4. Discuss vibration and noise identification and methods used for
source analysis.
, ,
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CHAPTER SIX
SOUND AND VIBRATION TESTING
INTRODUCTION
Sound Testing, in accordance with the Noise Criteria Curve using the
Sound Pressure reference of .0002 microbars, is the preferred testing method
because we can truly measure "Sound Pressure."
AMCA Standard 300-67 Test Code for Sound Rating states" A person
hears and judges sound on the basis of a Sound Pressure Level at the point
of observation, and this is also what the Sound Meter detects, For a given
source, however, the Sound Pressure Level varies with the environment. For
example, a unit heater will sound louder in a hard walled room than in a
room which is carpeted, has drapes and upholstered furniture. This is despite
the fact that its Sound Power output is the same. That is the reason why this
code is based on Sound Power Level rather than Sound Pressure Level."
AMCA also states under "Field Testing"; "It is a relatively simple
matter to determine the Sound Pressure Level in the conditioned space
resulting from the operation of the air system. However, it will rarely be
possible to use this information to establish the Sound Power Level of the air
moving device, This would be possible only where circumstances permitted
simulation of a laboratory setup, etc."
Since it is a relatively simple matter to determine the Sound Pressure
Level in the conditioned space, it is also a simple matter to isolate
components until the noise source is found.
Engineers need realistic data on sound levels in order to design a
system that will meet Noise Criteria (NC) levels acceptable to his client. The
industry should push forward toward the development of a usable data
system. With usable information, engineers could design the system such
that it will not exceed a certain NC level. It is unfortunate that laboratory
rating data is acceptable in designing a system, when field applications will
6-1
prove that the rating is reduced, often by as much as 50%. As Testing
Engineers and Technicians, we must be alert and aware of these facts, and
ensure the Design Engineer is also aware of them so he can design a
predictable system.
The Sound Level in the space to be tested can be measured with a good
Sound Meter and the Sound Level established. The problem is identifying
the equipment that creates the noise. The fan manufacturer says, "You
cannot be sure it's his equipment as there are other components that could
cause the noise, such as mixing boxes, diffusers, and ducts. Also, the room
acoustics are a factor." The diffuser manufacturer is more realistic and
relates his equipment to velocity and pressure drop which can be easily
measured. If properly selected, these can be removed as a noise source.
Also, a reading at one diffuser compared with other diffusers will indicate it's
relationship to the noise source. The same applies for most of the other
system components. Thus, by the process of elimination, noise can be traced
to its source.
In order for a person to get the whole picture of HV AC, they cannot
neglect the consideration of the sound and noise generated by HV AC
equipment. In this chapter, we will cover the following topics:
• Sound
Architectural acoustics
Sound testing
• Vibration
Vibration testing
• Vibration and Noise Identification
Analysis procedure
Identification
Relative probability ratings
6-2
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Sound
Sound is a form of energy, detected as a variation in pressure and stress
in an elastic/viscous medium. Sound is an integral part of any system, but
only when it reaches a level that interferes with speech, a person's well
being, or a preconceived condition, does it become "objectionable", and
becomes noise. There are several ways of describing the characteristics of
sound. The ways we will be discussing are:
• Sound power
• Sound pressure level
• Loudness and frequency
• Noise curves (NC curves)
Sound Power
An acoustical source radiates energy in the form of sound. This power
is expressed in watts. A "watts exponential" scale of sound power has been
developed. A sound power level of 10-
12
watts represent the threshold of
hearing. Table 6-1 list the 'decibel valve corresponding to a given watts
exponential, with an example of this power level, a scale from 0 to 200 dB.
Sound Pressure Level
Sound power cannot be measured directly but must be calculated from
pressure measurements. If an imaginary sphere is placed around a sound
source (with the source at the center of the sphere), all the energy from the
source must pass through the sphere. Power flow through a unit area of the
sphere is intensity, expressed in watts power unit area. Intensity varies
'decibel - A unit used to express relative difference in power, equal 10 lOx the
common log of the ratio of the two levels.
6-3
inversely as the square of the distance from the source. The intensity and the
sound pressure level are nearly identical numerically if proper units are used.
Table 6-1 Sound Power Output
A".. I .r_o.p
nO> DldlMlm
...... U- EQal.llIal I,-Il .. a.
Sawm ]00,000,000
,"
...
100,000
,"
,,.
J"aircnlll' takeoUt. 10,000
,"
, ..
1\Irbopn)p I' takeoff
'.010
,"
,,.
Prop airaaft I: takcorr'
''''
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Larp pipe Oq&n 10 10'
".
SmaU aira'afl maine
,
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10-
1
II.
Aulomobile.tllilh .... Y lpeed 0.01 10- 2
'''' Voice, .\$houlinl 0.001
10- ) go
OarbllJe disposailUlit 0.0001
.,
Voioee, o:onva'S.Itioa lrood 0.00001 10-'
"
El«lronic equip.
_til,Lionf.n 0.000001
, ...
..
om« air dirrusu 0.0000001 10-
7 ,.
Slnall decuic ck.ct 0.00000001 10- '
.,
Voioee, \$Of' whisper O.OOXlOOOOI :0'" 10
RU\$lUn,leava O.OOJOOOOOOI 10- 10
'"
Human breath 0.0000000000. 10-
11 ,.
Tbrallold of hellrin. 0.00000000000. 10- 11

'With .rterbumcr. bFour jei en,ines. <Few: prOpdkr!"lina.
The conversion from Sound Pressure Level (SPL) to Sound Power
Level is PWL = SPL + 20 log 0 + .5db (D is in feet and is the distance from
the Sound Source). A Noise Level will decay over a distance; therefore, it
is inversely proportional. The close to the sound or noise source the louder
it is.
6-4
Loudness and Frequency
Sound may be visualized as traveling in a wave pattern similar to that
of alternating electrical current (Figure 6-1). Variation above and below the
reference is called amplitude and determines the loudness. The distance from
one wave peak to the next is the wavelength, the reciprocal of which is the
frequency or pitch of the sound. Frequency is measured in cycles per second
(cps). The term Hertz (Hz) is used instead of cycles per second. Figure 6-1
represents a pure tone - one single frequency. Most sound is made up of
several frequencies (tones), with each frequency having a different loudness.
For example, air noise in a duct is made up of several high-frequency tones
generated by turbulence of the air due to fittings and obstructions, as well as
the due to straight line flow and friction against cut walls. This air noise will
usually be accompanied by sound transmitted from the fan, with a
predominant frequency which is a function of fan speed and number of
-
Wavelength I

i
Figure 6-1 Wavelength and Amplitude of Sound
A good human ear can hear, and distinguish, a wide range of
frequencies - from a low of about 20 Hertz to a high of about 20,000 Hertz.
For the purposes of analysis this range is divided into several octaves. Two
tones are said to be an octave apart when the frequency of one is twice that
of the other. A common example of this is the musical octave on the piano
or other instrument. On the musical scale the A below middle C has a
frequency of 440 cps.
6-5
NC Curves
Noise criteria curves were the standard for many years and define
acceptable limits for sound pressure level in each octave band. Figure 6-2
shows the standard NC curves. The actual environment must not exceed the
specified curve at any point, but can be at any level below the curve. The
resulting sound may be too quiet in some frequencies. A higher sound power
level is acceptable at lower frequencies. These curves emphasize the fact that
high frequencies sound "louder" than low frequencies when sound power
levels are equal.

- '- - :- -E-
E- -
:-
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~ ~
»

~
......
',,"
~ ~
I>...
~ ~ K
~
~
'-....:
~ .
~ ~ f:::
~
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~ .

~ ~ ~
~
c
~
~
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~
.......
.,..
-
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f-...:
~ f t
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I<UlllNO'OfI
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OOH"N'UOUS
~ -
f-
- ~
~ "
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U ' 25 ZIG ~ MIlD _ _ _
OCTAYE L4HOClHltl'l '1I£OUOICIU.1Ir
Figure 6-2 NC Curve
6-6
Architectural Acoustics
Architectural acoustics deal with the sound attenuation in a room or a
building. The degree of acoustical control required depends on the use of the
area.
Sound waves emitted from a sound source, vocal cords, etc., cause a
deviation in atmospheric pressure above or below the static value. This is
called Sound Pressure. Sound waves cause pressure and have frequency.
Frequency is the number of times per second that the sound pressure
alternates above and below the ambient atmospheric pressure. The higher the
frequency, the higher the pitch. Sound waves travel at the speed of 1,125
feet per second at 77" F at sea level. Sound travels in all directions from the
source. When it strikes a surface its direction of travel is changed by
reflection. The reflection follows the law that the angle of incidence equals
the angle of reflection. A person hears not only the direct and reflected
sounds, but background sounds also, resulting in a total sound which is
always louder than the direct sound alone. How much louder depends on the
size of the room, the distance from the source and the sound absorbing
properties of the room surface.
Sound absorption coefficients for various materials range from .05 to
.999, meaning a .05 absorption has a 95% reflection and is considered hard.
Such materials are concrete, glass, plaster, etc. An absorption coefficient of
.90 reflects only 10% of the sound waves that reach its surface. Porous
materials which permit penetration of sound waves or soft materials have
large absorption coefficients. Such materials are carpets, drapes and specific
acoustical material.
The amount of sound waves absorbed in a room is given in uni ts called
Sabins. A Sabin is the equivalent of one square foot having an absorption
coefficient of 1.00. An example is 100 square feet of room surface with an
absorption coefficient of .80 equals 80 Sabins.
In large rooms, air itself absorbs sound particularly at high frequency
and should be added to the room total Sabins.
6-7
The following example shows a typical sound absorption calculation.
Note in the table of sound absorption coefficients that the coefficients vary
with frequency.
Assume a 500 CPS room 100 X 40 X 10 feet
Volume = 40,000 cubic feet
Floor - Concrete - 4,000 sq. ft. @ .015
Walls - Plaster - 2,800 sq. ft. @ .03
Ceiling - Plaster - 4,000 sq. ft. @ .03
20 persons - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @ 2.40
TOTAL ROOM
Reverberation Time
= 60 Sabins
= 84 Sabins
= 120 Sabins
= 48 Sabins
= 312 Sabins
The amount of reverberation in a room is measured by its reverberation
time, which is the number of seconds required for the energy of the reflected
sound in a room to die out to one millionth of the value it had at the moment
the source was cut off.
This may vary from a fraction of a second in a very dead room to 5 to
15 seconds in a very live room.
Reverberation time depends only on the cubic volume of the room and
on its total absorption in Sabins.
Formula
T = .05V/a
V = volume of room in cubic feet
a = room absorption in Sabins
Reverberation Time
below 1 second - good for speech, probably too dead for music
1 to 1.5 seconds - good for speech, fair for music
over 2 seconds - poor for speech, fair to poor for music
6-8
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Using the room in the previous example:
T
.05 x 40,000
312
2.000 = 6.4 seconds
312
6.4 seconds is a live room and any audible noise source would probably
be objectionable.
To give this room a more acceptable reverberation time, the calculation
is as follows :
a (Sabins) = .05V
T
a = 2,000 =
1.5
a = 1,333 Sabins
A rug could be put on the floor. This now becomes 4,000 x .39 =
1,560 Sabins. This alone is more than enough to reduce the
reverberation time.
A new calculation:
Floor with rug
Wall
Ceiling
20 persons
= 4,000 x .39
= 2,800 x .03
= 4,000 x .03
=20x2.4
= 1,560
= 84
= 120
= 48
1,812
2,000 = 1.1 seconds. This may be too much of a decrease if
1,812 it were a music room.
6-9
Sound Trap Selection
Catalog data will give what attenuation can be expected from a specific
Sound Trap at a specific air velocity. Therefore, your sound test will give
you the level before the sound trap. Calculate what you need to bring the
sound level to the specified NC level and select a sound trap that will do the
job.
Sound lined ductwork will give some sound attenuation. Chapter 33
of the ASHRAE Guide data book provides useful charts and data on the
subject.
The two main sources of noise are the fan and turbulence in the duct
system. Mixing boxes, diffusers and dampers also create noise, but to a
lesser extent. High frequency noise levels are easier to attenuate than low
frequency noise.
Dynamic insertion loss is the sound trap or attenuation between sound
source and the space where the test is being performed. Insertion loss
without air flow is used in rating of sound traps.
Self-Noise Power Levels (db 10,12 watts)
A sound trap will produce noise; therefore, self-noise power levels are
given and determine the trap's acoustical characteristics. Note - this
rating is given in Sound Power rather than Sound Pressure, so a
conversion calculation has to be made.
Manufacturers of sound traps test and rate their sound traps In
accordance with ASHRAE 36-B-63 and SIW 42 of ASA
Sound Testing
Assume a specification calls for an Octave Band Analysis of a sound
source of NC 35.
6-10
,
1. Calibrate the sound meter.
2. Thm off all equipment and take a background reading. If the
background noise level is close to the actual noise level, make a
charts before plotting on the NC Chart.
It is important to clear the area, if possible, of persons other than
yourself so their disturbances will not be recorded in background noise or
3. Take a series of readings per specification with all equipment
turned on, as in normal operation.
4. If the specified NC Curve is exceeded, then turn off one piece of
equipment at a time and take a series of readings.
Then take another series of readings until you have a set of
readings of all possible noise sources. From this procedure you
can tell which unit or units are causing the higher noise level.
5. Take readings at each diffuser or within 6 feet of each diffuser
which will tell you if a damper or diffuser, grille, etc., is the
cause of the higher noise level. Sometimes a simple adjustment
of the damper will be sufficient. Splitter dampers are noisy when
closed or open and should be avoided. A good ridged volume
damper in the branch diffuser and main trunk is better for a quiet
operation. Slowing a fan down will reduce the noise level if you
have an excess of air or if you must compromise.
Sound Testing Specification
Instrument
Sound testing meters should be an Octave Band Analyzer which
essentially complies to ASA Standards S1.4 - 1961 with a range of 24 db to
150 db Sound Pressure Level.
6-11
As vibration is a source of sound waves or noise, the source of noise
or noise level can be reduced by solving the vibration problem. Components
causing vibration in HVAC equipment. are as follows:
1. Misalignment (drive, belts, etc.)
2. Defective bearings
3. Coupling misalignment
4. Fan wheel or pump impeller out of balance
5. Bent shafts
6. Drive Pulleys out of balance
7. Fan casing or support structure not rigid enough for
8. Electrical - synchronous frequencies
9. Aerodynamic - ductwork pulsation
10. Hydraulic - water carried pulsations
If the vibration test exceeds recommended limits, isolate the motor from
the equipment fan by disconnecting or removing belts of the coupling. Then
test the motor separately; if vibration is normal, then trouble is in the HV AC
equipment. Measurement of vibration in mils of deflection is sufficient to
determine the severity of vibration. Other measurements, for instance
velocity, frequency test, and stroboscopic light, may be used to locate the
exact point of vibration.
The balancing agency should make vibration tests on all rotating units
of equipment and other items. Tests shall be taken in general, on top and on
the side of each bearing, on two points on the equipment housing and base
90° apart, and on duct or pipe after the flexible connection. Each point shall
be read in mils of deflection, then compared with the allowable tolerance for
the respective unit of equipment and recorded on the proper form. Where
vibration readings deviate from normal, a separate report should be forwarded
to the architect and engineer with a recommended action to be taken.
6-14
Vibration Testing Procedure
Balance the unit for proper air or water flow in accordance with design
requirements. Make certain that the equipment is working at or within the
rated capacity. If not, then partial loading of curve conditions could cause
excessive vibration.
After balancing proceed as follows:
1. Set up instrumentation for testing on a base other than where the
equipment is being tested.
2. Clean the test area so as to be free from grease or dirt that could
3. Zero the instrument. If battery powered, be certain batteries are
up to the required power level.
4. Secure the measuring device (accelerometer, reed, etc.) on the
test area keeping clear of the rotating parts.
5. Read out vibration in mils of deflection or velocity as required by
the specification.
6. Record and tabulate all vibration readings on the proper forms.
7. Test the following:
a. BHP
b. operating pressure across the unit
c. operating flow across the unit
d. check belts for cracks if applicable
e. visually check and note any condition that could be a
contributing factor such as vibration isolators not set up
correctly, debris under unit grounding it to the structure.
f. give manufacturer ' s vibration tolerance if there is any and
where measured if possible
6-15
8. If vibration exceeds recommended limits per manufacturer's
requirements or severity chart, disconnect the motor and test
separately.
9. Shut off the unit and take a reading on the casing to determine
if there are external forces of vibration.
10. Evaluate readings and data. Write the report on what you think
the problems are and make your recommendations.
Vibration and Noise Identification
The primary objectives of control of vibration and noise in machinery
are:
a. to achieve acceptable machinery operating conditions
b. extend machinery life
c. lower maintenance costs
d. reduce machine failures
e. reduce operator discomfort
Increased machinery speeds, greater complexity, increased power and
higher equipment costs have created new problems that must be analyzed to
achieve the above objectives. Vibration and noise analysis is used to
diagnose specific machinery problems without major disassembly and
physical inspection. New and rebuilt machinery installations can be checked
for mechanical condition.
Vibration and noise analysis is the procedure of measuring the vibration
and noise present in a machine and analyzing the characteristics of that
vibration and noise to determine the cause. By comparing this information
with known machine characteristics; machine speeds, vibration and nOIse,
machine troubles can be pinpointed and corrective action prescribed.
6-16
POINT
1&2
3&4
5&6
7&8
9 & 10
11 & 12
Remarks
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VIBRATION TEST
CENTRIFUGAL FAN __
10
---· 12
8
Fan bearing drive end top __
Fan bearing opposite end top __
Motor bearing drive end top __
Motor bearing opposite end top __
Casing top __
Duct or casing after flexible
connection discharge __
6·17
side
side--
side
side--
side __
suction __
VIBRATION TEST
IN·LINE FAN __
--- ......
9 / /" 1' 2 \
-( Gl -, - -1+
POINT
1&2
3&4
5&6
7&8
9 & 10
11 & 12
Remarks
\ . I
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....... ----
Fan bearing drive end
Fan bearing opposite end
Motor drive end
Motor opposite end
Casing
Duct after flexible connection
6-20
top side
--
top side __
top side __
top s i d e _ ~
bottom & top __ side __
discharge side
--
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VIBRATION TEST
HORIZONTAL SPLIT CASE PUMP __
6-21
POINT
1&2
3&4
5&6
7&8
9 & 10
11 & 12
Remarks
VIBRATION TEST
END SUCfION PUMP __
Pump bearing drive end
Motor bearing drive end
Motor bearing opposite end
Coupling or shaft support
Structure
Pipe after flexible connection
6-22
II
12
top side __
top side __
top side __
top side __
top side __
discharge __ suction __
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VIBRATION TEST
AHU-UNIT __
14.
.13
POINT
1&2 Fan bearing drive end top side
3&4 Fan bearing opposite end top side
5&6 Fan bearing center (if applicable) top side
7&8 Motor bearing drive end top side
9 & 10 Motor bearing opposite end top side
11 & 12 Casing bottom & top side
13 & 14 Duct after flexible connection discharge suction
Remarks
6-23
Vibration and noise are the signals that reveal the presence of
mechanical faults. The vibration and noise are measured and then compared
to standards which enable the analyst to judge whether or not a fault is
present, and if so, to classify its severity. If a fault reveals its presence, a
careful analysis of the frequency components presented in the complex signal
will allow you to positively identify the problem. Identification is a simple
procedure involving relating observed frequencies to the frequencies
generated by known mechanical sources within the machine. For example:
vibration and noise caused by worn or damaged gears will have a definite
frequency component related to the RPM times the number of gear teeth.
Frequency of noise and vibration is the key. Phase measurements are also
useful in many cases.
Various machine faults, identified in terms of predominant
frequency, amplitude and noise characteristics are given in the vibration and
noise identification chart shown in Table 1. The chart is used by following
a definite analysis and troubleshooting procedure. Table 1 is located at the
back of this chapter.
Analysis Procedure
Determining the frequencies present in a complex machine vibration or
noise signal and relating these frequencies to predetermined possible sources
of vibration and noise in that machine is the most powerful technique
available for machinery analysis.
In general the analysis technique used is:
1. Calculate all the expected vibration frequencies of a machine
based on the rotational speed of the main rotating components,
gear reduction speeds, number of gear teeth, number of impeller
vanes or blades, belt speeds, bearing frequencies, etc. This
provides a rough guide as to the frequencies at which vibration
energy might be expected.
2. Make a preliminary survey of the vibration data at various
measuring points. Using a vibration analyzer with a tunable filter
6-24
carefully tune through the appropriate ranges, recording the
amplitude and frequency at which significant frequency
components are detected. This survey determines: what
frequencies are present in the complex signal, what amplitude
ranges are most desirable, and whether "displacement",
"velocity," or "acceleration" is the most effective parameter to
measure. In most cases involving purely analysis, "velocity" will
be selected because both high and low frequencies receive equal
weight when measuring velocity.
3. Once the measurement parameters and measurement locations are
selected, each point is measured and the overall readings
recorded. A narrow-band analysis is made on each range and the
significant vibration components are recorded on the data sheet.
The vibration measured at any point on a machine can be
resolved into its component frequencies by use of the tuneable
electronic filter in the vibration analyzer. The tuneable filter has
been designed to provide frequency analysis by manually tuning
the filter dial to the known vibration frequencies that exist in the
machine being analyzed. The vibration frequencies are noted and
compared to the identification chart to determine the source.
The use of a vibration analyzer with an XY recorder will provide
you with hard copy vibration signatures which can be used as a
baseline against future signatures of the same machine. Vibratio·n
trends and mechanical defects are then visually indicated. Good
operating machinery history is also confirmed thus eliminating
guesswork.
The tuneable filter characteristics are selected to provide ease of
tuning operation and adequate narrow-band analysis capability to
analyze a major number of problems found in all types of
rotating machinery. Detailed narrow-band analysis is used to
identify specific troubles by relating the observed frequency
components to the known rotational elements in the machine.
6-25
Vibration and Noise Source Identification
After the characteristics of a machine's vibration have been measured
and recorded, the next step is to compare the readings with the characteristics
of vibration typical of various types of trouble. The Vibration and Noise
Identification Chart in Table 1 lists the causes of vibration and the
characteristics of each.
In the table, vibration frequency is listed in multiples of the main
machine component rotational speed; i.e. 1, 2, 3 or more times RPM. The
table identifies mechanical and electrical vibrations as well as aerodynamic
or hydraulic. The key to vibration identification is frequency and phase. The
remarks tell the operator the probable cause of the predominant vibrations by
comparing the observed frequency and phase measurements to the machine's
rotating speeds.
Unbalance
Vibration caused by mechanical faults will be related to the rotating
speed or an exact multiple. For example, if frequency of vibration is exactly
at rotational speed and the amplitude and phase angle remain constant, the
vibration is probably simple unbalance. Simple unbalance may be caused by
non-symmetrical rotating parts, a slightly bowed shaft or improperly
assembled parts. Unbalance is corrected by following standard balancing
procedures.
If the vibration frequency is exactly rotational speed but amplitude
and/or phase angle drift or change after start-up, the unbalance may be
caused by thermal effects where heat in the rotor affects shaft straightness or
alignment. With unbalance caused by thermal condition the amplitude and
phase readings will stabilize with time.
Unstable Machine Conditions
If the vibration frequency is at rotational speed and the amplitude
and/or phase angle continues to change over long period of time, the problem
may be related to a rotating part rubbing a stationary part, such as a shaft
6-26
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seal, or a changing mechanical condition such as a bearing race slipping or
moving on a shaft or in its housing. When the amplitude and/or phase are
unstable the fault should be located and corrected.
Looseness of movement of machine parts may be thought of as a part
making contact twice per revolution. Looseness may cause non-repeatable
vibration readings from run to run and the readings will be somewhat erratic.
Machine components may become loose during operation or after repairs
Misalignment
Vibrations occurring at twice rotational speed may indicate looseness,
or misalignment. Misalignment may manifest itself in a variety of ways
depending on the type. Often the vibration occurring at 1 X RPM and 2 X
RPM will be large in the axial direction.
Electrical
Electrical causes of vibration will disappear quickly when power is
turned off. Electrical causes of vibration are related directly to the impressed
60-CPS voltage and will show up at 60-CPS and 120-CPS. Eccentric rotors,
unbalanced voltages, rotor misalignment, a bent shaft, unequal air gaps, and
defective rotor bars may produce vibration of this type. Another common
type of electrically caused vibration occurs at rotational speed with a slow
periodic variation in amplitude occurring at exactly slip speed times the
number of poles. For example, a four-pole, 1800 synchronous speed
induction motor running at 1750 RPM will have a "slip-beat" vibration of
300 CPM.
This electrically caused vibration is not to be confused with the "beat-
frequency" vibration that occurs when two or more machines, operating at
essentially the same speed "beat" one against the other. This "beat
frequency" is often heard in areas where two or more machines are operating,
each producing some vibration. The slow variation in amplitude of "beat"
occurs as the vibration produced by each machine alternately adds or
reinforces then subtracts or cancels each other.
6-27
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CHAPTER SEVEN
MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING
OBJECTIVES
State the likely consequence on HV AC systems of radial fans being
installed backward.
State a likely cause for the following HV AC problems:
The unit runs continuously with insufficient cooling.
The unit short-cycles with insufficient cooling.
State two likely causes for each of the following HV AC system
conditions:
High suction pressure.
State one easily-checked indication of refrigerant undercharge.
State the likely result of a restriction in the refrigerant discharge line.
Describe the result of a metering' device with a low setting; of a
metering device with a high setting.
• Systematic Troubleshooting Techniques
• Troubleshooting fans
• Troubleshooting Abnormal Operations (Air Conditioning)
Troubleshooting techniques was chosen to give a basic method of
attacking a problem. The other two topics were chosen because if there is
a problem involved with an HV AC system, they are usually involved.
SYSTEMATIC TROUBLESHOOTING TECHNIQUES
Troubleshooting is nothing more than problem solving, and as with any
problem, there are five major steps in reaching a conclusion of the problem.
These steps are:
• Verify a problem exists.
• Identify the problem.
• Locate the cause of the problem.
• Solve the problem.
• Verify that the problem has been corrected.
The complexity of the problem determines how long it will take to
solve the problem and in some cases there are more than one right answer.
But usually when dealing with machinery, there is only one way to actually
solve the problem or that will correct the cause of the problem. When
dealing with machinery or systems, there is some type of malfunction we
want to fix.
Approaching troubleshooting in a logical step-by-step manner can save
a considerable amount of time. The first step which should be accomplished
7-2
is to verify that a malfunction actually exists. In other words, ensure that the
r system/components are set up for and operating normally.
Identifying and locating the cause of the malfunction can be the hardest
step in troubleshooting. This task ·is made much easier based on the
technician's level of knowledge of the overall system and its operation.
The next step is to solve the malfunction. It is very important to
correct the cause of the fault, not just replace or repair a component.
Determine if a component failure or another component is in a degraded
condition causing the failure of other components.
The last step in troubleshooting is to verify that the malfunction has
actually been corrected. Operate the system under normal conditions and, if
possible, monitor the area of the malfunction. At this time, all operational
characteristics should be monitored to ensure they are correct for normal
conditions.
TROUBLESHOOTING FANS
From Chapter Three, we know that fans are used to move air in an
HV AC system. How well a fan performs its job depends on a few factors
such a size, speed and design of the system. Because the fan plays such a
big part of the system, it is very necessary for an HV AC Technician to
understand what common problems a fan have and how to troubleshoot for
them. The topics we will discuss are;
• Noise
• Performance Reduction
• Rotation
Also provided is a chart with sources and probable cause of problems
1 with fans.
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7-3
Figure 7.1 Probing For Spin
7·6
A. NOISE
Source Probable Cause
l. IMPELLER HITIING a. Impeller not centered in
INLET RING inlet ring.
b. Inlet ring damaged.
c. Crooked or damaged
impeller.
d. Shaft loose in bearing.
e. Impeller loose on shaft.
!
f. Bearing loose in bearing
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support.
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2. IMPElLER HITIING Cutoff not secure in a.
CUTOFF housing.
b. Cutoff damaged . .
r
c. Cutoff improperly
positioned.
3. DRIVE a. Sheave not tight on shaft
(motor and/or fan).
b. Belts hitting belt tube.
c. Belts too loose. Adjust for
!
belt stretching after 48 hours
l
operating.
d. Belts too tight.
e. Belts wrong cross section.
f. Belts not "matched" in
length on multibelt drive.
g. Variable pitch sheaves not
I same pitch diameter (multi-
\.. . .
belt drives).
h. Misaligned sheaves.
I. Belts worn.
7-7
l.
A. NOISE
Source Probable Cause
J.
Motor, motor base or fan
not securely anchored.
k. Belts oily or dirty.
1. Improper drive selection.
4. COUPUNG a. Coupling unbalanced,
misaligned, loose, or may
need lubricant.
5. BEARING a. Defective bearing.
b. Needs lubrication.
c. Loose on bearing support.
d. Loose on shaft.
e. Seals misaligned.
f. Foreign material inside
bearing.
g. Worn bearing.
h. Fretting corrosion between
inner face and shaft.
6. SHAFf SEAL SQUEAL a. Needs lubrication.
b. Misaligned.
7. IMPELLER a. Loose on shaft.
b. Defective impeller. Do not
run fan. Contact
manufacturer.
c. Unbalance.
d. Coating loose.
7-8
A. NOISE
Source Probable Cause
e. Worn as result of abrasive
or corrosive material moving
through flow passages.
8. HOUSING a. Foreign material in housing.
b. Cutoff or other part loose
(rattling during operation).
,
,
9. ELECTRICAL a. Lead-in cable not secure.
b. AC hum in motor or relay.
c. Starting relay chatter
d. Noisy motor bearings.
e. Single phasing a 3 phase

motor.
10. SHAFf a. Bent.
b. Undersized. May cause
noise at impeller, bearings
or sheave.
c. If more than two bearings
are on shaft, they must be
properly aligned.
11. mGH AIR VELOCITY a. Duct work too small for
application.
b. Fan selection too small for
application.
c. Registers or grilles too small
I
for application.
t
d. Heating or cooling coil with
insufficient face area for
application.
7-9
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B. LOW CFM, INSUFFICIENT AIR FLOW
Source Probable Cause
6. OBSTRUCI'ED FAN a. Elbows, cabinet walls or
INLETS other obstructions restrict air
flow. Inlet obstructions
cause more restrictive
systems but do not cause
increased negative pressure
inlet(s). Fan speed may be
increased to counteract the
effect of restricted fan
inlet(s).
7. NO STRAIGHT DUer AT a. Fans which are normally
FAN OUTLET used in duct system are
tested with a length of
straight duct at the fan
outlet. If there is no straight
duct at the fan outlet,
decreased performance will
result. If it is not practical
to install a straight section
..
of duct at the fan outlet, the'
fan speed may be increased
to overcome this pressure
loss.
8. OBSTRUCTIONS IN HIGH a. Obstruction near fan outlet.
VELOCITY AIR STREAM b. Sharp elbows near fan
outlet.
c. Improperly designed turning
vanes.
7-12
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B. LOW CFM, INSUFFlCIENT AIR FLOW
Source Probable Cause
d. Projections, dampers or
other obstruction in part of
system where air velocity is
high.
C. IDGH CFM, TOO MUCH AIR FLOW
Source Probable Cause
SYSTEM a. Oversized duct work.
b. Access door open.
c. Registers or grilles not
installed.
d. Dampers set to by-pass
coils.
e. Filter(s) not in place.
FAN a. Backward inclined impeller
installed backwards (HP will
be high).
b. Fan speed too fast.
7-13
1.
D. WRONG STATIC PRESSURE
Source
SYSTEM, FAN OR
INTERPRETATION OR
MEASUREMENTS
7-14
Probable Cause
GENERAL DISCUSSION
The velocity pressure at any point
of measurement is a function of
the velocity of the air or gas and
its density.
The static pressure at a point of
measurement in the system is a
function of system design
(resistance to flow), air density
and the amount of air flowing
through the system.
The static pressure measured in a
"loose" or oversized system will
be less than the static pressure in
a "tight" or undersized system for
the same air flow rate.
In most systems, pressure
measurements are indicators of
how the installation is operating.
These measurements are the result
of air flow and as such are useful
indicators in defining system
characteristics.
Field static pressure measurements
rarely correspond with laboratory
static pressure measurements
unless the fan inlet and fan outlet
conditions of the installation are
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2.
3.
4.
1.
D. WRONG STATIC PRESSURE
Source
SYSTEM
GAS DENSITY
FAN
Probable Cause
exactly the same as the inlet and
outlet conditions in the laboratory.
Also see D-2 through D-6, E-2, F-
1, and G-1, for specific cases.
System has less resistance to flow
than expected. This is a common
occurrence. Fan speed may be
reduced to obtain desired flow
rate. This will reduce HP
(operating cost).
Pressures will be less with high
temperature gas or at high
altitudes.
a.
b.
Backward inclined impeller
installed backwards. HP
will be high.
Fan speed too high.
E. STATIC PRESSURE LOW, CFM LOW
SYSTEM
7-15
a. Fan inlet and/or outlet
conditions not same as
tested. See general
discussion (D-1).
Also see B.1-S.
F. STATIC PRESSURE IDGH, CFM LOW
Source Probable Cause
2. SYSTEM a. Obstruction in system.
b. Dirty filters.
c. Dirty coil.
d. System too restricted.
Also see B.1-8.
G. HORSEPOWER IDGH
1. FAN a. Backward inclined impeller
installed backwards.
b. Fan speed too high.
2. SYSTEM a. Oversized duct work.
b. Face and by-pass dampers
oriented so coil dampers are
open at same time by-pass
dampers are open.
c. Filter( s) left out.
d. Access door open.
3. GAS DENSITY a. Calculated horsepower
requirements based on light
gas (e.g., high temperature)
but actual gas is heavy (e.g.,
cold start up).
4. FAN SELECTION a. Fan not operating at
efficient point of rating.
Fan size or type may not be
best for application.
7-16
1.
1.
H. FAN DOES NOT OPERATE
Source
ELECTRICAL OR
MECHANICAL
Probable Cause
Mechanical and electrical
problems are usually
straightforward and are normally
analyzed in a routine manner by
service personnel. In this
category are such items as:
a. Blown fuses.
b. Broken belts.
c. Loose pulleys.
d. Electricity turned off.
e. Impeller touching scroll.
f. Wrong voltage.
g. Motor too small and
broken circuit.
I. PREMATURE FAILURE
BELTS, BEARINGS,
SHEA YES IMPELLER,
HUBS, ETC.

7-17
GENERAL DISCUSSION
Each fan component is designed
to operate satisfactorily for a
reasonable life time. Fans
intended for heavy duty service
are made especially for that type
of service. For example, Class I
fans are intended for operation
below certain limits of pressure
and outlet velocity. Class II fans
are designed for higher operating
limits. Not all components are
Source
2. COUPLINGS
3. SHAFf
Rotation
I. PREMATURE FAILURE
Probable Cause
limited by the same factors, e.g.,
limiting factors may be HP, RPM,
temperature, impeller tip speed,
torque, corrosive atmospheres,
expected life, etc.
Also see A3, AS, A6.
See A4.
Also see AID.
No system should be tested without first checking the fan rotation. Fan
rotation, as defined by the fan manufacturer, is either the "clockwise" or
"counterclockwise" spin of the fan impeller. But the rotation would depend
upon the position of the viewer relative to the fan. When checking rotation
for centrifugal fan the fan must be viewed from the drive side while it is
coasting to a stop. For tubular centrifugals, the fan must be viewed from the
outlet side. For axial fans the fans must be viewed from the inlet side.
Figures 7-2 and 7-3 show the correct rotation for centrifugal and axial
fan impellers.
7-18
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,

BACKWARD
INCLINED
AIRFOIL

BACKWARD FORWARD
CURVED CURVED
Figure 7-2 Centrifugal Fan Impellers

ROTATION
d

2)
t
t
t
-t-
AIR FLOW
t
AIR FLOW
t
'" ROTATION

0
tr
t
t
t
t
AIR FLOW
t
AIR FLOW
-t-
Figure 7-3 Axial Fan Impellers
7-19
TROUBLESHOOTING ABNORMAL AIR CONDITIONING
OPERATIONS
Regardless of the type of system, there will be some common operating
problems encountered, and the service technician must, like a doctor, be able
to recognize the symptoms, diagnose the cause, and take corrective action.
In most cases, the medical doctor is able to prescribe medicine or treatment
immediately to relieve the patient. The refrigeration serviceman may have
to arrive at a satisfactory diagnosis through the process of elimination of
several possible causes, each of which may be the source of the complaint
or the problem in the refrigeration system.
Mechanics must be conscientious in their attempts to put the system
back in proper operating condition. There have been complaints from the
field that some servicemen do not always measure up to the higher standards.
For example, one may have added refrigerant to a system when there was
indications of a shortage and, when this action did not correct the trouble, the
serviceman was negligent and did not remove the excess refrigerant. (This,
in itself, might be the cause of a future service complaint.) Some
manufacturers of components such as expansion valves have had parts
returned that were not defective. Rather, the strainers in some of the valves
were merely dirty or clogged, but the serviceman would replace the valve,
blaming the trouble on its operation.
In small refrigeration units, the major problems that occur are:
• The unit runs continuously with insufficient cooling .
• The unit short cycles with insufficient cooling .
Of course, many other troubles may occur in the electrical circuitry but
they will have to be determined on case by case basis.
7-20
Three mam conditions In units that are operating but not cooling
satisfactorily are:
• Low suction pressure
• High suction pressure
It is recommended that, if possible, the technician diagnose this
problem without entering the sealed system. Some of the variables that could
cause these problems and can be diagnosed by using gauges are:
Dirty or partially blocked condenser
Air or other noncondensable gases in system
Overcharge of refrigerant .
Insufficient condensing medium (air, water, etc.)
High temperature condensing medium
Restricted discharge line
2. Low suction pressure
Insufficient air or heat load on evaporator coil
Poor distribution of air over evaporator coil
Restricted refrigerant flow
Undercharge of refrigerant
Faulty expansion valve or capillary tube
3. High suction pressure
Poor installation of feeler bulb
Inefficient compressor
High head pressure on capillary tube systems
7-21
Dirty or Partially Blocked Condenser
An automobile engine will probably overheat if the radiator becomes
clogged with leaves or insects. So will the operation of an air cooled
condensing unit be seriously affected if its condenser becomes partially
blocked with paper, leaves, or other debris. Particularly if the condenser is
located outdoors. If the unit is located indoors, such as in the back room of
a grocery store or restaurant, the condenser may not be subjected to leaves
and other debris, but grease in the air collects on the fins, permitting dust and
dirt to accumulate and prohibiting proper heat transfer.
This condition may be diagnosed during the visual check of the system
by the service technician. External cleaning of the condenser fins and coil
may be done with a stiff brush or, if a portable air tank is available, by the
pressure of an air supply in the opposite direction to the normal air flow
through the condenser. Accumulations of dirt and dust may have to be
removed by the application of a soap and water solution, followed by
flushing the condenser with water from a hose - again from the direction
opposite to the normal air flow.
If grease has accumulated on a condensing unit in a restaurant or store,
the condensing unit itself may have to be cleaned with a degreasing solvent
applied with a brush or spray. This should be followed with a soap and
water solution and external flush ing with water.
Care must be taken that electrical connections are protected when the
unit is being cleaned.
Air or Noncondensable Gases in System
If there is only relatively dry air in a refrigeration system, it is less
harmful than moist air, but in either case, oxygen may react with oil or
metals to produce sludge, metal oxides, etc. The same applies if dry nitrogen
or dry carbon dioxide has been used to pressure test a system and has not
7-22
been completely removed. However, moisture-laden air in the system
indicates that it was opened for repair or component replacement and was not
evacuated properly. Proper evacuation is absolutely necessary to eliminate
both air and moisture.
Space in the condenser occupied by air or other noncondensables is not
available for the proper function of that component, and can affect heat
removal from the superheated vapor and condensation of the saturated vapor.
A reduction of the heat transfer area in the condenser will make a greater
temperature difference between the cooling medium and the condensing
refrigerant necessary to permit removal of the required amount of heat from
the refrigerant. At higher condensing temperatures, there will be a
The question now is how to determine if there is a noncondensable gas
such as air in the condenser. To make a test, the temperature of the
refrigerant in the condenser should be the same as the air surrounding it; so
the compressor must be shut off (if it is in operation) and the refrigerant
allowed to give up its heat to the surrounding air. This process can be
speeded up if it is possible to bypass the controls and operate the condenser
fan alone.
The difference in pressure within the condenser should not be more
than 5 psig from the pressure corresponding to the temperature of the
refrigerant being used. Assuming that R-12 is the refrigerant and that the
ambient temperature (and that of the refrigerant in the condenser) is 95°P.
Therefore, the pressure within the condenser - as indicated on the gauge -
should be 108 psig but not exceed 113 psig. If it does, the air or
noncondensable must be purged from the unit.
Most small condensers do not have purge valves at the top, so the
purging must be done through the gauge manifold. The purging should be
done in small amounts, with a few moments of time elapsing between brief
periods of purging. This will permit the air or noncondensable gas to collect
at the high point, which would be the gauge manifold, and allow it to be
purged without losing too much refrigerant. It is impossible to purge without
7-23
the loss of some refrigerant, since complete separation cannot be obtained.
Purging should continue until the head pressure drops down to the proper
point corresponding to the temperature of the refrigerant. Purging of the
capillary tubes or other critical charge systems is not recommended - only
proper and complete evacuation procedures should be followed.
Overcharge of Refrigerant
If, as mentioned earlier in this section, unnecessary refrigerant had been
put into the system during a previous service call, or if the system was
improperly charged during start-up (and then not removed) high head
pressure may result, although in a commercial system that has a receiver, the
additional refrigerant will only raise the liquid level and should not affect the
system unless it was greatly overcharged. An overcharge of refrigerant, like
air or other noncondensable gases in the condenser, will occupy space in the
condenser that is needed for proper heat transfer from the refrigerant vapor
to the air used as a cooling system, unless the system has a receiver. With
a smaller area available, the increased temperature difference will cause an
increase in the head pressure. When other possible causes of the high head
pressure are eliminated, and a surplus refrigerant charge is suspected, some
of the refrigerant must be removed from the system.
If there is a sight glass installed in the liquid line just ahead of the
liquid control, a full glass will indicate that there is either enough refrigerant
in the system or a restriction ahead of the sight glass. If the possibility of a
restriction has already been eliminated, and a surplus refrigerant charge is
suspected, some of the refrigerant must be removed from the system.
Refrigerant should be removed from the system until the sight glass
indicates a shortage, that is, when bubbles of gas entering the liquid line are
visible in the sight glass. The refrigerant removed from the system should
be placed in an empty, dry drum or carefully purged to the atmosphere and
new refrigerant added. Only enough refrigerant to clear up the gas bubbles
should be charged back into the system.
7-24
Insufficient Condensing Medium
As explained earlier, a partially blocked condenser will result in
inadequate heat transfer between the refrigerant and the cooling medium.
Even if the condenser itself is not obstructed, there may be other reasons why
insufficient air reaches or is available to the condenser. If the condensing
unit is located too close to a wall, partition, or other obstacle, it is possible
that not enough air can be drawn across the condenser.
Insufficient air moving across the condenser can also be the result of
a loose or slipping belt between the motor and fan, a loose fan wheel on
direct drive equipment, or binding of the shaft of either the motor or fan
because of bad shaft bearings or lack of lubrication.
High Temperature Condensing Medium
If the temperature of ambient air surrounding the condensing unit
increases, it follows that the operating head pressure will increase
correspondingly. If the unit is located outdoors, there is of course no control
of the outdoor dry bulb temperature. The condensing unit may be protected
from direct sun rays, although this factor is not too important. The unit
should not be located indoors where it will be seriously affected by high
ambient temperature.
If the condensing unit with a blow through fan is located indoors and
too close to a wall or other obstacle, it is possible that the hot air exhausts
from the condenser may be short cycled back into the inlet of the fan. This
would increase the temperature of the available air for removal of heat form
the refrigerant. For optimum operation, a condensing unit located indoors
must have some provision for the removal of condenser discharge air. A
poorly located outdoor condensing unit also can short cycle air into the fan.
Restricted Discharge Line
A kink that develops in the discharge line of a self-contained
condensing unit, or in the hot gas line between a compressor and a remote
7-25
air cooled condenser would cause a restriction in the flow of the "hot
refrigerant vapor. An increase in pressure measured at the compressor, along
with a corresponding increase in temperature, would result.
Similar results might occur in a recently installed system where excess
solder could cause a restriction to the flow of the discharge vapor. Usually
a stoppage or major restriction of this type is diagnosed by the pulsation of
pressure and the whistling sound of vapor trying to force its way past the
restriction.
Low Suction Pressure
Insufficient Air on Evaporator Coil
This is the most common cause of low suction pressure ID a
refrigeration or air-conditioning system. If the flow of air across the
evaporator coil is reduced, the load on the coil is decreased. Since there is
customarily a transfer of heat from the volume of warm air moving across
the coil to the cool refrigerant within the coil, any decrease in the amount of
air that passes through the coil will result in a loss of normal heat transfer.
If the refrigerant is picking up less heat, its temperature will be lowered
along with the suction pressure.
Insufficient air on the forced air evaporator coil may be caused by dirty
air filters, too small return ducts, improper speed of the blower, a clogged
cooling coil, a combination of these possible causes, or improperly adjusted
duct dampers or registers. The service technician should check to see if there
are filters in the air distribution system. If they are dirty, they should be
cleaned or replaced. The cooling coil should be checked to make sure it is
clean and free of dirt and lint, whether or not there is a filter in the system.
If the blower motor and/or blower shaft bearings have not been
lubricated for some time and are not running freely, the flow of air through
the cooling coil may be less than normal. An improperly adjusted blower
belt could cause a slowdown in the blower speed and a reduction of the air
flow across the coil. (It should be noted that a squirrel cage blower running
7-26
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J6dbackward will deliver air in the proper direction, but at a greatly reduced
volume.)
Poor Distribution of Air on Evaporator Coil
It is important that each circuit or portion of the coil receive fairly
., equal amounts of air so that the entire cooling load can be handled
proportionately by the entire cooling coil. Without a proper distribution of
air over the coil, the capacity and the efficiency of the cooling coil will be
reduced. When there is ductwork connected to the inlet side of the coil, it
is highly possible that an unbalanced condition of air distributed across the
coil will occur if the air must make a turn in direction prior to entering the
cooling coil. When air changes direction, such as in turning a corner prior
to entering the cooling coil, most of the air will probably flow to the outside
radius of the curve. In so doing, only a small portion of the air will flow
across the coil section located at the inner part of the curve and so cause an
unequal distribution of the load on the cooling coil.
, .
. "c' It is possible that, because of the design and circuiting of the cooling
coil, the liquid refrigerant in the circuit or sections of the coil nearest the
inner radius of the curve will not be completely vaporized. In that case, the
refrigerant will pass from the coil in a liquid form and will, in turn, cool the
gas that is leaving the other sections of the coil to a temperature that is lower
than normal. This lowering of temperature may cause the metering device
to restrict the flow of liquid refrigerant to the other sections of the coil,
thereby robbing the remainder of the coil of the refrigerant needed to handle
the load properly. It may be necessary to install turning vanes in the sheet
metal ductwork on the inner side of the cooling coil.
[ .'-
Restricted Refrigerant Flow
For a cooling coil to vaporize enough refrigerant to satisfy the capacity
", of the compressor and to remove the proper amount of heat from the load,
"2 it must receive an adequate amount of liquid refrigerant. Any restriction to
". tbis flow of liquid refrigerant will mean a reduction in the capacity of the
. !" 'looling coil for heat removal. There must be no restriction to this liquid
7·27
( ,0,,-, \ , .'::
flpw between the outlet of the condensing unit and the inlet to the cooling
COIL This inciudes the' receiver, drier, sight glass, and refrigerant conirols.
1" .If psed, tpe.liquid line valve on the receiver may be partially
,: ... closed. also be a restriction in the liquid flow due to a crimp in
J JIJ- , , . , ' ,. , "
tubl?g, a qUIck-connect couphng that i.s, only
.. : partIajly.open, a full of mOIsture, or an obstruction of some sort il) the
. I, meterigg device. rn:any case, a restriction to the flow of liquid
could affect the operation of the system. It may cause enough drop
to reduce the boiling point of liquid available in the cooling coil. There
will be a definite temperature drop across the point of restriction, which,
depending on its location, mayor may not be easily located.
,54 ., ' .1
"c of )
""'1 ,'"' "I
p ' ,." A shortage of refdgerant in the system is usually indicated by a warm
line along with a low suction pressure. If there is an in
. the system, the refrigerant vapor may not condensate properly (iii the
condenser) before it is ready to reenter the cooling coil and remove additional
heat from the load. A refrigerant that does not condense fully and enters the
" liquid line in a gaseous state may be indicated by a hissing noise at the
metering device. In addition, as previously discussed, the refrigerant wi'n not
pick up as much heat when it is in a vapor state as it would if it entered the
cooling coil in its proper state - as a liquid. The cooling coil and the suction
line will probably be warm to the touch, because there is little or no liquid
refrigerant being supplied to the cooling coil. A liquid indicator or sight
glass installed in the liquid line will show a shortage of refrigerant by
the sight glass . . , . . ,i
I' .,' ' ..
.. ' Fa'ulty"Metering Device
':.J .,' .. _'
" • . ,j , j . '.f( ,
A meterIng deVIce such as an expansIon valve may have mechllnlcal
problems. This valve may stick in a nearly closed position, a fully closed
position, or a fully open position. Sometimes dirt or frozen moisture will
restrict the flow of refrigerant liquid through the valve or stop the flow of
any liquid at all into the evaporator. In such a case, the compressor will
7-28

. short-cycle (that is, start and stop at frequent intervals) when the expansion
is only partially closed and insufficient liquid is ' entering the coil.
'. r v

'il With the expansion valve completely closed, compressor
the pressure in the evaporator down to the cutout point of the low pressure
· ' control, which will stop the compressor. If there is no low pressure control
switch in the system, the compressor will continue to tun with no work being
':n done until the motor windings heat up and are cut off by the' ,electrical
.. . "
'''':; 1 I
' .. ,: '.,. I r;. ,
Low Discharge Pressure
Low discharge pressure on a system may be by an Ull?ercharge
of refrigerant. It could also be the result of low ambient air temperature
being circulated across the condenser coil. This low head could
, result in a higher compression' ratio and therefore a decrease in compressor
efficiency, accompanied by a reduction in the expansion valve capacity.
(Low refrigerant charge also can result in lower suction pressure, which may
IL. increase the compression ratio.) This reduction of capacity would be caused
orO) by a lowering of the pressure drop across the expansion valve wi.th a
". decrease in the head pressure.
High Suction Pressure
, ..
A system might have a high suction pressure and yet no part of the
system is faulty. Possibly load conditions increased considerably,
accompanied by an increase in the temperature of the ambient air entering the
condenser. In such a case, there would be a high discharge pressure along
with the high suction pressure, with no fault in the mechanical operation of
, '[the system. These conditions may be remedied by the removal of the cause
-: .. of the excessive load on the evaporator.
j" , ,
L "-
,
7-29
rises higher and higher as does the motor load. At the same time because of
the reduction of suction gas to the hermetic compressor, the latter cannot
properly cool the motor, and prolonged cycling and overheating may
eventually result in total motor burnout.
SUMMARY
Troubleshooting a system malfunction does not have to be a time
consuming and troublesome event. If a systematic and logical approach is
taken, time can be held to a minimum. This process will only work if the
person understands the entire operation of an HV AC system.
There are common problems associated with fans and air conditioners.
Being able to recognize what those problems are allows you to be able to
minimize downtime and the cost of maintenance.
7-32

(

(

.1

CHAYfER ONE: INTRODUCTION

BASIC LA WS AND APPLICATIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..•... 1·1

BASIC AIR LAWS . . . . . . • . . . . . . • ...' . . . . . . . .. • ... • . . . . .. . •... 1-1 PULLEY LAWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 FINDING RPM INCREASE OR DECREASE BY AMPERAGE . .. . . . .• . .... 1-12 FORMULAS FOR ADJUSTING SHEAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •.. , .... 1-14 PERFECT GAS LAWS ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pascal's Principle . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charles's Law . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Varies Directly with Absolute Temperature For a Constant Volume .... .. . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gay-Lussac's Law . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Volume Varies Directly with Absolute TemperabJre For a Constant Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • .. . . . .. Boyle's l..aw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Varies Inversely with Volume if the Temperature Remains Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Effects of Changing Temperature, Pressure, and Volume at Same Time . ... HEAT TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . Conservation Of Energy . . • .. • • . .• ... . . •... ,. . . . .. . . . . . . . Heat Flow . . . . . . . . . . . , •. . ... . , . .... , ... , . • . . • . . , . . .. Conduction . . . . . . , ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Convection . . ... . •...•...• .. .. .. ...•. .. " .. . . . . . Radiation . . . . . . • , .. • ... • ..... , . . . • . . . . ,.. . . . ... Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . .. , . . .. 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-17 1-17 1-18 1-18 1- 19 1-20 1-20 1-20 1-21 1-24 1-27 1-28

,.

I .

PSYCHROMETRIC PROPERTIES OF AIR .. . . , • • ... " . . . • ...• . . , .. 1-29 Psychrometric Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . ... , ... , ' • . .. • .. . • . . . • . . . . . 1-39

(

(

CHAPTER TWO:

HVAC SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . • ... . . . • . . . . . . . . . .... 2-1
, i •

PURPOSE OF HV AC ..• • ... . .. • .. . ... . Temperature .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . Humidity .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Suspended Particulates (Dust and Gases) . .

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . • ...•.. . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . ... . . .... . ..........•....

2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 · 2-7 2-7 2-8 2-9

ri ..

o
.,

AIR SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Zone System . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . • . . • . . • . . . . . . • . . . . Variab le Air Volume System . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . • .. • .. . ...• . ... Terminal Reheat System . . . . . . • •. . .•...• . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . Induction System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . • . . . . . . . • . . . Dual Duct System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•. .• ...• .... Dual Duct System (Low Velocity) .... . • . . . . . ... .. .. • . ... . Dual Duct System (High Velocity) ... . .. . . . .. • .. .... • . .. . . Multizone System . . ... . .. ... .. . . . . . . . . . • ... . .. • ... • .... FILTRATION SYSTEMS .... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Fibrous Media Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . ... •. .• . . . . . . . . . . Electronic Air Cleaners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . . . . . • . . . • . .. High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter . . . . . . . •. .• . .• . ..•..•.... HYDRONIC SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . • . . . • . . • . . . • . . . Low Water Temperature System (LTW) . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . • . . • . . . . . Medium Temperature Water System (MTW) ... . . . . . . • . . • . . . . . . . . High Temperature Water System (HTW) .. .. . .. . .... . . . . .. .. . ... Chilled Water System (CW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • ...• . . . . .. . .... Dual-Temperature Water System (DTW) . . . .... .. . . . . . . . . • . . . . . Series Loop System ... ... .... . . . . . . . . . .• •. . .• . . •. . . .... One-Pipe System (Diverting Fitting) . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . Two-Pipe Systems . . .... . . . . . . . . . . ..•. .. • .. .. . .. . .• . .. . Combination Piping System . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . ...•..•.. . .. Three-Pipe System . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . • . . • . . . . Four-Pipe System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . • . . • . . . . . . . . Hydronic Piping ... . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .•• . ... . .•..• • .. . . .. . Air Control and Venting .. . .•...•.. . .. .... . . . . . • . . . . . Drains and Shutoffs . . . . . . . • • . . . . • . . • . . • • . . . . . • . . . . . Balance Fittings . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . •. . ... . • .. . . . . . . Pitch . ... . . . . . . . . .• • . .•. . .• •. . . . . . . . . •.. ... ... Strainers . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . .

u
o
U

2-10 2-10 2-12 2-13 2-16 2-16 2- 16 2-17 2-17 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-22 2-22 2-24 2-26 2-26 2-27 2-27 2-27 2-27

II
"

••

(

i

(I

HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDmONING
TABLE OF CONTENTS Thermometers . . . . . . Flexible Connectors . . . Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . Pump Location . . . . . .
SUMMARY

. . . .

. . . .

•........... . . . .••... .• . . . . . . .•.. . . . .•. . .. . .. .• .

... .•. . . . . .•

. . . .

..... . •. . . . . •. . .. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

... . . . . . . . .. . . . .

2-27 2-28 2-28 2-28
2-30

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
HVAC EQUIPMENT

CHAPTER THREE:

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•. . .•. .. . .. .. CRITERIA FOR EQUIPMENT SELECTION . . . . . . . . • •• .. •. . .• . . . . . . Demand of Comfort or Process .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3·1 3·1 3·2 3·2 3-3 3-3 3-3

Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . ....... . ... . ... .
First CostlLife Cost ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . Desires of Owner, Architect, or Design Office . . . . . .. . .. ... . . . . . . Space Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . •. .. Maintainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . Central Plant Versus Distributed Systems . ..•. .. •...•...• .. • .. .. Simplicity and Controllability . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .... • . . . • . . . . . . HEATING . . . . . . . .. ... . ... . . . . . . • . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . . . . • . . BOILERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . . . . • . . Hot Water Boilers ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . ... . . . .. . .. . .. . Steam Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . • • . . . • . . . • . . . . .. . . . .

3-4 3-4
3-4

3·5
3·7 3·7 3·7 3-7

..
i. ,

,.

ELECTRIC HEATERS . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . •.. .

TERMINAL HEATING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • .. . •.. • .... 3·9 Radiators and Convectors . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • • . . . . . . . . .. 3-10 Radiant Panels . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. •• . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . •... 3-12 HEAT PUMPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . . . • . . . • . . . • . . . . . . Packaged Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . .. COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •.. . • . . . . . .. . Refrigeration . . . . . . • . . • ...•...•.. ... Steam Jet . . . . . . . • . . . • .. . • .. . .. Heat Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . ....• Absorption ... . .... . . . . . . . . ... . .•.... •.. .. ..•.. •. .. • •.. • ...• . .. • .. . .... • . .. •... . . .. • . . . . . . . .... .. .. • . . . • . . . . . .. 3·13 3·13 3·18 3· 18

3·19
3-20 3-20

( ( l .

. . Registers and Diffusers . . . . . . •. . . . . . .. . . . . • . . . . . . Pumps . . • . . . . . .• . . . . . . .• . . . . Duct System Accessories . .. . .. . . . Fan Characteristic Curves ... . . • .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . • . •. . . . . • .. Chillers . . . . . . . .. . CondenserlReceiver .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . VENTILATION. . Direct Expansion (DX) Chillers . . . . . .. . •. . . . . .. . • . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . .• . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . ... • .•.. . . •. . . . • . .. .•. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . •. Package Chillers . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . .. . . • . Metering Device . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . • .. •.• . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . • . . . . .. . . . . Louvers . . . . . . . . . . . Evaporators . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . •. . . . . Silencers . •. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ." . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. AIR· HANDLING . . . . . . Classification . . . . . . . . . . • .. . . . . AND AIR CONDmONING TABLE OF CONTENfS Compressed Gas . . . . . •. . . . . • . . . . .. . . Open·Circuit Cooling Towers . . . . . . . .. • . . • . .. •.. . .. . . .. . . . . . . • . Plpmg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . •. . . . . . . . • . Cooling Towers. . • . . . . . . . . . . .• • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . • .. . Cooling Coils . . .. . FANS . . . . . • . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . •. . . . . . . Fan Control . . . . .. • . . . • . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. • . . . . . • . . • .•. . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . •.. . . . . . . . .• . . . . . . • . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Grilles. . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . • . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . Turning Vanes . • . .. . . . . . . . •. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Compressor . . . . . .. . . . • .• . . . . . • . • . .. . • . SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . .. . • . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . • . • . . 3·23 3·23 3·23 3·24 3·25 3·28 3·29 3·29 3·29 3·31 3·33 3·34 3·36 3·36 3·36 3·37 3·38 3-40 3·40 3-41 3·42 3-48 3·50 3·50 3·51 3·59 3·59 3·60 3·60 3·64 3·66 3·67 3·71 3·72 DUCTWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Dampers . • . . . . . . . . .. . Closed·Circuit Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . •.. • • . . . . . . Performance Curves. . . .. . . . . Fan Drives . . . . . . . . . Pump Configurations and Types . . . . • . . . Fan Laws . . . • . . . . . . •. . . . . . . • . . . .. . . . . . . . . . • • . . .. . . . . . .. • . •. . . . Flooded Chillers . . .HEATING. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .•. • . . .. . . . . . . . • . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . • . . . . . . . . . Pump Selection . . . . . . . •. . . . . . • . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . Classifications of Fans.. . .. . . . . .. .. . • . . . .. .

(-I .

. .. . . . . AIRFLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICES . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . • . .HEATING. . • . •. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .•. . . . . . Round Duct Traverses . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . ... .• . . • .•.. ... Rotating Vane Anemometer . . Pressure Gauge . . • . .. • . . . . . . •. . . .. . . .. . • . . . . . . Calibrated Balancing Valve ..•. Venturi Tube and Orifice Plate (Flow Devices) . . . . . Construction . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . • . .. Psychrometer . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Use of Readings . . . . . . .. . U-Tube Manometer . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . • . . .• . •. . . . • .. • . . . ... . • . . • • . .. . . . . . . . . .. HUMIDITY MEASURING DEVICES . • • . . . . . .. . •. . .- . . . . . .. .. • • . . • . . . . . . .• . . . . . . . . .. . • . . .. .. . • . • . . . Bridled Vane Anemometer . . . . . . . Hot Wire Anometer . . . . . . . . . . . .• .•. . . . . .•. ... . . • . . Dry Bulb Thermometer.. . .•. . . .. .. • . • .••. • L . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . ... . . ..• . .. U-Tube Manometer . . . . .. . . Glass Tube Thermometers . . . . .•. . . . • . . .. . .. •. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Pitot Tube . .•. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Pitot Tube Duct Traverses . . . . . • . . . .. . • . . . . • . • . . . . Wet Bulb Thermometer . • . • .. . • .. .. . . • . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ..•. . . . . . . . . . •. . • . ... . . . .. . Differential Pressure Gauge .. InclinedNertical Manometer. . . . . . . . Correcting For Non-Standard Conditions. . . . . . . . .. • .• . . . .. .. . . . . . AND AIR CONDmONING TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER FOUR: FIELD INSTRUMENT OVERVIEW 4-\ 4-\ 4-\ 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-3 4-5 4·9 4-11 INTRODUCTION . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . _ . . • . . . . . Micro-Manometer . . SquarelRectangular Duct Traverses . . . .... . . . . . . . .. . . .. . • . . . • . . . • .. . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . Annubar Flow Indicator. . . . . . .. . . . . . • .•. . . • • . • .. . . . •. Pressure Gauge (Magnehelic) . . . .. . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • .. . . . . .. • . .. . . . . . . . . Psychometric Measurement Devices . . . . .. . 4-46 4-46 4-47 . .. . . • • . .. . .. .. . . • . . . . .. • . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . • . . . . . . . . Location of Flow Devices . • . • . . . . . ... . . . . . . . • • . . . . . ... . • . .. . . . . . • . . . ... . . • . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .\3 4· 15 4·16 4-2\ 4-22 4-24 4-25 4-27 4-3\ 4-31 4-32 4-33 4-34 4-36 4-38 4-39 4-40 4-42 4-42 4-44 4-45 4-46 4-46 f • < ·. . . . VENTILATION. . • . . .•. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•. . ... . . .. . . . .. . . .. .• . • . . .• . Smoke Devices . . . • . . . . . .. . . • . .. . . . . . HYDRONIC MEASURING EQUIPMENT . . . . . • . .. .. . . . . . Dial Thermometers . . . . . . .. • . . . . . Pyrometers . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 4. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . ... . Pitot Tube Use . .• . • . . .. TEMPERATURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS. . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . .. • . . . . . . . . .. . . . Deflecting Vane Anemometer . . . . . . . . . . . •. • . . .•. . . . . . . .

.

. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . •. .•. • . . . . . . SUMMARY . .•..•. .. . . • .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . •. .. . • . VENTILATION.. . . . . . •. . . . . . . . .. 4·61 4·61 . Measuring Velocity . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .... . . . .. ROTATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Revolution Counter (Odometer) . . . .. .. . . ... . . . • . . . . . . .. . . . . .. Centrifugal . ... . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . GAUGE MANIFOLD .. . . • •. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . • • ... •. . . . . . . . •.. . .. .. . . . . . .. . . ... . . . .. . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . ... . Volt-Anuneter . . . . . .... •. ... . . . Chilled Mirror Dewcell . . • .. . . . . . Vibration Probe. . .. ... . . . • . VIBRATION MEASUREMENT. . .. . . . . . . • . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•.•. . •.. Minimum Insulation Resistance Value . . . . Frequency of Inspection . . . .•. .. . • . .. . Capacitance Probe Dewcell . . . . . . . .. •. . .. . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . Instruments . • Interpretation of Results . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. Chronometric . . . . . . .. . . . . . . •. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. • . . . . . . . • . . . . . .. . • Measuring Displacement . .. . . .•. . . . . . . . ..•. . . Photo. . . . Measuring Insulation Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tachometer. . . . . . . . • . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . • . . • . . .. . . .. . . •. . . . . . . Using the Gauge Manifold . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . • . . . .. . . . . . • .. . . . .•. . . .. ..• . . . .. Factors Affecting Insulation Resistance . . . . . . Insulation Resistance Monitoring . . . . . .. • . . 4·67 4-68 4-68 4-69 4-70 4-71 4-72 4·72 4-75 4-77 4-77 4-77 4-78 4·82 4·83 . . .. . . . ... . AND AIR CONDmONING TABLE OF CONTENTS Dew Point .. . .... • . . • . f . . • . . .. .. Two Fundamental Properties of Insulation . . ... . . • . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . • : .HEATING. . .. . . . . .. . ... . Testing Guidelines . . .. . . . . .. . .•• . . . . .. ... . . . . . .. . .. . • . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . • . . . .. Tachometer. . . • . 4·50 4·50 4·52 4·53 4·54 4-54 4-57 4-57 4-58 4-58 4~59 ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES . . .. . . • . .•. . . . . • Measuring Vibration . . .. .. . . • . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . MINIMUM VALUES AND FREQUENCY OF INSULATION RESISTANCE TEST . . . . • . . . . .. . . . . . . • . .•. . . . . . . . ... . . . . Conditions for Measuring Insulation Resistance . . . . ... ••. . . . . ... . . . . . .•.. .... . . .. . . . . .. . . . 4·64 4-64 4·65 4-65 . . . Electronic . . .. . . .. . . . Tachometers. ... . . . . . . .. •. . ... . . .•. . . . . . . . . . . . .•. . . . .. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . •.. •. . . Special Attaching Devices . .•. .. . . .. • . ... . . . . . . . Wick·Type Dewcells . . .. . . .. . . .. . . Tachometer. . • . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. • . . . . . . AND AIR CONDmONING TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER F1VE: SYSTEM TEST AND BALANCE PROCEDURES 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-14 5-18 5-18 5-19 5-19 5-22 5-22 5-23 5-26 5-27 5-29 5-30 5-31 5-33 5-35 5-36 5-37 5-38 5-39 5-40 5-41 INTRODUCTION AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT IN DUCTS... . .•.. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . • . • . .. . .. Balance Procedure ... . . . . ... . • .. . .. .. . . . Methods and Standards .. • .. . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . • . .. .•. . .• . . . . • . . • . . ... . . .. . . . . . ... .. • . . ..... . • . . .. Water Balance with Coil. .. . . . . . . ..••. . .. ... .. . . . . . . .. . . . •. . . . ... . • .. . Fan Coil Unit and Unit Ventilator .. . ... .. •.. . . . . . . . . . .. . •. • . . . . . • . . . . . . . Fume Hood Testing . ... ... .. .. .. .. ...... . . . .. . • .. • .. . . .. . . . ... . . . . . • • .•. .. ... . . Control Valve and Measuring Station .. .. . .. . . . . . . • . . . . . • . .. • . . .. . .. .. . .. . Cabinet Unit Heaters . . . .. . . . . •• .. . •. . .HEATING.. .. . . . . . . . .. • .. . . . . . . . . .... Chiller . . . . . .. .. ... . • .. . . . . . .. . .. Testing of Air Shafts.. • . . . .... . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. ... . . • . . •.. . . Test Verification . Test Equipment .. . . . . .General .. . . . . . . .•. ... . . . .. . .. HYDRONIC SYSTEM TESTING . .• . .. . . . ... . .•. Testing of Face Velocities Across Coils . ... . • . • . .. Chilled and/or Hot Water Systems . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . •.. . Procedure for Testing Shaft Wall. . . • .. . . . . . Air Flow Measurements of Supply Grilles and Registers.. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . •.. . . Testing and Setting Static Pressure Dampers . . . . . • . .. .. . Use of Hoods .. . . . .•. . . . .••. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . Testing of Ceiling Plenum Systems . .. . • . . . . . . ... . Steam and Hot Water Boilers . . . . . . GPM ESTABLISHED THRU COIL . . . ... . . . ... .... . . . . . ... Cooling Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Exchangers/Converters .. . . . . . ... .•. . . . .. . . Unit Heaters . • . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . • . . . • . ... . Balancing Data Required.. . . .. . . . ... . . . . .... . . Air Flow Measurement of Diffusers . • . Conditions of System During Tests ... . . . . Pumps . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . Testing of Hot and Cold Mixing Dampers . • . .. • . . . . . . • .• .. . . . .. . • . .. • . . . . .• .. • • . . .. ... • . .. . . . . . .. .. .•. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . • . .. •. .. . . . . . .. • . . .. . . .. . . .. . . • . .. . ... . . . . Testing of Motor Amperage . .. . . .. . . .. . • . . . .. . . . . . .. Air Flow Measurement of Return Grilles and Registers . ... . . . . .. Condenser Water/Cooling Tower Systems . . • . Measuring Static Pressures .. .. . . .... Setting of Outside Air and Return Air Volumes . . • .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . VENTILATION. . . .. . . • . . . •. • •. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . • . . . . .. . . Air Distribution Duct Leakage Test . . . . . Procedure for Testing Air Shafts . . . .•. . . • • . . Field Test Procedure . . • .. . . .. . . . . . •. .

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• . Vibration and Noi~ Identification . . . . . . . • . . .. . . . .. . • . . . ..... . .... . . . . . . . Apparatus . . HEPA Filter Testing Problems ... . . .. ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . .... .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . Prerequisites for Test . . . .. . . .. •. ..• .. . . . ... Relative Probability Ratings . . .•• .. . HEPA Filter Testing . 6-10 Sound Testing Specification . . . . . .. . . . . . Application of the Chart . • . . . . . . .. .. .. .. ... .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . .•. . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . • . . . • . . . . . 6-7 Reverberation Time .. . .. . . • . . VENTILATION. .. . . • .. Adsorberl Adsorbent Requirements . . .•. . .. . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . Vibration Testing Procedure . . .. . . . . .. .. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. • • . .. . . . . . . ... .. . . .... . . . . . . . 6-5 NC Curves ... . . . . • . .. . . .. . . .. . . . Apparatus . .. .. .. . . .. . • . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .... . .. . . .... 6-3 Sound Pressure Level . Summary of Method . . .. . . . . .. .. ... . . . .. • . . .. . .• . . . . . .. .. • . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . .•. . . . .. . .. . . SUMM ARY . . . .. . . . . . • . ... . . . . . .. .. . . Problems in HEPA Filter Use . . . SUMMARY 5-42 5-42 5-45 5-45 5-46 5-46 5-47 5-47 5-48 5-48 5-51 5-52 5-52 5-52 5-53 5-53 . . . ... .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . • . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . • . . •.. ...•. . . . . . . .•. . . . HEPA Filter Test Procedures . .. .. .. . .. Prerequisites for Test .. . . . . . . . . .. .. 6-6 Architectural Acoustics . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . ... . .. . . .. . . . .•. .. Noise Analysis . . • • . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . .... . ... . . . .. . . .. . . • . Analysis Procedure . . • . . . . . . 6-3 Loudness and Frequency . . • . .. .. . • . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . ... ... . Vibration and Noise Source Identification . . . . . . . . . 6-12 6-13 6-15 6-16 6-24 6-26 6-28 6-28 6-29 6-29 ... .. . . . .. . . . . • .. . . . . .•. ... . . . • . . . . . . . . AND AIR CONDmONING TABLE OF CONTENTS HEPA FILTERS .. . . . 6-3 Sound Power . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . Purpose . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . ... ... . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . .. . Vibration Testing . . . . . . . . .. . . . • . . .. . . .. . . . . . . 6-11 VIDRATION .... . . . . . . ..HEATING. . . . . . . . . .. .. ...•. . . . .. . . . ... . .. . . • . . . .- . .. . 6-10 Sound Testing . . . .. .. .• •. . . • . . . Summary of Method . . .. . .. . . . .. • •. . . . . . . CHARCOAL ADSORBER REQUIREMENTS AND TESTING . . . ... . . • . . . . . .. . . . • ... . . . . . . . . . • .• .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. • .. . . . 6-8 Sound Trap Selection . . . . . . .. • . .. . ..••.. . . .. . .. Charcoal Adsorber Test Procedures ... . . . .. . . . . . . . .•. . . . . .. . . . . . . • . .. • . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . SOUND AND VIBRATION TESTING CHAPTER SIX: 6-1 INTRODUCTION Sound .. . . . . .. . . . .• . .. . . .. . . .. .

( l .

. . . . • ... . .• _ . .. . • . . .. . VENTILATION. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . ... . ... . . .... . . . . .•. . . . AND AIR CONDmONING TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAYfER SEVEN: INTRODUCTION MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING 7-1 . . . Overcharge of Refrigerant .. . • . . . .. . ... .. Inefficient Compressor . . . • . . . . . • . . .. . .. .. • • . • . .. . . Low Discharge Pressure . .. .. .. ..... . . . . • .. . • . .• _ . . . . .. . .. . _ . High Head Pressure . . . . . ... Restricted Refrigerant Flow . . .. . .. . • . . . . . . . . . • . .. ... . .•. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . .... .. . . . • • . . . . . .. .. _ • . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . Dirty or Partially Blocked Condenser . . . .. . . SYSTEMATIC TROUBLESHOOTING TECHNIQUES . . . Insufficient Condensing Medium . .. Poor Distribution of Air on Evaporator Coil.. . . . . . . . .. . • ... .. . • . .... . . . . . . . . _ • . .. . . . High Temperature Condensing Medium . . . . High Suction Pressure. . . . .. . 7-2 TROUBLESHOOTING FANS . . • ... .. . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . .. . •. .HEATING. . . Restricted Discharge Line . . . . . 7-5 Rotation .. . . . . • . .. . . . .. . . . .. . Improper Expansion Valve Adjustment .. . • . . PoorInstallation of Feeler Bulb . . . . .. High Discharge Pressure on Capillary Tube Systems . . . . . . . • . . .. . . . • . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . • . . . . . . . . ... ... 7-3 Noise . . • . . • • . _ . . . . . . . . .. 7-18 TROUBLESHOOTING ABNORMAL AIR CONDITIONING OPERATIONS . . . Heavy Load Conditions . . . . . . .. . . • . ... .. ... . . . . . . . Air or Noncondensable Gases in System . . • .. . . . . . . ... _ . . . . . ... . . . • . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . _ _ . .... .. .. ... .. .. . • • . .. .. ... . . • . . . . . • . . . . . ... . . . _ . . . . . _ • . . . . . . . .. . . . . • . . . . .. . Insufficient Air on Evaporator Coil . . . . . . • • ... . . . Faulty Metering Device . . • . . . . . _ . . .. .• . . .. . • . . .... • . .. .. .. . . _ . . . . .. . . . • . . . . .. . . .... 7-4 Checking for Spin . . . . . .. . . . • .. Low Superheat Adjustment . . . • • . . Undercharge of Refrigerant . . .. 7-4 Performance Reduction . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . ... .. . .. . .. . Low Suction Pressure . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. .•. . • . SUMMARY 7-20 7-22 7-22 7-22 7-24 7-25 7-25 7-25 7-26 7-26 7-27 7-27 7-28 7-28 7-29 7-29 7-29 7-30 7-30 7-30 7-31 7-31 7-32 ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... .

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CHAPTER ONE BASIC LAWS AND APPLICATIONS .

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Use the fan laws to determine fan speed. Explain Boyle'S Law. State the first law of thermodynamics. 2. Explain Charles's Law. I . 9.CHAPTER ONE BASIC LAWS AND APPLICATIONS OBJECTIVES At the completion of this chapter. 11. 8. State the second law of thermodynamics. Explain the fan laws as they relate to fan performance. 7. Explain Pascal's Principle. State the primary objective of HVAC. 3. be able to determine the charge in amperage for a motor. 6. Given a change in cfm. 4. Calculate duct capacity. Given a change in rpm. 12. 14. Explain Gay-Lussac's Law. Define static and velocity pressure . . Explain how the fan laws are used to determine the affect of various fan speeds. 13. 5. the student will be able to: 1. 10. be able to determine a new pulley setting.

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17. Given two points of information on a psychrometric chart. be able to determine the other five.15. . 16. Explain the relationship of thermal resistance and thermal conductance. State the three ways heat can flow.

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Ventilating and Air Conditioning symbols are located in Appendix A. The glossary in the back of the text provides an extensive listi ng of HV AC terms and should be referred to as needed throughout this course. This chapter introduces the characteristics and properties of air that affect HVAC system des ign and construction. 10 system design and 1.1 . BASIC AIR LAWS The performance of air handl ing. Vent ilation and Air Conditioning (HV AC) is to control the characteristics of the air in a contro lled env ironment. transmission and distribution systems will follow certa·in establ ished laws which make it possible to calculate the expected perfor mance of an air moving system after adjustment or changes within the system have been made. Tllese laws are the most commonly used ba lanc in g and are listed in Figure 1. These bas ics must be comprehended in order to proceed effecti ve ly with the course . Standard Heating.CHAPTER ONE BASIC LAWS AND APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION The primary objective of Heating.1.

or RPM. = SP j x RPM. SP. RPM. = RPM x d. = RPMf3 RPM. Hp varies as the cube of the RPM.' SP j SP c. RPM j RPM x . CFM va ries in direct proportion to RPM. SP varies as the square of the RPM.FAN PERFORMANCE: a. or CFM = b. 1-2 . or = SP. _-. or RPM.-I = CFMf3 BHp CFMf3 CFM j Figure 1-1 Air Laws BHp. BHP varies as the cube of the CFM. SP j RPM2 = .

CFM & RPM varies as the sq uare root of the pressure ratio. RPM = RPM x Figure 1·1 Air Laws (cont ' d. h. RPM va ries as the square of the fa n size ratio (at given SP & rating).RPM/ x - f. CFM varies as the square of the fa n size ratio (at given SP & ra ting). HP/ - g.) l·3 . or RPM .e. HP varies as the square root of the pressure ratio cubed.

x RPMf 2 RPMI 1. J. x Figure 1-1 Air Laws (cant'd. SP varies as the size ratio squared times the RPM ratio squared.I. x k.) 1-4 . CFM varies as the size ratio cubed times the RPM ratio. HP varies inversely as the fan size ratio (at given SP & rating). Hp varies as the size ratio raised to the 5th power times the RPM ratio cubed.

( ~ "~\~ / ~\i + fI' \ TP = SP (Static Pressure) VP (Velocity Pressure) b. SP varies as the square of the duct CFM and FPM. SPf SP i SPf = CFMf 2 CFMi CFMf 2 CFMi = FPMf 2 FPMi X = SP i x = SP i FPMf 2 FPMI Figure I-I Ai r Laws (cont'd. iii '1':1 . Total Pressure TP .) .- ). Duct Capaci ty CFM.DVCfED AIR FLOW: a. CFM varies in direct proportion to duct FPM.. CFM = Duct Velocity FPM x Duct Area A c.J J~c.\ 'Y' " . ~1v\.or CFM f FPMI f = d. = FPM _----'.. \\\iJ ~~~.) [-5 .

) 1-6 . C FM va ries as the square root of the static pressure ratio. CFM varies in di rect proportion to duct area A (at given velocity).e. CFMf - f. FPMf - Figure 1-1 Air Laws (coned. Duct FPM varies as the square root of the static pressure ratio. CFMf - g.

Air Dens ity 1.9" Barometric Press ure and a resul ting density of . Pv Air Ve loc ity = 11096. = .075#/cu. .325 x PB T where: Barometric Pressure in inches of mercury T = Absolute Temperature (indicated temperature plus 460) 1I I . .) [ ·7 . : . ft.2 D where: Pv = = D velocity pressure in inches of water Air dens ity in .j " The veloc ity indicated is fo r dry a ir at 70"F.leu. 29. ft. Figure 1-1 Air Laws (cont'd. .h.

The sum of static and velocity pressures is total pressure which is defi ned as total a ir "pressure " energy or energy of the air within the duct relating to atmospheric pressure. Mathematica lly. commonly referred to as impact pressure is pressure exerted by air moving through a confined space and impinging on a stati onary object. Static and velocity pressures are measured in inches of water gauge or inches of mercury. PumQ V a Hp a Fan P where: a V CFM Hp SP P BHP N N' N' = = = = = CFM SP BHP volumetric flow rate air flow rate pump head static pressure power horsepower a a a RPM RPM' RPM' - The above relationships are extremely useful in determining the affect that varyi ng fan speed has on overall fan performance.The three ma in fan laws are identical to the three "pump laws". and if duct s ize is known (area). these pressure relationships are: TP = CFM = SP + VP Duct Velocity (FPM) x Duct Area 1-8 . Velocity pressure. Static pressure is the pressure exerted by reason of weight or existence of fluid or gas confined within a space. This pressure energy results in air flow within a duct. then total duct air flow may be determined.

Pulley fo rmu las are usually give n in pulley di ameters. fo r acc uracy. Fi gure 1-3 CORNERS SHEAVE FULLY CLOSED F igu re 1-2 Fu lly Closed Sheave 1-9 . they s hould be considered in actua l pitch diameters.Duc t ve loc ity in fee t per minute is determ ined us ing ve loc ity pressure and a conversio n facto r to convert inches o f water gauge to feet per minu te a nd will be d isc ussed in deta il unde r a ir fl ow measurement. a dri ve n pu ll ey on the blower s haft. shows the sa me s heave in the full y open posi tion . and a belt or set of matc hed be lts to tra ns mit the powe r. Fi gure 1-2 s hows an exa mple of a fully closed sheave. PULLEY LAWS Dri ve sets for fans and blowers cons ist o f a dri ver pulley o n the motor s haft .

I ~ "~ - Figure 1-4 Multiple Groove Pulley with Fully Open Sheave 1-10 .. of Gro oves) .BREAK CORNERS Figure 1-3 Fully Open Sheave Figure 1-4 is an example of a multiple groove pulley with fully open sheaves...1) + 2S e 1-... F Open ~ SeN 9 .-- ( N g ~ No.- S e.

dia Pm X rpm dia Pm dia P." (Inches) h.007 1.30 3.132 ! 0. Table 1-1 Variable Sheave Groove Dimensions b."" S Minimum ( Inches) ( I nches) (Inches) Section 14JOV 1930V 2S30V 32JOV 4430V 0. Minimum 20 (Inches) 2a.()()5 1.875 !.855 5.005 LlSB ! 0.40 6.007 5.501 [. X rpm dia Pm dia P. 0.20 2.758 2.21 8.687 2. fan pulley or driven sheave Pm = motor pulley o r driver sheave 1-11 .]4 1 0.258 0. 0".25 0.000 ! 0.665 ! 0. 0.750 ! 0.Table I-I g ives dimensions for standard variable sheaves.74 2.563 :!: 0.005 1.007 2.163 1.64 0 . Closed b. ( Inches) S.582 !.954 2.908 5.0:'18 3.007 3. X rpm where: P.89 1.765 0.375 The four basic pulley laws are : rpm P.142! Q.882 1.005 2.823 :!: 0.35 0 . Open M inimum ( Inches) c.007 2.325 l003 3.56 4.007 3. diaPm xrpm dia Pr rpm Pm dia P.

2. Follow the diagonal line to the point where it meets the third given factor.Pulley Speed-O-Graph for rapid calculations of the pulley laws is shown in Figure 1-5. the speed or size of either pulley can be determ ined when the other three factors are known. Using this nomograph. 1. on the diagonal. Enter the chart from any given factor and follow the straight grid line to the point where it intersects. EXAMPLES: Example 1: Given: Diameter of Drive = 3 in. DIAMETER OF DRIVEN = 12 in. From this point of intersection. the other given factor. 3. move along the straight grid line to the fourth side of the margin for the solution. rpm of Driver = 5000 FIND: RPM OF DRIVEN 1-12 .

N . . 0 ~ e~ ~ ~ ~ e~ ~ '" ~ c .. Q Q Q Q Q Q ~ N Q Q ~ Q Q ~ . driull" ( dl Q Q Q Q ~ -. '0 9000 8000 7000 6000 SOOO SO <0 4000 JOOO .c ~ • • u JO 25 • ·u -. Q Q Q QQ QQ QQ ~. . J 5 SOD <00 0 ~ '" ~ JOO 2 ZOO 100 /l IMt ETER or TIlE DRIVeN (0) -inches Figure 1-5 Speed-O-Graph: Pulley Laws 1-13 .RI'~1 or: Q Q ~ TIll. < 20 2000 . Q 0 8 7 O • .. ~ -.. Q QQ QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q ~ Q Q Q ~ Q Q Q ~ Q Q Q ~ 0-. < ·u ~ e~ ~ " . 0 800 700 600 .0 1000 .

RPM OF DRIVER = 3750 FIND: rpm of Driver Example 3: Given: rpm of Driver = 1000 RPM OF DRIVER = 5000 Diameter of Driver = 10 in. DIAMETER OF DRIVEN = 4 in.Example 2: Given: Diameter of Drive = 30 in. FIND: DIAMETER OF DRIVEN 1-14 .

Find the new amperage.Example 4: Given: rpm of Driver = 2500 RPM OF DRIVEN = 5000 FIND: Diameter of Driver FINDING RPM INCREASE OR DECREASE BY AMPERAGE To determine the percent of rpm increase or decrease by reading the ammeter. To deliver the proper cfm it is necessary to increase the fan speed to 700 rpm.588 = 31.75 amps2 I-IS . the following formula applies: ( I. 20 x ( 700)3 600 = 200 x 1. I rpm23 ) Example: A fan is turning 600 rpm and reading 20 amps.

06 1.61 0.45 0.Tab le 1-2 g ives calculated data fo r this equat ion.t 7 0.75 0.05 3.588. J to 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 " 24 .44 0.66 0. By interpolation the table shows that the original amps would have to be mult ip lied by 1.73 0.60 1.88 0.28 0.90 1.94 0.86 0.75 amps.70 0.) 30 35 40 45 50 1.23 1.66%. or 20 x 1588 = 31.69 1.09 1.33 l.5 1 0.77 1.86 1.16 1.33 1.38 4 5 6 7 8 9 to II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 0.92 0.75 3.56 1. the increase in speed is 100 rpm.26 1.95 2.47 0.37 1.59 0.12 1-16 .53 0.46 2. Table 1-2 Rpm Increase/Decrease (To determine the required change in fang speed multiply the measured amps by the given faclor ) % RPM Increase Mult ipl y Amps By: % RPM Decrease I Multi ply Amps By: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1.83 0.44 1.68 0.34 0.57 0.82 1.78 0. Us ing the above example.52 1.40 1.49 0.73 1.64 1.48 1. th is is an increase of 100/600 or 16.20 2.42 0._J .13 2 .19 1.64 0.55 0.22 O.80 0.

Given a change in cfm. Given an increase in cfm.FORMULAS FOR ADJUSTING SHEAYES 1. 2. = ( Cfm2) cfml Example: X P d 1 Determine the new pitch diameter for 4000 frm when a fan output is 3500 cfm at a 10 in . wi ll the new brake horsepower overload the ex ist ing motor? l-17 .43 In . 10 = 11. find the new pulley setting. pitch d iameter.

3. = 1.06 Therefore.Example: Determine the new brake horsepower required to increase the cfm from 5000 to 5500 w hen the bhp is 0. the motor needs to be changed to 1-1/2 hp .77pd where: pd = pitch diameter bhp = brake horsepower cfm = a ir quantity at the fan 1-18 . 8.077 X 10 10.8 and the motor is rated at 1 hp. 3[j rnax y( bh bhP2 PI ) Example: Determine the new pitch diameter to bring a 1 hp moto r up to maximum when the present pd is 10 in. find the new pitch diameter required to change from an ex isting pitch diameter. G iven a maximum brake ho rse power.25 X 10 = 1. and bhp is 0. 10 3jI.

for the molecules of the solids and liquids are held rather closely and not allowed to fly off by themselves. the expansion and contraction with change of temperature are very large compared to those of solids and liquids. If the reference point fo r pressures is below atmospheric it is a vacuum . regardless of conta iner size or the amoun t of gas in the container. another factor is introduced -. The expansion and contraction of solids and liquids with change in tem perature are enough that they must be considered in many situations. [n gases. Pressures below atmospher ic are measured in inches of mercury (in Hg).pressure. the volume of the gas varies with the co nta iner. Pasca l's Principle is defined as follows: "Fluid pressure is due to the weight of the fluid pushing on an area. then the un its are in psia or in Hg abs. it is psig. If it is referenced to atmospheric pressure. but it does result in an increase in the pressure of the gas aga inst the inner wa lls of the cyl inder.19 . But they are comparatively small. Charles's Law Pressure Var ies Directly with Absolute Temperature if Volume Stays the Same Because a gas adapts itself to its conta iner. 1. A container fo r solids or liquids can be partly filled. bu t a gas contai ner is always full. A gas automatically fill s any container that it is put into. If the conta iner is already filled. [n addition. [t is normally measured in pounds per square inch.PERFECT GAS LAWS Pascal's Principle. then a rise in temperature cannot cause an increase in volume. regardless of whether the conta iner is sma ll or large . Nei ther a liqu id nor a solid does this .

the absol ute pressure of a gas varies as the absolute tempe rature va ries. Fi gure 1-6 illustrates Cha rles' Law. [f the gas cools down to 2/3 its temperature. The calcu lation is very s impl e: Gas pressure goes up at the same rate as the temperature. so it is called "Char les' Law rl • Cha rles' Law says that if the vo lume remains the sa me. gOT 700.0PSIG 741.7PSIA 727.This change in pressure with a change in temperature can be eas il y calcu lated as long as the volume stays the same. 1 CU. 70'F 1 CU. the pressure does down to 2/3 of what it was. Years ago.FT. a sc ient ist named Charles discovered this princ ipl e. If the temperature rises 25 % or 1/4.FT.0 PSIG 7 14. the pressure goes up 1/4.7PSIA Figure 1-6 Ill ustration of Charles ' Law 1-20 .

. known as states that the volume changes with the change in 1-7 illus trates this principle. but the Gay-Lussac's Law. 700 PSIG gOT 1. FT. This princ iple. 700 PSIG 707.Gay-Lussac 's Law Vo lu me Va ri es Directly with Absolute Temperature if Pressure Stays th e Same Now suppose that instead of hav ing the gas in a steel cylinde r that keeps the gas from expanding. because the piston wo uld mere ly slide downward if the pressure inside the cylinder tended to become greater than that outside the cylinder and below the piston.FT. 0 4 CU . temperature.dF 1 CU. If the gas in the cyl inder is warmed. © © Figure 1-7 Illustration of Gay-Lussac's Law 1-21 . Figure a condition of the volume changing with change of pressure re ma ining constant. but the pressure ins ide the cylinder rema ins the same. it can expand and push the piston downward. Now we have temperature. the gas is in a cylinder that has a loose bottom that can slide up and dow n j ust like a piston in a compressor.'.

known as Boyle 's Law.7 PSI A cu.FT. 17. In Figure 1-8(b). For example. and the pressure goes down as the volume goes up. In th e piston shown in Figure 1-8(a). the pressure and volume went up as the temperature went up and down as the te mperat ure went dow n. the pressure goes up as the vo lume goes down. the piston has been slowly lowered twice as far. the volume of the cy linder above the piston is one cubic foot and the pressure is 20 psig or 34. 70 T 1 3 4. that is. What happens to the pressure? It goes down in the same proportion as the volume went up.n. or vice versa. In this third condition. so now the volume is two cub ic feet.Boyle ' s Law Press ure Varies Inverse ly with Volume if the Temperature Stays the Same There is a thi rd cond ition: What happens to the pressure if the volume changes but the temperature stays the same? In the two prev ious conditions. Figure 1-8 shows a cy linder with a loose piston. This relationship is ca lled an inverse proport ion.7 ps ia.35 P\$lA Figure 1-8 Illustration of Boy le's Law 1-22 . the proportion was direct. 70T 2 cU. the temperature remains constant.

In each of these three laws. Pressure. 70 ·F 1 CU. the temperature remains constant and the pressure varies with change in volume.Effects of Changing Temperature.FT. and Volume at Same Time [n Charles' Law. namely the general law of perfect gases. [n Gay-Lussac's Law. Therefore. . [n Boyle's Law.014. 478. the volume. and volume have changed. Figure 1-9 shows an actual case where pressure. gases are not always so considerate: Pressure. All three of these laws help us understand how pressures. volume and temperature may change at the same time with none of them remaining constant. volumes.7 PSIA 40·F 2 CU. temperature. However. . combination of these laws must be used.6 PSIA @ @ Figure 1-9 lllustration of Temperature. the volume remains constant and the pressure varies with a change of temperature . Volume. and temperatures change in containers of gas. or the temperature.FT. the pressure remains constant and volume varies with change of temperature. one of the variables remains constant: The pressure. and Pressure Variations 1-23 .

In changi ng the electrical energy in the motor. Some of it was "lost" as heat. for the heat was energy . so the effi ciency is about 60% to 65%. Electrical energy can then be changed back into heat energy in a toaster. Heat energy in s team is changed into mechanica l energy in a tu rb ine a nd the n into electrical energy in a generator. so me went into mechanica l energy (or power) and some in to heat. In this example. divided by the input energy to the machine. The mechanical energy (the output energy) determ ines the effi ciency. the Law explai ns efficiency. over one-third of the heat energy in the coal burned goes up the chimney or is rad iated from the boiler. It is well to re member it. T he efficiency is the percentage of the electric ity that becomes power. about two. Actually it was not "lost". It can merely be transformed to or fro m some ot her kind of energy. then the effic iency is 75%. In a good boiler. or to chem ical energy in a storage battery. beca use we did not get any use out of the heat of the motor. 1-24 . Effic iency is the useful output energy fro m a mac hine. transformed from electrica l energy. and expressed as a percentage. Energy cannot be destroyed nor created .thirds goes into hea t energy in the steam. If three-fourths of the electrical energy became mechanical energy.HEAT TRANSFER Conservation Of E nergy Chem ical e nergy in coal can be changed into heat energy in steam. We say "lost" . fo r it expla ins many things. also known as the first Law of Thermodynamics. to mechanical energy in a motor. For example. Th is princ iple is known as the Law of Conservation of Energy. all of the e lectrica l energy in the motor did not go into mechanica l energy.

Heat transfer by conduction depends upon (1) the driving force. the temperature difference Il. and (2) the resistance to heat transfer. The rate of heat transfer varies according to the ability of the materials or substances to conduct heat. liquids conduct heat better than gases or vapors. Solids. are used as insulators. These substances are ordinarily used in the evaporators. are much better conductors than liquids. therefore. which is caused by a temperature difference Il. on the whole. wood. and iron. Copper is an excellent conductor of heat.The speed with which heat transfers by means of conduction varies with different substances or materials if the substances or materials are of the same dimensions. Most metals.T = rate of heat transfer (Btu/hr) = heat transfer coefficient (Btu/hr-ft2 _OF) = cross-sectional area for heat transfer (ft2) = temperature difference CF) 1-26 . Q =UMT where: Q U A Il. One of the most useful relates the rate of heat transfer Qto the cross-sectional area A. and refrigerant pipes connecting the various components of a refrigerant system although iron is occasionally used with some refrigerants. copper. There are several ways to relate these parameters. whereas other solids such as glass. as is aluminum. conduct heat fairly rapidly. condensers.T and a quantity called the heat transfer coefficient U. or other building materials transfer heat at a much slower rate and. such as silver. which depends on the nature and dimensions of the heat transfer medium. steel.T.

The temperature difference l>T is the driving force. The thermal conductivity of liquids and solids depends on temperature. Heat Flux = Driving Force Resistance Q A Q A = l>T 1 U where = heat flux (Btu/hr-ft') l>T U temperature difference ("F) = heat transfer coefficient (Btu/hr-ft' -' F) The heat transfer coefficient U is a measure of the resistance of the med ium to heat transfer. It depends on both the heat transfer characteristics and the dimensions of the heat transfer medium. Table 1-3 gives the thermal conductivity for zirconium. aluminum and water at several temperatures. 1-27 . The heat transfer characteristics of a material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity k.The rate of heat transfer Q divided by the cross-sectional area A is commonly referred to as the heat flux. For vapors. it depends also on pressure . The heat transfer coefficient U is equivalent to the reciprocal of resistance to heat transfer.

For the simplest case of steady-state heat transfer by conduction through a slab.T x rate of heat transfer (Btu/hr) F) thermal conductivity (Btu/hr-ft-O cross-sectional area for heat transfer (ft') thickness of slab (ft) temperature difference COF) Q k A x t.0 11.Ft-O Temperature (OF) Zirconium 12. Thus. the temperature profile is linear and the heat transfer coefficient U equals the thermal conductivity k divided by the thickness of the slab x.4 0.T = = = = = 1-28 .356 The heat transfer coefficient U depends also on the dimensions of the heat transfer medium.6 Aluminum 120 200 300 500 750 68 390 750 32 200 300 600 132 131 131 Water 0.8 11.Table 1-3 Thermal Conductivity of Common Materials Material Thermal Conductivity F) (BtulHr.1 11.393 0.5 11.343 0. the basic relationship for heat transfer by conduction through a slab can be written as follows: Q where: = kA t.

is the temperature fa r fro m the surface.Metals w ith a high conductiv ity are used in the refr igeration system itself beca use it is des irab le that rapid transfer of heat occur in both evaporator and condenser.-. T. It involves the transfer of heat between a surface at temperature T. Convection In convec ti on.. '!-<. T he exact definit ion of the temperature of the flui d T. For bo iling or condensation. Figure 1-10 shows a generalized diagram of heat transfer by convection. The warmer portions rise. heat is transferred by motion of the heated material itse lf and is limited to liquid or gas. convection curre nts are set up w ithin it. When a material is heated. is the saturati on temperature.SURFACE FLOW t Figu re 1-10 Heal T ransfer by Convection 1-29 . and a fl ui d at temperature T" referred to as the bulk temperature of the fluid. The evaporator is whe re heat is removed fro m the conditioned space or substance or from air that has been in d irect contact with the substa nce. s ince heat brings abo ut the decrease of a fluid 's de nsity and an increase in its specific volume.. the condenser dissipates this heat to another medium or space.

Table 1-4 shows representative values of the convection heat transfer coefficient h. Boiling of water Heating of water Superheating of steam 5000 1000 300 50 5 - - - 20.T in heat transfer by convection is the difference between the temperature of the surface T.000 3000 9000 3000 20 The temperature difference t. 1-30 . Table 1-4 Representative Values of the convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Operation Heat Transfer Coefficient F) (Btu/hr-ft2 .The basic relationship for heat transfer by convection has the same form as that for heat transfer by conduction. and the bulk temperature of the fluid T b .T = rate of heat transfer (Btu/hr) heat transfer coefficient (Btu/hr-ft2_0F) cross-sectional area for heat transfer (ft') temperature difference ("F) The heat transfer coefficient h.T where Q = h = A = t. has been measured and tabulated for the commonly encountered situations for heat transfer by convection. Q = hN. more precisely referred to as the convective heat transfer coefficient.O Drop-wise condensation of Steam Film condensation .

.... .................. '.... ...............Ai r in a refri ge rator and wa ter be in g hea ted in a pan are exa mples of the resu lts of co nvection currents (see F igu re 1...... ......':::::::..................... '..':............ l~~===~.....:.. . .............. '......... ..................... '...':........ ....:..... .................:............ ....... .::... ':::.. ......:.. .... .....:: ... ...": .......... . ........ '..........::...........11).................. .... ......... .. ........ ...' ''':.... ........................ ....................: ::: ..... . ............ ....... [n doing so............ · .......':...... . .... .....:.............. .. ......... ...........:.. ..............................".....•.. ... .................... .... .......:::... ................ ......:.:::... ......... ................ ................ .. has picked up heat fro m the roo m .................: ............... .....':::.... ... ......................::....:......... . ........ ...: ...... .......... ........... .......... .......................... .. .......................... The air in contac t wi th the cool ing coi l of a refri gerato r becomes coo l and mo re dense and beg ins to fa ll to the botto m of the refri gerator.....'......... .... ......... ..... ........ .... ......................... .. '........... ':.............. : ......... ... w hich thro ugh cond uc tio n...... ........ .................................. . ..-. -. ..... ......... .."......... . ........ . ·..... ....... ................ ........ .......... ..:...... ......... ... ............ .................... .. ....... " ...... ............. ....... ............ .. . .....::::::::::.. ...........:.. .......... ............ '........... ''-:... ..... ·.... ..... ......... ........ .......... ..... ......:............. .. .... ... .....:::.... ...... .........:::::: ............... ....:........::......:.. ....... .... '... ...... ................. ...... .......... ........... .... ....:: .... ...:...... ...... ..... ......................'........... ... ........ ....':: ..........:............. . ....... ':.. ..::. .... .... '..":........ ':'::.. ...... ... ':::::..... . . . ........ ."::....... . . . ......................:. .................. ........... .......::. ............:....... ..'.. .................... -.................... ..........:iLl:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::J . .......... .... :...... .....:......... .....'...... .......... ::..............'. ........ .....: .... ... .... .. ....... .................... ............................-... ..................... ':..... ......... .. ...... .. .............................:..... ..........'.."::".......... .. ......:..............: ::...":::: -::......... ............ .......... ''-:..........-::: .... ' ' ' ..............................l .......... . ... :: :. .:...... . ................... ............................... ....... ..................... Figure 1-11 Convection Cu rrents 1-3 1 ....."..........". . ............ it absor bs hea t from the food and the wa lls of the refri gerator.. ..... : ... ..... ......./:::::::::::::..

After heat has been absorbed by the air, it expands, becoming lighter, and rises until it again reaches the cooling coil where heat is removed from it. The convection cycle repeats as long as there is a temperature difference between the air and the coil. [n commercial-type units, baffles may be constructed within the box so that the convection currents will be directed to take the desired patterns of air flow around the coil. [n the case of the evaporator, the product or a ir is at a higher temperature than the refrigerant in the tubing and there is a transfer of heat downhill. In the condenser, the refrigerant vapor is at a higher temperature than the cooling medium traveling through or around the condenser, and here again there is a downhill transfer of heat. Plain tubing, whether copper, aluminum, or another metal, transfers heat according to its conductivity or "k" factor, but this heat transfer can be increased through the addition of fins on the tubing. They increase the area of heat transfer surface, thereby increasing the overall efficiency of the system. [f the addition of fins doubles the surface area, it can be shown that the overall heat transfer should itself be doubled, when compared to that of plain tubing. Water heated in a pan is affected by the convection currents set up in it through the application of heat. The water nearest the heat source becomes warmer and expands. As it becomes lighter, it rises and is replaced by the other water which is cooler and more dense. This process continues until all of the water is at the same temperature. Convection currents are natural, and, as in the case of the refrigerator, a natural flow is a slow flow. [n some cases, convection must be increased through the use of fans or blowers. [n the case of liquids, pumps are used for forced circulation to transfer heat from one place to another.

1-32

A third means of heat transfer is through radiation by waves similar to light or sound waves. The sun 's rays heat the earth by means of radiant heat waves which travel in a straight path without heating the intervening matter of air. The heat from a light bulb or from a hot stove is radiant in nature and is felt by those near them, although the air between the source and the object, which the rays pass through, is not heated.
If you have been relaxing in the shade of a building or a tree on a hot sunny day and move into direct sunlight, the direct impact of the heat waves will hit like a sledge hammer even though the air temperature in the shade is approximately the same as the sunlight.

1-33

substances. Every substance will radiate energy as long as its temperature is above absolute zero and another substance within its proximity is at a lower temperature. If an automobile has been left out in the hot sun with the windows closed for a lo ng period of time, the temperature inside the car will be much greater than the ambient air temperature surrounding it. This demonstrates that radiant energy absorbed by the materials of which the car is constructed is converted to measurable sensible heat. Insulation In the section on heat transfer by conduction, it was pointed out that certain substances are excellent conductors of heat, while others are poor conductors. Th e poor conductors are classified as insulators. Any mater ial that deters or helps to prevent the transfer of heat by any means is called and may be used as insulation . Of course, no material will completely stop the flow of heat. If there were such a substance, it would be very easy to cool a given space down to a desired temperature and keep it there. Such substances as cork, glass fibers, wool, and polyurethane foams are good examples of insulating materials; but numerous other substances are used in insulating refrigerated s paces or buildings. The compressible materials, such as fibrous substances, offer better insulation if installed loosely packed or in blanket or batt form than if they are compressed .or tightly packed. The thermal conductivity of materials, the temperature to be maintained in the refrigerated space, the ambient temperature surrounding the enclosed space, permiss ible wall thicknesses of insulating materials, and the cost of the various types of insulation are all points to consider in se lecting the proper materials for a given project. Most service personnel are not involved in the select ion or the installati on of insulating material in a refrigeration application, but they may come in contact with different types of insulation, and under var ious conditions.

1-34

Insulation should be fire and moisture resistant, and also vermin proof. Large refrigeration boxes or walk-in types of coolers are usually insulated with a rigid-type of insulation such as corkboard, fiber glass, foam blocks, and the like, while smaller boxes or receptacles might be filled or insulated with a foam that flows like a liquid and expands to fill up the available cavity with foam. Low temperature boxes require an insulation that is vapor-resistant, such as unicellular foam, if the walls of the refrigerated enclosure are not made of metal on the outside. This foam ensures that water vapor will not readily penetrate through into the insulation and condense there, reducing the insulating efficiency. The most common unit for evaluating insulation materials is thermal resistance (R) or resistance to heat flow. Basically thermal resistance "R" is the inverse of thermal conductance "k". R = 11k. The units for "R" are (hr)x(ft") x ("F). BTU x in

Psychrometric PROPERTIES OF AIR
Psychrometry is the science and practice of dealing with air mixtures and their control. The science deals mainly with dry air and water vapor mixtures.
Psychrometry deals with the specific heat of dry air and its volume . It also deals with the heat of water, heat of vaporization or condensation, al)d the specific heat of steam in reference to moisture mixed with dry air. Tables and graphs have been developed to show the pressure, temperature, heat content (enthalpy), and volume of air and its steam content. The tables and charts are based on one pound of dry air, plus the water vapor to produce the air conditions being studied.

1-35

A standard pressure of 29.92 m. Hg. abs. atmospheric pressure. Psychrometric Chart

IS

used as the standard

The psychrometric chart in Figure 1-12 is probably the best way of showing what happens to air and water vapor as these properties are changed. The chart is published by ASHRAE and is one most commonly used in the industry. Some manufacturers have developed their own charts which vary only in style and construction but the relationship of the air properties are all the same.
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Figure 1-12 Psychrometric Chart 1-36

To make this chart, all we do is start with the ordinary temperature scale called the dry bulb temperature. Just extend the thermometer scale as shown in Figure 1-13. Note on the actual chart that these lines are not truly perpendicular. This is done so that other lines will come out straight instead of curved .

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Figure 1-13 Thermometer Scale
Next the horizontal scale is set up according to the amount of water vapor mixed with each pound of dry air. This scale (Figure 1-14), called the humidity ratio, is expressed in pounds of moisture per pound of dry air. More recent versions of the psychrometric chart express the humidity ratio in units of grains of moisture per pound of dry air. To convert pounds of moisture to grains of moisture simply multiply the reading in pounds by a conversion factor of 7000. We know that air can hold different amounts of moisture depending on its temperature; if it is holding all the moisture it can (100%), it is termed saturated. 1-37

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Figure 1-14 Humidity Ratio Scale
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From the ASHRAE Guide and Data Book we can find out exactly how much moisture air can hold at saturated conditions. Following is a simple table taken from this reference book:

SAlURATEO TEMPERA lURE t DB 70'

HUMIDITY RA 110 Lb/lb OF DRY AIR 0.01582 0.01697 0.01882 0.02086 0.02233 0.02389 0.02642

HUMIDITY RA 110 Gr/lb OF DRY AIR 110.74 118. 79 131.74 146.02 156.31 167.23 184.94

7Z'
75' 78' 80' 82' 85'

Returning to the psychrometric chart construction. we can now plot saturation points (Figure 1-15) for each condition of dry bulb temperature, and when these are connected they form a curve or saturation line.

1-38

01582 ~ ~ ~ ~ >- a ::> r 70 75 85 DRY BULB o f Figure 1·15 Saturation Points Assume an air sample (point A. showing an increasing dry bulb temperature but an unchanging moisture content..-. the point would move to the right on the horizontal line.02642 0 >--..HE AT .0.-..0. HUMIQ IF Y . If we were to heat the air without adding moisture. Figure 1-16) with a dry bulb temperature of 80°F.....--. 'A COO l .0 DEHUMIDIFY 81) FD8 Figure 1·16 Air Sample 1-39 . holding 77.01882 ---------.'' -.. 17.--.0.0 gr of moisture.

Continuing the example. It has been cooled and dehumidified. where it will have a dew point of 50"F and a humidity ratio of only 53. In summary. the point would move up and to the right.2. the point would move vertically up.7"F. If temperature and moisture were added. and if the air were cooled (without changing its moisture content). a 59. If the moisture were reduced (dehumidifying). Thus.If we were to add moisture (humidity) without changing the dry bulb temperature. It can be read from the vertical dry bulb index temperature. moisture will condense out and following along the saturation line to point C (Figure 1-18). B COOLED A 59.7"F dew point temperature. it eventually reaches the saturation line (Point B. or about 59. . the sample has lost 23.8 gr of moisture. the point would move horizontally to the left.7"F dry bulb temperature. and a moisture content of 77. That temperature is just below 60"F. if the air sample is cooled. it would move vertically down. This is known as the dew point temperature of the sample. 7 ~F so DB Figure 1-17 Saturation Line Now if the sample is further cooled. Figure 1-17) where it cannot hold any more water vapor. for example to 50"F dry bulb. 1-40 . and on further cooling some water would start to condense.0 gr of moisture per lb of dry air. DEW POINT TEMP . we have a 59. at point B.

~ CONOENSATION WILL OCCUR _ __ .4 DUCT TE. condensation will likely occur. Will the duct sweat and need to be insulated? Assume the air temperature inside the duct is 55°F and the unconditioned air surrounding the duct is at 95°F with 99. it will be necessary to take some corrective action using appropriate insulation to prevent sweating. Thus. -.-- '...7· ~F DB 80" Figure 1-18 Saturation Line A practical example of this process is a cold supply air duct (Figure 1-19) running through a moist unconditioned area.4 • • ~ a: a u 9S'F Figure 1-19 Cold Supply Air Duct 1-41 .. - ._ 64.. • ••• • •• • ~-....4 gr of moisture content. This condition means that the outside air would have a saturated (dew point) temperature of 67°F.. as the 55°F duct temperature cools the air touching its surface to below the 6rF dew point. MP ~SF . UNCONQITIONE O AIR AROUNQ DUCT AT 9S·'F ANO 99. Depending on conditions.77... - z a 99.4 .0 53 .. 2 50" 59. I I <" 0 z ~ - - _ ....

The next element in our chart is the construction of relative humidity lines for partly saturated conditions (Figure 1-20).87 gr moisture (1/2 of 131. since we know specific moisture contents in relation to temperatures. We know the relative humidity is 100% at the saturation line. It has been noted that the wet bulb temperature also reflects the 1-42 . since it affects human comfort. 7S' F DB Figure 1. 40%. We already know how useful it is to be able to express relative humidity.74 gr of moisture (point A) at saturation (100% relative humidity). Lines for 80%. 60%.74 gr).20 Relative Humidity Lines Unfortunately. can be plotted. it's not practical or convenient to measure the amount of moisture content or dew point of the air except under laboratory conditions. one pound of air at 75°F dry bulb will hold 131. so we need to plot another element that will give us an easier method. Point B (50% relative humidity) can be located at approximately 65. etc. The same method can be used for each dry-bulb temperature. and eventually a connecting line is drawn that represents a 50% relative humidity for any chosen condition of a dry-bulb temperature. As an example. Similar lines can be drawn for different relative humidity conditions..

•.. 70 67 96 91 a7 I) 79 16 ?~ 91 a& ' 4 11 11 )0 66 9691U"" H 7' 96 91 U IS II 11 H 12 69 U7916l)70 U '6 9l . 11 11 0 10 H <0 ~ I <0 9J90111i 76 12 " 69 6J 96 91 "U7~7.. .. 47 <0 ~ <0 ~ <0 IJ lJ 11 11 .amount of moisture in the air.. """" " "" " . . " " " " " .9 60 76 U l! 11 91 II 1) 6J 16 (I 11 11 6-11111 aD 7l 61 60 H 69 61 It 11 66 6 1 94 19 84 11 6) 91 90 II 79 7S 70 66 ~J91a6nJ11l '. """" """"" " •• \o. " " " " " " " " " ~ !O . D~ ~ " . Table 1-5 showed that for an 800 dry bulb temperature and an 110 wet bulb depression (69"F actual measured WB). .. .... we can plot point A (Figure 1-21). " " " " 11 " • " 14 "" " " """" " " " " " " .. the relative humidity is 57%.. . . 48 lJ JI H 4J .u.. " " "" "" .. For example.. .9 4' !Z H l! II J1 H ' Z II 16 J) ll49464141 H '4 I! 00 91 9J 00 91 91 00 I) 71 It 10 J7 . Table 1-5 Psychrometric table: Percent Relative Humidity from Dry Bulb Temperature and Wet Bulb Depression . ....... " " sa " "" " " " " • " • " . "" " "" ro ." " " " " " " " " " " " " H """" "n"""" " " " """ " " " " " " "u " " " " " " ro " " " .. D'. we can determine the relative humidity. . H .. " " " ."" . Transferring this information to our psychrometric chart. ..... 4) 4' J1 lJ )1 1-43 . " "• ..1 . ao " " " " JO """ """ " " " " It .. " " " " " " . """ " " " " " n •. ..• " " . " " " " " " " " " " "" " """""""" " ao "" " " " " " " " " . . " " " " " " • ..J. The rate of evaporation on the sling psychrometer determined the wet bulb depression below the dry bulb temperature or the wet bulb temperature and from Table 1-5... " " " " " " " " " " " " '1 " JO " " "" . " n """""" " " n u " " " n .... " '" ".... ... 10 II 11 !J J} t'l7 II " 20 II ll~lHlJl6 lS 19 M 90 19 ..• 4' ". ro " .

the other three can be found on the psychrometric chart by locating the point of intersection of the lines representing the two known conditions. Wet bulb temperature is read at saturation temperature line. from Table 1-5. if any two of the five properties of air are known. and. Although it is not 100% accurate. we create a constant wet bulb line. Point B can now be located. because at that point it can hold no more moisture and becomes the same as the dry bulb and dew point temperatures. and it may be used with confidence. Remember. . . 1-44 . a relative humidity of 70%. By connecting points A and B.' -( -. -'. precise and accurate information has gone into the construction of the ASHRAE chart.75 69° WB 60 50 . 76 80 Figure 1-21 Constant Wet Bulb If we were to cool the dry bulb temperature to 76° and the wet bulb temperature actually stayed at 69" on the sling psychrometer. This process could be repeated over and over until a complete grid of wet bulb lines fill the chart. we now have a WB (wet bulb) depression of only 7"F. / " '-{ 50 60 70 of DB . . This completes the construction of the simplified psychrometric chart (Figure 1-22). Fortunately. this description should help you understand the relationship of the lines on the real chart.

1-45 . In understanding those characteristics. temperature and volume effect a gas . After learning about the Pulley Laws. We briefly discussed Pascal's Principle. we learned about the laws that govern those characteristics. we learned that the primary objective of HVAC is to control the characteristics of air in a controlled environment.) >--' en HUMIDITY Oen Figure 1-22 Simplified Psychrometric Chart SUMMARY In this chapter. we went in to the discussion of the Gas Laws: Charles. We next discussed the Pulley Laws and their use in determining air flow and power consumption. Boyles. which explains how a liquid acts under pressure. Gay-Lussac and how that are put together to come up with the perfect gas law which is used to understand how pressure. We looked at the Basic Air Laws which tells us about how fans perform under varying conditions and how that effects the flow of air through ductwork.CI::.

·. We learned the first and second law of thermodynamics and how they relate to heat transfer. The three methods of heat transfer are conduction. convection and radiation. The last topic discussed was the psychrometric properties of air and how those properties are used to make the psychrometric chart. This is used to give you the necessary background to understand the following chapters. which we use for determining relative humidity and dewpoint. 1-46 .

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CHAPTER TWO HV AC SYSTEMS .

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3.CHAPTER TWO HV AC SYSTEMS OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter. 4. State the three main environmental characteristics that are controlled in an HV AC system. State the purpose of filters in an HVAC system. List the ways a hydronic system may be classified. . Describe the various filter types. 2. the student will be able to: I.

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the student. We will be studying the overall construction and use of these systems. The three main environmental characteristics that are controlled are: • • • Temperature Humidity Suspended particulates (dust and gas) {. we will study how each component is sued in the system as a whole. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce you. Increasing or decreasing the temperature of the environment can be accomplished by any of several methods. Humidity The amount of water vapor contained in air is measured by relative humidity. to these systems. Relative humidity is a ratio of how much water vapor is in the air to how much the air can hold at a specific temperature and it is expressed as a percentage. We will talk about some of these methods later in this chapter. In the following chapter.CHAPTER TWO : I' HVAC SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION There are many different types of HV AC systems. The lower the relative humidity. Temperature Controlling the temperature of an environment involves the transfer of heat from one area to another. The purpose of HV AC is the control of an enclosed environment. the more tendency the air has to 2-1 . We will be discussing the following topics: Purpose of HV AC Air Systems Filtration Systems Hydronic Systems PURPOSE OF HVAC i r .

The advantages of each system must be considered when selecting basic design. The single and dual duct systems are the two basic types of air duct systems that are used for distribution of conditioned air. its ability to hold additional water is increased. This is accomplished through ventilation and filtration. Efficiency of operation in the dual duct system often provides a cheaper overall cost. Individual room or area temperature control is obtained by adjusting the amount or ratio of warm and cool air being mixed and introduced to the environment. The single duct system is obviously less expensive to install. Dust. Suspended Particulates (Dust and Gases) The final characteristic which is generally included in HV AC system design consideration is the cleaning of the air. a humidifier is typically provided in conjunction with heaters to control the humidity in the designed range. AIR SYSTEMS There are many different types of air systems used to deliver the conditioned air to the areas or spaces requiring it. an evaluation of the operating costs should be made. However. and as such they must be controlled.draw water from existing sources. When cold air is heated. The systems we will discuss are: • Single Zone Variable Air Volume Terminal Reheat Induction System Dual Duct Low High Multizone 2-2 • • • . The single duct system supplies air to each area at a constant ·temperature. gases and odors are unsatisfactory elements in environmental air. We will talk about some of the methods to control suspended particulates later in this chapter. Temperature control is obtained by adjusting the volume of the supply air furnished. For this reason when providing a HV AC system for personnel. The dual duct system provides warm and cool air in separate ducts .

individual classrooms of a small school. A single zone system responds to only one set of space conditions. " ... Figure 2-1 shows a schematic of a single zone central unit...RETURN AIR DAMPER r- -1 \ . .L u. computer rooms.." e.. FIL TERS ~ ../ .hSUPPLY .~ "..~I A TE RMINAL EXHAUST LOU VERS \ t " . SPA CE LOAD POSSIBLE RETUAN AIR FAN ~ RETURN AIR REG ISTER Figure 2-1 Single Zone System 2-3 . • OUTDOOR AIR DAM PER • j . .... Its use is limited to situations where variations occur almost uniformly throughout the zone served or where the load is stable. etc. . . '"" . .. ...C OIL COOLING COIL \. " POSSIBLE ADDIT ION QFVAVBOX ( TY P ICAL EACH BRAN CHI ~ I ! HEATING o UTOOOR A IA INTAKE " POSSIBL E rPREoHEAT COIL r SUPPLY FAN .Single Zone System The simplest form of a single zone system is a single conditioner serving a single temperature controlled zone.' - texHAUST DAMPER -1.I / . small shops in a shopping center. rz ~ . A single zone system would be applied to small department stores. ....

. It is possible to vary zone air volume only.. To maintain the balance you can choose between varying the supply air temperature or varying the volume as the space load changes.Variable Air Volume System Control of dry-bulb temperature within a space requires that a balance be established between the space load and the air supplied to offset the load. . while keeping fan and system volume constant by dumping excess air into a return air ceiling plenum or directly into the return air duct system. HEATING ouraOOA AlA !NlAKE 7 SUPPLY CooUNG ( SUPPl Y FAN I COIL COOLING COIL [PAI~AAY AIR DUC T OUTDOOR i==!=ll=.. common or separate air temperature control and with or without auxiliary heating devices .RE TURN AIR DAMPER \ .=~={= \ \ . .-.. Variable air volume systems may be applied to interior or perimeter zones witb common or separate fans systems. FIL TEAS " . RETURN AIR REGISTER Figure 2-2 Variable Volume System 2-4 . BYPASS SOXES AIR DAMPEA EXHAUST DAMPER EXHAUS T LOUVEA 1 7 . Figure 2-2 shows a schematic of a variable volume system. T T POSSIBLE RETURN l AIR FAN rJ..

Figure 2-3 shows a schematic of a terminal reheat system. laboratories or spaces where wide load variations are expected.i. Conditioned air is supplied from a central unit at a fixed cold air temperature designed to offset the maximum cooling load in the space.Terminal Reheat System The reheat system is a modification of the single zone system... I .1 AEHEATCQll· 1 REHEAT COil 2-.J " ~FILTERS ~ AETURN AlA DAMPER TO ZONE · 1 \ SUPPLY AlA TERMI NAL TO ZONE 2 T SPACE LOAD EXHAusr\ LOUVERS ~EXHAUST DAMPER .\ POSSIBLE RETURN/EXHAUST AIR FAN ~AETUANAIR REGISTER Figure 2-3 Terminal Reheat System 2-5 . OU TDOOR AIR INTAKEj POSSIBLE [PREHEAT COIL SUPPLY fAN r COOLING COil _ 1==+i#=nr===&I=={== B:: OU TDOOR AIR DAMPER . This system is generally applied to hospitals. The control thermostat simply calls for heat as the cooling load in the space drops below maximum.

' j// SPACE LOAD I " ' .. -. The induced air is cooled or heated by a secondary water coil.". Figure 2-4 shows a schematic of an induction system ..Induction System Primary air is discharged from nozzles arranged to induce room air into the induction unit approximately 4 times the volume of the primary air.... OUTDOOR AlA IN TAKE 7 CooUNG COIL OU TDOOR AIR DAM PER J \ FILTERS t SECONDARY WATERCQIL INDUCTION _ UNIT EXHAUST DAMPER eXHAU ST t ' . AIR - 1j F I . ~ LouvE AS POSSIBLE AETURN '\ AIR FAN : INOUCED I '==cf~ : . Induction type units are generally located under the window to offset winter downdrafts...RETURN AlA AEGISTER Figure 2-4 Induction System 2-6 . ' .RETURN AIR OAMPER 11'l ~ ..\~~i==~"~~===~ '-. ==li=o!h==~....

. One duct carries cold air and the other duct carries warm air. Dual Duct System CLaw Velocity) The dual duct system conditions all the air in a central apparatus and distributes it to conditioned spaces through two parallel mains or ducts. a mixing valve controlled by a room thermostat mixes the warm and cold air in proper proportions to satisfy the prevailing heat load of the space.u:· ~====81===f= = '. ourooon ~IR INTAKE 1 \ \ ..E SUPPLY T _ . providing air sources for both heating and cooling at all times. HEAT COil POSSIBI... \" FAN COLD Ducr 1- ouraOOR ( AIR DAMPER ~LFll TEAS COOLING COIL O'MPERI E)OI"U!)T LOU'IERS :1 1 It r EXHAUS T \~RETURN "R DAMPE R TO ZONE I fa ZONE - l POSSIBLE AE l UAN ( A I R FAN ~ S PACE LOAD ~ ~ ' ~==f=~=====i= r--'-. ' .Dual Duct System The dual duct system comes in two types: low velocity and high velocity. .• PRE . In each conditioned space or zone. ~- 1E!5F I I RETURN AlA I REGISTERS Figure 2-5 Dual Duct Low Velocity System 2-7 . HEAliNG COIL HQT DuC T - . thus.. We will take a look at each. Figure 2-5 shows a schematic of a dual duct system (low velocity).

T DAMPER EXHAUST "HAUS< LOUVERS ~ Ik==k~==~r~-~-~~ ====~~~~====~~==~~ ~.Dual Duct System !High Velocity) Dual duct high velocity systems operate in the same manner as the low velocity systems except that the supply fan runs at a higher pressure and each zone requires a mixing box with sound attenuation."'v r\ " pF '0 ...If . OUTDOOR" AIR DO POSSl8LE SUPPL Y \ FAN INTAKEl [PRE . HEAT COtl \ . -... .6 :-". I l~NE ~ ~ SPACE LOAD Figure 2-6 Dual Duct High Velocity System 2-8 .' " "-FILTERS COO"NGWL-------~l' i I~M II . OUTDOOR AIR DA M PER '--Y/ T . RE TURN AI R nEGlsrERS 1 f I t '-RETURN AIR DAMPER r POSSIBLE RETURN AIR FAN tr ~ ~ l~NE TO . "It' HEATING CQ1l .. Figure 2-6 shows a schematic of a dual duct system (high velocity). ". [I ~ ~(> TO 2 / .:o.(cI' J/ 1\0 !\ '0.("\ ' -{-' \ ::/.. ::.

.:~:~~::: _ 1 : 1 \ ---". The requirements of the different zones are met by mixing cold and warm air through zone dampers at the central air handler in response to zone thermostats. AlA '-MULTI ZONE UNIT f_ AlA FAN r \ POSSIBLE RETURN . ~ : f I EXHAUST DAMPER EXHAUST LOUVERS 7 7t ~~~~~~ t ____ __ __ ___ ______ ..\!'... . The multizone system is applicable for serving a relatively small number of zones from a single central air handling unit.Multizone System . ..'-..._L ...J :~ T -.... !2 ~ " POSSIBLE : t:j::r~:.J--l==='''~~ D. ...ii"'':: I HEATING COIL IHor DECKI I I : I ~~ i rSUPPlY \ ~\ PI.' I DAMPERS I COOLING COil jCOLDDECKI TO INDIVIDUAL ZONES 2 OUTDOOA "... . The mixed conditioned air IS distributed throughout the building by a system of single-one ducts as shown In Figure 2-7. COMMON RETUAN I / Figure 2-7 Multizone System 2-9 . .. DAMPERS OUTDOOR AIR INTAKE - 1 F===~0~==~~~'~= ~PAE HEAT COil i ~ FAN ~ " / .J AlA DAMPEA ~LTERS: I ~ rs: 9. .~.......

or vegetable fibers.'s trapped in the filter material. . Filtration allows previously conditioned air to be cleaned while maintaining desirable characteristics (temperature and humidity) thus increasing the system's efficiency.FILTRATION SYSTEMS When the environmental air is to be recirculated. the effectiveness of the filter increases (the passageways for the air get smaller). \/.. filtration is used to remove undesirable elements.::::.-. therefore. Depending-on the type of fibrous material used.dust.! " ."- . As .• ir to be filtered is forced through the material where du~t and other similar sized particulates become trapped in the matrix. ~- " Fibrous media filters (Figure 2-8) are"composed of a coarse fiber material such as fiberglass. '-- . High Efficiency Air Filters Activated Carbon filters Fibrous Media Filters ' ... ' The placement of filters in HV AC systems obviously produces a differential pressure that system fans must overcome. -. but the pres~ure drop acrosS'lh~ filtet~lso increases creating a higher demand on the system's blower unit... metal mesh. it may be washed or replaced when dust impedes the air flow.. 2-10 . system energy efficiency. The types of filters we will discuss are: Fibrous Media Filters Automatic Replacement Air Fitter\$ Electronic Air Cleaners '. ~ '.. Several methods of filtration are available for use in environmentally controlled systems. The. The magnitude of this differential pressure can drastically reduce air flow and. ".

Some systems include a mechanism to clean the filter which is arranged ina continuous belt (Figure 2-9). it is necessary to continuously provide a clean filter.Figure 2-8 Typical Fibrous Media Filters In some circumstances. The used filter may be rolled up and discarded or cleaned and reused. Figure 2-9 Automatic Replacement Air Filter 2-11 . This system maintains a constant pressure drop and cleaning efficiency.

.1.. .~t~· \I .>~. the particles are attracted and collected on the plates. .L---.Electronic Air Cleaners By passing air through an electric field (typically 12.·~~-·~~. • . The plates may be removed for cleaning or washed in place periodically. Figure 2-11 shows a typical electronic air cleaner.. Figure 2-10 diagrams this process.'" -.r~'i . When the charged particulates are subsequently passed through a matrix of oppositely charged plates." ''-''-\-'''. ~/~ I I I I I ~ I I \ .. I IjIL.000 volts) particulates receive a charge. \ y---' I I \ \ . .. ' \ \ \ Figure 2-10 Electronic Air Cleaning Process 2-12 . ~ ..

) The filter media is typically a fibrous material with a high surface area to volume ratio.Figure 2-11 Industrial Electronic Air Cleaner High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter The high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is the most efficient air cleaning system commercially available. it has been found to be extremely useful in the medical and electrical fields. shows a box HEPA filter (HEPA filter bank. In the fab rication and installation process of HEPA filters care must be taken to insure that all air that passes through the unit goes through the filter material. Design velocities are held dow n to abou t 5 feet per minute. No cracks or voids may exist which allow unwanted particulates to avoid filtration. This increases the particulate holding characteristics of the filter.) 2-13 Figure 2-12 .97 percent on 0.3 micron particulates . Although it was developed for the nuclear industry. HEPA filters are actually a specialized fibrou s material filter. (A micron is one-millionth of a meter. HEPA filters provide a minimum efficiency of 99 .

Figure 2-12 Box HEPA Filter 2-14 .

The process involVed is adsorption where the carbon adsorbs carbon filter. Figure 2-13 shows a typical Figure 2-13 Activated Carbon Filter 2-15 .Activated Carbon Filters Activated carbon filters are commonly used to remove gases and vapors from recirculated air. activated the paniculate in a Sponge-like process.

maintains the necessary flow. Steam-to-water or water-to-water heat exchangers are also often used. although boilers specifically designed. and (2) the forced system in which a pump. Water systems can be either once-through or recirculating systems . with a usual pressure rating for boilers and equipment of 150 psi. usually driven by an electric motor. All water systems may be classified by temperature. generation of flow. water heater or chiller with suitable terminal heat transfer units located at the space or process. piping arrangement and pumping arrangement. Medium Temperature Water System (MTW) A hot water heating system operating at temperatures of 350"F or less. with pressures not exceeding 150 psi.HYDRONIC SYSTEMS A hydronic or all-water system is one in which hot or chilled water is used to convey heat to or from a conditioned space or process through piping connecting a boiler. The maximum allowable working pressure for low pressure heating boilers is 160 psi with a maximum temperature limitation of 250"F. Low Water Temperature System (LTW) A hot water heating system operating within the pressure and temperature limits of the ASME boiler construction code for low pressure heating boilers. The usual maximum working pressure for boilers for LTW systems is 30 psi. tested and stamped for higher pressures may frequently be used with working pressures to 160 psi. Examples of how water systems are classified according to temperature are discussed below . 2-16 . hot water heating systems are of two types (I) the gravity system. The usual design supply temperature is approximately 250' to 325' F. pressurization. in which circulation of the water is due to the difference in weight between the supply and the return water columns of any circuit or system. In terms of flow generation.

Generally. or in pipe trenches. The maximum design supply water temperature is 400" to 450' F. Well water systems may use supply temperatures of 60"F or higher. but may change up or down as required by architectural or structural needs.High Temperature Water System (JITW) A hot water heating system operating at temperatures over 350"F and usual pressures of about 300 psi. with a pressure rating for boilers and equipment of about 300 psi. Water system piping need not be run at a defutite level or pitch. 2-17 . wall-hung along a perimeter wall. Water distribution mains are most frequently located in corridor ceilings. crawl spaces or basements. Water system piping may be divided into two arbitrary classifications: • Pipe circuits suitable for complete small systems or for terminal or branch circuits on large systems. the most economical distribution system layout has mains that are run by the shortest and most convenient route to the terminal equipment having the largest flow rate requirements and branch or secondary circuits are then connected to these mains. of L TW systems. with usual winter design supply of water temperatures about 100' F to 150"F and summer supply water temperatures 40"F to 55' F. above hung ceilings. Dual-Temperature Water System (DTW) A combination hot water heating and chilled water cooling system which circulates hot andlor chilled water to provide heating or cooling using common piping and terminal heat transfer apparatus. Antifreeze or brine solutions may be used for systems (usually process applications) which require temperatures below 4O"F. Chilled Water System (CW) A chilled water-cooling system operating with a usual design supply water temperature of 40' to 55'F and normally operating within a pressure range of 125 psi. It is necessary that the pressure-temperature rating of each component be checked against the design characteristics of the particular system. They are operated within the pressure and temperature limits.

Water temperature drops progressively as each radiator transfers heat to the air. One or many series loops may be used in a complete system. each unit must be sized to actual A@ for that unit. One floor of a small dwelling with open interior doorways is such an interconnecting space. 2-18 . Loops may connect to mains or all loops may run directly to and from the boilers. Two-pipe direct-return Two-pipe reversed-return Three-pipe Four-pipe We will discuss each type of system in the remainder of this chapter. Also because of the unique nature of hydronic systems. the entire set of units can be sized at the AWT of the loop. Terminal units are a part of the loop. the amount of drop depending on radiator output and water flow rate. The true system operating water temperature and flow rate must be known to calculate the average water temperature (Awl) for each unit on the loop. Figure 2-14 shows a system of two series loops on a supply alld return main (split series loop).Series Loop One-pipe Two-pipe reversed-return Two-pipe direct-return • Main distribution piping used to convey water to and from the terminal units or circuits in a large system. If all terminal units are in series on one loop in one zone of interconnecting air space. Series Loop System A series loop is a continuous run of pipe or tube from supply connection to return connection. If individual units on a loop are in separate enclosed spaces. we will also discuss hydronic plpmg.

Average water temperature shifts downward progressively from first to last radiator in series. Two special fittings (supply and return tees) are usually required for down feed units to overcome thermal head. One (return) diverting tee is usually sufficient for up feed (units above main) systems. consult manufacturer's literature for flow rates and pressure drop data. One-Pipe System (Diverting Fitting) One-pipe circuits use a single loop main (see Figure 2-15). For each terminal unit. Consequently. Special tees are proprietary. 2-19 . automatic fan or face-and-bypass damper control can be used on forced air units. Unit output gradually lowers from first to last on the loop. Manual dampers can be used on natural convection units. comfort cannot be maintained in separate spaces heated with a single series loop if water flow rate is varied. One of the two tees is a special diverting tee which creates a pressure drop in main flow to divert a portion of main flow to the unit. Control of output from individual terminal units on a series loop is impractical except by control of heated air flow. a supply and a return tee are installed on the same main.Pump -Soiler Adjusting Cock 1 ~ Figure 2-14 A Series Loop System A decrease in loop water flow rate increases temperature drop in each unit and in the entire loop.

or reverse-return (return main flow is in the same direction as supply flow. the return main returns all water to the boiler) as shown in Figure 2-17. after the last unit is fed.) : _J Pump r- Downfeed (Two Special Fittings) Figure 2-15 A One-Pipe System One-pipe circuits allow manual or automatic control of flow to individual connected heating units.( Ii One Special Return Fitting (Upfeed) Boiler ( 1 I'- - i i'-~ . Two-Pipe Systems Two-pipe circuits may be direct-return (return main flow direction is opposite supply main flow.I l. Since water flow distance to and from the boiler is virtually the same through any unit on a reverse-return 2-20 . Length and load imposed on a one-pipe circuit are usually small because of the limitations listed. however. return water from each unit takes the shortest path back to the boiler) as shown in Figure 2-16. The direct-return system is popular because less main pipe length is required.~ l ~ ---. On-off rather than flow modulation control is advisable because of the relatively low pressure and flow diverted. circuit balancing valves usually are required on units or sub-circuits.

z y . S R - J Pump Terminal .. / Units Boile. T .. .. . I ! '- / Figure 2-16 Direct-Return Two-Pipe System .. or Chiller '-_... balancing valves are seldom adjusted... .system...I Figure 2-17 Reverse-Return Two-Pipe System 2-21 . Operating (pumping) cost is likely to be higher with direct return because of the added balancing fitting pressure drops at the same flow rate. X t Pump Terminal/ Unrts Boiler or Chiller . .

a piping system can contain from one to all four types and. Figure 2-18 illustrates a primary circuit and two secondary pumping circuits. ~Primllry ::>ump Figure 2-18 Example of Primary and Secondary Pumping Circuits Three-Pipe System The three-pipe system satisfies variations in load by providing independent sources of heating and cooling to the room unit in the form of constant temperature primary and secondary chilled and hot water.. As pipe lengths and number of units vary and as circuit types are combined. 2-22 . cannot be described as a particular type.... F Common Flow Balance Cock 0 Boiler Chiller A . thus. temperature and head must be determined for each circuit and for the complete system. Common Flow rermin a l / Unit \ t t E J· Way control Valve lor secondary crfC1Jlt B ~ 0' Secondary Pump C . flow..Combination Piping System The four basic arrangements exist only to describe function. one type can grade into another. basic names for piping circuits become meaningless. Control i Secondary~ Pump t .

2-23 . A three-way valve at the inlet of the coil admits the water from either the hot or cold water supply. The return mix three-pipe room unit is provided with a singl. All units are selected on the basis of their peak capacity requirements. Any unit in the system can be operated through its full range of capacity without regard to the operation of any other unit in the system. but does not mix the streams. any unit can be operated within a wide capacity range from maximum cooling to maximum heating within the limits set by the temperature of the secondary chilled or hot water. Room control action is the same during all seasons. ne water leaving the coil is carried in a common pipe to either the secondary cooling or heating equipment. The primary air is cold and at the same temperatures year-round. recognizing the operating cost penalty that will result from simultaneous heating and cooling loads. as required. A modulating three-way valve at the inlet to the unit admits either hot water or cold water to the secondary coil (see Figure 2-19). During the period between seasons. if both hot and cold secondary water is available.The unit contains a single secondary water coil. The usual room control for three-pipe systems is a special three-way modulating valve which modulates either the hot or cold water in sequence.e coil which receives either hot or cold water. The three-way valves are a special design in which the hot port gradually moves from open to fully closed and the cold port gradually moves from fully closed to open. The valves are constructed so that at mid-range there is an interval in which both ports are completely closed.

.TEfl C01L "'COMMON VALvE co. (e. secondary chilled water and secondary hot water. The fou r-pipe terminal unit is usually provided with two completely separated secondary water coils. fan-coil or radiant panel systems derive their name from the four pipes to each terminal unit. During the period between seasons. if both cold water and warm water are being circulated.1 "OT .[!} UNIT r". warm water supply and warm water return.o '.1.lIolON SECONDARY ""."ER SuPPLy ~ Figure 2-19 Return Mix System Room Unit Controls .: .(>I""OST.. During peak cooling and heating. any unit can be operated at any capacity level from maximum heating. the piping includes a cold water supply. 2-24 . the four-pipe system performs in a manner similar to the two-pipe system.Ly E ""ArE~~ SU PPLY \ C()t. The coils are never operated simultaneously. As noted before.o< I ". Four-Pipe System Four-pipe systems for induction.. with essentially the same operating characteristics. This is shown in Figure 2-20. one receiving hot water and the second receiving cold water. The coils are operated in sequence by the same thermostat. cold water return. The four-pipe system satisfies variation in cooling and heating to the room unit in the form of constant temperature primary air. Any unit can be operated at or between these extremes without rega rd to the operation of any other unit. or else no flow is present. and the unit receives either hot water or cold water in varying amounts.

POSI TlON D IVERT I NG v AL V E SE~UENCE) .. UNI r THERMO STAT "or L'..SEPAR ATE COILS H or WATER T UNI T T"ERMOSTA T (R _OT wATER RETURN SUPPl Y COMMON SECOND ARY WATfR COIL COL O wATER \ 2 . COLO COIL COLO WAT(Q COLI: wATER RETURN 0 SUPPl Y A..!. RETUR N VAL VE WATER SUP P LY COLO Figure 2-20 Four-Pipe System Room Unit Control 2-25 .vE " .)" _or w A TER WATER SUPPLY AET URN I"IOT COIL CONT ROL VAl..

High points in piping systems and terminal units should be vented with manual or automatic air vents. they may cause air binding in the terminal heat transfer elements and noise in the piping circuit. Figure 2-20 shows another unit and control configuration which is sometimes used.Since the primary air is supplied at a constant cool temperature at all times. Air Control and Venting If air and other gases are not eliminated from the flow circuit. and divert it to the appropriate return pipe. eliminating the need for a separate primary air system. 2-26 . and three-way valves located at the inlet and leaving side of the coil admits the water from either the hot or cold water supply. The operation of the induction unit controls is the same year-round. which controls the hot or cold water selectively and proportionally but does not mix the streams. Units with secondary air bypass control are not applicable to four-pipe systems. as required. valves should be provided at each vent to permit service without draining the system. The valve at the coil outlet is a two-position valve open to either the hot or cold water return. all air should be vented from the system. free air contained in the circulating water should be removed from the piping circuit and trapped in the expansion tank by a boiler dip tube or other air separation devices . we will discuss some of the components that are associated only with hydronic systems. If a diaphragmtype tank is used. As automatic air vents may malfunction. as required. The discharge of each vent should be piped to a point where water can be wasted into a drain or container. Hydronic Piping Because of the nature of water systems. the two-coil arrangement provides a superior four-pipe system . A further discussion of some of these components will follow in Chapter Three. . This arrangement requires a special three-way modulating valve. When all aspects are considered. it is sometimes feasible for fan-coil or radiant panel systems to extend the interior system supply to the perimeter spaces. A single secondary water coil is provided at the unit. originally developed for one form of the three-pipe system. If a plain expansion tank is used.

Piping need not pitch but can be run level. the strainer provided in the tower basin will usually be adequate. Provisions should be made for separate shutoff and drain of individual equipment and circuits so that the entire system does not have to be drained for service of a particular item. Strainers 10 Strainers should be used where necessary to protect the elements of a system. welding slag.5 feet per second are maintained. Thermometer wells should be installed where readings will be needed only during start-up and balancing. which may readily pass through the pump and its protective separator. Balance Fittings Balance fittings should be applied as needed to permit balancing of individual terminal and major sub-circuits. Individual fine mesh strainers may.Drains and Shutoffs All low points should be equipped with drains. 2-27 .. therefore. Automatic control valves or spray nozzles operating with small clearances require protection from pipe scale. Such fittings should be placed at the circuit return when possible. Condenser water systems without water regulating valves do not necessarily require a strainer. Large separating chambers are available which serves as main air venting points and direct strainers ahead of pumps. be required ahead of each control valve. If a cooling tower is used. Permanent thermometers with correct scale range and separable sockets should be used at all points where temperature readings are regularly needed. gravel. etc. Strainers placed in the pump suction need to be analyzed carefully to avoid cavitation. providing flow velocities excess of 1. Thermometers Thermometers andlor thermometer wells should be installed to assist the system operator and to use for troubleshooting.

Pump cavitation is prevented by locating a properly sized compression tank near the pump inlet that supplies a positive pressure to the pump suction. @ese conditions apply to most residential systems. .Flexible Connectors Flexible connectors are sometimes installed at pumps and machinery to reduce pipe vibration and to allow for expansion and contraction of system piping. Vibrations are transmitted through the water column across a flexible connection and reduce the effectiveness of the connector. with the compression tank at the pump inlet. prevent damage caused by misalignment of equipment piping flanges. Pump Location Pump location varies with the size and type of system. the compression tank is on the boiler (or a nearby main). Flexible connectors. It should be noted that gauges permanently installed in the system will deteriorate due to vibration and pulsation and will not be reliable when needed. however. Gauge cocks should be installed at points where pressure readings will be required. unless periodic inspection and calibration is performed. the pump must be located on the supply side of the boiler. This assures that pump cycling will not cause a vacuum at the topmost system points to allow air to be introduced into the system. or when highest piping or radiation can be at a static pressure less than total pump head. and the highest piping and radiation is maintained at a static pressure greater than full pump head. When pump head is equal to or greater than the difference between boiler fill and relief valve discharge pressures. 2-28 . as shown in Figure 2-21. A pump in the boiler return is acceptable for small systems when pump head is low (12 foot head or less).

'[IIIoIDIII(HJI * I I I ~ I 5(P OA · .. Multiple-Purpose Heating System 2-29 . ."...( STM!lOb\$ GU( . ~ ...U[O C .IS""O Cotl< Y~\I( GLOI( " 'LY[ lUTO .(IG.. L Y ( 'LOW Oil . v aLV! C'"'UL&I ..TO" o . [C~ 40JI.. .."C ~V"'''' & lf uO t '''Gf LT Oil"'" r. ___________ L ____ _ I Figure 2-21 Boiler Piping for a Multiple-Zone.

and suspe!lded particulates. 2-30 . Then we learned about the different types of air systems. We do this by controlling temperature. we learned the purpose of an HV AC system and how it controls an enclosed environment for a specific purpose. hydronic systems and the different types of filters that are used in HV AC systems. humidity.SUMMARY In this chapter.

CHAPTER THREE HVAC EQUIPMENT .

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4. 8. d. 5. .CHAPTER THREE HVAC EQUIPMENT OBJECTIVES At the completion of this chapter. 6. Given a diagram. Identify the three types of fan control. c. Explain the purpose of the following equipment used in a cooling system: • • • 7. the student will be able to: 1. List the heat sources that are used in a HVAC System. List the eight requirements that are looked at for the selection of equipment and/or HVAC system. Explain the basic principle of how a heat pump operates. be able to explain the basic cycle of the following cooling systems: a. 3. 9. identify the maj or components used. b. Steam jet Heat sink Absorption Compressed gas 2. Piping Pumps Fans State the purpose of a cooling tower. Given a diagram of an HVAC System. Explain how terminal heating equipment heating is controlled.

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4. 3. Energy conservation. First cost versus life cycle cost. cooling. Those major headings are heating.CHAPTER THREE HVAC EQUIPMENT INTRODUCTION The equipment used in heating. It requires that these eight requirements be looked at: 1. 5. Maintainability. and air-handling. ventilation. code requirements. we will cover the criteria used for equipment selection along with the following topics: • • Heating Cooling Air Handling • CRITERIA FOIt EQUIPMENT SELECTION The criteria for the selection of equipment and/or HVAC systems are basically the same. Demands of comfort or process. 3-1 . Desires of owner. Space limitations. In this chapter. architect and/or design office. 2. 6. and air conditioning comes under three major headings which cover all the equipment in an HVAC system.

nonrenewable energy. Off-peak storage systems are becoming popular for energy cost savings through these systems may actually consume more energy than conventional systems. and pressurization sometimes. Nonrenewable refers primarily to fossil fuel sources. In theory. heat reclaim. The problem-solving process used in the evaluation is done so that the person getting the equipment/system get the best product for the cost. ventilation. pressure. 8. humidity. waste processing. water. humidity. Demand of Comfort or Process These include temperature always. the most extreme of these can penalize the entire HV AC system. and cleanliness requirements. Simplicity and controllability. and the like. the designer cannot provide an adequate HVAC system. Central plant versus distributed systems. Until he fully understands the process. Renewable sources include solar. and zoning for better control if needed. it will be found that different parts of the process have different parts of the process have different temperature. In practice. The strictest codes prohibit any form of reheat (except from reclaimed or renewable sources) unless humidity control is essential. wind. State the local building codes almost invariably include requirements limiting the use of new. Most HVAC systems for process environments have opportunities for heat reclaim and other ingenious ways of conserving energy. at least.7. the "comfort" requirement is sometimes subordinated to first cost or the desires of someone in authority. this criterion should have a high priority. Most often. Energy Conservation This is usually a code requirement and not an option. 3-2 . Process requirements are more difficult and require a thorough inquiry by the HVAC designer into the process and its needs.

high altitude (which affects AHU and air-cooled condenser capacity) and contaminated outside air (which may require special filtration and treatment). Roof-top systems are another alternative where space is limited. Here the designer's job is to follow the criteria of his employer or the client unless it is obvious that some requirements are unsuitable in an unusual environment. For example. if space is too restricted. In new buildings. the designer must work with existing space. installed and ready to operate. it will be desirable to discuss with the architect the implications of the space limitations 3-3 .schools. though most energy codes require some minimum efficiency rating. to some extent. Desires of Owner. and estimated energy use. ease of maintenance and even.and owners who expect to occupy the building for an indefinite period. someone in authority lays down guidelines which must be followed by the designer. In retrofit situations.First Cost/Life Cost First cost considers only the initial price. hospitals. replacement. Space Limitations The architect can influence the HVAC system selection by the space he makes available in a new building. Architect. The usual method of comparing the life cycle costs of two or more systems to convert all costs to "present worth" values. and evaluates the total cost of the system over a period of years. or Design Office Very often. first cost governs in buildings being built for speculation or short-term investment. Typically. Life-cycle cost includes all cost factors including first cost. in adding air conditioning to a school it is often necessary to convert a classroom to an equipment room. efficiency. This is particularly true for institutional owners and major retailers. Sometimes in existing buildings it is necessary to take additional space in order to provide a suitable HVAC system. maintenance. Life-cycle costs are most often used by institutional builders . operation. government . It ignores such factors as expected life. Examples of such environmental conditions are: extremely high or low outside air humidity. if the building structure will support such systems.

this is the most important criterion in terms of how the system will really work. Roof-top units may be readily accessible if there is an inside stair and roof penthouse. longer duct systems and more fan horsepower. central air-handling system. an intermediate temperature water supply for individual room heat pumps. but if an outside ladder must be climbed the adj ective "readily" must be deleted. both heating and chilled water. in part. This decision. influenced by previously cited criteria and is itself a factor in the life-cycle cost analysis. This criterion is critical in the lifecycle cost analysis and in the long-term satisfaction of the building owner and occupants. central plant equipment has a longer life than packaged equipment and can be operated more efficiently. There is no simple answer to this choice. and accessibility (is the unit readily accessible? Is there adequate space around it for removing and replacing items?). or even a large. ease of maintenance (are high maintenance items readily accessible in the unit?). Maintainability This criterion includes equipment quality (mean time between failures is a commonly used term). There is an accepted truism that "The operator will soon reduce the HVAC system and controls to his level of 3-4 .in terms of equipment efficiency and maintainability. for the central AHU. There are ways of providing a functioning HVAC system in very little space. such as individual room units and roof-top units. The disadvantages include the cost of pumping and piping. or. In general. but these systems often have a high life-cycle cost. Simplicity and Controllability Though listed last. Each building must be evaluated separately. Central Plant Versus Distributed Systems Central plants may include only a chilled water source. Many equipment rooms are easy to get to but too small for adequate across or maintenance. Many buildings have no central plant.

for the operators. hot water. Furnaces. or thermal liquids for direct or indirect use. The designer who wants or needs to use a complex system must provide for adequate training . unit heaters. Energy conservation and operating costs go together and have a considerable effect on life cycle costs.and retraining . which heat either water or air. the two things of primary concern are proper sizing to achieve comfort and system reliability. Fuel fired boilers that produce steam. solid materials. 3-5 . both passive and active. HEATING Heating is the first word in the HVAC acronym. heating can be provided by: 1. 3. Capital and operating costs and pollution control are of secondary consideration. The best rule is: never add an unnecessary complication to the systein or its controls. In modem heating system design. The history of man began to develop with the discovery of fire which increased his ability to survive in a harsh environment. who may have had little or no instruction about the system. duct heaters. Proper design of the heating system is even more critical than that of ventilation or cooling. 2.understanding. 4. and in some cases. It is simply a fact of life. It is the most important part because without heating there would be difficulty in surviving. Waste heat furnaces and boilers which utilize the waste energy from some other source such as an incinerator or refrigeration equipment. Solar energy collectors." This not to criticize the operator. In a modem heating system. and outside air heaters which provide hot air for direct circulation to the conditioned space.

2. either liquid or air. Direct air . Radiation .5. End users are provided heat by: 1. either electric or natural gas. outside air heaters. Indirect air .direct radiation from panels or other radiators. 6.furnaces. 4. 3. duct heaters. fan-coil units. Heat pumps. liquid-filled radiant heaters.radiators. Liquid . reheat un its. convectors. unit ve ntilators. ducted heat pumps.coils and air-handling units. The topics that will be covered in this section of the chapter are: • Boilers Hot water boiler Steam boiler Electric Heaters Terminal Heating Equipment Radiators and convectors Radiant panels • Heat Pumps Packaged heat pumps • • 3-6 . Direct-fired radiant heaters.

Cogeneration high-pressure steam boilers are in the range of 600 to 900 psig with some degree of superheat in order to obtain good turbine efficiency. Units are made for horizontal discharge (Figure 3-1) or vertical discharge (Figure 3-2). and single-unit industrial facilities. Waste heat from the turbine is used for space heating. and industrial plants where there are significant process requirements. through end-use heat exchangers. High-temperature water (310 to 400"F) is used for extended campus-type facilities and industrial process facilities. It is designed for installation in or adjacent to the space to be heated. 3-7 . and thermal liquid. apartment. medium. and process requirements. Steam Boilers Low-pressure boilers (15 psig) are generally found in commercial. ELECTRIC HEATERS A unit heater is a package which includes a heating element and a circulating fan. apartment house. lowpressure steam. They are used for space heating and domestic hot water. Most unit heaters have propeller fans. It is often used where there are significant end-user steam requirements at pressures of 100 psi or more. hospitals. domestic hot water. and commercial construction. Hot Water Boilers Low-temperature water boilers (to 250"F) are the most widely used type for residential.BOILERS Boilers can produce low. high-pressure steam (including process steam). Thermal liquid heaters are primarily found in industrial applications where both space and process heating are significant loads. or high-temperature water. Medium temperature water boilers (250 to 310°F) are generally applied to industrial and campustype facilities. High-pressure steam applications (15 to 150 psig) are generally found in campus-type facilities. Units with centrifugal fans may be used with duct work to extend the area of coverage.

Figure 3-1 Horizontal Unit Heater Figure 3-2 Vertical Unit Heater 3-8 .

all the heat and products of combustion are in the air stream. An outside air heater is a unit heater or duct heater used for preheating outside air. In general. or may be directfired using fuel gas or electric resistance. A duct heater (or duct furnace) is a unit heater with out a fan and is installed in a duct or plenum. It may be the primary heating element . such as under theater marquees or in amusement parks. In some installations. as required for exhaust make-up or combustion.in the main duct or AHU plenum . Gas heaters require proper venting and safety controls. The duct heater depends on an AHU fan for air circulation. Another use is for heating of outdoor areas where people need to wait or stand in line. Many package air-handling systems use duct heaters. For this purpose they are installed overhead and equipped with special high-temperature surfaces which radiate primarily in the infra-red spectrum. They are used mostly for "spot-heating" at work stations in otherwise unheated or poorly heated buildings.water or steam is used .or may be used for zone reheat control in branch ducts. Unit heaters are normally controlled by means of a room thermostat which starts the fan and energizes the heating element simultaneously. This situation requires that all of the supply air be exhausted. Duct heaters and 3-9 . Radiant heating is a very efficient and economical method of achieving a level of comfort in an area which would be difficult or impossible to heat satisfactorily in any other way. Radiant unit heaters have no fans and utilize radiant heating rather than convective heating. To prevent freeze-up gas or electric heating is used.but electric resistance heating is common. codes allow the use of unvented heaters . the heating source is remote . with gas preferred on an energy cost basis. but so diluted as to pose no danger. TERMINAL HEATING EQUIPMENT Terminal heating equipment is equipment installed in or contiguous with the area served.The heating element may be a steam or water coil.

The usual location is on an exterior wall at or near the floor. Steam heat may be controlled by means of vacuum system. 3-11 . mounted in an enclosure designed to increase the convective effect (Figure 3-3). Baseboard radiation is usually continuous along exterior walls." Refer to manufacturers' catalogues for specific data. designed with convective heat channels to augment the radiant effect. similar to a convector but much smaller. as well as hot water temperatures or steam pressure.and heating element design. . Testing and Rating Convectors..5. including partially or fully recessed into the wall. Ratings are usually based on the test methods specified in "Commercial Standard CS 140-47. The enclosure (cabinet) is made in many different configurations.integral grilles Flecess ____ L. or a cast-iron section. The heating element is a finned-tube coil or coils. depth.. This requires a closed system in which the absolute pressure may be varied by means of a vacuum pump in the condensate return. height . Blank covers may be used for appearance if the capacity if not needed. It is either a fin-tube system.---~ / _ Fin-tube heating element Floor line Figure 3-3 Convector Baseboard radiation is designed for wall mounting in place of the usual baseboard. Capacity depends on geometry . The steam system may then be operated at sub-atmospheric pressures with a consequent reduction in steam temperature. Wall fac e Fron t panel with .length. A convector is a heating device which depends primarily on gravity convective heat transfer.

p . Electric baseboard radiation is also available. radiation uses larger tubing or pipe . particularly at glass areas. SeDping lOp coyer A. Zoning by exposure.Finned-tube. for example. There may also be a convective component. some examples are shown in Figure 3-4.pe 0' S. is a frequent practice.p. • W<Jllline 0 Cover ~Ih ml~rat grille Fin. or finned-pipe.. Heat transfer is by convection and a variety of enclosure types are available... The system is used mostly for perimeter heating. Special enclosures are often made to suit an architectural decor. Radiant Panels A radiant panel is a heating surface designed to transfer heat primarily by radiation.1-1/4" to 2" size .-. Either one-pipe or two-pipe distribution systems are used. It is sometimes more economical. using solar compensated sensors. Flal 101' cover C. in an all-electric situation or where steam or hot water is not available. The fins are typically 3-1/2" to 41/2" square..plpEt healing .ded mel a! cover elemlnl / Floor~ ~ Fin.with fins bonded to the pipe. n. r E. and in the case of 3-12 . E"panded melal cover Figure 3-4 Typical Fin-pipe Enclosures All of these heating elements may use either low pressure steam or hot water as the heating source. though two-pipe is more common in modem practice.

air-to-air. copper tubing. Panels may be located in the floor. for example. Floor panels are very difficult to control. For concrete floor panels. . as needed. Factory-assembled sidewall and ceiling panels and panel systems are available. wall. The heating source is hot water or electrical resistance heating cable. convective transfer may be predominant. especially with floor panels. about 100"F for wall panels. The key to the operation is the reversing 3-13 .floor panels. since radiant-heat-sensitive devices are not readily available. or water-to-water. or ceiling and may occupy part or all of the available area. steel pipe is used (3/4" or 1" size). Hotwater supply temperatures should be consistent with the panel temperature limitations. or steel pipe imbedded in the construction. and 120" to 13O"F for ceiling panels. Most panels are field fabricated using electrical heating cable. Earth-coupled systems are also used. That is. since the relatively large mass provides a slow response. water-to-air. Packaged Heat Pumps A packaged heat pump is factor-assembled system designed to provide either heating or cooling. Corrosion at the concrete-pipe interface can be severe. Typical limitations are 80" to 85°F for floor panels.< HEAT PUMPS A heat pump is a mechanical refrigeration system arranged and controlled to utilize the condenser heat for some useful purpose. supply water temperature should be no more than 100°F. Control systems are conventional. Air venting is a serious problem. ·Ceiling and wall panels use 1/2" to 3/4" copper tube or electric cable. because steel has an expansion coefficient similar to that of concrete. typically space heating. The standard refrigeration cycle is modified as shown in Figure 3-5. Electric heating cable may be used. Panel surface temperatures are limited by the physiological response of the building occupants. too high a temperature may result in an uncomfortably warm feeling. Systems may be packaged or built-up. for floor panels.

Almost any fuel can be used for auxiliary heat. 1 and flows through metering device no. For buildings with 24-hour occupancy. auxiliary heating will be needed except in very mild climates. The water temperature is controlled at a range of values . The liquid refrigerant then bypasses metering device no. refrigerant flow is reversed. Note that the net heat loss is less than the calculated heat loss because of internal heat gains due to people. but electric resistance is the most common. which becomes the condenser. provide the auxiliary heat. The shaded area is the excess of load over capacity. refrigerant flow is directed first to the outdoor coil. lights. and other sources. the central boiler and cooling tower may be idle. In Figure 3-7. In the cooling position. Heating capacity decreases as outdoor air temperature decreases. While most air-to-air heat pumps will operate satisfactorily down to zero degrees F outdoors. The indoor coil then becomes the evaporator and cooling is provided. A central source for heating or cooling the water can then. requiring auxiliary heat. a water-to-air heat exchanger is substituted for the outdoor coil. throttling tube.which is suitable both as a heat source and heat sink for the heat pumps. In a water-to-air package heat pump. Figure 3-6 shows the method of calculating the net heating load as a function of temperature. this net heating load is plotted against the heat pump capacity from manufacturer's data as a function of temperature. With the reversing valve in the heating position. solar heat effects should be ignored. or some other method of reducing the pressure. heat is extracted from the outdoor air. the indoor coil becomes the condenser and provides heating. The metering device is a thermal expansion valve. 3-14 .perhaps 70°F to 85°F . in effect.valve. 2 to the indoor coil. Changeover from heating to cooling may be automatic but is usually manual. Most packaged heat pumps are air-to-air. In mild weather when some units are in heating mode while others are cooling. Figures 3-6 and 3-7 illustrate the procedure for determining the auxiliary heat requires. Systems of this type are used in apartment houses and hotels to allow maximum control of the room environment by the occupant.

.." " :-w -.CO.ng mod..." I .. " 3-15 ..jng .."..I .-'"'-"-'-'" '~-<-'-'--------".... I Reversing ~ \2 e/ ..'81"'9 (I".R8'<~"... L Figure 3-5 Packaged Heat Pump Cycles r .".. • I .--~o<r'---j " t .nOt '\--. ~ =>x' 'V' Check val". .4. ~ ...-·'r..--1 ~ 1. In(lOO' Complusor Comp'..r A f' Cooli ng mode Hnl.~~---'I . ~)---..

~ WINS .. Well water and return water are mixed. . """''' To s~... or nearly so. To C_n\$Ol' . for both evaporator and condenser.. Figure 3-8 Large Building Heat Pump. The supply and disposal wells are manually selected. with capacities up to several hundred tons.-r. One possible arrangement is shown in Figure 3-8. .J .. Excess heat is disposed of through cooling towers. one for supply and one for disposal. . .. Internal source heat pumps without wells are used where there is sufficient internal cooling load to supply the net heating requirements under all conditions. Two wells are used. with Water Well Source 3-17 .n<! """"'.- .:. These systems typically use well water. little or no well water is needed. HR CHO C>lS HS ... -----t. on a temperature basis.that is. Under some conditions. .. several large office buildings were constructed using water-to-water heat pumps...-t .. this system can become an internal source heat pump .--.During the 1950s and 1960s. - --. when the exterior zone heating and interior zone cooling loads are in balance.

In this section of the chapter. The purpose of this is that the student will understand how this equipment fits into the whole picture of the operation an HVAC system. Equipment from the following systems will be discussed along with a brief description of how each system operates. we are going to study the equipment that is used in the various cooling systems... • Steam Jet Heat Sink Adsorption (Chiller) Compressed Gas (Chillers) • • . In this section of the chapter. . . There are many types of cooling systems. • 3-18 .COOLING . we will give you an introduction to the equipment that is used in cooling systems. The topics that we will cover are: • Refrigeration Chiller Cooling Towers Cooling Coils Piping Pumps • • • • • Refrigeration Several different methods are used to cool air directly or indirectly..

..11.MI • -I I • '-.1 1 ..~'lro~'JI l?~G ~ (1)1: I PMEt~T I ~)~~ ) Go Or ~~ AAEUP l~ATE R ~ 0.1 TOC ... (Figure 3-9) The process creates a partial vacuum in a tank by nozzling a jet of steam over the single opening (aspiration). 2?SI:' /~Ii:~ W ~ ~ FLASII ~p~y ~ STEN' TO CO NI • NO ZZLE TAN K 40 o -S0o f . II NG EQutPttEN T 4s o r • Figure 3-9 Steam Jet Refrigeration System 3-19 ... ~ COOL WATf. lI IP. ~ D IF F~R P f:ES~UR£ ST r.? TO .. LOW P RESSURE Tl' r~i 1-1 f\ 1'£ r. co ~:. ST EAM NOZZ LE \. The equipment that is used in the system is a nozzling jet (which works like an air ejector). a tank with an inlet and outlet for water supply to it. evaporation is extracted from the cooling water which is pumped through the tank.CONn I TIO... This reduced pressure in the tank permits water to boil at a The heat required for substantially reduced temperature (40-50"F)...Steam Jet The steam jet refrigeration system may be used if an abundant supply of high pressure steam is available.

The purpose of the absorber is to provide an area where the absorbent can absorb the refrigerant and also store the excess absorbent. piping and hydronic coils. The function of the condenser is to condense the refrigerant vapors from the generator back into a liquid and that condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. generator and condenser. which is divided into four sections: the evaporator. heat exchanger and three pumps. Absorption The absorption systems utilizes a liquid with a low boiling point such as ammonia on water under a low vacuum. The cool water is circulated through hydronic coils and subsequently provides cooling to the controlled environment. The equipment that is used in this system is a pump. The equipment that is used in this system is a chiller. The function of the generator is to concentrate the absorbent by removing some of the refrigerant from the dilute absorbent solution. The heat sink method of providing air conditioning requires a large body of cool water. Chiller As noted from the above paragraph.Heat Sink i ' .. 3-20 Absorber - Generator - Condenser - . the chiller is divided into four sections. The function of each section is: Evaporator The purpose of the evaporator is to cool a liquid for use in an air-conditioning system. We will discuss the function of each piece of equipment. usually subterranean or drawn from dee I lakes. absorber.

Water will boil at 40"F. 3-21 . Because all absorption systems work basically the same. the float opens to return the refrigerant into the evaporator for continuous operation.Heat Exchanger - The function of the heat exchanger is to make the absorption cycle more efficient.53 inches of mercury (Hg). the refrigerant boils and absorbs the heat from the chilled water. the lithium bromide must be made stronger and the refrigerant must return to the evaporator. and starting these pumps. As the refrigerant level rises in the condenser. As the refrigerant (water) is sprayed on the 55°F chilled water coil. the generator pump is started and a steam valve is opened. To have continuous operations. Steam is used to make the refrigerant (water) go into a vapor again where it condenses into pure water in the condenser. and becomes weaker. To do this. It does this by bringing the warm. then into the generator. These pumps are used to circulate the fluids between the following components and are named for the component in which they service. concentrated absorbent solution coming from the generator in contact with the relative cool dilute absorbent from the absorber. Pumps There are three pumps usually associated with an absorption system. This lowers the heat input needed for input to the generator and increases the efficiency of the system. Let's start the cycle by creating a vacuum in the absorber and evaporator. The refrigerant vapor is then absorbed by the lithium bromide. It will help you understand what is happening in each area of the absorption chiller. Refer to Figure 3-10 as you go through the cycle. -45°F with a vacuum of 29. The generator pump forces the weak solution through the heat exchanger (where the weak solution is preheated and the strong solution from the generator is cooled). we will describe the operation of the lithium brome cycle.

HlAT VCCHAHGIIt Figure 3-10 Lithium Bromide Absorption System 3-22 .'" " C"'ll( O LIOUIO '" '" .~.

Compressed Gas
The compressed gas type of refrigeration system is the most used in every day application and the one most people are familiar with and the one we will discuss the most about. Just as with the other type of refrigeration system, we will look at the major equipment that is used to make the system. The topics that we will cover are: • • Compressor CondenserslReceivers Metering Device Evaporators

Compressor The compressor removes the vapor from the evaporator, compresses and heats the vapor. This raises the pressure and temperature of the vapor so that it can be condensed at ordinary climatic temperatures. The compressor then discharges the vapor to the condenser. There are four primary types of compressors: reciprocating, rotary, screw and centrifugal. Regardless of the type of compressors, they all do the same thing and they are the heart of the compressed gas cycle. Condenser/Receiver The condenser transfers heat from a place where it is not wanted to a place where it can be discarded. The condenser is a coil of metal tubing which is exposed to a cooling medium, such as water or fan-forced air. the cooling medium absorbs enough heat from the vapor to condense it. There are three types of condensers normally used and the are water-cooled, aircooled, and evaporative.

3-23

Receivers are installed to collect the liquid refrigerant as it leaves the condenser. In some models, the lower section of the condenser is used as the receiver. A receiver serves as a stowage for refrigerant, maintains a liquid seal on the liquid line, and vents any air or non-condensable gases back to the condenser. Receivers are usually designed to be large enough to hold the complete charge of refrigerant required to operate the unit. They are equipped with stop valves on the inlet and outlet lines to permit the serviceman to pump the unit down when work it to be performed on another component in the system. The liquid refrigerant is then collected and directed to the metering device. Metering Device The metering device is a device that limits or controls the flow of refrigerant passing through it on its way back to the evaporator. By controlling the flow, the pressure is reduced so that the liquid will again boil at low temperature in the evaporator. So that the refrigerating unit may operate automatically, an automatic metering device must be placed in the circuit between the liquid line and the evaporator. This control reduces the high pressure in the liquid line to the low pressure in the evaporator. The six main types of automatic metering devices are: • Automatic Expansion Valve (AEV or AXV) Thermostatic Expansion Valve (fEV or TXV) Thermal-Electric Expansion Valve (11IEXV) Low Side Float (LSF) High Side Float (HSF) Capillary Tube (Cap. Tube)

• •

3-24

Evaporators The evaporator or cooling coil is the part of the refrigeration system where heat is removed from the product; air, water, or whatever is to be cooled. As the refrigerant enters the passages of the evaporator, it absorbs heat from the product being cooled and, as it absorbs heat from the load, it begins to boil and vaporizes. In this process, the evaporator accomplishes the overall purpose of the system - refrigeration. Manufacturers develop and produce evaporators in several different designs and shapes to fill the needs of prospective users. The blower coil or forced convection type evaporator is the most common design; it is used both in refrigeration and air-conditioning installations. The six main types of evaporators are: •

• •

Plate Bare Tube Finned Tube Fixed Convection Dry Flooded

Figure 3-11 shows the basic compressed gas cycle and use with the following cycle description will help you see and understand how the cycle works.

Liquid refrigerant enters the metering device which separates the high pressure side of the system from the low pressure side. This valve regulates the amount of refrigerant which enters the cooling coils of the evaporator. Because of the pressure differential, as the refrigerant passes through the metering device, some of it flashes to a vapor.

3-25

LOH PRESS URE S I DE

~~

ft! GI!

PRESSURE S I DE:

SATUR.I\TED GAS

I

SUPE RHEATED V/I.POR

~
EVAPORATOP
IlEAT fnOM

t
CONDEN SE
[l

CO MP r..ESSOR

CONTROlU:O
EIlV l OO NKENT

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LIQU I D REfRIG E RANT AT

E)( PANS ION r;,()(}-_ _ _ _ _----'Hc:I.::GH::....:.'.:.:RE:.:S.::S.::URE:=-_---'
VALVE

....J

'<..Y

I.J" ! ~~,> , \

\I;;i q~o<'

Figure 3·11 Basic Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle
From the metering device, the refrigerant passes into the evaporator, The boiling point of the refrigerant under the low pressure in the evaporator is lower than the temperature of the space in which the cooling coil is installed, This causes the liquid to boil and vaporize, picking up latent heat of vaporization from the space being cooled. The refrigerant continues to absorb latent heat of vaporization until all the liquid has been vaporized. By the time the refrigerant leaves the cooling coil, it has not only absorbed this latent heat of vaporization but has also picked up some additional heat - that is, the vapor has become superheated. The refrigerant leaves the evaporator as low-pressure superheated vapor. The remainder of the cycle is used to dispose of this heat and convert the refrigerant back into a liquid state so that it can again vaporize in the evaporator and absorb the heat again. The low-pressure superheated.vapor is drawn out of the evaporator by the compressor, which also keeps the refrigerant circulating through the

3-26

system. In the compressor, the refrigerant is compressed from a lowpressure, low-temperature vapor to a high-pressure, high temperature vapor. The high-pressure vapor is discharged from the compressor into the condenser. Here the refrigerant condenses, giving up its superheat (sensible heat) and its latent heat of condensation. The refrigerant, still at high pressure, is now a liquid again. From the condenser, the refrigerant goes to the metering device and the cycle begins again. Figure 3-12 shows a graphic illustration of the pressure-temperature relationship for the refrigerant R-22, during each phase of its cycle. Referring to Figure 3-12, the evaporator state is the point at which the boiling liquid refrigerant enters the evaporator and absorbs sensible heat form the chill water return. As heat is absorbed, the liquid becomes completely vaporized and rises above its saturation temperature. At this point, the vapor is said to be "superheated". The superheated vapor is then compressed. Compressing the vapor raises the pressure-temperature state of the vapor which preconditions it for the condensation process. Condensation is the exact reverse of evaporation, and serves to expel the heat absorbed by the refrigerant, and to condense the refrigerant vapor back to liquid form for reuse by the evaporator. Liquid metering is the final stage of the refrigeration cycle. Metering allows just the right amount of refrigerant to enter the evaporator so that the proper cooling and superheating takes place.

3-27

f

"0

Superheated state vapor - - - - , •.
. ..,'0" ----------------- - -~~ -------~
~,

'"

""
84
"-

90 90

70

°

a '" •
Co
~

f-

E ~

~

.,

eo

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-~.

1'1
1110

.

state (84°F. 153.2 psig)

" <0
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0

Subco ol ed state liquid

Ev'ror,tor,tat. (50 F. 84 p,lg) Liquid zone

."
.JO
o 10

10

30

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60

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ao

90 lao 110 110 1.30

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84 psig

153.2 psig

Pressure, psig

Figure 3·12 Pressure-Temperature Chart for R-22

,

,

Chillers
The term chiller is normally used in connection with a complete chiller package - which includes compressor, condenser, evaporator, internal piping and controls; or for a liquid chiller (evaporator) only, where the water or brine is cooled, Liquid chillers are of two general types: flooded and direct expansion. There are several different configurations including shell-and-tube, double tube, shell-and-coil, Baudelot (surface), and tank-with-raceway. For HVAC applications, the shell-and-tube configuration is most common. 3-28

Flooded Chillers A typical flooded shell-and-tube liquid chiller is shown in Figure 3-l3. Refrigerant flow to the shell is controlled by a high- or low-side float valve or by a restrictor. Water flow rate through the tubes is defined by the manufacturer but is generally in the range of 6 to 12 fps. Tubes may be plain (bare) or have a finned surface. The two-pass arrangement shown in most common, although one to four passes are available. The chiller must be arranged with removable water boxes so that the tubes may be cleaned at regular intervals, because even a small amount of fouling can cause a significant decrease in heat-exchange capacity. Piping must be arranged to allow easy removal of the water boxes. Direct Expansion (OX) Chillers In the OX liquid chiller (Figure 3-14), the refrigerant is usually inside the tubes with the liquid in the shell. Baffles are provided tei control the liquid flow. The U-tube configuration shown is typical and less expensive than the straight-through tube arrangement but can lead to problems with oil accumulation in the tubes if refrigerant velocities are too low. Refrigeration flow is controlled by means of a thermal expansion valve. Package Chillers A complete package chiller will include compressor, condenser, evaporator (chiller), internal piping, and operating, and capacity controls. Controls should be in a panel and include all internal wiring with a terminal strip for external wiring connections. In small packages - up to 100 tons motor starters may also be included. Some units with air-cooled condensers are designed for outdoor mounting; freeze prevention procedures must be followed. Units with water-cooled condensers require an external source of condensing water.

3-29

'"' _ '"' liqUId '" Tube s Shell Aelngeranl liquid in Figure 3-13 Flooded Liquid Chiller LiqUId oul Tub e sheet Rehig e rant II Liquid In Aelrogerant tiquld In Figure 3-14 Direct-Expansion chiller (U-tube type) 3-30 .Tube sheel Aelflgeranl SUChon _ LIQUId " .

Though larger units are made. flows across the tower and out the other side. in the induced-draft tower. Worth airport. it is not unusual to use high-voltage motors. There are also two basic configurations: cross-flow and counter-flow. WyeDelta motors are used for reduced voltage starting. Towers may be forced. In the cross-flow arrangement. variable-speed. or natural draft. 4160-volt. as contrasted with centrifugal compressors. The chiller capacity was reduced to 5500 tons. 3-31 . economics usually favor centrifugal compressor chillers in sizes of 100 tons or more. Motor starters are usually separate from the centrifugal or screw packages may be turbine-driven but more often use electric motors. variablefrequency electric drive. Cooling Towers A cooling tower is a device for cooling water by utilizing the evaporative cooling effect of the water. Figure 3-16. In larger units or 1000 tons or more. In either arrangement. more in line with the actual load. the air is drawn through the tower. Typical of this latter group are the large hyperbolic towers seen at many power plants. the air is blown into the tower by the fans. the water enters at the top of the tower and flows downward through it. Screw compressor systems are made in a limited range of sizes. described below. The cooled water may be used for many purposes but the principle concern in this book is for its use as a heat sink in a refrigerant condenser.or induced-draft. the lower current requirements allow smaller wire sizes and across-the-line starting. In a forced-draft tower. In the counter-flow arrangement. using fans (Figure 3-15). using convective chimney effects. An unusual drive system is that used on one of the 8500-ton chillers at the Dallas-Ft. The typical system is direct-driven at 36500 rpm.Chillers with reciprocating compressors are found mostly in the 5-to100 ton range. the air enters at the bottom and flows upward. The utility plant manager replaced the original steam turbine driver with 5000-hp. The two main types of cooling towers are open circuit and closed circuit. the air enters at one side.

Wiuer sprays I . ir '" Wat er ----J out Figure 3·15 Forced-Draft Cooling Tower i out Air Water sprays Figure 3·16 Natural-Draft Cooling Tower 3-32 .......

The most important factors in this effort are 1) the effectiveness of spray or splash in atomizing the water. it can be seen that there is only one water circuit. the idea is to maximize the evaporation efficiency. To avoid increasing the concentration of solids as water is evaporated. This is usually between 6 and 1000F. Ideally. Because the water is exposed to air. and 4) the water flow rate. with the water distributed through spray nozzles. L r " ij i I ! . although gOF to 15°F are used. where the water flows by gravity and splashes off the tower fill material.Towers are spray-filled. the water must be carefully treated. Tower fill material used to be redwood. with all of its contaminants. For HVAC practice. with a portion of the cooling water being evaporated to cool the remainder. In either case. with gOF being typical. or splash-filled. blowdown must be provided: a portion of the water is wasted to the sewer either continuously or intermittently. and absorbs oxygen. Now most fill material is made of PVC or some similar plastic. which is corrosive to most piping. i 3-33 . Approach is the difference between the leaving cooling water temperature and the ambient wet-bulb temperature. this is usually 1000F. The two terms relating to tower efficiency are range and approach. 3) the air flow rate through the tower. The range is the difference between entering and leaving cooling water temperatures. Open-Circuit Cooling Towers In Figure 3-17. 2) the internal tower volume in which air and water corne into contact. A blowdown rate equal to the evaporation rate is considered normal. treatment additives and blowdown rate should be controlled automatically by a system which measures water quality and solids concentration.

The cooling water flows through a bare tube coil in the tower and coolant water in a separate circuit is sprayed over the coil and evaporated. This is essentially the same system as the evaporative condenser previously described. This tower usually has a higher first cost than the open circuit tower. the condenser. this system is slightly less efficient than the open circuit.Water '" 1 r Air out Water '0 1 I-A" ---I Air --. but the lower fouling effect improves the performance of. '0 '" Water '"' I-- Figure 3-17 Cross-Flow Cooling Tower Closed-Circuit Towers The closed-circuit tower (Figure 3-18) is desigued to mlmmlze corrosion and fouling in the cooling water circuit by making this a closed circuit. and decreases maintenance on. 3-34 . The coolant water circuit is open and needs treatment and blowdown. Because of the temperature differential through the tube wall.

'I' 'I' /1\ /1\ ( C Bare pipe coil cs ~ ~ CR Air in J'o Wale. sump wil h automatic make-up and blowdown <6 Pump ~ Figure 3-18 Closed-Circuit Cooling Tower 3-35 .

brine. The operating theory of centrifugal pumps is exactly analogous to that of centrifugal fans. with compensation for expansion due to temperature changes and anchors to prevent undesired movement. hot and condensing water. When used with refrigerant. or refrigerant is inside the tubes and air is blown over the outside.as when the steam is used for a process or humidification . The rotating action of the impeller (equivalent to the fan wheel) in a scroll housing generates a pressure which forces the fluid through the piping system. Closed systems require some means of compensating for the changes in volume of the fluid due to temperature changes. Steam systems are partly to completely open . Chilled water.that is. Piping Piping systems are the means by which thermal energy fluids are transported from one place to another. and brine. Expansion (compression) tanks are used.Cooling Coils A cooling coil is a finned-tube heat exchanger for use in an airhandling unit. Pumps Centrifugal pumps are used in HVAC for circulation of chilled.and require continuous makeup. The pressure and volume developed are functions of 3-36 l. this element is the "evaporator" in the refrigeration cycle and is called a direct expansion (DX) coil. They are also used for pumping steam condensate and for boiler feed . across the fins and tubes. Cooling-tower systems are open and need makeup to replace the water evaporated in the tower. Piping must be properly supported. . The type of fluid and its temperature and pressure influence and limit the choice of piping materials. Most systems are closed . the fluid is continually recirculated and no makeup is required except to replace that lost due to leaks.

Typical arrangements include combinations of alternatives such as end-or double-suction. multistage pumps are used. '" lower NPSH required Number 01 vanes may va ry Figure 3-19 Backward-Curved Pump Impeller 3-37 . For higher pressures. and close-coupled or base mounted. ---Rolation Larger inlet dia . horizontal or vertical. For pumping hot condensate. 1750 rpm.pump size and rotational speed. Most pumps are direct driven at standard motor speeds such as 3500 rpm.. and 1150 rpm. a turbine-type impeller is used to minimize flashing and cavitation. Le. in-line or base mounted. in cooling-tower installations. Pump Configurations and Types The majority of the centrifugal pumps used in HVAC work have a backward curved blade impeller (Figure 3-19). Vertical turbine pumps are used in sumps.

../ . such as freeze-prevention loops. ~. but when it is "shaved" (machined) to reduce its outside diameter. • • < . The graph includes brake horsepower curves for standard size motors.BHP 1 l BltP "" Figure 3·20 Pump Performance Curve 3-38 . based on water with specific gravity of 1. di"m~Ii" 'lit 01 m""..\11 '" '----<:. 19"" . '" .~y" ~ .. This allows the pump to be matched to the design conditions.0. Double-suction pumps are preferred for larger water volumes over 300 to 400 gpm. I I .OI-lP .'" 9'" . /'\~ .6 .In general. I I ... 60 r .. \ '---- -r. .l Impcn~ ... For brines.. ... - "---. Also shown are efficiency curves. The curves show the capacity of a specific pump-casing size and design at a specific speed (rpm) and with varying impeller diameters..\ .. the horsepower must be corrected in direct proportion to the specific gravity change. The same impeller is used throughout.um "K JOO <00 ~ 0. ..~ ~ c. or liquids with other specific gravities. 6 ... Performance Curves A typical pump performance curve (Figure 3-20) is drawn with coordinates of gpm and feet of head. the capacity is reduced. in-line pumps are used in small systems or secondary systems. ~ ~' " " . " I . because the purpose of the double-suction design is to minimize the end thrust due to water entering the impeller. Base-mounted pumps are used for most applications... """. 9 .

20 --o '00 '00 ."'" 1d""''''Y j. the result will be a family of curves similar to Figure 3-21. • • < 0 " " .n GPM Figure 3-21 Pump Speed versus Capacity and Head 3-39 .>(I:tC. These data are needed to evalua!e a variable-speed pumping design... If the pump continues to run under no-flow conditions. the pump will not generate any flow. If the speed of the pump is varied.The point at which a pump curve intersects the zero flow line is the shutoff head.ly ~pm t-850 rpm '0 o 500 600 . 60 L. At this or a higher head." ~ - 50 I~flnl ~ • " .00 C.". the work energy input will heat the water. The resulting temperature/pressure rise has been known to break the pump casing.

The design operating point or a complete system curve can then be plotted on a pump performance curve. AIR-HANDLING I k. or chillers. control valves. The flow with one pump will be about 75 percent of design flow. In general. for large flows at low heads. So if the student understands the equipment that is used in air systems. due to the pressure loss through the second pump. lower speed pumps . and equipment such as heat exchangers. boilers. For higher heads and lower flow rates. Always select a motor HP that cannot be exceeded by the selected pump at any operating condition. Losses include pipe. A bypass should be provided around both pumps to allow one to operate while the other is being repaired or replaced. The performance curve for two pumps has twice the flow of one pump at any given head.1150 rpm or even 850 rpm . Two or more identical pumps in series provide twice the head at any given flow rate. valves.. e. Multistage pumps may be needed at very high heads. the system curve will change somewhat with only one pump running. unless a bypass is provided around the second pump. Similar curves can be drawn for three or more pumps in parallel.will be most efficient. it will help him understand the overall 3-40 . the HP curve should be above the pump curve at all points. When two or more identical pumps are installed in parallel. fittings. It stands to reason that an air-handling unit of some kind is an essential part of an air-conditioning system. 1750 rpm or 3500 rpm will be preferable. However.g. it is necessary to calculate the system pressure drop at the design flow rate. When the system curve is superimposed. Usually several different pump curves will be inspected in order to find the best efficiency and lowest horsepower. it can be seen that the curve for one pump will intersect the system curve at about 70 percent of the design flow rate and about half of the design head.Pump Selection In order to select a pump.

etc. A fan moves a quantity of air or gas by adding sufficient energy to the air stream to start motion and overcome resistance to flow. In this section of the chapter. (2) the pressure difference across the fan. and (3) the efficiency of the fan and its drive. The bladed rotor or impeller does the actual work. regardless of fuel and method of firing use mechanical draft fans. Induced-draft fans remove combustion products. the fluid being at rest. Forced-draft fans supply large amounts of fresh air for combustion. Large central station boilers. In doing so it overcomes the resistance to flow by supplying the fluid (gas or air) with the energy necessary for continued motion.view of HV AC. The power required depends on (1) the volume of gas moved per unit time. The topics we will cover under fans are: • • • • • Classifications of Fans Fan Control Fan Drives Fan Laws Fan Characteristics Curves Fans Ductwork 3-41 . the function of a fan can be stated as a device which moves air or gas from one place to another. From this definition. The resistance to flow is caused by duct configuration. we will be studying about the equipment used in air handling. These are a few types and uses of mechanical draft fans in a power plant. The topics that will be covered are: • • FANS A fan is a device used to cause a current of air by movement of a broad surface or a number of such surfaces within a sealed plenum.

The centrifugal is suitable for a forced-draft or pressurized system where induced draft fa ns are not . centrifugal and axial flow. The axial flow fan (Figure 3-22) moves the gas in a path parallel to the fan rotor. Axial fans are normally used as forced-draft fans in a balanced-draft system.Classifications of Fans There are two basic types of fans. These fans operate most efficiently with a low resistance to flow and so provide a high volume of air at low head pressures. INLE T BOX MOTOA ROTOR ASSEM SL '( REM OV A BLE UPPER FAN HOUSI NG D I FFU SER DR I V E SHAF T REMOVABLE V AR IABLE ·PI TCH ROTA TING BLA D ES MAIN BEARING ASSEMBL'T' SUPPORT BLADES BLADE PIT CH CONTROL MECHANISM Figure 3·22 Axial Flow Fan The centrifugal or radial fan (Figure 3-23) moves the gas perpendicular to the fan rotor and operates most efficiently in a high head situation. 3-42 .

Figure 3-23 Centrifugal (radial) Fan 3-43 .

The centrifugal (radial) fan has several advantages over the axial fan.. therefore.. It is cheaper and lighter and. because of its size and weight it is more easily controlled. This can be seen on Figure 3-24. 7 V . Also. requires less power. J 4 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 oJ' AXIAL FLOW FAN ~ Z ~ I- :J a. - ~7 .~ / V / / / a: IJJ V' •• ~ . -o 10 20 '" 70 80 90 100 RADIAL FLOW FAN I I I I 30 . ./ V ~ 0 ~ a.."..... 40 50 60 PERCENT UNIT LOAD Figure 3-24 Typical Fan Power Curve 3-44 .

. This type of control allows for a rapid change of output and increased efficiency over the centrifugal fan as shown in Figure 3-25... 20 10 20 ." ~ UJ u 30 u.. u... V' r- RADIAL FLOW FAN 10 o a 30 40 50 60 70 80 PERCENT UNIT LOAD 90 100 Figure 3-25 Typical Fan Efficiency Curve 3-45 .60 40 ~ ~ .. ~ -""- I V AXIAL FLOW FAN u 50 / .The blades of an axial fan are generally smaller than those of a centrifugal fan and the construction is such that a variable pitch control system can be easily installed. 90 >z UJ 80 70 "*.. l.. ....

v vr r---= v (al FORWARD·CURVED BLADES (bl STRAIGHT BLADES v.. (cl BACKWARD ·CURVED BLADES v vr Vb = Absolute velocity of air leaving blade (sh own equal for all three blade types) = Velocity of air leaving blade relative to blade = Velocity of blade tip Figure 3-26 Types of Centrifugal Fan Blades 3-47 ..

3. Commonly used variable speed systems include magnetic couplings. induction type AC motor. It incorporates the least expensive type of fan drive. a constant speed. which makes it effective throughout the entire range of fan operation. In some cases. Therefore. variable speed DC motors. It has the lowest first cost of all control types. It is easily operated and adapted to automatic control. 2. Common methods of controlling fan output are damper control. to meet the requirements of the system. a combination of controls are used. Variable speed control is the most efficient method of controlling fan output since it also reduces power consumption. variable speed AC motors and variable speed steam turbines. Damper control provides variable resistance in the system to alter the fan output. A change in field strength varies the slip and consequently the speed of the fan. The advantages to damper control are: 1. ~ 3-48 . special mechanical drives. Speed control results in the same loss in efficiently throughout the entire. The loss in effectiveness depends on the type of speed variation. It has continuous rather than a step type of control. damper control is inefficient because of the excess pressure energy which must be dissipated by throttling. 4. hydraulic couplings. a convenient means of varying the fan output becomes necessary. Magnetic couplings consist of two windings in a housing with a variable field. fan load range.Fan Control Very few instances of operations permit fans to operate continuously at the same pressure and volume discharge rates. However. variable speed control and inlet vane control.

therefore. Two-speed AC motors cost less than the variable speed AC drives and improve fan efficiency when coupled with a simple damper control. Inlet vane control (see Figure 3-27) regulates air flow entering the fan and requires less horsepower at fractional loads than outlet damper control. Therefore. and efficiency adj ustments. Two-speed AC motors can be used to supplement damper control. Inlet vane leakage often makes it difficult to reduce fan air flow at low loads when using a single speed fan drive. Inlet vane control is often used for full load operation. The inlet vanes give the air a varying degree of spin in the direction of wheel rotation enabling the fan to produce the required head at proportionately lower power and. The variable pitch V-belt and the variable speed planetary transmission are examples of special mechanical drives. Although vane control offers considerable savings in efficiency over damper control at any reduced load it is most effective for moderate load changes close to full-load operation. a supplementary damper is used to increase the control range of the vanes. Th is is especially applicable to forced-draft fans where a wide load range is required. greater efficiency. IN LET V ANES AIR FLO W Figure 3-27 Inlet Vanes 3-49 .A hydraulic coupling varies slip by varying the hydraulic pressure as the speed of the driver changes.

000 cfm at a static pressure of 2 inches of water when operating at a speed of 400 rpm. Fan Laws Fan laws were introduced at the beginning of this course and can be stated as follows: 1. The steam turbine drive costs more than a squirrel-cage motor but is less expensive than any of the variable speed electric motor arrangements in sizes over 50 horsepower. the following problem is provided. A fan delivers 10. or HP a RPM'. squirrel-cage induction motors are most common. This type of motor is relatively inexpensive. or: CFM a RPM. For some variable speed installations. The required power input is 4 Bhp. If a DC motor is required the compound type is usually selected. wound rotor (slip rings) induction motors are used. 3-50 . 2. Find the speed. To help you in understanding how the fan laws are applied.Fan Drives Electric motors are normally used for fan drives because they are less expensive and more efficient than any other type of drive. particularly in the smaller sizes. Assume constant fan efficiency over varying flow requirements. For fans of more than a few horsepower. 3. or SP a RPM'.000 cfm are desired. Pressure or head is proportional to the square of fan speed. Capacity is proportional to the fan speed. It is frequently used in large sizes with a magnetic or hydraulic coupling for variable speed installations. Power is proportional to the cube of fall speed. pressure and power of the same fan system if 15. reliable and highly efficient over a wide load range.

. The curves may include the variation in head. speed cubed if proportional to brake horsepower. speed square is proportional to pressure. By careful review of 3-51 . _ 400 rpm x 15.5 BHP Fan Characteristic Curves Fans are tested by their manufacturers and the results of the fans operations are presented in characteristic curves.Using the first fan law..:. -=". 600 rpm 2 rpm 400 Using the third fan law. the new power requirement can be found as follows: BHP a RPM) so: BHP. = BHP. power and efficiency for a constant speed or can be a family of curves for a series of constant speeds .. capacity.5 in. 10.000 cfm = 600 RPM Using the second fan law. x CFM.000 cfm CFM. speed is proportional to capacity. of water = 2 in. = SP. RPM) = 4 BHP 600 rpm) rpm 400 = 13.' RPM. --::-:c---'--' RPM. the new speed can be fo und as follows: CFM a RPM = so: RPM. RPM. the new pressure can be found as follows: SP a RPM 2 RPM) so: SP. = 4.

.. . the point of maximum efficiency can be varied to cover a wide range of conditions. HORSEPOWER 90 80 ¥. :.. The fairly constant power output over a wide range of capacities is common to most axial-flow fans .SOUND LEVEL-RELA TlV 0: J II I w ::J E Itvr r--.I 11 0 100 f'I>o. The efficiency of such a fan is generally somewhat lower than that of centrifugal fans except at low pressure. 70 ~2 60 \>-" ~ 50 -<-\>-"-td/ 40 c. 90 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PER CENT CAPACITY Figure 3-28 Axial Flow Fan Characteristic Curve 3-52 .. and width of the blades. there will be little tendency to overload the driving motor regardless of the change in conditions under which the fan operates.-":< /' "c... 10 . c. 0 u :20: u.. f::. ''''. This is called a nonoverloading characteristics. By varying such things as the pitch diameter.. W WW (j) z Cl.... and efficiency.. c...... The curves in Figure 3-28 show the variation in power...~\. . Thus.the various types of fans and their characteristics curves the most correct fan for a given system can be selected..~ " S t... pressure and efficiency for differing capacities at a constant speed for an axial-flow fan.S ...'<: ' 30 I.TOTAL PRESSURE -. These characteristics are power. Within a given class or type of fan there are certain general characteristics that are common to the many different designs. :2 0 xZ <t<t O~ .c.i\ "' 0 V "-' I 0'v~ '9".-\ 20 1 -'<: s"\\>. pressure. The capacity decreases more or less at a constant rate for an increase in resistance or pressure.<J::--'" tic"" """"' """ 100 '9"... 0:0: wO Cl.~ "\...1y (j) (j) :2 :::! ::J Cl....

. N\E. ' (lJZ)'\J .0 1'0 ~(C'. .t"-. u.4 . 0 oS WW u tll ecec wo a. ~ ""~ ~~~/ q.S'c. toI:1:1 ~I: S l': '\" . C)-I'-.OIANIC.ec W :!w :Jg: til til :J :Eo <1:~ xZ :Eec za.J: 140 130 120 ~ 110 100 V 90 80 70 60 50 / 40 30 / . 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PERCENT CAPACITY " I\."- ..:..... Figure 3-29 Radial-Tip Blade Fan Characteristic Curve 3-54 .s- ~~Ss.M- ~(C' ~-'9~ .'?Y s:::: ~:'\. ~(I..""- r-. W ../ 20 'r'f' 10 0 10 ~ Sr ~C " ~l.£ItoI\'CY I:IC/~~ "1lfc 1\ \.

PERCENT CAPACITY Figure 3-30 Backward·Curved·Blade Fan Characteristic Curve 3-55 .

.. .RfSSUR . 0 '" wW u(/) Za...:...... S.I I-SOUNO '" a: LEVEL-\l./ ...l: a: a: 1 10 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 " L ~ .... ...0 a....A \\..... ~/C MECHANICA&C ~ S... ~o xZ ~~ ~a: O~ ...~\.." EFFICIENCY.. ". ""Ie "' ~C"'~ ... · " /' V / 'rIO~'.A rO r 4t /" "" J' . 50 60 Ol~ It - ~ 90 100 f'ss ...../ ..... 10 20 30 40 70 80 PERCENT CAPACITY Figure 3-31 Forward-Curved-Blade Fan Characteristic Curve 3-56 .~ \~_r-- i~~S\\'j ::J (/) (/) ~~ ::Ja."""-I s~~o ~ 'l'l~~ ~ C...!:. f /' ..

.""-s> -... I a: a: L PR 110 -f~sURf 100 l/'"" "'" S MECHANICAL lie 90 .. 20 ~ 'rl 10 0 rorA.<...".... ) 30 / ..)-.s V 50 f~~ ..... 70 1 ~ 90 "I 10 20 30 50 60 80 no PERCENT CAPACITY Figure 3·32 Straight-Bladed Fan Characteristic Curve 3-57 .UJ a: ::J Vl Vl :2 UJ xZ ::Jg: :20 «« u.. 60 Sr ~. ..... UJ 0::: >-0 UJUJ UVl :2 a: zo.-o~~.....q ric . /'" EFFICIENCY I ~ 80 70 .. V l'\.....sv 40 1Clfl\tc» ~ . wO 0. ~ rX'" ~ ~O~~~ 40 """ 0: ~.

~ C~( C).. ~o 70 xz 60 <1:<1: ~a: 50 u..: RfSSURE: E:SS . :i!: ~ ~~C....."a. 11.UJ 20 ~(f) u a: 10 ~O a...'\ ...I 0 a: UJ TOTAL p .- V -' ~ ....1 10 ::::> 100 (f) (f) 90 ~~ 80 ::::> a.'\.. ...:..y . ~1'/.. ~. STATIC PR -. ~. . .. R\'\ ~~ 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ~ 100 PERCENT CAPACITY Figure 3·33 Backward-Bladed Fan Characteristic Curve 3-58 . If / / ~ ~ I'\...... UJ 40 O~ 0 130 . URf 1? ?O\f'J t 'r\O?St _ ~ ~ ~ SiAiICEFFICIENCY..~Ic.

High pressure duct is classified as having a static pressure rating greater than or equal to 3 inches of water. High pressure standards are intended for heavier industrial systems that require additional structural consideration. we are going to discuss the equipment that is used. Leakage is limited to 1 percent. Table 1-1 shows the specific breakdown of the SMACNA PressureVelocity classifications. Low pressure duct design covers pressures up to 2 inches of water.DUcrwORK Air duct is an enclosed conduit through which air is moved from one place to another. Most of the low pressure standards also apply to high pressure work. The following topics will be covered: • • Classification Duct System Accessories Classification Air duct design is broken into high and low pressure classifications by the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA). In this section of the chapter. Table 1-1 SMACNA Pressure-Velocity Classifications SMACNA Standard High High High High Duct Class High Medium Medium Medium Static Velocity Pressure Ion 6" 4" 3" Limits > > > < 2000 2000 2000 4000 FPM FPM FPM FPM Low Low Low Low Low Low 2" 1" as' < 2500 FPM < 2500 FPM < 2000 FPM 3-59 .

the overall efficiency of the HVAC system is increased. Traditionally 2000 feet per minute is used to separate high and low velocity classifications. Turning Vanes Turbulent air flow increases the amount of friction encountered in the movement of air. Splitters and vanes are also used to maintain a laminar flow with uniform pressure distribution when a tee or other fitting is near the downstream side of an elbow. The portion of the flow which travels along the outside edge of the elbow follows the curve of the outside wall. Turbulence occurs when changes in flow direction are encountered. The vanes create a series of smaller elbows which reduce the amount of turbulence. louvers. Figure 3-34 graphically indicates what happens to air flow through a typical elbow. This collision sets up eddies which increase the friction loss. diffusers and silencers. Duct System Accessories Several accessories are used in the process of distributing the air to make the operation more efficient. In some rare instances. 3-60 . By minimizing turbulence. This process is shown in Figure 3-37. vents. To overcome this situation vanes can be installed to direct the air flow around the elbow (Figure 3-35). Air entering on the inside edge continues straight until it runs into the air stream on the outer edge. splitters can be used to actually establish smaller elbows (Figure 3-36).The use of the velocity to classify duct construction and design is not common. Each of these components performs a specified function within HVAC air ducting. Velocity classifications are used to describe the system or individual duct run. The air entering the elbow is laminar. These include dampers. thereby creating laminar flow.

Figure 3-34 Turbulent Air Flow in Elbow Figure 3-35 Reducing Turbulence with Turning Vanes 3-61 .

- RADIUS /' WID/TH tV I /' DEPTH Figure 3-36 Reducing Turbulence with Splitters 3-62 .I~--.

• Figure 3-37 Pressure Distribution with Vanes 3-63 .. • • • • ---.I ~ ~~! ~ I ~~ ~! .

\/'. .. .'~: / PIVOT . . i': ~ . \/\ .1IIIf1'V \ Figure 3·38 Damper Types 3-64 . . . .. - . . -. Three basic types are found in HVAC distribution systems: parallel blade. /\: I . . . \/ ."OE / -.DE /uv' ~ r O\v /. \/\ . ""RALLE L 3D. .Dampers Dampers are used to limit the amount of air low through a duct ·or piece of equipment.\ \/ . OPPOSED Br.. opposed blade and pivot blade. Figure 3-38 shows a schematic representation of each basic type.\ \/\ -\/\ .\ \/.

When parallel blade dampers are in a partially open position they tend to direct the air flow to one side of the duct. Opposed blade dampers are best suited for situation where the air flow (volume) is to be regulated.1 \ '--""-... Parallel and opposed blades have approximately equal forces acting on each side of the rotating axis (Figure 3-40).. ------=:::.""-£)~ ./. Pivot (or splitter) dampers generally are used to direct desired air volume flows at a duct branch (Figure 3-39)./ ______ \ Figure 3-39 Pivot Damper at Branch 3-65 .Parallel blade dampers normally are used when only full-open or fullshut conditions are required. Pivot dampers are not commonly used due to the force required to move the damper. They do not create the uneven air flow that a partially open parallel blade damper does.__ -1 . Instead a mixing or turbulent condition exists. thus causing uneven pressure distribution.

3-66 . Their primary function is to keep rain and snow from entering the building. Figure 3-41 shows a typical louver configuration. Louvers are installed where intake or exhaust air is vented through the external walls. louvered openings are often equipped with screens or mesh to prevent insects.. In addition.. are fixed. birds. They may be ducted or simply used for ventilation. The blades. ( NO EXTERNAL STABILIZING ..INDIVIDUAL PARALLE L O R OPPOSED BLADE AIR FLOW = PIVOT BLADE STABILIZIlIG FORCE '. however.FORCE REQ UIRED ) NOTE: DASHED ARROW INDICATES VELOCITY PRESS URE FORCE VECTORS AT BLADE AXIS IS NOT SHOWN Figure 3·40 Forces Acting on Damper Blade Louvers Louvers are similar to dampers in appearance.. animals and trash from entering the ventilation system.

the term grille applies to a flushmounted grid. The term "vent" is a general expression for any apparatus which permits transfer of air due to pressure gradient.~======I ~l=====l 4"T YP t LOUVC:? BLADE SCREEN OR ME SH Figure 3-41 Typical Louver Configuration Grilles. A typical register is shown in Figure 3-43. Registers and Diffusers At the tenninal ends of an air duct system (where the conditioned air is withdrawn from or introduced to the controlled environment) vents are installed to control the distribution and collection of conditioned air. A typical grille is shown in Figure 3-42 when dampers are added to the duct side of a grille. the assembly is known as a register.fRN1E . 3-67 . In HVAC distribution systems. Grilles and registers are used on both supply and return duct systems.

.I ' I I l. i: [ Figure 3·42 Typical Grille 3-68 . .

. ~ ~ ~ IEEEEEEEEEEB Figure 3-43 Typical Register 3-69 .

~ .When the blades of a grille are arranged so the air flow is spread out and distributed into the controlled environment.. Diffusers may be fixed or adjustable blade variety.\ (I~ l / / " ....... .. "- '\ / I I \ / \\ \ / ~ Figure 3-44 Ceiling Supply Vent with Diffuser and Damper 3-70 . Diffusers are only used on the supply side.. . it is known as a diffuser. Figure 3-44 shows a typical ceiling supply vent with a diffuser and damper.

Other silencing methods include encasing noisy equipment in insulated boxes and lining the inside of the duct with insulation. The most basic of the silencers is an expansion box with the entrance and exit ports skewed as shown in Figure 3-45. therefore. Noise generators produce sound waves at a reduced pressure variance and. impede the movement of discernable noise. devices are installed to baffle and adsorb the sound. SHEST METI\L EOX fLOW ~ AIR ~ W TH I BOARD r N SULAT I O~ r~I S I DE Figure 3-45 Basic Silencer Box 3-71 . To eliminate this noise.Silencers Fans and air flow can create unwanted noise which is carried by the HVAC duct system.

I " . 3-72 . I . It is important that you understand how this equipment is used and how they basically operate. .SUMMARY This chapter has discussed the equipment used in heating. we also looked at the criteria used to select this equipment. . cooling and air-handling in HVAC systems. This information will be of value to you in understanding how a HVAC system operates when all this equipment is used together in a system. Along with this discussion... .

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.... ' . CHAPTER FOUR FIELD INSTRUMENTATION OVERVIEW . .

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Identify the instruments used for measuring the speed of HVAC motors. 5. Identify various temperature ineasurement devices and describe their construction and operation. the student should be able to: 1. altitude. List the electrical parameters measured on HVAC components and the methods used for each measurement. 8. temperature. f. find all other air properties from the psychometric chart. Discuss the operation and applications of the following air flow measuring devices: a. Given two known variables. 7. compressors and fans. 6. e. Manometers Pitot tubes Pressure gauges (magnahelic) Anemometer Smoke devices Venturi tube and orifice plate State the purpose of and methods used for performing duct traverses. Define "dew point" and describe the operation of dew cell measurement instruments. 2. c. 4. and barometric pressure corrections. Perform traverse calculations including actual air flow.CHAPTER FOUR FIELD INSTRUMENTATION OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter. d. . 3. b.

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etc. readout resolution. AIRFLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICES U-Tube Manometer The U-tube (Figure 4-1) manometer is a simple and useful means of measuring partial vacuum and pressure.CHAPTER FOUR FIELD INSTRUMENTATION OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION The instrumentation necessary for HVAC work varies with the extent to which you get involved with the maintenance and testing of HVAC systems. but are usually more expensive. blowers. Like any other tools or equipment. Those tasked with long term test and balance HVAC equipment. accuracy. both for air and hydronic systems.. does not exceed legal limits for noise in the work place. Always follow the manufacturer's recommended intervals for calibration. etc. Modern electronic equivalents with direct digital readout are also available which have several advantages in terms of set-up ease. Many of the instruments we are about to discuss are delicate and require special care in storage. maintenance may also employ vibration measurement equipment in predictive maintenance or noise testing equipment to ensure that the noise from fans. It so universally used that both the inch of water and the inch of mercury have become accepted units of pressure measurements. Instruments for the measurement of air flow. their usefulness depends on proper operation and handling. temperature and electricity are tools of the trade for those who install. oil or mercury. The difference in height of the two fluid columns 4-1 . Some of the instrumentation covered is of extremely simple construction and has been in common use for decades. and perform a cal-check whenever the operation of an instrument is suspect. transportation and use. water flow. rotational speed. A manometer consists of a U-shaped glass tube partially filled with a liquid such as tinted water.

g. WITH Figure 4-1 U-Tube Manometer Equipped with Over-Pressure Traps Inclined/Vertical Manometer The inclined and/or vertical manometer (Figure 4-2) for airflow pressure readings is usually constructed from a solid transparent block of plastic. U-tube manometers are recommended for measuring pressure drops above 1 in. terminal devices. w. w. across filters.denotes the pressure differential. w. and' a vertical scale for reading greater pressures. fans. increasing resolution and allowing more accurate air pressure readings from 0 io 1.0 in. coils. OVER-PRESSURE ~ SHUT·OFF COCKS TRAPS. because of poor resolution in that range. • Figure 4-2 Inclined-Vertical Manometer 4-2 . It has an inclined scale that expands or lengthens the scale for a given amount of fluid displacement.0 in. and sections of ductwork. They are not recommended for readings of less than 1.g.g.

the oil must be at room temperature or the reading will not be correct.g. Micro-Manometer The micro-manometer is used in air system work to read accurately very small differences in pressure.002 in w.001" in . and contains no mechanical linkage.All air pressures are given in "inches of water". . The manometer (or inclined draft gauge) is the standard in the industry. The Pitot tube is of double tube construction. to provide a simple method of determining the air velocity in a duct. This instrument is used with a pitot tube or static probe to determine pressure or air velocity in a duct.g. Pitot Tube Construction The standard Pitot tube. but the most common contains two glass vials about 2 to 3 inches in diameter. and where the pressure has pulsations. This means that although the scale reads in inches of water. It is simple to adjust by setting the piston at the bottom until the meniscus of the oil is on the zero line. shown in Figure 4-3. it is longei than a standard rule. The manometer must be set level and mounted so it does not vibrate. this instrument uses colored oil which is lighter than water. Instead of water. A skilled technician can locate one hook relative to the other within' +0. which means that the air pressure on one end of a U-shaped tube is enough to force the water higher in the other leg of the tube. It can be read accurately down to approximately 0. There are several types used.w. The electronic micro-manometer is somewhat easier to use. This instrument often is difficult to use in the field because of its stability and leveling requirements. The 4-3 .~ The pointed needle or hook is adjusted until the point "dimples" the water surface but does not break the tension. Whenever a manometer is used. consisting of an inner tube which is concentrically located inside of the outer tube." e• . is used in conjunction with a suitable manometer.

..·3 .'·~g5 j%\.fu:~~~.R "'-t / @ ". may be !xlIII uSing the same geometriC proporuons WI!h the e~cep"on thaI the SialiC onhces on sizes larger Ihan standard may not exceed . I'r-----'~.STATIC PRESSURE __ OUTER TUBING 5< 16" 00 .~---2''1 / ___---. 21 sa. SGA.30 c llhe lest duCI diameter INNER TUBING-APPROX. .04 " '" diameter. I "~-----.+~ ..' '0 W a HOLES-O 04" CIA.a§ '.ei' ~' . In no case snail me stem diameter exceed ' .~ ·uT~.dIiHZ::. 1:8"00.jj~. APPROX.~ I ~. 18B& SGA. ' ~" . ' . 4-4 ..' .5" · 16D-------. The ITIInllnUm Pll01lube stem (llameler recogrllZeo unoer IhlS coae shall be .~ t IS" A~ ~+ I - • 8D---~~ .outer "static" tube has 8 equally spaced holes around the circumference of the outer tube.TOTAL PRESSURE Figure 4-3 Pitot Tube Both tubes have a 90 degree radius bend in them located near the measuring end to allow the open ended inner" impact" tube to be positioned so that it faces directly into the airstream when the main shaft of the Pitot tube is perpendicular to the duct and the side outlet static pressure tube outlet connector is pointed in a parallel direction with airflow facing upstream. i : I: c-kL OOA I I .. EOUALlY SPACED FREE FROM BURRS J2 RAO NOSE SHALL BE FREE FROM NICKS ANO BURAS SECTION A-A other-Sizes 01 Pltot lubeS when reqUIred. § §A-~~E. ~[·. 10" .

The relationship between the pressures is expressed by the equation Tp = Sp + Vp. the pitot tube creates a difference of pressure to measure flow (or. This instrument is commonly used with a draft gauge. How Preu uf' is lIIIerled on a Pilot Tube . Per Bernoulli's equation. while the outer tube is the static tube. T. Figure 4-4 Pressure Relationships and the Pitot Tube Pitot Tube Use The Pitot tube is used for the measurement of airstream "total pressure" by connecting the inner tube outlet connector to one side of a manometer. the square root of the difference in pressure is proportional to flow. The inner tube is·sometimes called the impact tube. Tp-. II I I I I I I I I I I I ! .. Figure 4-4 is an exaggerated view of a pitot tube.The pitot tube is actually a head-type flow element which measures fluid flow by creating a differential pressure. fluid velocity). The pitot tube is a most reliable and rugged 4-5 . From Figure 4-4 we can see that the difference between the total pressure (fp) and the static pressure (Sp) is the velocity pressure (Vp). s. --AIRFLOW . manometer or micro-manometer. " s. t . " c= I____ . I· s. and from measurement of airstream "velocity pressure" by connectors to opposite sides of a manometer or draft gauge. showing how it functions inside of the duct. . As we began to explain. ·1 • " ·1 v. s.. for measurement of airstream "static pressure" by connecting the outer tube side outlet connector to one side of a manometer.. or the total pressure tube. . _ _ _ _ "\ . more directly.

..... ·IOW ... "-.. If static pressure. /.. A reasonably large space is required adjacent to the duct penetration for maneuvering the instrument.. velocity pressure... Care must be taken to avoid pinching the instrument tubing.instrument and is preferred over any method for the field measurement of air velocity system total air... and fan outlet velocity pressures.... Several shapes and sizes of Pitot tubes are available for different applications. minimum outdoor air and maximum return air quantities. f' ~'----_.. • "'0' . '0 ~..... fan static pressure./).- . • ~ • .. ". B) Pitot Tube Connections if Airstream is Exhausted from Duct & TP is Positive Figure 4-5 Pitot Tube Connections 4-6 . fan total pressure.. 'U. -. . three draft gauges are connected depending on the specific application. (: / ~~ ../ ...-Lf A) Pitot Tube Connections for Supply Airstream y ". ". and total pressure are to be measured simultaneously.. ' .

_.'" ) (' / " -. .H' uN UIIU llSllIl(l1OII SIIIIC HI"" flOW __ . " ~... • MOl'lOW .... . I' " D) Filter Drop Hook-up Figure 4-5 Pitot Tube Connections (Con' t) 4-7 . IU"... " . "" J C) Pitot Tube connections if Airstream is Exhausted from Duct & TP is Negative '. '''''._ ..~ ...." ".UI .... ... '" ..

. I::::] . FAN . ' 1. . + FAN IMPACT CONNECTION MANOMETER ------- + mPACT CONNF. ... = STATIC CON NECTI ON + [ibx::J MANOMETER F) Fan Static Pressure Hookup Figure 4-5 Pitot Tube Connections (Can't) 4-8 . ...~-... -. I .. \ ..DISCIIARGE INTAKE .CTION E) Fan Total Pressure Hookup DISCHARGE INTAKE IMPACT CONNEC TI ON :. .. . ' i.. . . '..

Care must be taken.. If it is larger. The various connections between the Pitot tube and the draft gauges are frequently made with rubber hose .g. however. 4-9 .v. it frequently is sufficient to measure only two of these three pressures. w. w. supply duct pressures are positive. i In conducting tests.) at standard air conditions Example No. Duct velocity (fpm) Velocity pressure (in. In..g . If the airstream is exhausted from the duct.1 What is the duct velocity when the measured velocity pressure is 0. the total pressure will be positive. Use of Readings Airflow velocity pressure (Vp) readings are obtained which can be converted to velocities within the duct by using the following equation: v = Where: 4005 . clean and free of leaks. the static pressure is negative and the hose connections will depend on whether the velocity pressure is larger or smaller than the numerical value of the static pressure. ? .. since the third one can be obtained by simple addition or subtraction.r . The branch ing out of the rubber hose can be accomplished by the use of a T-tube or by the use of a 4-stem nipple adapter which can be purchased as an accessory to the draft gauge. Caution must be used to ensure that all passages and connections are dry. so that the signs of the various pressures are correct. return and exhaust duct pressures are negative. sharp bends and other obstructions.25 . if it is smaller. the total pressure will be negative (see Figure 4-5).

SI 2. Velocity PrHsure v_.68 0.66 ' .. '600 SO 'SO .. wg. .41 "JO ". 20.28 3." 0.C7 2> .. .10 0.. "' .45 0 . '" 2." .>0. 05" )) . " " .89 2.. .28 2..07 1.02 002 002 ..52 .. velocity pressure" equivalents is often used.37 0.90 ''''' !OSSO Pr. )8" >6..22 0. .32 '900 0. .]9 '29 '"'' "" "" "" " ..600 8950 86" 89" 9000 '" '" <8. .goo '300 """ '92 ' . "" . ] . .78 "2 1. " "" " '''' >2" "" " ' 500 "" '''' ))" "00 . 0.112 2. '56 ".81 Veloetty • 4005 V v ._ 1..51 . '" '89 '55 '50 .26 1.~ . m. .53 '.'" sooo 49S0 ..5 4005 10..512 V elOClly Ve-Ioc.32 '" '03 . " .. " .. . "" 5>" S050 1.67 2» 28' 28' 2.21 0.79 0." ... 0...32 3.24 '25 ...05 3.55 2." .. "" "" 58" 56" . 10 2800 28 .51 "00 1.." .10 1.' .97 '" >200 >2. ". . "" ". "" 82" "00 0... '" U2 '" 1.72 "" " " ...SO 500 Veloci!v Ptt'uur..H '50 0.85 0. - "''' .13 59" '000 6OSO 2..S11 '" '" 2."" . 19 3. '" .. 0. Table 4·1 Velocities vs.. 0 . . 3.59 1." .._ """ .. .0. . 1' '''' JO .25 = 2003 [pm To save time.27 . 10 .32 '" "" "" 625' 6200 ".. '" '" '" 3. . ''05 05 ' 06 '06 .35 1.21 ". Velocity Pressures v...'" 8050 0." "" '<5' '" "" "" "" " 35" ... = V = 4005 .'"' .t 0.'" .95 0.. ... .76 5200 525' 2000 "" "00 )8" 02' 0.95 1." .02 U). '" "._ v.56 0.88 I . '" '"13 0..SSUl'e on. a table like Table 4-1 which lists the "velocity vs.21 '" '" 1." 900 '000 '03 ....85 1. .08 0 ... 2.Solution v = 4oo5. 19 0. .OJ '" .37 '" '" 3. .JOO . '" .0> 25" 28" 2>00 2900 29 .9] V"loeity 22" 2300 2500 2600 "" " 2'" '" 0...08 0.. ''''' . 2.. v ..[V.51 . 0 .01 0. H50 ..'" ')). "" . 2." .OS .29 1.".56 1.. '''' .99 4 .42 0.62 ' . 15 0.43 '" ". 0.'" .no "'9.'" " " " '500 .09 0..." . "... ." . Ig '" '" '" ..... 18 0..62 '''' .goo 58" 58" 202 2.49 0. J2" ..m P'ftsure . ("""')' 4005 4-10 . '". ". (Of) V.0- .. wg.ly P'enur l 'Om . 10 2" ))00 "" " "" "" "" "" "" ))" '"SO 7950 ." ' . . .. .01 0. 0. ' . D. 0." '500 '600 5300 6350 ... )) )5" ')) 0. Velocity on.. 12 "" " "" ." 1. 16 " "" "" "" ''''' 68" '900 69" .01 300 ......." <5.

called a duct traverse. consequently the velocity in the center of the duct will always be greater (assuming no special turbulent motion). changed into velocity readings. What is the airflow rate? Solution Airflow A x V = 30 x 24 x 1825 144 = 5 x 1825 = 9125 cfm Pitot Tube Duct Traverses If the velocity of the airstream under measurement were uniform. the consensus that has been reached on proper technique is described in the following paragraphs and figures that follow. and in the paragraphs that follow.To calculate t e actual air flow (cfm) in the duct. ft. one reading at any point would be sufficient. but here are some general pointers to remember when performing a pitot tube traverse: 4-11 . and averaged for an average duct velocity. However. Since the velocity pressure is seldom uniform. a series of velocity pressure readings are made.2 Area of duct cross-section (sq. the air moving along a duct wall loses speed because of friction. a series of readings must be taken across the duct section . Various industry groups have described methodology for uniform measurements in round ducts (tangential traverse) and square ducts. The cfm is calculated by the following equation: Airflow (cfm) Where: A AxV V Example No.) Average Velocity (fpm) A 30 " X 24" duct has an average velocity of 1825 fpm.

This is fairly common practice in the industry. and ten readings are taken along the vertical axis. the tangential method is the most common traverse.Round Duct Traverses .. PIlOT lUBE STATIONS INOICAIEO B 0 Y ROUND OUCI R[CTANGUlAR DUCT Figure 4-6 Tangential Pitot Tube Traverse 4-13 . For round ducts. as per Table 4-2. R R2> R" etc. Table 4-2 shows the calculated distance from the inside wall to the pitot tube reading point for several duct sizes. The duct is divided into N zones of equal area by concentric circles of radii. as some position multiplier times the radius of the duct. as shown in Figure 4-6.. reading positions are calculated from the center of the duct. The pitot tube should be marked carefully with a China marking pencil or small strips of duct tape to facilitate accurate placement of the tube for traverse readings. A series of ten readings is then " taken along the horizontal axis. Figure 4-7 shows a pitot tube marked for a 20" diameter duct traverse. One practical aspect to be considered is how do you know where the pitot tube is inside the duct? As Figure 4-6 shows.

< for . -1 I ".918 10 .. II 15* 17'/. 23V.~ I I I I I . I I I I I I I I .~ fm markin~ the I'ito l Tube' for 3 tcn ~tation IIner.. I I I I . av. I .-.855 ..1 in(h( .Table 4-2 Calculated Ten Point Pitot Tube Traverses for Round Ducts 12 to 40 in.:i I I i"'''. 13* 14* 13'1. V.083 3 . . 29l. II I> 12~' 11' 12 12* " 0 II> III III 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 • " " " • • 0 0 2\1 211 21> 3V.- . r arr wO lked 10 Ihe ncarC1l cil!hrh •. 1311 1S1i 17\\ 18~ 15'1. I I I . 21f. 1211 6\\ . Irorn Intlde Wlilio Pilot Point Pipe Diameter 1 . 39 IlIC~c c~kulat~t. 13 131\ 29 31 v. In.647 7% 7 .774 8 . I I 7\1 8V.. 36~'. 7\\ 8~ 17 2B'. I Figure 4-7 Marking the Pitot Tube 4-14 ..Yo IOV. 3S 37 z 3 3\\ 3. 511 5\\ lOY. I I I I I MARKINGS I I I I . 24* 26Y. 2011 22'. '" 10 IOV.1. show" are in in(hn di ~t ~'Ke 1(1 Ihe illsidc w~1I I I I I I I I I I I I 1". 2 2 2~ 3 3\-\ 3" 3>1 4V. · ".. lOY. 4V. 11 11 V. 2S1I 27~ 25* 27V. 3V.~ -!"-C .1. 5 511 51. . 811 9 24 II 25'. 22 23'1. 3m'.PITOT TUBE /. I. 34\. 27'4 23'1.~ I . 2911 31 33 34 V.. V.975 12 13 14 IS 16 18 20 22 " z 0 • • • • • > • • " " \I \I \I' I> I> 1 11> I I> 1114 I ~ ".. 9r. II. 11'/.'.. 23% ~ 311 4" 411 4\1 5 SYO SV. 21'1.. 18\\ 20V. "".025 2 . 17 V1 19'h 13" 141(: IS\\ 161> 1811 20V..225 2l\ 5 ..<..' 22 23V. 1I II II • • • x ~ • u 2\\ 211 2V. .. 14'1. 51. 11\1 12v. 41> 411 4. 6Ya 12V. All figure. .. 2S1I 27V. • z 1I II % 2 2V. . 29V. 32\'. 13r. u~c the muhil'l iu . 3 1'1. I I I -\ . Trnern Point Humber Multiplier: Distant. 331. ucts ollit! thi n li<l cd . 611 611 7~ 1811 19* 20V. 81> g'/..146 4 .342 6 .

Find the following: a: Average velocity _ __ b. All velocity pressure readings would be recorded and transferred into velocity values. ~ .0 Figure 4·8 Rectangular Duct Traverse Note that testing/balancing professionals normally use traverse report forms to record test point pressures/velocities and a map of traverse readings to correlate the data and to act as a worksheet for determining reading locations. Sample report forms for rectangular and round duct traverses are included at the end of this chapter.. rectangular duct.. Note that no reading location is more than six inches from another. As with circular ducts.l"'EtH PQflIS- ! • • • • . • • • • • • ! +. added together and averaged.IJl'NG STATIONS IN A _8 J6 . tables are available for square/rectangular ducts which eliminate the need to calculate the reading position.• • • • • • • ~ • • • • • 'NSlfll. +. • -+. I' 1-' +. +. traverse holes are drilled in one wall of the duct in such a manner as to establish equal areas as shown in Figure 4-8 for a 48 in. by 36 in. • -+. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • '8 '"'e ASI. +' -t' 1 . +. SquarelRectangular Duct Traverses For square or rectangular ducts. ~ '7" frvVV' " ~ 0 01° . Example No. • -+...3 The following velocity pressures were obtained by making a horizontal duct traverse of a 20 inch diameter duct. The 48" x 36" duct in Figure 4-8 would be measured at 48 equally spaced stations. and the pitot tube would be marked accordingly to facilitate those readings. • ". Air flow (cfm) _ _ __ l 4-15 .. • over • + .

) Correcting For Non-Standard Conditions Table 4-1 equates velocity pressure to air velocity at standard conditions.) 0.46 0. W.49 V ave.51 0.) 10 Airflow AxV= r 144 xV 3.60 Solution The following velocities were obtained from Table 4-1 and Equation 4-1. 29. The temperature of the air under test obviously affects its density.49 Vp (in. i. W.e.52 0.51 0.50 0.550 = 2855 fpm (a..18 x 2855 = 6229 cfm (b.51 0. Velocity (fpm) 2716 2832 2900 2832 2800 Vp (in.075 lbs/cubic foot. at 70"F.) 0.51 0.60 Velocity 2700 2850 2850 2970 3100 28.45 0. Vp (in.92 in. with a density of .50 0. To correct for air at other than 70"F use the following equation: 4-16 .46 0.G.Vp (in.G. W. W.G.) 0.45 0.55 0.) (fpm) 0. the air becoming less dense as it increases in temperature.52 0.55 0. Hg.50 0.50 0.G. air at sea level.14 (1OZ) x 2855 144 Air flow 2.

075 d Actual Velocity Measured Velocity Actual Air Density at Test Temperature Table 4-3 lists the Temperature-Density Corrections for Dry Air (at 29. f." 21.UI1 E V F'T Ill) 12. DENSIT Y 4 5 ~HSITY _6 .1) 20·)9 .59 l).)5 1. Hg) for various temperatures. 24 )5·.11.)1 500 550 600 1.46 . 44 1.&1 950 1000 n"'•• ~ ••d ~tl<>C"1.0292 .15 1. M (.~ 100 150 200 250 )00 '" .6 5)8 .0)15 .48 .54 1. .1 12·. 4 7 1.0. 24 .0559 . 7J )2.08 1..6. 60 1.00 1.10 15·)6 1.)4 )8.Iu". m~l"rly J1.16 )4' J71 150 800 850 "" "'" "'" 26.98 24 .44 .!8 ·'9 1.)9 288 25·48 .."et.40 1.0651 .42 .71 ' Tn <.41 1. ." . 06 1." ·52 1... 1.0212 ' ''. Table 4-3 Temperature-Density Corrections for Dry Air Atmosphere Pressure 2 DEGREOS FAREHIIEIT ~CREC:S .92 in.1 'ho CO" • • I.5 .27 1. 1? .00°7 .0)1.0282 .04)0 .20 9' 121 1'9 16.99 J4 ." .4 21...IZ 1. 1.5 .0)0) .69 21·95 29·21 )0 .he 1 '." 6 ~1 . l.0462 .1 .. CORREC1'IOH CELSIUS 0 LBS/FTJ O. v where: .on (".0794 4.052) '50 400 450 l?? 204 2)2 260 .00 ·95 .O~2 22. <.0149 .It] '99 421 460 482 ..04 14 . 51 1.62 . .0109 ..51 ·50 .0) 1. .0)58 .0 14. To correct for non-standard air the correction factor in Column 6 is multiplied by the measured velocity.80 0·96 0 .049<> .)8 R"Tto FACTOR' )2 40 .81 .wI>< 4-17 . r "0""'''." .J? .62 17·88 19.0602 )7·8 66. 1.0)28 .om «.0)92 .

Table 4-4 Altitude-Density Corrections for Dry Air at 70°F ALTITUDE.18 6000 . 58 le. 06 1. 00 COflRECTIO N LBS/F1'J .86 28.ull •• d YdOP1~.0550 .87 19. 0510 18.0622 . 01 -1000 Sea l evel 29·92 29·)9 28. )) 27·8.07)5 . 69 1) .1 9 1.. FEET I NCKES MERCURY )1 .89 2). 4-18 . The correction factor from Column 6 is multiplied by the measured velocity.0721 .12 14·)9 1.98 2) .>000 1.0775 .Table 4-4 lists the Altitude-Density Corrections for Dry Air at 70"F for readings taken at other than sea level. d I i. O~9 FACTOR 0 ·913 1.98 .. 0577 .22 21 .86 .. 02 1.09 .21 8000 9000 22.8. Pilol lllbc . 14 1.6 ·'5 .0646 .0600 15. .04 1..60 500 1000 1500 .8) .1 7 1.°5)0 1.)8 20 .0) .0695 .la"d .0708 2000 )COO .87 14.02 or DEN SITY VOLUME IT)/IJl DENSITY RAT I O LO) 1.COO (.) 1. .J) 18.68 "To co .08 16.. Of 1.0670 . 00 1.4a 16..67 I? ..81 14·92 4000 5000 25·84 24 .2 12·90 1) . . (rom col umn b~ I".80 -77 ·7) ·7' 1).12 . mult ipl y 11M: corn:C llon faa o.n:C1 for non·.61 .10 26 .

on 1I0 F nO F IlO F 1'0 F 0.ou o.01 0 0.06} 0. f>d"~ b.O" 11.060 1)..059 O.0S6 200 F !IO r no r iI.on o.. INCHES OF WEIlCUR'I' DEC REES FAHRENHEIT !9 . changes in barometric pressure due to weather conditions..070 0." "" '''' .Ql0 0. '~ prn.Oil 11.0" O H .oss 0. then actual air density can be calculated as follows: Density 1.. Hg) air temp. '" .054 4-19 .U. Barometric Pressure-Density Correction for Dry Air lists the density of air at 25 different temperatures and four different barometric pressures.06! 0.065 0. SO COIlRESPONDINC ALR DENSITI ES " '" '" '" '" ..015 0. and must be corrected for.011 0.u.01' o.010 0.015 0.~".06 5 O.059 o.l 0. Finally. 0.069 0.061 0..066 0. O .010 o.0 14 o. 019 0.05 9 0. .0.\160 0.OH 0.OSI O. COF) + 460" This value for density is then used in our correction equation: v VmX .Ola O.. !O F 0.060 0.1l" 11.069 0..01' O.osa Il.061 0.010 0.325 x barometric pressure (in.01 1 0.O SI 0..on O. 06 1 0..011 1I. will effect the density of the air being tested. etc.OH o. .014 O..) o.019 0. If the barometric pressure at test conditions is not shown on Table 4-5..016 0.011 0.. Table 4-5.06 ' I SO F 16 0 F 110 F "" "" O ..\164 O .on 0.' 1 .00 lI.01 5 o..' . O .OU 0.II6S 1I. 0.066 11.on 0...OH 0.ll6l 0.011 0. The applicable correction factor can be obtained from corresponding densities on Tables 4-3 and/or 4-4.OH 0.01 6 O.062 0 .jO 29 .069 .011 0. ffI .0 0.06 5 11.os! ..1l64 h.064 0.0" n .061 0.06 1 . 061 11.011 0.O !lo r l.0S6 0.011 0.016 0.0" O.0 71 0..on 0.9!" 29.on 0.06 5 0.or "29.075 d Table 4-S Barometric Pressure-Density Correction for Dry Air ""'ROMETIIIC 'Il ESSUIlE.019 0.OS6 UH 1"1.06 0 0. an unknown height above sea level.06 1 0.059 o.OH 0.0' 1 0.

Convert each Vp to velocity in fpm. Total all velocities.15 x 1. 4 An exhaust system's average velocity as read by traverse is 3000 fpm . The system is being tested at an altitude of 4000 ft and the air . Vp. 2. 4. Record the velocity pressures. . From Table 4-4. actual velocity b." . Multiplying both factors: 1. the individual correction factofs are multiplied to obtain a total correction factor. Divide the total of the velocities by the number of Pitot tube readings to find the average velocity. column 6. Example No. Find: the actual corrected air velocity Solution a.:r" ~r temperature measures 250°F. 3.15.242 = 3726 fpm.08. From Table 4-3. 4-20 . column 6. d.242 V = Vm x correction factor v = 3000 x 1. for each point.08 = 1. To summarize: to correct for non-standard air conditions. proceed with the pitot tube traverse as if it were for standard air: 1. the temperature correction factor for 250"F is 1.When correcting for non-standard temperature and barometric pressure conditions. c.. the altitude correction factor for 4000 ft above sea level is 1.

6. To find the barometric pressure where the elevation is known (but not on Table 4-4) use the approximated correction of 0.g.1 inc.14 in.1 inch pressure reduction for each 100 ft. Therefore. 0 to 1. w..5 in. Allow a 2% increase in average velocity for each 10 degrees above 70"F.92 in.g. Hg. Multiply the average velocity by the necessary correction factors to find the actual corrected velocity for the variance in air density. In 2. Multiply the corrected velocity by the duct area in square feet to find the actual airflow in cfm. w. Readings should always be made in the mid-range of the scale and the instrument should be held in the same position as when "zeroed. w. eg: 1780 £t/100 ft x 0. 4-21 . 3.0 in. By using both. Another altitude approximation is to allow a 4% Increase velocity for each 1000 ft altitude above sea level.g. w.g. .5.) are the most commonly used. above sea level. it is possible to measure a pressure drop or rise across components in HVAC systems. Pressure Gauge (Magnehelic) The magnehelic gauge (Figure 4-9) is an easy to use pressure gauge for air system work which has many different pressure ranges from 0 to 0.78 = 28. up to 0 to 150 in.25 in.1. Two different ranges (0 to 0." The "high" pressure connection is used (relative to the atmosphere) for reading positive pressures and the "low" pressure connection for negative pressures. Some rules of thumb for rough calculations: 1. = 1. barometric pressure can be approximate as 29.78 in.

Their useful range is from 200 to 2000 fpm. wind-driven wheel connected through a gear train to a set of recording dials that read the linear feet of air passing through the wheel in a measured length of time. In order to compensate for this. 4-22 .Figure 4-9 Magnehelic Gauge Rotating Vane Anemometer The propeller or rotating vane anemometer consists of a lightweight. The instrument reads in feet. the friction drag of the mechanism is considerable. At low velocities. For this reason. with the least correction in the middle of the range. and 6" sizes being the most common (See Figure 4-10). The instrument is made in various sizes: 3". a gear train that overspeeds is commonly used. a correction factor or calibration curve must be used and the correction is often additive at the lower range and subtractive at the upper range. and so a timing instrument must be used to determine velocity.4". A stop watch should be used to measure the timed interval. Most of these instruments are not sensitive enough for use below 200 fpm . although a wristwatch with a sweep-second hand may give satisfactory results for rough field checks.

The formula for air flow is: cfm = Where: Ftm - A F 2 = = measured anemometer reading in feet free face area of grill in ft2 instrument correction factor (provided by manufacturer) two minute timed interval In the case of coils or filters. It is recommended that two or more traverses be made across the air stream and then averaged. an uneven airflow is frequently found because of entrance or exit conditions. The SMACNA recommends that this variation be taken into account by moving the instrument in a fixed pattern to cover the entire amount of time over all parts of the area being measured so that the varying velocities can be averaged. 4-23 .( Figure 4-10 Rotating Vane Anemometer It has been found that a two minute timed traverse gives better averaging accuracy across the coil face or return air grille than the one minute pass recommended by some industry groups.

The velometer consists basically of the meter. It is not dependent on air density because of the sensing of pressure differential to indicate velocities. 0-1250. Most major air distribution device manufacturers have set up area factors based on its use. The model 6000AP set is an all purpose set which adequately meets the needs of TAB work. except as noted below. the AInor 6000P velometer shown in Figure 4-12 operates on the Pitot tube principle. measuring probes. range selectors. The meter is scaled through the following velocity ranges: 0-300.000 fpm. and connecting hoses. 0-2500. 4-25 . 0-10. pressure exerted on a vane which is free to travel in a circular tunnel moves the vane and causes a pointer to indicate the measured value on a scale. 05000.r Figure 4-11 "Florite" Anemometer Deflecting Vane Anemometer Instead of depending on a swinging vane to deflect and indicate a reading. Note that the instrument is provided and always used with a dual-hose connection between the meter and the probes.

12 Velometer Set 4-26 .Figure 4.

manufacturer-mtEt test-eac4 outle~ along~it_h .becauseJ. the temperature of the element is changed from that which exists in still air.de:6f. and the like. The Pitot tube is used 'to measure velocities in ducts and at return air or exhaust air grilles. The low flow probe is used in conjunction with the 0-300 fpm scale for measuring terminal air velocities in rooms or open spaces. The operation of this instrument depends on the fact that the resistance of a heated wire will change with its temperature.a. The volume of air being supplied or exhausted can be determined using the following formula: cfm = Ai fpm x K factor r ·s!!. The technician must select the K factor for each diffuser type and size from the manufacturer's specification sheet.. r L.factor~omfioW. the diffuser probe. and the resistance change is indicated as a velocity on the indicating scale of the instrument (Figure 4-14). grilles et cannot be_ meas~d withQl:l~ a· Ks. .. f>'"~'1 c.tiQ. The low flow and diffuser probes are shown in Figure 4-13 . and the Pitot tube.Three velocity probes are provided . registers and grilles.~s Hot Wire Anometer I -\JVJ . The diffuser probe is designed to measure the velocity at diffusers.the low flow probe. The low flow probe is directly mounted to the meter without the use of hoses. 4-27 . .. distribll..a.P. spray booths.. fume hoods.l!a.t:' • .as diffusers. I I . and to measure face velocities at ventilating hoods. .~Iticular£instrument and designate the--precise . As air flows over the element in the probe.eh. poiJljs on the diffuser where the instrument probe must be placed..the. . The probe of this instrument is provided with a special type of wire element which is supplied with current from batteries contained in the instrument case.tfactor.

B. Ve loci ty Sensing Po. or grille. obe Colla r (0. Connec ting The connecting leg (D) is mounted into the Range Selector. Log / B) LO·FLOW PROBE (A. Flo w An arrow (A) on the probe serves as a reminder of the direction you must orient the probe and the Meter when taking measurements. horizontally or radially. register. Dlre cl lon Po in te r Figure 4·13 Velometer Attachments 4-28 . and the O-ring acts as a seal.A) DIFFUSER PROBE (A . Snap 0 11 Fins The velocity directional sensing port (A) senses the velocity at the diffuse. (C) P. The snap-off fins (B) allow you to accurately position the probe vertically. 1 . A I. The probe collar (C) acts a s a stop when connecting the probe to the Range Selector.

it is necessary to adjust the meter to a zero setting.Figure 4-14 Hot-Wire Anemometer In addition to measuring air velocity. The probe is quite directional when used for air velocity measurement. to place the probe exactly as indicated by the manufacturer of the grille or diffuser. when used with grilles and diffusers. The meters have several scales. as with other instruments. . The instrument gives instantaneous spot readings and. some instruments can measure temperature. It is therefore necessary to hold the probe at right angles to the air flow and. A device that covers the terminal device to facilitate taking air velocity or airflow readings is called a "flow measuring hood". and the instrument case usually ~as dials or buttons to select the function and range. before taking a reading. An important part of using the instrument is that. a number of readings across the airstream are required in order to determine an average velocity. and also static pressure when a special sensing element is used. The conical or pyramid shaped hood can be used to collect all of the aIr discharged from an air terminal and guide it over flow measuring 4-29 i i.

4-30 2.instrumentation. Hoods generally are constructed so that the outlet tapers down to an area of 1 square foot. An anemometer (velometer) tip is installed in the neck to read cfm directly. The balancing cone should be tailored for the particular job. The large end of the cone should be sized to fit over the complete diffuser and should have a sponge rubber seal to eliminate leakage and to avoid ceiling marks. . artificially imposed. pressure drop in the ductwork branch of the terminal device being measured. regardless of the airflow quantity measured. a hood may permit reading from the floor and eliminate the need for a ladder as does the commercially made hood shown in Figure 4-15. The hood redirects the normal pattern of air discharge which creates a slight. Figure 4-15 Flow Measuring Hood The disadvantages are: 1. aluminum is normally used. To keep weight to a minimum. They should not be used where the discharge velocities of the terminal devices are excessive. When balancing a large number of ceiling diffusers of common size.

When testing for leaks sufficient smoke should be used to fill a volume 15-to-20 times " larger than the duct or enclosure volume to be tested. Some are like the puff from a cigarette and others smoke continuously for a few minutes to a maximum of 10 minutes. These are devices generally used for the study of air-flows and for the detection of leaks. Each one will be described individually. Some of the larger hoods "get heavy" which could lead to inaccurate readings because of leakage due to carelessness and fatigue. HYDRONIC MEASURING EQUIPMENT Table 4-6 shows different types of measuring devices used in hydronic applications. non-toxic smoke readily mixes with air simplifying the observation of flow patterns. the TAB Technician must warn all people within the area so that they are aware of its use. Smoke sticks and candles are convenient in that they corne in different sizes and they provide an indicating stream of smoke. determining the direction and velocity of airflow and the general behavior of either warm or cold air in conditioned rooms.3. Smoke guns are valuable in tracing air currents. 4-31 . Smoke Devices WARNING: Before using any smoke devices. Smoke bombs come in various sizes with different lengths of burning time from which highly visible.

chillers. Same as pressure gauge. When filled with mercury. useful for measuring pressure drops through coils. A manometer of the type used in hydronic systems is available in tube lengths up to 36 inches. or 36 x 0. such a manometer can measure pressures up to 36 in.Table 4-6 Hydronic Measuring Instruments Instrument Recommended Uses Calibration Required Accuracy of Field Measurement U·Tube Manometer Measuring fluid pressure drops through coils. Manometers are. condensers. or 17. Depends on instrument used.491 pounds per cubic inch = 17. The same use as the U-Tube Manometer but for higher pressures. manometers for hydronic use usually contain mercury rather than water or oil.31 = 41 ft. They should not be used for measurements under one inch of water.7 psi. None (Zero adjust ment required for each sel-up) Pressure Gauge By an approved tesl agency every 24 months depending 1/2 of 1% or 1/2 of scate on usage. therefore. and other heat exchangers. Di fferential Pressure Gauge Row Measuring Devices Used for accuracy of measurement in fluid system when installed properly . Same as pressure gauge. also across orifices and venturis. As required by the manufacturer. (See Figure 4-16) 4-32 .g. U-Tube Manometer Since the pressure to be measured in hydronic systems are usually considerably greater than those associated with airflow. Manometers of the type used in hydronic systems. division. usually have considerably greater scales than those associated with airflow. w. condensers and other heat exchangers. chillers.7 psi x 2. also across orifices and vent uris. Hg. l/2o[ l %or 1/2 of scale division..

. it is very objectionable for mercury to enter the water system because it can cause rapid deterioration of any copper (including copper alloys) that it contacts in the system. monel or bronze. alloy steel. . P. L'o . •• .3 +2 Vol ume Whtn Ul1n9 Melcu ry) U Tube (U sually Glau lo r MtlC ufy and Pintle to r Tint ed Wiu d MUlur ~menl o -I Sule tU Tubl Inei St ile Vert ically Movublt w il li RUpet! 10 Each Othtf tor Zero Adjuurn. beyond the range or length of the manometer. . etO te V ~lv t0SIDW I Y ) Sahty Rnt rva". U-tube manometers are ideally suited for differential pressure measurement on a small scale. Tinttd Witt r lor A" li P) -.3·Valvt By pn :! luptn valvu Q)ifldCDwllh Valve(DOp tn. -4 -3 Flu id IMer cu ry lor Wi llI D. Figure 4-16 U-Tube Manometer One objection to the use of manometers is the possibility of excess pressure. IV . Pressure Gauge The calibrated "test gauge" normally has a bourdon tube assembly made of stainless steel.nt) -. Aside from the delay and expense of replacing the mercury. d . and a non-reflecting white face 4-33 . which would blow the mercury out of the tube.

and condenser pressure drops.with black letter graduations. install a pulsation dampener or snubber (available from gauge manufacturers). Pressure ranges should be selected so the pressures to be measured fall in the middle two-thirds of the scale range. In using a gauge. it will be necessary to meaSure a pressure differential. and other flow calibrated devices. Also. 4-34 . apply pressure slowly by gradually opening the gauge cock or valve. The gauge should not ·be exposed to pressures greater than the maximum dial reading. Dial gauges are used primarily for checking pump pressures. A cutaway of bourdon tube pressure gauge is shown in Figure 4-17. and/or to avoid a sudden release of pressure. that is. coil. Reduce or eliminate pressure pulsations by installing a needle valve between the gauge and the system equipment or piping. Test gauges are usually 3-1/2" to 6" diameter with bottom or back connections. if necessary. Differential Pressure Gauge In practically all cases of flow measurement. a balancing device. Many dials are available with pressure. Sfmilarly. if large pulsating conditions occur. vacuum or compound ranges. The test instrument minimum accuracy must be within 1% of full scale. a compound gauge should be used where exposed to vacuum. venturis. and pressure drops across orifice plates. a pressure drop across a piece of equipment. to avoid severe strain and possible loss of accuracy that sudden opening of the gauge cock or valve could cause. chiller. or a flow measuring device.

To measure a pressure differential. the high pressure is applied to the gauge by 4-35 . or inches mercury. With a single gauge connected.( Co nn ecting li nk. inches w. It can be calibrated in psi. Figure 4-18 shows the application of a gauge modification that uses a single standard gauge and eliminates the need for subtraction to determine differential. The gauge glass is calibrated to ft.g. The Differential Pressure Gauge will automatically read the difference between two pressures. and virtually eliminates errors due to gauge calibration. the gauge is alternately valved to the high pressure side and the low pressure side to determine the pressure differential. w. at its outer periphery. During operation. Such an arrangement eliminates any problem concerning a gauge elevations. the gauge glass is left loose so it can be rotated. dual bourdon tube pressure gauge with a single indicating pointer on the dial face which indicates the pressure differential existing between the two measured pressures.g.00 Ca l ib rat ed Sc ale M oveme nt Se ct or Figure 4-17 Bourdon Tube A differential pressure gauge is a dual inlet. 2:.

a pressure drop (see Figure 4-19). If the gauge is of large diameter. fixed area reduction in the path of fluid flow. But the pressure differential must be equated to 4-36 .. the upstream pressure minus the downstream pressure) is related to the velocity of the fluid. the pressure differential (that is. differential pressures can be read accurately to the order of 0. Next. w. In this way. the high pressure valve is closed and the valve to the low pressure side is opened.opening the valve to the high pressure side. and the gauge glass is then rotated so that its "zero" is even with the gauge pointer. You would expect that it would take more pressure upstream to force the fluid through the restricted opening. such as 8 inches. The faster the fluid is flowing.g. therefore. w.g. the more upstream pressure is required.. . The gauge pointer will now indicate a pressure that is directly equal to the pressure differential in ft. Figure 4·18 Single Gauge for Measuring Differential Pressures Venturi Tube and Orifice Plate (Flow Devices) The venturi tube or orifice plate is a specific. deliberately installed to produce a flow restriction and.25 ft.

etc.) or the manometer scale may be graduated directly in the flow rate values. The venturi tube. steam pounds per hour. The flow range may then be plotted on a graph which reads pressure drop versus flow rate (gpm. However. 4-37 . because of the streamlining effect of the entrance and the recovery cone.A TE lDENTIFICA TION TAPPINGS FOR INSTRUM ENT CONNECTIONS o AlA VENT HOLE: LOCATE AT TOP OF HOR IZONTAL PIPE IF CARRYING WI\. produces a lower pressure loss for the same flow rate. pressure drop is not equal to velocity (differential pressure is not velocity pressure). By accurate measurement of the pressure drop with a manometer at flow rates from zero fluid velocity to a maximum fluid velocity established by a maximum practical pressure drop. LOCATe AT BOTTO M (A) OR IFICE PlATE Of PIPE IF ORIFICE IS USED IN STEAM PIPE (8 ) ORIFICE PlATE INSTALLED L_I>-~ BETWEEN SPECIAL FLOWMETER FLANGES FLOWM ETER FLANGES Figure 4-19 Orifice as a Measuring Device The diagrams in Figure 4-20 illustrate the difference between the venturi tube and an orifice plate. ORIFice DIAMETER ORIFICE SIZE PRESSURE ORIFICE Pl. a calibrated flow range may be established. TEA ~ FLOW / ' OI'1IFICE DRAIN HOLE.gpm through the use of the orifice plate in order for the measurement device to be useful..

. '<ow . Annubar Flow Indicator The Annubar Flow Indicator is a flow sensing and indicating system that is an adaptation of the principle of the pitot tube.. '<ow TVRBUlENCE F'1 '"~:==--=-I " I ENTRANCE VENACQH I RAC'A ". but it must then be extremely long.. The modified tube generally provides adequate accuracy with acceptable system pressure losses (still less than the orifice plate for the same accuracy) for environmental systems.MOOIFIED TUBE ~Ull VEN TURIIU9E ORIFM:E ". The upstream sensing tube has a number of holes which face the flow and so are subjected to impact pressure (velocity pressure plus static pressure). RECOVERY ~..20 Flow Meter Types The full venturi tube can be extremely accurate with no appreciable system pressure loss. The downstream tube is similar 4·38 .:..--~ b'~ ~ . VEHlv mlveE ORIFIC E PLATE Figure 4. a modified version with shortened entrance and recovery cones may be employed. Unless such accuracy is required.. and this pressure is transmitted to a pressure gauge.-"IE . in the manner of selecting pitot tube traverse points. An equalizing tube arrangement within the upstream tube averages the pressures sensed at the various holes. The holes are spaced so as to be representative of equal annular areas of the pipe.

These positions usually are graduated on the valve body (as a dial) and the handle has a pointer to indicate the reading. The difference between the two pressures. and has calibrated the device by setting up known flow quantities while measuring the resistance which results from the different valve positions. 4-39 . when referred to appropriate calibration data. will indicate flow in gpm. Figure 4-21 Annubar Flow Indicator Calibrated Balancing Valve Another useful device is the calibrated balancing valve (Figure 4-22). this pressure is also transmitted to a gauge. the pressure drop and the resulting flow.to a reversed impact tube. and senses a pressure equal to static pressure minus velocity pressure at this point. They are similar to ordinary balancing valves. but the manufacturer has provided pressure taps into the inlet and outlet. A differential pressure gauge is used to directly read the pressure differential. The manufacturer then publishes a chart or graph which illustrates the percentage open of the valve (the dial settings). These valves perform dual duty as flow measuring devices and as balancing valves.

Various texts provide charts for standard piping configurations such as that in Figure 4-23. even though some are used only occasionally. and other types described above. Figure 4-22 Calibrated Balancing Valve Specialty devices that cover the entire range of instruments usually prove to be useful. Location of Flow Devices Flow measuring devices including the orifice. 4-40 . and give accurate and reliable readings only when fluid flow in the line is quite uniform and free from turbulence.. venturi.

.j l JQ 2 OIAM~' STRAlGHT[NING V~ E . r..110 0. I • ORIFICE OR ~OW NO~ ~A -+-1 r T 10 B.~... 0. i" W '" ~ cs ~ ~ c c Q2Q c.' el) C \ G\.80 DIAMETER RAnD. ruBE nJRHS OR LONG RADIUS BENDS 01 '" 1 l-' ORlACl OR A.: LONe RADIUS BENDS " 10 .S.J /' :n ~-=tB....f .OW N::../ 2 Dl AM . "..J. 20 ~ w a: :z: . . (C) FOR ORIFlCES AND FLOW NOZZLES FITTINGS IN OIFFEREN T PLANES !3 . ~f \rJ c. LONG ElBOWS OR TUBE lURNS II A a..t ~ ~'..." V I( .'I Figure 4·23 Flow Meter Location 4-41 0~ ~..

Used to measure temperature of air or flu ids.. 1/2 of 1% or 1(2 of scale of division. 4-42 .Pipe fittings such as elbows. valves and other sources of flow disturbance to permit turbulence to subside and for flow to regain uniformity . so that the actual required lengths will depend on the size of the pipe. This applies particularly to conditions upstream of the measuring element. 1/2 of 1% or 1/2 of scale division. TEl\1PERATURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Table 4-7 shows the most common types of temperature measurmg devices. 1/2 of 1% or 1/2 of scale division. and it also applies downstream except to a lesser extent. Requirements will vary with the type of element and the types of fittings at the ends of the straight pipe runs. Every 12 months. The manufacturers of flow measuring devices usually specify the lengths of straight pipe required upstream and downstream of the measuring element. etc. Therefore. wet bulb depression and relati ve humidity. Used to measure surface temperature devices such as pipe or duct. Lengths are specified in numbers of pipe diameters. Glass Tube Thermometers Mercury-filled glass tube thermometers have a useful temperature range of from minus 40"F to 950"F. Pyrometers Psychrometers Used to measure both weI bulb and dry bulb temperatures to delennine Non. ranging from about 5 to 25 pipe diameters upstream and 2 to 5 pipe diameters downstream. Each will be described individually. They are available in a variety of standard temperature ranges. Check: against mercury Ihennomeler. Table 4-7 Temperature Measuring Instruments ~uracy 01 Instrument Glass Tube Thennometers Dial Thermometers Recommended Uses Calibration Required None Field Measurement I/Zof 1% or I!Zof scale division. an essential rule is that flow measuring elements must be installed far enough away from elbows. Used to measure temperature of air or flu ids. create turbulence and nonuniformity of flow. valves. scale graduations and lengths.

This causes the pointer to move over a graduated scale as in a pressure gauge. and bourdon tube.Dial Thermometers Dial thermometers are made in a wide variety of dial sizes. The advantage of this type thermometer is that it can be used to read the temperature in a remote location. resulting in changes in the pressure exerted within the bourdon tube. and they are fairly inexpensive. and temperature ranges. Their advantages are that they are more rugged and more easily read than glass-stem thermometers. capillary tube. Temperature changes cause a . The instrument contains a bourdon tube. and this movement is transmitted. is charged with either liquid or gas.) Figure 4-25 Dial Thermometer The flexible capillary type dial thermometer. 4-44 . Temperature dfunges at the bulb cause the contained liquid or gas to expand or contract. (See Figure 4-25. has a rather large temperature sensing bulb which is connected to the instrument with a capillary tube. the bend or twist of the element. one variety of which is shown in Figure 4-26. by a mechanical linkage. stem lengths. except that the thermometer dial is graduated in degrees. The temperatures sensor consisting of the bulb. the same as in pressure gauges. Small dial thermometers of this type usually use a bimetallic temperature sensing element in the stem.

. so enough time must be allowed for the thermometer to reach temperature and the pointer to come to rest. the stem or bulb must be immersed a sufficient distance to allow this part of the thermometer to reach the temperature being measured. Pyrometers Pyrom~ters normally used in measurements of surface temperatures in heating and air conditioning applications. . knobs to adjust variable resistances. Electric 4-45 . Electric type thermometers have an instrument case containing items such as batteries.! . . ' f • . use a thermocouple as a sensing device and a milli-voltmeter (or potentiometer) with a scale calibrated for reading temperatures directly. and a sensitive meter. various switches. A variety of types. Temperature sensing elements are remote from the instrument case. shapes and scale ranges are available. Figure 4-26 Flexible Capillary Type Dial Thermometer In using a dial thermometer. and connected to it by means of wire or cables. !. Dial thermometers have a relatively long time lag.

When the air is saturated with moisture. good precision. Additionally. It should be remembered that the surface temperature of a pipe or duct is not equal to its temperature and that a relative comparison is more reliable than an absolute reliance on readings at a single circuit or terminal unit. If the air surrounding a wet bulb thermometer is dry. It is the temperature measured by thermometers in the home. no water will evaporate from the cloth wick and the temperature on the wet bulb thermometer will be the same as the reading on a dry bulb thermometer near it.type thermometers have advantages of remote-reading. evaporation from the moist wick will be more rapid than if the air is quite moist. The temperature indicated is known as "Wet Bulb" (WB) temperature. In air-conditioning. and a selector switch. the evaporation of moisture from the wick will lower the thermometer reading. enabling the use of a number of temperature sensors which can be placed in different locations. some electric type thermometers have multiple connection points on the instrument case. and read one at a time by use of the selector switch. Figure 4-27 compares dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature taken at the same place and at the same time. and flexibility as to temperature range. 4-46 . Wet Bulb Thermometer If a moist wick is placed over a thermometer bulb. HUMIDITY MEASURING DEVICES Psychometric Measuremen t Devices Dry Bulb Thermometer Human comfort and health depend a great deal on the air temperature. the air temperature indicated usually is Dry Bulb (DB) temperature taken with the sensitive element of the thermometer in a dry condition.

electric heater. etc. airflow over the wet bulb should be quite rapid. Psychrometer To insure that the recorded wet bulb temperature is accurate. dry bulb and wet bulb. preferably white.or 60 mph are best but dangerous if the thermometer is moved at this speed. The wick on a sling psychrometer must be clean fabric. Then. sun. it will lower the wick temperature.01''1' 8Ul8 ORV BULB WET BULB TEMPERATURE WICI( Figure 4-27 Dry Bulb and Wet Bulb Thermometers However. 4-47 ./min. Errors as high as 15 percent may be made if the air movement is too slow. In doing so. By using a psychometric chart the relative humidity can be found. is called a sling psychrometer (Figure 4-28). or if too much radiant heat is present. Speeds up to 5000 ft. A device designed to whirl a pair of thermometers. This instrument consists of two thermometers. Also. water will evapbrate from the wick. heat will flow from the mercury to the wet wick and the reading will be lower.). The accuracy of the wet bulb reading depends on how fast the air passes over the bulb. a wet bulb and a dry bulb. A hygrometer is an instrument used to measure the amount of moisture in the air. the wet bulb should be protected from heat radiation surfaces (radiator. if the air is not saturated.

A battery operated aspirating psychrometer is shown in Figure 4-30. There are certain places in which it is difficult to spin the psychrometer (narrow passages... c.. an aspirating psychrometer (Figure 4-29) is used. Sling psychrometers come in a variety of sizes. to get accurate measurements. Therefore.weT BULB j i .a. a clean wick should be used. 4-48 . etc.). To obtain accurate results in these places. there is likely to be deposit of lime substances on the wick. Also. t DRyaULB -- ~ Figure 4-28 A Sling Psychrometer Because evaporation is taking place from the surface of the wick.. use distilled water on the wick. With this instrument the air sampled is blown over the wet and dry bulb thermometer by suction created by an air pump. It has illuminated thermometer scales and a fan which draws air over the thermometer bulbs..

Figure 4·29 Aspirating PSYChrometer Battery Powered Aspirating PSYChrometer 4-49 .

Many HVAC systems use dewcells to monitor humidity to measure their effectiveness or to provide an input ' 0 their controls. In many industrial processes. the dew point o· instrument air systems is often monitored for this reason. In power plants: dewcells are often used to monitor remote.Wick-Type Dewcells The principle of operation of the Lithium Chloride Wick-type dewcell is derived by moisture determination. inaccessible areas for steam leaks and to monitor for cooling system leaks in generators with hydrogen/water cooling systems. Dew point temperature measurement is performed for many reasons in industry. Dew point sensors are available"iii many different styles. This is a result of the air temperature outside falling below the dew point during the night. based on several different operating principles. These are three of the most common types of dew point measuring devices in use: Lithium Chloride wick-type (Foxboro) Capacitance Probe (panametrics) Chilled Mirror (General Eastern) . 4-50 . The principle is based on the fact that for every water vapor pressure. in contact with a saturated salt solution. The dew point temperature is an indication of the moistur . there is an equilibrium temperature. the salt solution absorbs moisture. Moisture in the instrument air system can freeze in the ports of instruments and shut down an entire plant. the saturated salt solution dries out until the only crystals are left. nor gives up moisture. You can easily observe this on a cool morning when you walk outside and see water on the lawn.Dew Point Dew point is defined as the temperature at which a given sample of moist air is fully saturated and begins to deposit dew. Below this equilibrium temperature. Above this equilibrium temperature. the dew point is a more significant measurement than relative humidity. content of many gases. At the equilibrium temperature the salt solution neither absorbs.

A wick-type dewcell is shown in Figure 4-31.. the salt absorbs moisture from the atmosphere. BOBBIN GOlD HEAnNG ELEJ. . The RID measures the equilibrium temperature which is the dew cell element temperature. and impregnated with lithium chloride. .-------------..-. The typical element is a thin-walled metal socket (to fit over an RID) covered with a woven glass tape. the RID contained in the dewcell can be calibrated using normal RID calibration procedures. . ! I. The dewcell itself cannot be calibrated. If the temperature of the dewcell element is below equilibrium. A low voltage (25 VAC) alternating current is supplied to a pair of gold wires wrapped over the tape.AENT WIRES FlBERGlASS • WICK • . The conductivity of the solution on the tape between the gold wires increases. 4-51 i . . . An RID is mounted inside the dewcell over which the socket. and as a result. RID BODY TERI.4INAnON HEAD FOR RID LEADS ANO +2SV TO HEATER t I Figure 4-31 Foxboro Dewcell Next temperature of the dew cell element raises to the equilibrium temperature. The dewcell element temperature is converted to dew point temperature using a chart supplied by the manufacturer...--~ btfuiimrmmnl---.. Normally. tape and gold wires are mounted.. current flows between the gold wire "heating elements". response time of the dewcell is approximately 10-15 minutes for a 25° step change. r . however. I ..

water vapor is rapidly transported through the gold layer. When the sensor is placed in a water containing environment. which provides a porous aluminum oxide layer and a very thin layer of gold evaporated over the aluminum strip.Capacitance Probe Dewcell The capacitance probe type dewcell operates similarly to the lithium chloride dewcell. Figure 4-32 Capacitance Probe Construction The sensor in a capacitance probe system consists of a specially anodized aluminum strip. The Panametrics hygrometers are typical of capacitance type dew point measurement systems. The aluminum base and the gold layer form the two electrodes of what is essentially an aluminum oxide capacitor. 4-52 . The equilibrium reached on the aluminum strip is related to the vapor pressure of the water in the atmosphere. The capacitance probe dewcell is shown in Figure 4-32. The water vapor reaches equilibrium on the porous walls of the anodized aluminum strip.

uSTNENT (OUlPUT BIASED TO CHili MIRROR 'llttEN a. The chilled mirror type dewcell is shown in Figure 4-33.--=~=--.lOEl..£AR) r-t--lJ. .W.OPTlCAl BALANCE AQ..r--j---j CONTROL AJ. . Each value of the porous wall resistance provides a distinct value of electrical impedance which is a direct measure of the water vapor pressure. Chilled Mirror Dewcell The chilled mirror type dewcell manufactured by General Eastern is typical of the optical-thermoelectric humidity analyzers or "chilled mirror" instruments available for dew point determination.£ClR1C HEAT PUMP ORI\I{R Figure 4-33 Chilled Mirror 4-53 .IPUFlER -~~~~rrr~~~~~~~~~~~~~~SAJ..The number of water molecules absorbed on the oxide structure determines the conductivity of the porous wall . TRANSOU(. . Solid state circuitry is used to measure the impedance and provides an output in dew point temperature.. It is also known as an optical condensation hygrometer..l~GAS •••••• ••••• •••••• ••••• • ••••• • ••••• •••••• • ••••• lfD REGULATlON FRON OOPOINT 'JEr.'t-.[R THERl. .

The saturation pressure of pure water is a temperature dependent variable. Dew density increases to a point where an equilibrium condition exists and the optical bridge is balanced. and tracks the first opto-electronic pair over sensor (ambient) temperature. A second LED/photo transistor optical circuit completes the bridge circuit. Measurement of the mirror surface temperature at equilibrium establishes the dew point temperature. At equilibrium no additional evaporation or condensation occurs. The amount of mirror cooling is therefore proportional to the difference in "photo current" (output of the optical circuits). reducing its current output. The optical bridge circuit is intentionally imbalanced for maximum mirror cooling when the mirror is dry. a light emlttmg diode (LED) illuminates the mirror surface. A control circuit amplifier amplifies the difference in "photo current" and drives the thermoelectric cooler.In a chilled mirror type dewcell. The units involved in such measurements are: Voltage . ELECfRICAL MEASURING DEVICES Volt-Ammeter The testing. balancing and adjustment of a mechanical system requires the measurement of voltages and electrical currents as a routine matter. A photo transistor is located to observe the reflection. At equilibrium the mirror temperature is maintained at the point where the saturation vapor pressure equals the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air.volts Current . The mirror is cooled by the thermoelectric heat pump to the point where dew forms.amperes 4-54 . the formation of dew reduces the light seen by the photo transistor observing the mirror reflection. The power to the thermoelectric heat pump is proportionally reduced.

clamp-on transformer jaws which permit current readings without interrupting electrical service. Most normally have several scale ranges in amperes and volts. Some of the volt-ammeter models are also furnished with a built-in ohmmeter.-". Two voltage test leads are furnished which may be quick connected into the bottom of the volt-ammeter. Figure 4-34 . The instrument should be calibrated by an approved test agency every 6 months.The clamp-on type volt-ammeter is the type usually used for taking field measurements.ml?-'-Jn Volt-Ammeter Figure 4-35 Measuring Amperage 4-55 . The clamp-on type volt-ammeter shown has trigger operated. and it should be checked against a recently calibrated on each project.

should be taken as a warning that the dielectric strength may be low or may be decreasing to the point where the insulation will rupture at the service voltage. Insulation resistance is the resistance to current leakage through and over the surface of insulation. Dielectric strength is the ability to withstand potential difference and is usually expressed in terms of voltage at which the insulation fails due to electrostatic stress. extremely low values of insulation resistance. it is advisable to promptly report high or low voltage situations. A drop in the voltage will cause a rise in the current and can cause the overload protectors on the starter to "kick out". Insulation resistance can be measured without 4-57 . but which should be close to each other. several things can occur. However. Whereas individual insulation resistance monitoring is of limited use. In either case. If the average voltage delivered to the motor varies by more than a few volts from the nameplate rating of the motor.each of which will likely be a little different. A rise in voltage may damage the motor and will cause a drop in the current reading. especially when measured values have decreased sharply or steadily over a period of time. a carefully maintained record of periodic measurements accumulated over months and years of service is a trendable history of the · insulation's condition. Maximum dielectric strength values can be measured only by testing to destruction. These are two different and distinct properties of insulation and no simple relation between them has been found. For practical purposes they may be averaged. Insulation Resistance Monitoring Insulation resistance monitoring has been recommended and used for more than half a century to evaluate the condition of electrical insulation. Two Fundamental Properties of Insulation Two properties of insulation are dielectric strength and insulation resistance.

The one minute test may be performed 1) when the insulation resistance is assumed low due to adverse operating condition. one from each motor winding phase to ground. Clean. but is. not entirely conclusive.damaging the insulation and furnishes a highly useful guide for determining the general condition of insulation. 2) before start up after being secured for an extended period of time. usually six months to a year. 3) on a scheduled annual basis along with the ten minute test to compute the polarization index and trend the insulation condition. 4-58 . and 4) during a drying out process to determine progress (see Figure 4-36). by itself. If all of the readings are above acceptable minimum insulation resistance values. The one minute test is used as a quick evaluation of the insulation condition. Factors Affecting Insulation Resistance Insulation resistance measurements are affected by several factors: Surface conditions Moisture Temperature Magnitude of test direct potential Duration of application of test direct potential Residual charge in the winding Measuring Insulation Resistance There are two types of insulation resistance tests 1) a short-time test or one minute test and 2) a comparative short-time test or a ten minute test. These limitations of insulation resistance values must be fully realized when the condition of insulation is appraised by such values. Usually three readings are taken. the motor is considered operable for a preselected period of time. Measurements have shown that insulation resistance measurements at moderate voltages may actually increase after the insulation has been broken down by a high potential. dry insulation having cracks or other faults may show a high value of insulation resistance but obviously is not suitable for use.

Conditions for Measuring Insulation Resistance The conditions for performing insulation resistance testing will vary..100 80 ~ Cl " :I: ui u ~ " z . the conditions below should be met: 4-59 . compared. also provides a highly reliable evaluation of the motor insulation condition and can be charted. which is the ratio of the ten minute to the one minute test.0 OR MORE 40 " <t" ~ " -' ~ :J 20 Z 0 0 20 40 60 TIME. .." «-<. Whenever possible. .:: a: w ~ 0 w 60 ~.. The technique for the ten minute test is essentially the same as the one minute test except that the test is performed for a longer period of time. " z 0 . ~ POLARIZA TlON INDEX I 2.. and interpreted to determine maintenance action and frequency of inspection. The ten minute test. HOURS 80 100 Figure 4·36 Drying Process of a Class B Annature Winding The ten minute test is used with the one minute test to compute the polarization index. taken annually..

It is often desirable to make insulation resistance measurements when rotating equipment is subject to centrifugal forces similar to those occurring in service. When data is being trended. it is not always possible to duplicate conditions. The test can be performed immediately after the machine is taken out of service and while it is still rotating. In certain cases. values be converted to a 40"C basis. they can be factored into the review. These precautions should include a tagout of the circuit breakers using a mechanical means to prevent accidental energizing of the equipment. that is. when a small amount of current is passed through the winding to allow it to warm up and dry out. but if major deviations are recorded with the data. The winding temperature sliould be at least a few degrees above the dewpoint to avoid condensation of moisture on the winding insulation. it is practical to make periodic insulation resistance measurements while machines are rotating on shortcircuit dry-out. Along with the test results. This permits easier and more accurate comparison. It is also important that. Test records of a given machine should indicate any special test conditions. It is not necessary that the machine be at a stand-still when insulation resistance test are made. the following information should be recorded: 4-60 . However. precautions should be taken to avoid damage to equipment or injury to personnel. every effort should be made to conduct the test under the same conditions. Whenever machines are rotating during measurement of insulation resistance.The insulation surface must be clean and dry if the measurement is to provide the information on the condition within the insulation as distinguished from surface condition. when comparing insulation resistance of machine windings.

the motor data and past history can be reviewed to give an idea of what to expect and warn of past problems. Before performing the test. Direct-indicating ohmmeter with self-contained rectifier using an external alternating-current supply. [ 4-61 L . Testing Guidelines Generally two electricians carry out the one minute or the ten minute tests. Resistance bridge with self-contained galvanometer and batteries.Motor nameplate data Winding temperature Ambient temperature Relative humidity Condition in the area Whether the motor was in service prior to the inspection Maintenance actions taken Instruments Direct measurement of insulation resistance may be made with the following instruments: Direct-indicating ohmmeter with self-contained hand or powerdriven generator. both disconnects and circuit breakers should be opened and tagged (see Figure 4-37). Next the applicable motor and related electrical equipment should be identified and completely disconnected from all power sources and tagged. Direct-indicating ohmmeter with self-contained battery. Where possible.

._J rI I I I I I I I I __ _ . i 600A CB -1---..L._-l-I_ I I I I DISCONNECT SWITCH (UN FUSED) -..---t~..-tI I L_ -.. ~ MOTOR FLOOR-MOUNTED CONTROLLER -..460 V ~ r.----O+-110VC01L I L_ 200 HP MOTOR 500 V MEGOHMMETER Figure 4-37 Meggering Diagram 4-62 ..

4-64 . in rms kilovolts.The insulation resistance readings obtained are adjusted for the test method and then for temperature. MINIMUM VALUES AND FREQUENCY OF INSULATION RESISTANCE TEST Minimum Insulation Resistance Value Presently. A significant drop in readings indicates failing insulation and can predict maintenance actions. to 40°C. Total winding tested . kV = rate machine terminal to terminal potential.no reading adjustment Each phase tested/others ground . This value is for a 460 volt motor.divide reading by three . Readings taken on a scheduled basis can be plotted for trending the winding's insulation resistance. . The IEEE Standard 43-1974 recommends calculating the minimum value from: kV + 1 where: recommended minimum insulation resistance in megohms at 40°C of the entire machine winding. the acceptable industry practice permits one megohm as the absolute minimum value of insulation resistance. Trending of readings is more important than single readings. Motors with higher rated voltages will have a higher minimum insulation resistance value.divide reading by two Each phase tested/others on guard circuits . so they can be compared with the insulation resistance recommended minimum value of the complete winding.

This information should be requested at the time of purchase. .5 For Class B (130"C): 2.. Causes for question may be operating in adverse conditions or standing idle for long periods of time. L . made and kept under uniform conditions. special motors may have winding resistances lower than the recommended since special materials may be used in the insulation.. The minimum value of polarization index for alternating current and direct current rotating machines recommended by the Institute of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers is: For Class A (105°C): 1.0 r Classes A. In addition. Insulation resistance history of a given machine. Interpretation of Results L . Also..0 For Class F (155°C): 2. Insulation that is subjected to higher temperatures will have an increased rate of thermal aging. l The current industrial practice is to test motors annually using both the one minute and ten minute tests.Note that the IEEE recommended value is always a value larger than one and increases for machines with higher terminal to terminal potentials. The results are recorded for trending and the polarization index is computed. motors are tested using the one minute test anytime the insulation resistances value is in question. 4-65 . . The minimum insulation resistance value may be established by the manufacturer. Band F correspond to the insulation cl~ssification system that correlates the limiting temperature for that insulation. The actual complete winding insulation resistance to be used when comparing to the calculated value must be corrected to 40"C. is recognized as a useful way of monitoring the insulation condition (see Figure 4-38). Frequency of Inspection .

the observed insulation resistance may be somewhat lower than that of a similar machine which is untreated. In some cases. Figure 4·38 Insulation Resistance History 4-66 . high voltage. it is not normally considered good practice. • It is recognized that it may be possible to operate machines with values less than the recommended minimum value. will provide lower values.When the insulation resistance history is not available. / "L-_'-_'-_-:---: " nUl IYIA"S) .cable).the recommended minimum insulation resistance value obtained from RM = kV + 1.. however. recommended minimum values of the polarization index or of the one minute insulation resistance may be used to estimate the suitability of the winding for an over potential test or for operation. The one minute insulation resistance (corrected to 40°C) should be at least · that · of . When the end windings of a machine are treated with a semiconducting material for corona elimination purposes. special insulation material or designs. not injurious to the dielectric strength. These special cases should be identified by the motor vendor (Semi-conductor.

The speed is usually determined in revolutions per minute. One basic difference between the different types of tachometers is that some read directly in revolutions per minute (rpm). In application where the machine is vital. may be compared 'with the recommended minimum value of insulation resistance for the complete winding. 4-67 . having been well above the minimum value. drop appreciably to near that level.The insulation resistance of one phase of a three-phase armature winding with the other two phases grounded is approximately twice that of the entire winding. Each will be discussed independently. the observed resistance of each phase should be divided by two to obtain a value which. If each phase is tested separately and guard circuits are used on the other two phases not undeJ test. while others are primarily revolution counters that must be used with a timing device such as an accurate stop watch. the observed resistance of each phase should be divigrd by three to obtain a value. For insulation in good condition. in dependability. insulation resistance readings of 10 to 100 times the value of the recommended minimum value of insulation resistance (RM) are common. may be compared with the recommended minimum value of insulation resistance for the complete winding. after correction for temperature. The several types of tachometers (fable 4-8) described below vary in cost. Therefore. which. when the three phases are tested separately. after correction for temperature. ROTATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS A tachometer is an instrument used to measure the speed at which a shaft or wheel is turning. it has been considered good practice to initiate reconditioning should the insulation resistance. and in accuracy of results obtainable.

Tachometers.Table 4-8 Tachometer Types Revolution Counter (Odometer) The revolution counter is a small hand-held counting device that is pressed to the center of a rotating shaft for a time period of from 30 to 60 seconds. This instrument cannot normally be rest to zero. so that the measured shaft speed is the difference between the initial and final instrument readings divided by the time interval. Reasonable accuracy can be obtained by using a good watch with a sweep-second hand where a stop watch is not available. Centrifugal This type of instrument contains a centrifugally operated mechanism that is similar to the fly-ball governor on a stationary steam engine. Many revolution counters cannot be used on shafts with flat ends.) Some types feature a clutch engagement in which a certain amount of force is required to activate the recording mechanism. (Slip and inaccurate readings are inev itable. or the governor on a gasoline engine. The instrument is held in contact with the 4-68 . All must be used and coordinated with an accurate timepiece.

directly in rpm. the tachometer may be removed from the shaft and read. Some instrument spindles must be rotating in order to be reset without damage. This sets the meter hand to zero. -. its tip is placed in contact with the rotating shaft. and a stop watch or other time device is not required. 4-69 . After the meter hands have stopped. • . Figure 4-39 Centrifugal Tachometer Tachometer. which then rotates the tachometer mechanism and moves the pointer to give instantaneous indication on the dial. winds the stop watch movement.rotating shaft. To take reading. usually six seconds. After a fixed time interval. In using this type of tachometer. the counting mechanism is automatically uncoupled so that it no longer accumulates revolutions even though the instrument tip is still in contact with the contact with the rotating shaft. and the reading will be directly in rpm. the push button is pressed and then quickly released. and then simultaneously starts both the revolution counter and the stop watch. the smaller one indicating one graduation for each complete revolution of the larger pointer. The tachometer spindle will then be turning with the shaft but the instrument will not be indicating. The meter face has two pointers and two dials. This type of tachometer will indicate properly regardless of the rotation of the shaft. Chronometric The chronometric tachometer combines a revolution counter and a stop watch in one instrument.

or rpm. The stroboscope does not need to make contact with the machine being checked. and their frequency is adjustable by turning a knob on the stroboscope. the part will be seen distinctly only once each cycle. The corresponding frequency. Electronic The Stroboscope is an electron ic tachometer that uses an electrically flashing light. The light flashes are of extremely short duration. but need only be pointed toward the machine so that a moving part will be illuminated by the stroboscope light and can be viewed by the operator. When the frequency of the flashing light is adjusted to equal the frequency of the rotating machine. The frequency of the flashing light is electronically controlled and adjustable. When the frequency of the light flashes is exactly the same as the speed of the moving part being viewed.Figure 4·40 Chronometric Tachometer Tachometer. 4-70 . the machine will appear to stand still. can be read from a scale on the instrument. and the moving part will appear to stand still.

It weighs only about two-and-a-half pounds.200 on the 0-12. Its calibration can be continually checked on most jobs by directing its beam to a fluorescent light and comparing the indicating reading against 7. 4-71 . it produces a direct rpm reading on the dial indicator on the instrument's face.000 rpm. The instrument in Figure 4-42 has a dual range of 0-2. It is completely portable and is equipped with long-life mercury batteries for its light and power source.400 rpm and 0-12. by use of a transistorized computer circuit. Several features make it adaptable for use in measuring fan speeds. or eye. Photo The photo tachometer is a relatively new concept in rpm measurement: The instrument uses a photocell.000 rpm scale. which counts the pulses as the object rotates.Figure 4-41 Stroboscope Tachometer. Then. It has good accuracy and any error can be reduced by using more than one marker on the rotating device. with case and batteries.

Larger facilities use vibration measurements as the basis for predictive maintenance programs. Causes of displacement or vibration in HVAC equipment include the following: 4-72 .thereby reading the speed as it is. It is easy to use. It also has good application for use on equipment rotating at a high rate of speed. not average speed . It is good instrument to use on in-line fans and other such equipment where shaft ends are not accessible. It indicates instantaneous speeds. One need only place a contrasting mark on the rotating device by using chalk or colored tape.Figure 4-42 Photo Tachometer The photo tachometer does not have to be in contact with the rotating device. VIBRATION MEASUREMENT Vibration Probe A vibration probe is used to indicate the displacement of rotating equipment in an HVAC system. and easy to read.whether constant or changing .

71 ~ i I . r. Once a problem is detected. analysis is performed using more sophisticated equipment..anti-friction type Torque variations Electromagnetic forces Hydraulic forces Looseness Rubbing Resonance Dirty Blades The vibration probe and meter cannot determine the problem but does provide the data which indicates changes since the last reading. r Unbalance of rotating parts Misalignment of couplings and bearings Bent shafts Worn.. Typical meters for vibration probe analysis are shown in Figure 4-43.::. eccentric or damaged gears Bad drive belts and drive chains Bad bearings .:. • Figure 4-43 Vibration Meters 4-73 I - .

The key item of a vibration pickup probe is the crystal.. This action of generating a voltage from the force or pressure is the principle used in the piezoelectric crystal.LEDWITH SILICONE Dill -------~ -------- __ . The crystal is a dynamic responding sensor and is not suitable for steady-state conditions. deforms which causes an electrical potential proportional to the applied force or pressure... --- -- /" .."l IRON CORE THAIADI.. it only responds on a vibration pulse or change. when subjected to pressure caused by vibration... ".. therefore. A magnet may be used to attach the probe to the rotating equipment.IOOV CAS! } OUll'UT LEAOS Figure 4-44 Vibration Probe Schematic Representation 4-74 . Other probes are permanently attached and provide constant readings that are monitored.. (COY CURRENT P"OXIMITY PROIIE MAGNET...IFIL.". The crystal... CASE COIL "RINO VELOCITY PICKUP CONNECTOR PINS oOLCH'. Piezoelectricity is a property of nonconducting solids which have a crystal lattice structure that does not have a center of symmetry to produce voltage. CRYSTAL ACCiLIEAOMITlR 1 .>NVoN CONNECTOR'INI .

When combined with analysis of the frequencies at which these vibrations occur. Preventive maintenance requires periodic vibration and noise analysis. The vibration probe may also be attached to a tripping device should equipment vibrations become excessive. when compared with each other and/or with their previous values. These points are the best "transmitters" of the machine's vibration. Factors which may affect the accuracy (or desired ability) of these methods are given immediately after the list. Methods for applying the pickup are listed below. can provide important clues as to type or magnitude of possible problems. the source of the vibration can be pin-pointed to the source of the problem. These points are the best "transmitters" of the machine's vibration. and "Horizontal". Sometimes each bearing will have a permanently affixed vibration probe which will feed information to a vibration monitoring panel on the status of each bearing. Chapter 6 covers frequency analysis in more detail. These positions are "Axial". will usually be at the bearings which support the major rotating component(s). The permanent probe is typically held to the equipment by a threaded connection while the hand held probe is held to the equipment by a magnet. "Vertical". A vibration probe using this principle may be found on large forced-draft fan bearings. At a given measurement point (or bearing) on the machine. three "standard" measurement positions of the pickup may be used. Measuring Vibration The most significant vibration measurement points using the vibration meter. and should be studied carefully. or on solid machine structure as near the bearings as possible. The vibration test is important to the maintenance program in that vibration is a good "machine-health indicator". 4-75 .Typically the output from the crystal goes to an amplifier which then transmits a usable signal for indication or control. The three measurements.

Attached to machine with vise grip holder or magnetic holder (optional pickup accessories).don't "lean" against the pickup. If machine structure forces you to use an "unusual" position. make a practice of always placing the pickup in a reasonably true horizontal or vertical plane when conditions permit. Methods of pickup will vary with machine RPM and pickup device. When taking repeat measurements. The following is an example of speed limits (due to "resonance" limits of the pickup accessories).700 rpm 720 to 16. or 2. Installed on 1/4-28 stud welded on or threaded to machine part. since a change in relative position can cause a change in the comparative measurements. Keep the pickup as steady as possible while taking the meter reading. with pickup directly against vibrating part. it is important to use the same relative pickup position each time. (Mounting surface must be flat and stud square with surface to ensure good readings. To ensure "repeatability" when using methods 1. use just enough force to prevent any chattering between the part and the pickup (or probe) .1.200 rpm .. APPLICATION METHOD SPEED LIMITS Attached with vise holder Hand-held. be sure to repeat that position for later measurements at the same point. Repeat measurements of a given .point are taken to show an change in machine condition by comparing the measurement values. probe Attached with magnetic 4-76 720 to 8. Hand-held.000 rpm 720 to 37.) 3. When hand-holding the pickup (with or without probe installed). 2. with 9-in.

This means that small vibrations occurring at high frequency are easier to detect if velocity measurements are used. This measurement of displacement is normally expressed in mils. For instance. a vibration displacement of 0. 3. The velocity for 0. 6. in the same meter reading when the frequency is 1800 cpm as it does at 18. 5. 8. Attach a gauge manifold. 2. Discharge systems refrigerant charge. If repairs requiring opening the system are needed. Evacuate and dehydrate system. 4. Evaluate performance of system. Because the velocity is a function of both displacement and frequency.Measuring Displacement Vibration can be measured in terms of how far the part moves back and forth. Charge system with oil and refrigerant. GAUGE MANIFOLD In troubleshooting and repairing a refrigerant system.000 cpm.094 in/sec.1 mil at 1800 cpm is 0. This is called the peak-to-peak displacement or simply the displacement.000 cpm the velocity is ten times as large or 0.0094 in/sec but at 18. Since troubles such as bad bearings and gears cause vibration at high frequency.1 mil results. Pressure test system. the steps below should be followed: 1. Open system and make repairs. velocity measurements are extremely valuable . This is called the peak velocity and is measured in inches per second. Measuring Velocity The vibrometer can also measure the vibration in terms of how fast the part moves. continue to next step. 7. Evaluate repairs made and trim the refrigerant charge. it provides an added sensitivity to high frequency vibrations. 4-77 .

moisture or dirt to enter. See 4-47C. See Figure 4-470. The manifold and connecting lines must be purged before the system service valve is opened or before the piercing valve stem makes an opening in the tubing. Some do not have any service valves but do have a process tube. Some have a process tube too short or not reachable. The procedure for connecting gauge to a system depends on the system design. It checks the different pressures in the system so that a technician can pinpoint problems. Some systems have both a suction service valve and a discharge serv ice valve. Some have a suction service valve adaptor mounted on the compressor.All maintenance performed will include some of these steps. The lines. See Figure 4-47. Using the Gauge Manifold The gauge manifold is a device that is used to evaluate a refrigerant system. The primary tool used in diagnosing the problems in a refrigerant system is the gauge manifold. A typical gauge manifold is shown in Figure 4-45 with a schematic shown in Figure 4-46. one must keep the system clean. See Figure 4-47B. the suction line or both. To check the pressure in a system. gauges and manifold must be free of dirt. 4-78 . gauges must be connected to the system without allowing air. It is different for each system. In such systems it is necessary to attach a piercing valve to either the liquid line. See Figure 4-47A. When connecting refrigerant lines or gauge manifolds to any refrigerating system. moisture and air. The manifold should be purged with the same refrigerant as is used in the system.

Figure 4-45 Gauge Manifold MII:M 'IInsulU I:&UI:I \ (OM"ICTIOH '0 IITIIIII. 1U'"Ic:lIUHT (YUHO" OIl.U5111111: '1. .. .' e ' l"O f' ll. ..'''C Uo.1. .110 Figure 4-46 Gauge Manifold Schematic 4-79 . COMUINII 'UIIIOII.IIII 'I.f .

0 ~. t ~ ~rTJ• . open valve B and then open cylinder line valve E just a little. f."" ..."... • o'e'c . I... C '0' eO"'"(HO' 1 \-- OCfU lUll c co.::.... It also permits one to check both the low side pressure and the high side pressure..~ '.. 4·80 ..0"'0' --ct.. Referring to Figure 4-48 the most popular way to purge the service lines is to loosen the line fitting on the system service valve at C. ~ j CO_~'BSO' . ~ ~ •• octa ~. The cylinder refrigerant will free or purge all the lines and the manifold of air and moisture.. . Oil Figure 4·47 Four Different Methods for Connecting a Gauge Manifold System A with two service valves is the easiest for attaching gauges. • <=c? .. Repeat the same procedure for valve D. " ~ 1 ...· U I .

-. Vacuum pump line is connected to the middle connection of the gauge manifold. the use of the gauge manifold allows one to check both low side pressures when valve C is open and valve B is closed and high side pressures when valve 0 is open and valve A is closed.r..--. Valves C and B are open.. at valve C.. It also allows one to charge a system. The flexible line between Band C is connected to the system valve. valve C is open and valve B is opened.-..-. C. However. it is to the low or suction side. .--.. cylinder valve E is opened slowly. (( )) (( )) . l 4-81 ...-.-----.. Figure 4·48 Valves on Gauge Manifold Opened to Purge Service Lines When only one connection is to be made to the system.-. It can also be used to evacuate the system. --.

special attaching devices must be used to make it possible to use the gauge manifold. condensing pressures. evaporator temperature and the condenser temperature. Many times this information is provided on packaged units . operate the system through at least three operating cycles. Therefore. Figure 4-49 shows a gauge manifold with a vacuum pump valve and refrigerant cylinder valve added to the manifold.>U U"'~I"N' l'''' "l"' Figure 4-49 Gauge Manifold with Vacuum Pump Valve and a Refrigerant Cylinder Valve Added 4-82 . Carefully record the suction pressures. ~ 1 I C'l'''O.After installing the gauge manifold (if the unit will run). Special Attaching Devices Some systems do not provide for gauge openings.

SUMMARY 4-83 .

( .

CHAPTER FIVE SYSTEM TEST AND BALANCE PROCEDURES . ! L ..

.

CHAPTER FIVE SYSTEM TEST AND BALANCE PROCEDURES OBJECTIVES
At the completion of this chapter, the student will be able to:
1.

List the instruments used to measure flowrate in the following air systems components: • • Ducts Diffusers Supply grilles and registers

2. 3.

Describe the conditions of a system during tests. List the four critical factors that are checked in balancing plenum systems. Describe the procedure for testing air shafts. Describe the procedure for testing duct leakage. List the checks that must be made before balancing a water system. Describe the general procedure for balancing hydronic systems. Describe the basic procedure used to balance flow (air/water) across the following components: • Cabinet unit heaters Fan coil and unit ventilator Unit heaters Pumps Chillers Cooling tower

4. 5. 6.
;

l,

7. 8.

..

• •

l.

9. 10.

Describe the two tests used to test HEPA filters . Describe the charcoal adsorber test procedure.

CHAPTER FIVE SYSTEM TEST AND BALANCE PROCEDURES
INTRODUcrION
In order for an HVAC system to operate properly, it must be tested and balanced in accordance with proven procedures. This chapter discusses some of the methods used to properly test and balance HVAC systems and components. The areas that will be covered are:

• • • •

Air Flow Measurement in Ducts Hydronic System Testing HEPA Filters Testing Charcoal Adsorber Requirements and Testing

AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT IN DUCTS
Air flow measurement in duct work should be measured following manner and with the following approved instruments:
In

the

• • • •

Pitot Tube and Inclined gauge Manometer Pitot Tube and Magnehelic gauge Pitot Tube and Velometer Thermo-Anemometer

To establish air flow in ducts a complete traverse should be made using the above approved instruments. The traverse should be made in a duct having a minimum of four diameters in length from nearest transition duct or other obstruction. The cross section of the duct should be marked off in square areas of equal proportions and the pitot tube inserted so as to be in the center of each square progressively and the gauge reading noted for each square. Readings of 700 FPM or below should not be made with this type of instrument as these readings will not be accurate . For readings of 700 FPM or below, the 5-1

micromanometer should be used in lieu of the inclined or magnehelic gauge . A maximum of six inch squares should be used. Air Flow Measurement of Diffusers Air flows from diffusers should be measured with one of the following type instruments: • • • Alnor Velometer Bacharach FloRite Scoop Hoods when applicable as noted herein

The Alnor Velometer consists of a special blade vane in a case containing calibrated scales over which a needle point moves correspondingly to the pressure upon the blade vane. A variety of special tips are provided and should be used as per the manufacturer's recommendations. The instrument is found to be commercially accurate and durable for field use and is not affected by minor temperature variations. Each diffuser tested should be marked at locations of readings on face or vane. The velocity meter inlet jet should be placed in the vena contract of the face vanes of the diffuser. A minimum of six readings should be made to determine average velocity in feet per minute. All future readings and check readings should be made at the marked locations of each diffuser. Air Flow Measurements of Supply Grilles and Registers Air flow measurements from supply grilles and registers should be made using one of the following approved instruments and methods:

• •

4" Vane Type anemometer 4" Vane Type Bacharach FloRite Meter Alnor Velometer Hoods

5-2

The average anemometer reading should be made by marking off the grille in sections taking a reading in front of each section and averaging the results. Readings taken by moving the instrument back and forth across the face should not be used. The manufacturer's published anemometer K factor of effective area should be used in determining the total CFM being discharged. The vane type Bacharach Velocity meter can also be used in the same manner with the corrected factor. The Alnor Velometer should be used with the correct tip and read at the vena contract of the blades using the manufacturer's published velometer factor of effective area. Use of Hoods Hoods should be used on perforated type supply diffusers. Hoods may be used on standard supply or return diffusers for proportioning only. Final settings and readings must be accomplished with the Alnor or Bacharach. Hoods used on perforated diffusers should not exceed the particular size of the diffuser face. Hoods should be constructed as per outlet manufacturer's recommendations and used with the proper correction factors for each size hood. The factor should be applied to the discharge free area of the hood. When a hood is applied to an outlet a certain amount of backpressure is introduced against the flow of air. Since the exact shape of these hoods follows a carefully calculated design, you can determine just exactly how much backpressure can be expected from each of the various sizes so that correction factors can be applied to the results. For example, a 24" x 24" hood funnels down to a 12" x 12" discharge opening at the bottom. Obviously, this creates a 1 square foot free area where the velocity measurements are read. However, the lab tells us that a 1/4" S.P.W.G. is created by this particular size hood. Therefore, using 1.00 sq. ft. times the velocity will not give an accurate reading of what the diffuser would be handling without the hood's imposed S.P. Consequently the correction factor 5-3

It has been determined that when a hood is applied to any given outlet.69 .00 sq. The procedure for testing returns and intakes is similar to the testing of supply outlets with the exception of the effective area factor. should be reestablished in the field . ft.83 .25 sq. the most accurate readings may be taken.25 1.44 . the reading of the traverse will be greater than the total of the two outlet readings.00 Corrected Free Area 1.00 . to 1.of 1. a correction factor for that hood. NOTE: Correction factors stated below are for average velocities.25 Hood Size at Top 24 20 16 12 24 x x x x x 24 20 16 12 12 When these factors are applied to the free area of the bottom end of the hoods. the backpressure created by the hood causes the air to back up slightly forcing more air to be discharged from some other outlet either in the same zone or at the point of least resistance. Air Flow Measurement of Return Grilles and Registers The anemometer or Bacharach flow meter or velometer should be used to determine the flow through a return intake by marking off the face of the intake into sections as was done with supply grilles.25 .28 1.50 . at the velocity being used. Without applying the correction factor as outlined above. This can be proven by testing two outlets individually on the same branch duct and comparing the added total against a traverse reading of the branch duct upstream from both outlets. Hood Size at Bottom 12 x 12 lOx 10 8x8 6x6 12 x 12 Actual Free Area 1.25 is applied to the actual free area of the discharge end of the hood increasing it from 1. ft. 5-4 . When necessary to use a hood.

closed or under projected operating conditions. windows. Coil face velocities at best are not very reliable and should not be used as a method of establishing total air except when it is the only available method. This procedure should be reversed for the heating side. Arbitrary settings at gauges should be avoided. etc. If the design calls for a percentage of cooled air and warm air across respective coils at maximum load conditions. All tests should be run with supply. Single duct or reheat type air supply systems should be balanced on a full call for cooling.. The above applies to double duct systems. the systems should be balanced under these conditions. The final settings of dampers should be made by reading the static pressure required at the sensing tip when the air column at all terminals is as specified on a call for full cooling. Conditions of System During Tests A. . The test engineer must attach a long handle to the instrument and avoid blocking any air flow motion. This may involve a great deal of checking as the point of least static is generally. the system should be balanced with full air flow across the cooling coil. Testing of Face Velocities Across Coils The measurement of coil face velocities should be made using a 4" vane anemometer. Continuous movement across the face of the coil should be avoided. return and exhaust systems operating and all doors. but most certainly not always. Individual spot readings at set intervals should be made to establish averages. 5-6 B.cooling and with the hot dampers in the closed position. at the end of the system. C. Determine the total amount of air required to flow across the cooling coil and heating coil during maximum load conditions. For the balancing of the hot side the same positioning should be made with the hot damper on call for full heating. If the cooling coil is designed to handle the total CFM during maximum load conditions.

H. Allowances should be made for air filter resistance at the time of the tests. E. Setting of outside air quantities must be made by adj ustment of dampers using direct air flow readings or by temperature methods. Setting of Outside Air and Return Air Volumes Final balanced conditions must include the setting of outside air quantities and return air quantities.S. ° G. the total air quantity supply to any floor or major zone should be at a maximum condition of + 10%. . and within and +5 % in rooms where the total is 1. The main air system should be at design air quantities and at an air resistance across the filter bank midway between the design specifications for clean and dirty filter conditions. F.000 CFM.000 CFM or more.D.A. All damper positions should be permanently marked after air balancing is complete. Whenever possible. final readings and settings should be made with cooling coils operating (wet) in order that static pressure conditions should be a maximum. l. The deflection pattern of all supply outlets should be adjusted to insure proper and uniform air distribution through the areas served by such outlets. The temperature percentage method of calculation may be used whenever conditions of duct work or installation indicate improper readings or erratic readings at louvre face. Where possible a duct traverse should be taken to establish total O. In all cases. Total system air quantities should be obtained by adjustment of the fan operating speeds.. The room air supply and return or exhaust should'tM'±'10%~of design'" quantities for rooms with an air supply. 5-7 . return or exhaust under 1.. or the use of 4" vane anemometer across outside air intake may be used.

balancing the air distribution system cannot end at the duct outlet into the ceiling plenum. " Figure 5-1 Pattern of Air Distribution through Plenum Ceiling 5-8 . Pl e num l uOOly 11)<1( ' i dileharQtd io ta illlr>um IhrOIlQh ducl Pattern of air distribution through plenum ceilinq O'"llrolion Comlorl . either by means of perforations in the tile itself or slotted runners that hold the tile in place.II't I' .T.Testing of Ceiling Plenum Systems (See Figure 5-1) (. The ceiling plenum supply system is essentially a sealed area or box into which air is discharged at the required CFM with a predetermine pressure established to force the air from this sealed area through the ceiling./' "j . It must continue through the testing and adjusting of the plenum and the ceiling tiles themselves. ". When air is delivered into the conditioned area through an acoustical ceiling. · ~6o rpmv .

Here is a 6-step balancing procedure which. discharging the air into these sealed areas above the ceilings. Supply ducts terminate at the plenums. 4.There are various types of ceilings on the market. 3. level above floor to establish correct velocity of air movement in FPM. if followed. 2. using high-powered light to check for leakage between barriers and seals. Required pressure to provide penetration through ceiling. Typical design of such a system consists of a standard air handling unit or supply fan with a supply air duct running to the various sealed plenum areas or boxes over the space to be conditioned. 4. above the floor . There are four critical factors that must be carefully checked balancing this type of system: In 1. Visual check. 2. Even distribution of air over entire ceiling area inside plenum. but the principle of air supply is essentially the same in all of them. Instrument check to establish leakage through tile joints and around perimeter area. Final adjustment to air supply slots for correct velocities. 5-9 . Instrument check to establish pressure in ceiling plenum at all locations. below ceiling level and at 6 ft. will enable the test and balance engineer to assure the satisfaction of these four major factors and to provide comfort conditions in the areas served: 1. 3. Penetration of air supply through ceiling to comfort level 6 ft. Instrument and velocity check at ceiling level 2 ft.

• . . O(. t . ~~ Cfl'(O .. ... .IU ' f .....u..U f e: Figure 5-2 Test Set-up 5-14 ...ItOll'l".

.... yet not waste conditioned or heated air.. Low Toxicity Levels . are also a requirement of good balanced conditions. The second type uses all surrounding air. . . Determine and adjust the exhaust air flow to out-of-doors..... In general the following recommended face velocities should be applied under balanced condition across the hood face : 1.. ... .. . . . . Type one introduces a source of make-up air and uses a very minimum amount.. if any..... . Minimum air flow conditions which will furnish this protection. . In either case the air that flows through the enclosure must utilize an exhaust fa n system to move this contaminated air to the out-of-doors. Determine and adjust face velocity across the hood face or openmg.. 75 FPM Low level radioactive materials or high toxicity levels .. . 100 FPM Medium or high chemical toxicity levels . .... 3. . . ... 150 FPM 4.Fume Hood Testing I " A balanced hood and enclosure requires that the air flow through the opening and enclosure itself be such that full protection is maintained without interfering with the experiment or the personnel carrying on the experiment... 5-15 ... B.. Four separate tests must be made to properly balance fume hood systems: A..... of the surrounding conditioned air.. . Two types of hoods are now generally in use.... the exhaust fan and supply air must be adjusted to accurate and correct amounts... 2. 50 FPM Average Toxicity Levels . To achieve good balance in either type of system.

l . B.0) r ~. Roo! line A. ® . C. . Pitot traverse pasHia n.I. gj Roof Line B. Position of face velocity readings.. A. Static pressure readi ng. Figure 5-3 Fume Hood Schematic 5-18 .t'-~ /CD . _. Position of measuring spillage or backdraft. Exhaust air reading a t hood. . . Using smoke gun application. __ ~ ."'. .

In most cases it is not practicable for the test and balance agency to perform these tests as it would require having a test technician continuously on the job as the ductwork is installed. it is more practicable to have the contractor conduct tests in accordance with AABC Test Standards. attention to the above details may not be needed. the Consulting Engineer should include a duct leakage test section in the specification which would include a verification procedure and certification of tightness. Inspection and test results certificate should be placed in a conspicuous location by the testing agency. Air Distribution Duct Leakage Test Methods and Standards To prevent the occurrence of leakage problems. Optimum application is to place air outlets on oppcsite ends of room areas allowing hoods to draw this air across the room area. Duct tightness can be determined by the application of proper pressure testing. hood operating tests should be performed at least once a year. this leakage should be minimized to a degree that will not cause excessive problems. short circuiting of conditioned air. Some degree of leakage will exist regardless of all the precautions taken during fabrication and installation. Because of the possible health hazards possible due to improper hood operations. Placing these outlets close to the hoods will cause excessive draft conditions and in some cases. When hoods have a self-contained air supply. 1% of the system air volume at 1. 5-19 . When not otherwise specified.When hood enclosures are banked together in a given area. "The degree of air tightness in high velocity ductwork should not be compared with a water distribution system or gas system. particular attention must be given to the placement of air conditioning outlets.5 times the duct operating pressure is considered reasonably adequate. From the standpoint of economy. however. and have the agency verify the results obtained and issue a certificate.

Connect test apparatus to the test section of duct using a flexible duct connection of hose. 2. c. Close damper on blower suction side to prevent excessive buildup of pressure. The most practical type of test apparatus which will facilitate field testing should consist of the following: a. 3. 2.Test Equipment [n order to test sections of ductwork as it is installed. a portable means of testing is required.Two Each 1. Field Test Procedure 1. Calibrated Orifice Plate Air Straightening Vanes Pressure Tap and Receptacle Tube and Dampering Section Instruments . 3. Source of High Pressure Air: 1. b. 3. Magnehelic Gauge U-Tube Manometer Inclined Gauge These items should be assembled into a portable device as shown in Figure 5-4. 2. 5-20 . Rotary Type Blower Fan High Power Tank Type Vacuum Cleaner A Device to Measure Total Air Flow Accurately: 1. Seal all openings in duct section to be tested. 2.

.A" ~Tr'. 7."lrnlflt. Start blower and gradually open damper on suction side of blower. (See Figure 5-4) Maintain this pressure for ten minutes which will indicate audible leaks. 6. Repair all visual and audible leaks.) Read indicated pressure on the instrument that is connected to the section of duct under test. Figure 5-4 Portable Test Apparatus 4. (Use 1.5 times duct operating pressure if not specified. 5-21 5. Shut down the blower and release the pressure when making repairs.'Ic. 8. Buildup pressure in the duct system being tested to the specified test pressure.

. •• . . .. ...... o• •• •. Leakage factor allowable (1 %) should be based upon the total operating CFM of the section of duct under test.. .. I .... . . ..9..•• -0.."' .. '. build up pressure to test pressure and read leakage pressure on the instrument connected across the test apparatus orifice plate. . •• • • ... . (See Figure 5-4) Leakage CFM is read by consulting the calibrated chart as shown in Figure 5-5.. " " ~ ... . •• . " . 10. I • Figure 5-5 Variation of Air Flow Rate with Orifice Differential Pressure 5-22 . ~.. j.... o.. • • . . I e .. 11..... ~ ~ . . .. . Upon completion of repairs. .. .. • . . o .. .. " . . " ... If no leakage exists.. .. • ii i: •• . zero pressure differential will be indicated. . l' .. . . . . c-. . • .

4. HYDRONIC SYSTEM TESTING A schematic piping diagram should be made by the field technician showing all locations of major components and flows required should be marked at all locations. Set all controls to maintain coil water inlet design temperatures with coil valves positioned for full flow through the coils during adjustments. The following items must be checked before the start of balancing: 1. 5. Check all air vents at the coils and at the high points of the system. connectors and all items in the system requiring circulation of chilled or hot water. Check automatic fill valve setting and strainer.Test Verification The air conditioning installation or sheet metal contractor should engage the services of a Certified AABC Test Agency to verify results and submit a certification certificate attesting to the results obtained. Check expansion tank level. Position all automatic valves. 3. The entire system must be cleaned by the installing contractor prior to the start of balancing. 5-23 . hand valves and balancing cocks for full flow through all coils. Tests should be made before duct sections are concealed. Tested sections of the ductwork should be visually marked by the agency with a certification sticker and initials of the field test inspector. 2.

e. If the test point falls on the design curve. observe and record the system static pressure at the pump(s). Using the shutoff head. With the system off. Compare this data with the submittal data curves. An alternate method of balancing multiple sections involves reading the water temperatures at each coil section with insertion thermometers or contact pyrometer probes. from zero flow to maximum flow. Place the system into operation and allow the flow conditions to stabilize. " Condenser Water/Cooling Tower Systems a. balance the water flow by establishing the design water pressure drop across each col. slowly close the balancing cock in each pump discharge line and record shutoff discharge and suction pressures at the pump gauge connections. Record the operating voltage and amperage of all fan and pump motors and compare these with nameplate ratings and thermal overload heater ratings. f. confirm that the water level in the tower basin is at the correct level. On towers with variable pitch fan blades. determine (and verify) the actual pump operating curve and the size of each impeller. Make sure the test readings were taken correctly before plotting a new curve. c. Record the speed of each pump and/or fan as required. With pump(s) off. d. and adjusting the balancing cocks until uniform temperatures are obtained. Preferably one gauge should be used to read b. With the pump(s) running. verify that the setting of the blades is correct.d. where possible. 5-28 . plot a new curve parallel with other curves on the chart. When systems have multiple coil sections. proceed to the next step. if not.

voltage. Start the tower fan and check rotation. If fan inlet or outlet damper control are used. If there is a three-way valve used in the condenser water piping at the tower. phase and speed. After operation stabilizes under a normal cooling load. J. Set the bypass lien balancing cock to maintain a constant pressure at the pump discharge with the control valve set in the full bypass position. Have the refrigeration system started. check the pressure difference through valve with the water going both through the tower and/or through the bypass line. Observe and record the percent of load on compressor where possible. check and record the condenser water inlet and outlet temperatures. gear box belts. Check for vortex conditions at the tower suction connection. Establish uniform water distribution over the tower and check for clogged outlets or spray nozzles. sheaves and water makeup valve. Record inlet and outlet pressures of the condenser(s) and check against the manufacturer's design pressure difference. Verify the head and suction pressures and compare with design. g. Check and record fan motor amperes. It is important that gauge readings be corrected to center line elevation of the pump. k. 1. 5-29 . l. verify that the dampers modulate to maintain the design condenser water temperature leaving the tower.differential pressure. h. On units that have a fan cycling control verify that the fan cycles to maintain design condenser water temperature. verify and record that it operates to maintain the correct head pressure by varying the flow at the tower. After setting the three-way control valve (to control head pressure) in the condenser water line (paragraph i above).

and that the bumer(s) is operating properly. mark or score all balancing cocks. After all balancing work has been completed and the system is operating within plus or minus 10% of design flow. Make a final check of all pump and equipment data. that all safety and operating controls have been tested. Boiler. If the pump capacity has fallen below design flow. voltage and ampere readings on the pump system. settings (operating pressures and b. if possible. n. open the balancing cock at the pump discharge to bring flow within 105-110% of the design reading. check the following: • Boiler feed pump( s) or makeup water system(s) operation. flushed. adjusted and set. and record. p. gauges. When electric or steam coils are used in the tower basic with low water cutoff controls to prevent freeze-up. and thermometers at final set points and/or range of operation. and started. Boiler control temperatures). verify that they will function properly. o. q. Verify that the boiler(s) has been cleaned.m. • • • Water flow rates and inlet and outlet temperatures (hot water boilers). Verify the action of all water flow safety and shutdown controls. With the boiler(s) operating under normal conditions. 5-30 . Steam and Hot Water Boilers a. Take another complete set of pressure. burner and pump nameplate data.

The distribution of steam systems is set by the piping design and layout. g. Follow the basic procedures for hot water or steam system work for items not mentioned above. f. On initial runs. therefore. Adjust the water flow to design conditions and record flow data. Steam boiler water level proper and steady. Confirm that all pipe strainers are clean. Take inlet and outlet water temperature readings. l. Confirm that automatic air vents are operating and vent air manually as required . 5-31 . Confirm that all automatic temperature control valves and steam pressure reducing valves in the system are in the proper position or mode of operation.• c. Determine the water flow pressure drop through the heat exchanger for all circuits. check the setting and/or operation of automatic temperature control valves. Record data. . the water flow can be obtained from the manufacturer's submittal data curves or tables. b. Heat Exchangers/Converters a. c. e. d. self-contained control valves. hot water systems normally require additional air venting. or pressure reducing valves where used. With the measured differential pressure. Check and record the steam pressure. no field balancing is required. check against design data and record. h. Steam traps can be checked for proper operation with a pyrometer.

k. f. 1. Obtain the following Coil Data: a. Check all automatic air vents. e.. Balancing Data Required 1. Model No. Pump Manufacturer J. c. e. g. Obtain the following Pump Data: a. Confirm that all pipe strainers are clean. manually vent air as required. Voltage o. Pump Curve Motor Hp m. Check the operation of steam traps. f. etc. Pump No. d. h. Location and Designation Design and Installed Data for: 1) 2) 3) 4) CFM and BTU GPM and Pressure Drop Water Temperature In and Out Air Wet and Dry Bulb In and Out 5-32 . h. Cycles Phase RPM Specified Pump GPM. Follow the basic procedures for hot water or steam system work for items not mentioned above.d. Verify safety valve settings and operation. Service Factor Amperage n. Impeller Size I. g. b.. b. RPM and Pump Head Running Amperes and Voltage Pump Suction and Discharge Pressure Final Pump Head and GPM 2.

full flow Pump running current. Field Data from Test and Balance 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Pump heads. are a means of checking and balancing in an attempt to obtain a given result. voltage and BHP.c. Check Cv of control valves through the coil and through the bypass. Compare Cv drops actual with required. water temperature difference and air temperature difference across terminal units . Compare with required pressure drop. 3. Compare test figures with the required. Flow station actual pressure drop and resulting flow at final setting. flow station or control valve (Cv) It is considered good practice to use this cross check on all main coils regardless of whether or not flow station or pressure taps are provided. Test pressure drops. From Tests 1) 2) 3) Air Volumes across Coil Water Temperature In and Out GPM from coil pressure drop. 5-33 . 1) 2) 3) 4) Pumps's flow and head Flow Station Heads Control Valve Cv heads Terminal element pressure and temperature data b. The heat balance is the result. Compare operating heads and BHP with pump curves for verification of flow. orifice. orifice drops. Water Balance Final Report Data a. It is well to remember that pump heads. 1) 8) 9) Note: A heat balance should be run and reported on all main coils. etc.

Install gauge cocks at "C".) B. 5-34 . Control Valve and Measuring Station A. (See Figure 5-6. read the differential and calculate flow using Cv of the valve on bypass. Connect the differential pressure gauge or manometer across gauge cocks "C" and "0". They should be as close to the valve as possible.Water Balance with Coil.) Place the differential gauge across "0" and "F". (See Figure 5-6.) Place the differential gauge between "0" and "E" and read this differential with full flow through the coil. (See Figure 5-6. G.) Change the control valve to full flow through the bypass and adjust balancing valve "B" until the differential across "0" and "E" is the same as it was with full flow through the coil.) Place the differential gauge between "C" and "E". Read and record the coil pressure drop. (See Figure 5-6.) Adjust the balancing valve "A" until the differential matches the drop required with design flow and the control valve Cv. Check to be sure that the valve has seated against the bypass port. (See Figure 5-6.) Place the valve in the position for full flow through the coil. C. (See Figure 5-6. F. and "E". (See Figure 5-6. "0". O. E.

F.0 51.0 Max.The rmomete r Wells Figure 5-6 Composite Coil Diagram This example illustrates the various possible ways a coil may be tested for flow.Balancing ":tlves C.2 ft 45 0 58.40 80 Thm 100 Bypass 25" @ 178 GPM Flow Station Rinco 4" B 5-35 .0 51. Installed COil 22.A " B . D.410 CFM EDB EWB LDB LWB GPM Drop Ft.". 45 0 Control Valve CV 84 69 52. auge Cock! I " J . E.5 180 10. Water In Water Out 84 69 52. It is a good practice to check by as many methods as are available . Design .410 22.5 178 3. G & [I .

= 176 GPM 5-36 .Flow Thru Coil Test Thru Coil Set Valve B . 28. By Valve Cv Thru Coil (C to D) GPM head in psi (Use Spec.3 ft. 14.0 In.2ft.Flow Thru Bypass Test Thru Coil Test Thru Bypass Flow Thru Coil Flow Thru Bypass C to D F to D G to H G to H CFM EDB EWB LDB LWB EW LW GPM ESTABLISHED THRU COIL 1.000 74.5 ft. 14. l1.0 In.5 55. 22.0 53.5 47.0 In.21 Test 11 ft.5 59. 28.0 Set Valve A .5 ft.33' Test 185 GPM 2. Gravity of 1. By Coil Drop 40" or 3. 7.0) 11.3 GPM 80 x 80 x 2.0 68.FIELD TEST & SET C to E D to E D to E 40.0 2.

3.Rinco 4" B 28" Test Drop 190 GPM from Rinco Curve 4.5 11.0 47.000 11.5 53. By Flow Station .5 x 500 181 GPM = Cabinet Unit Heaters f .30 x 22.74 100. 5-37 .5 _ _ 147.5 47.000 59.44 _ 47.30 BTU/CFM GPM= ( CFM = LW = EW r T = = 22. By Total Heat Transfer GPM Test EWE _ LWE _ .BTU/CFM x CFl1 6TW x 500 - Enthalpy 68. L .

Measure the entering and leaving water temperature. . Measure the entering and leaving air temperature . Set outside air and thermostat on full cooling for fan coil units and full recirculated air for unit ventilators. Plot the temperature difference and balance flow or set design pressure difference. Check rotation of the fan. Read and record the entering and leaving water temperature. 3. 6.1. 2. 5. Measure the temperature or pressure difference. Read and record the entering and leaving air temperature. 4. Fan Coil Unit and Unit Ventilator 1. 4. 5-38 2. Re-read the temperature or pressure difference. Read and record the pressure drop across the coil and adjust if necessary. Set unit on high fan speed. 3.

Read and record the entering and leaving air temperature.. I 1.. Read and record the entering and leaving water temperature. 3. 4. Read and record the pressure drop across the coil and adjust if necessary.Note: A flow mounted unit is defined as an "under-the-window" type.. I L 5-39 . 2. Unit Heaters -- . Check rotation of the fan. . A ceiling mounted unit is defined as a "horizontal ceiling-hung unit" to accept a duct system or free blow.-.

4. 2.Pumps 1. 5-40 . Read and record the current and voltage. 5. 3. Read and record the nameplate data. Adjust to the desired quantity. Read and record the operating pressures. Check for the proper rotation.

2. All adjustments affecting chiller performance should be made in the presence of the chiller manufacturer's serviceman and to his specifications. 3. Read and record the chilled water temperature and pressures entering and leaving the machine and adjust the cocks accordingly. 5-41 . Read and record the condenser water temperatures and pressure entering and leaving the machine and adjust the cocks accordingly.Chiller 1.

2. Read and record all nameplate data on the tower and pumps. 5-42 3. 4. Read and record the current and voltage on the pump motors and tower fan motors. Read and record fan CFM and adjust if necessary. 5. . Read and record the water temperatures of the entering and leaving and make-up water. Read and record the wet and dry bulb temperatures of the inlet and outlet flows. Read and record the pump pressures and flows and adjust accordingly. 6.Cooling Tower 1.

the large particles blind the face of the folded media raising the pressure drop long before the small particles in the actual media become the significant factor. Actual examples of poorly designed prefiltration systems in current plants are: (see Figure 5-7) 1. 24 in x 24 in x 111/2 in (610 mm x 610 mm x 292 mm) with a flow from 1000 to about 1500 cfm (1700 m'lh to 2550 m'lh) is the universal standard. There is considerable confusion as to whether large (10 microns and larger) or small (under 10 microns to submicron) particles will raise the pressure drop faster.3 micron particle. in part. It is true that small particles. and testing can be grouped into a relatively compact list. . The minimum efficiency is 99. The tightly folded media in filter construction combined with the fact that only small particles are almost never found without large particles.HEPA FILTERS A HEPA filter is an extremely high efficiency filter for sub micron particles and aerosols in the air. In the nuclear power industry. to the lack of adequate prefiltration . Designing HEPA banks with a complete absence of prefiltration or a lack of sufficient prefiltration to protect them for a reasonable engineering and economic life is a very common problem. Problems in HEPA Filter Use The most common problems seen in design. HEPA filters are very high efficiency "polishing" filters for a gas stream. They have relatively little capacity on a mass basis when compared on an equal size basis. This has lead. and even lower on a cost basis. in the absence of large particles. . A HEPA bank for an emergency supply system with no prefiltration of any kind. 5-43 . drawing air from Midwest farmland. HEPA filters are standardized to a common size and general construction. to a standard ASHRAE or NBS dust filter. operation. maintenance. will quickly fill the very small spaces between the filter fibers in the actual media and plug it to flow.97% on an 0. The confusion arises in that this is a rare situation in actual practice.

These are often found to need (or would be greatly improved by) an additional stage of lower efficiency roll or bag filters to trap the very large fibers and particles actually existing. could be from quite large to very small. either alone or as a first stage.) E E ~ \ OUTL ET PLENU M AIR FLOW L T E INLE T / R L- A p P L- . if any. where any type of particles could be generated. The nearly universal use of HEPA filters after a carbon adsorber bank (theoretically to catch carbon fines) with no prefiltration. In fact. 2. if not minutes. depending on wind conditions . 5-44 . Depending on the specific carbon used at any given time. the fines. r ~ NO GREATF. Large ventilation systems for major areas of plants. In either case. Conversely.! / H ~OOR (TYP. some of these systems have only low efficiency prefilters that are not of sufficient efficiency to protect the HEPA filters.R mAN <5 C~·) / V ~ P R E F I . it could plug up from large particles and fibers in hours.! H --! / CHARCOAL 20 ")( 50" ACCESS . with only a single stage of medium efficiency prefilters before the HEPA bank.. 5' -0 ' AI/( 5' -0' 5'-0' PLENU M Figure 5·7 Ventillation Filtration Diagram 3.During plowing in dry weather. this need for the HEPA bank is being formally questioned at the present time. a 95 % NBS filter would be more technically justified.

3 + 0. If the penetration observed in the test is equivalent to the penetration established during factory testing. however. it can be inferred that the particle-removal efficiency of the system is equivalent to that of the individual filters. scanning may be used if necessary to locate the leaks.97% efficiency (where efficiency equals 100 minus percent penetration). pass partly through the prefiltration stages. downstream sample obtained when there is only 3 to 5 feet between a HEPA 5-46 . the DOP aerosol usually must be injected far enough upstream of the housing to obtain good mixing in the duct. In the efficiency test. since a significant percent will be filtered out by the prefilters. There is then the problem of a downstream sample when an adsorbent How is a bank follows the HEPA bank (a common requirement). and then challenge the HEPA bank. I-IEPA Filter Testing Problems Testing is another major area where lack of understanding of HEP A filters and basic aerosol physics contributes to system problems. This is the basis for many persons identifying the in-place test as an efficiency test.97% efficiency. adequate provision seldom is designed and built in to perform an acceptable integrated aerosol leakage test. For large systems with high efficiency pre filters. In-place field tests of installed HEPA filters are made with a polydisperse DOP aerosol. The in-place test is not an efficient test and should not be so considered.HEPA Filter Testing Tests of an individual HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter are of two types. Even when a HEPA bank is to be tested. The test by the factory or quality assurance station is an efficiency determination using a monodisperse challenge aerosol of 0. The minimum specification value for HEPA filter efficiency is 99.03 m diameter droplets . this is a problem for DOP aerosol generation. and do not show the efficiency of the filters but only reveal the presence of leaks in the system. Where there is good prefiltration. the total filter is challenged at one time and a single reading of penetration is obtained. Most filters today run about 99.

through defective or inefficient bypass dampers.g. If penetration is greater than the 5-47 . Summary of Method With the system fan or an auxiliary blower operating. or through penetrations. (3) that there are no leaks in the mounting frame or ·between the mounting frame and the housing. This test is used during acceptance testing of the air cleaning system. such as electrical conduits. development of cracks in the mounting frame or mounting-frame-tohousing seal). The shrouded test is sometimes used when extensive scanning of the bank (and therefore extended release of challenge aerosol or gas) is expected. This covers only the gross test but can be used as a basis for the development of procedures for a shrouded test. The test is also made periodically in both operating and standby systems to check on possible degradation of the filters or the filter installation (e. The shrouded test is valid ONLY if a satisfactory pressure-leak test of the mounting frame has previously been completed. HEPA Filter Test Procedures The in-place test is a leak test of the installed system and should not be confused with the efficiency test of individual filters. (2) that they have been installed properly. they have been added by the plant after startup has proven their need.140 have clearly called for permanent test manifolds or other provisions to allow the mandated leak tests. DOP aerosol is injected upstream of the filters.. and (4) that the system contains no bypassing (e. which penetrate the mounting frame) which would compromise the function of the filters.bank and an adsorbent bank? The nearly universal provision provided by filter system vendors and accepted by both NE and utility engineers is an access hole in the door or housing. Where they exist. but such provision has never been provided by the original vendor to date..52 and 1. through adjacent plenums. after any filter replacement. The N509 standards and NRC regulations 1. Concentration measurements are made upstream and downstream of the filters and percent penetration is calculated from the ratio of DOP concentrations in the filtered air (downstream reading) and the unfiltered air ' (upstream reading). or after any maintenance activity in the filter housing to verify (1) that the filters have not been damaged.g.

An air-operated generator or gas-thermal generator certified by the manufacturer to be capable of producing the droplet-size distribution required. the fan and DOP generator are turned on again and the downstream face of the mounting-frame-to-housing seal. near-forward lightscattering aerosol photometer having the following characteristics is recommended: 5-48 . After location and correction of leaks and bypasses or. The test should be performed at the airflow required for each individual system . Where it is impossible to obtain an adequate single-point downstream sample. Prerequisites for Test The downstream sample point should be located. a multiple sampling technique is required. the peripheries of the individual filters. and finally the faces of the filters. Penetrometer . this may be a point downstream of the fan or auxiliary blower.An instrument with a linear read-out. representative of the downstream concentration. if necessary. Apparatus Dop Generator . can be taken. If leaks or bypasses cannot be located visually. in that recommended order. Verify that DOP shall be injected at a point far enough upstream to disclose any possible system bypasses.value specified in the test procedure. if possible. the test is stopped and the system reinspected for leaks or bypasses. The generator output and/or penetrometer adjustment as specified in the test procedure shall ensure penetrometer sensitivity high enough to permit detection of leaks at least two times smaller than the maximum leak allowed by project specifications. are scanned. or a point downstream of a flow disturbance which will provide adequate mixing of the DOP-air mixture emitting from the filters in the bank. replacement of defective filters. There must be adequate room and safe working conditions for test personnel and equipment. the in-place test is repeated for record. The DOP concentration shall not exceed the linear response capability of the detector. at a point where a single-point sample.

or equivalent.). and margins of all screens (in. Means shall be provided for filling the unit with adsorbent and compacting it to uniform ' packing density throughout all cross sections of the bed. The capacity of an adsorber shall be determined by the equation: c Where: t(A . Screens shall be supported by stiffeners which are external to the adsorbent bed to assure uniformity and integrity of the bed. 4. The lesser of the two shall be used (in. 5. All material in contact with the adsorbent shall be Type 300 Series stainless steel. thickness conversion factor For ESF units. using the adsorbent specified in the technical specification normally 0. blanks. the adsorbent shall meet the requirements of Table 5-1. In a vertical direction. in the stage required to achieve the specified iodine DF.') total area of baffles.3.8 = gross inlet or outlet screen area. this density shall vary only to the extent that the lower portion of the bed supports the weight of the adsorbent placed above it.25 seconds per 2 in. 5-50 . normally > 2 m.b) 28.8T C t A = nominal capacity (cfm) thickness of adsorbent bed (in. seconds. b T - 28.2) residence time.

0% maximum Through #8. 95% RH(I) Methyl Iodide. 5-51 . Mesh Retained on #8 Sieve:-5.0% maximum Through #18 Sieve: 1. on #12 Sieve: 60% maximum Through #12. maximum ASTM D2862 Retained on #6 Sieve: 0. 180°C Methyl Iodine. 30°C.5% retentivity. maximum 2% penetration. minimum 3% penetration.Table 5-1 Performance Requirements and Physical Properties of (unused) Activated Carbon Test Performance Requirements Test Method Acceptance Value Molecular Iodine. on #16 Sieve: 40% minimum Through #16 Sieve: 5. 95% RH(I) Molecular Iodine. 13O"C. 80"C. maximum 1% penetration. 30"C. 95% RH(2) Physical Properties Particle Size Distribution 0.0% maximum Ball Pan Hardness CO. 95% RH Methyl Iodide. maximum ASTM 03803 99.38 glcm 3 minimum state value 330°C minimum state value state value 'Tests shall be performed only for qualification purposes.1 % using 8 x 16 maximum U.1 % penetration. Activity (on base) Apparent Density Ash Content (on base) Ignition Temperature Moisture Content pH of Water Extract NOTES: ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM 03802 03467 D2854 D2866 D3466 D2867 03838 92 minimum 60 minimum 0. 2Test shall be performed only for qualification purposes on activated carbon to be installed in primary containment cleanup · system.S.

All of the cells are filled properly in accordance with a qualified filling procedure which will ensure a "tight pack". If samples of adsorbent are to be taken for laboratory testing. Purpose This test is used for both acceptance and surveillance leak-testing of the installed adsorber stage. The sample is actually representative of all of the adsorbent in all of the cells in the system. can be taken. 2. 3. . Summary of Method A refrigerant tracer gas is injected into the air stream upstream of the adsorber bank. There are no leaks or bypasses in either the individual cells (factory tests) or the installed system (field tests). Verify that tracer gas will be injected at a point far enough upstream to disclose any possible system bypasses. .1. or a point downstream of a flow disturbance which will provide adequate mixing of the tracer-air mixture emitting from the adsorber stage. j 5-53 t. There must be adequate room and safe working conditions for test personnel and equipment. this may be a point downstream of the fan or auxiliary blower. tracer concentrations are determined downstream and upstream of the bank. representative of the downstream concentration. Prerequisites for Test The downstream sample point should be located at a point where a single point sample. remove such samples prior to this test. and restore stage to operating condition. and penetration (percent leakage) is determined from the ratio of downstream to upstream concentration at time zero.

System Fan or Auxiliary Blower. It is important to remember that the results from a test is only as good as the data collected and the experience of the tester. Tracer Gas Detector. It is very important to remember to balance the hydronic system prior to balancing the air fl ow in an HV AC system and that a small change in one area can cause a big change in a ll HVAC systems. 5-54 . expressed as a fraction of total system airflow.Apparatus Tracer Gas. we should anticipate those changes and check that we get the desired results. The tracer-gas detector shall have demonstrable capability to distinguish the tracer gas from background. The first major topic was on Air Flow Measurement in which we discuss the different instruments used on supply and exhaust grilles and registers to the testing of air flow in a duct using the Pitot tube and the procedures used to do the test. Tracer Gas Generator. The tracer gas output shall be at least 4 times the Minimum Workable Threshold Sensitivity (MWTS) of the tracer gas detector divided by the maximum acceptable leak rate. The generator output shall be held within +20% of the pre-set value. R-1l2 (or RlO1l2A) is an acceptable alternate. Capable of supplying required flow rate. The MWTS is the concentration of tracer gas which will produce response on the readout of the tracer gas detector. SUMMARY [n this chapter. R-ll is preferred. we have discussed some of the tests that are done to ensure that an HVAC is operating properly. Prior to doing any changes on the air flow or water in an HVAC system. We next covered testing of hydronic systems.

we looked at the test we do to make sure that the quality of air is also right.I Along with balancing of air systems. The checks/tests we covered were the tests on HEP A filters and charcoal filters. !_ t 5-55 L .

( ( .

CHAPTER SIX SOUND AND VIBRATION TESTING . .. .

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Describe the measurement. . . Discuss vibration and noise identification and methods used for source analysis. 3. Discuss the purpose of performing and usefulness of vibration measurement and signature analysis. Discuss ' the importance of sound measurement. methods of controlling sound levels and the characteristics affecting sound level strength.CHAPTER SIX SOUND AND VIBRATION MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVES At the completion of this chapter. . the student should be able to: 1. procedure for the performance of sound 2. 4.

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..0002 microbars. it will rarely be possible to use this information to establish the Sound Power Level of the air moving device. and this is also what the Sound Meter detects. The industry should push forward toward the development of a usable data system. engineers could design the system such that it will not exceed a certain NC level. etc. when field applications will . in accordance with the Noise Criteria Curve using the Sound Pressure reference of . it is also a simple matter to isolate components until the noise source is found. however. With usable information. However. the Sound Pressure Level varies with the environment." Since it is a relatively simple matter to determine the Sound Pressure Level in the conditioned space.. For a given source. This would be possible only where circumstances permitted simulation of a laboratory setup. is the preferred testing method because we can truly measure "Sound Pressure.. That is the reason why this code is based on Sound Power Level rather than Sound Pressure Level. CHAPTER SIX SOUND AND VIBRATION TESTING INTRODUCTION Sound Testing. It is unfortunate that laboratory rating data is acceptable in designing a system. 6-1 ." AMCA Standard 300-67 Test Code for Sound Rating states" A person hears and judges sound on the basis of a Sound Pressure Level at the point of observation. This is despite the fact that its Sound Power output is the same." AMCA also states under "Field Testing". Engineers need realistic data on sound levels in order to design a system that will meet Noise Criteria (NC) levels acceptable to his client. For example. has drapes and upholstered furniture. a unit heater will sound louder in a hard walled room than in a room which is carpeted. "It is a relatively simple matter to determine the Sound Pressure Level in the conditioned space resulting from the operation of the air system.

and ducts. As Testing Engineers and Technicians. by the process of elimination. In order for a person to get the whole picture of HVAC. If properly selected. Also. they cannot neglect the consideration of the sound and noise generated by HVAC equipment. Also. The Sound Level in the space to be tested can be measured with a good Sound Meter and the Sound Level established. The problem is identifying the equipment that creates the noise. these can be removed as a noise source. and ensure the Design Engineer is also aware of them so he can design a predictable system. noise can be traced to its source. In this chapter. "You cannot be sure it's his equipment as there are other components that could cause the noise. often by as much as 50%.prove that the rating is reduced. a reading at one diffuser compared with other diffusers will indicate it's relationship to the noise source. we must be alert and aware of these facts. the room acoustics are a factor. The fan manufacturer says. The same applies for most of the other system components. such as mixing boxes." The diffuser manufacturer is more realistic and relates his equipment to velocity and pressure drop which can be easily measured. we will cover the following topics: • Sound Architectural acoustics Sound testing Vibration Vibration testing Vibration and Noise Identification Analysis procedure Identification Relative probability ratings • • 6-2 . diffusers. Thus.

a person's well being. does it become "objectionable". Intensity varies I . A sound power level of 10-12 watts represent the threshold of hearing. with an example of this power level. 10 lOx the i 6-3 .( Sound Sound is a form of energy. This power is expressed in watts. I I. ! \ Sound power Sound pressure level Loudness and frequency Noise curves (NC curves) • • Sound Power An acoustical source radiates energy in the form of sound. detected as a variation in pressure and stress in an elastic/viscous medium. ( Sound Pressure Level Sound power cannot be measured directly but must be calculated from pressure measurements. Power flow through a unit area of the sphere is intensity. a scale from 0 to 200 dB. There are several ways of describing the characteristics of sound. but only when it reaches a level that interferes with speech. and becomes noise. all the energy from the source must pass through the sphere. Table 6-1 list the 'decibel valve corresponding to a given watts exponential. A "watts exponential" scale of sound power has been developed. r 1 ( 'decibel . The ways we will be discussing are: • • I .A unit used to express relative difference in power. or a preconceived condition. expressed in watts power unit area. Sound is an integral part of any system. equal common log of the ratio of the two levels. If an imaginary sphere is placed around a sound source (with the source at the center of the sphere).

o:onva'S.. A Noise Level will decay over a distance." 10' DldlMlm I..7 10. therefore. .llIal J"aircnlll' takeoUt.r_o..010 SmaU aira'afl maine Blariq radio '''' 10 . 10 '''' '''' go .inversely as the square of the distance from the source. 0.Lionf.001 0... "..5db (D is in feet and is the distance from the Sound Source). ..leava Tbrallold of hellrin. .0000001 0. The close to the sound or noise source the louder it is.n 0. _til.. bFour jei en.. :0'" 10 1010.2 10.." ....000.0000000000. 0. it is inversely proportional. 1\Irbopn)p Prop airaaft I: takcorr' Larp pipe Oq&n I' takeoff '.000001 0. Ylpeed Voice.00001 .1 10.. .' O.000 100.." .000 10.\$houlinl OarbllJe disposailUlit Voioee. Table 6-1 Sound Power Output .p nO> U]00. I n~ . . \$Of' whisper RU\$lUn. <Few: prOpdkr!"lina..OOXlOOOOI O . 'With .00000000000. The intensity and the sound pressure level are nearly identical numerically if proper units are used. 10-' 10.ines.0001 0.01 0.-Il . II.e' om« air dirrusu Human breath Slnall decuic ck. Aulomobile.) .00000001 .. ..~ ..." . 6-4 .tllilh ..000 EQal.. '" • The conversion from Sound Pressure Level (SPL) to Sound Power Level is PWL = SPL + 20 log 0 + .. .et~~ A". Sawm roct~ TUrbo." ..11 " ..OOJOOOOOOI 0 .Itioa lrood El«lronic equip..a.rterbumcr..11 10.ct Voioee. 10.. .. .

For the purposes of analysis this range is divided into several octaves.one single frequency. as well as the due to straight line flow and friction against cut walls. For example. Two tones are said to be an octave apart when the frequency of one is twice that of the other. with each frequency having a different loudness.Loudness and Frequency Sound may be visualized as traveling in a wave pattern similar to that of alternating electrical current (Figure 6-1). a wide range of frequencies . Variation above and below the reference is called amplitude and determines the loudness.from a low of about 20 Hertz to a high of about 20. This air noise will usually be accompanied by sound transmitted from the fan. with a predominant frequency which is a function of fan speed and number of blades. Wavelength - • I i Figure 6-1 Wavelength and Amplitude of Sound A good human ear can hear. 6-5 . air noise in a duct is made up of several high-frequency tones generated by turbulence of the air due to fittings and obstructions. and distinguish. The term Hertz (Hz) is used instead of cycles per second. On the musical scale the A below middle C has a frequency of 440 cps. The distance from one wave peak to the next is the wavelength. the reciprocal of which is the frequency or pitch of the sound.000 Hertz. A common example of this is the musical octave on the piano or other instrument. Figure 6-1 represents a pure tone . Most sound is made up of several frequencies (tones). Frequency is measured in cycles per second (cps).

The actual environment must not exceed the specified curve at any point.....1Ir Figure 6-2 NC Curve 6-6 .'» . ~. :~ • ~~ .... • . ~ . These curves emphasize the fact that high frequencies sound "louder" than low frequencies when sound power levels are equal.: ...f' 25 "MIlD _ _ ~" _ OCTAYE L4HOClHltl'l '1I£OUOICIU...NC Curves Noise criteria curves were the standard for many years and define acceptable limits for sound pressure level in each octave band..: ~ ~ f::: ~ ~ I>." ~ ~ K'-. f-. ~ft ~.:..- ..E- E. " -~ U f-'" ~.... c • c ~ '. but can be at any level below the curve. ~ ~ ~. ZIG ~ ~ I<UlllNO'OfI OOH"N'UOUS =t~ ~ ~ ~ I>. A higher sound power level is acceptable at lower frequencies... ~ » ~ 20 \ ~~~ .. The resulting sound may be too quiet in some frequencies... Figure 6-2 shows the standard NC curves....

Such materials are concrete. drapes and specific acoustical material. the higher the pitch. How much louder depends on the size of the room. Sound travels in all directions from the source. An example is 100 square feet of room surface with an absorption coefficient of . Sound waves cause pressure and have frequency.125 feet per second at 77" F at sea level. vocal cords. air itself absorbs sound particularly at high frequency and should be added to the room total Sabins. A Sabin is the equivalent of one square foot having an absorption coefficient of 1. plaster.999. The degree of acoustical control required depends on the use of the area. but background sounds also. glass.. 6-7 . cause a deviation in atmospheric pressure above or below the static value. the distance from the source and the sound absorbing properties of the room surface.90 reflects only 10% of the sound waves that reach its surface. The amount of sound waves absorbed in a room is given in uni ts called Sabins. The higher the frequency. The reflection follows the law that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. An absorption coefficient of .05 absorption has a 95% reflection and is considered hard.Architectural Acoustics Architectural acoustics deal with the sound attenuation in a room or a building. etc. A person hears not only the direct and reflected sounds.80 equals 80 Sabins. resulting in a total sound which is always louder than the direct sound alone. When it strikes a surface its direction of travel is changed by reflection. etc. Such materials are carpets. Sound waves travel at the speed of 1. meaning a . Sound absorption coefficients for various materials range from . In large rooms. This is called Sound Pressure. Sound waves emitted from a sound source. Frequency is the number of times per second that the sound pressure alternates above and below the ambient atmospheric pressure.00.05 to . Porous materials which permit penetration of sound waves or soft materials have large absorption coefficients.

. @ .03 Walls .015 . @ . Reverberation time depends only on the cubic volume of the room and on its total absorption in Sabins.4..000 cubic feet Floor .Concrete .40 TOTAL ROOM Reverberation Time The amount of reverberation in a room is measured by its reverberation time. ft.. fair to poor for music = 60 Sabins = 84 Sabins = 120 Sabins = 48 Sabins = 312 Sabins 6-8 .05V/a V = volume of room in cubic feet a = room absorption in Sabins Reverberation Time below 1 second .. ft.@ 2. Formula T = ...Plaster .The following example shows a typical sound absorption calculation... Note in the table of sound absorption coefficients that the coefficients vary with frequency..good for speech.Plaster Ceiling .000 sq. ft...800 sq.poor for speech.4.03 20 persons .5 seconds . probably too dead for music 1 to 1.000 sq.2. This may vary from a fraction of a second in a very dead room to 5 to 15 seconds in a very live room.good for speech.. fair for music over 2 seconds .. @ . which is the number of seconds required for the energy of the reflected sound in a room to die out to one millionth of the value it had at the moment the source was cut off. Assume a 500 CPS room 100 X 40 X 10 feet Volume = 40..

4 = 1. 2.000 312 T 2.800 x .Using the room in the previous example: .000 x .560 = 84 = 120 = 48 1.1 seconds.03 = 4. 6-9 .05V T a = 2. This now becomes 4.4 seconds 312 6.000 = 1. To give this room a more acceptable reverberation time. This may be too much of a decrease if 1.4 seconds is a live room and any audible noise source would probably be objectionable.333 Sabins a ( A rug could be put on the floor. This alone is more than enough to reduce the reverberation time.000 = 1.000 x .560 Sabins.812 it were a music room.000 x . . the calculation is as follows : a (Sabins) = .812 i. r Floor with rug Wall Ceiling 20 persons = 4.05 x 40. A new calculation: i.39 = 2.5 = 1.39 = 1.03 =20x2.000 = 6.

Calculate what you need to bring the sound level to the specified NC level and select a sound trap that will do the job.Sound Trap Selection Catalog data will give what attenuation can be expected from a specific Sound Trap at a specific air velocity. so a conversion calculation has to be made. but to a lesser extent. diffusers and dampers also create noise. Manufacturers of sound traps test and rate their sound traps accordance with ASHRAE 36-B-63 and SIW 42 of ASA Sound Testing Assume a specification calls for an Octave Band Analysis of a sound source of NC 35. your sound test will give you the level before the sound trap. Note . High frequency noise levels are easier to attenuate than low frequency noise. The two main sources of noise are the fan and turbulence in the duct system. Insertion loss without air flow is used in rating of sound traps. Dynamic insertion loss is the sound trap or attenuation between sound source and the space where the test is being performed. In 6-10 .12 watts) A sound trap will produce noise. therefore. Sound lined ductwork will give some sound attenuation. Therefore. Chapter 33 of the ASHRAE Guide data book provides useful charts and data on the subject.this rating is given in Sound Power rather than Sound Pressure. Mixing boxes. self-noise power levels are given and determine the trap's acoustical characteristics. Self-Noise Power Levels (db 10.

1961 with a range of 24 db to 150 db Sound Pressure Level. 6-11 . Thm off all equipment and take a background reading. 5. Splitter dampers are noisy when closed or open and should be avoided. is the cause of the higher noise level. Sometimes a simple adjustment of the damper will be sufficient. 3.. A good ridged volume damper in the branch diffuser and main trunk is better for a quiet operation. Then take another series of readings until you have a set of readings of all possible noise sources. Sound Testing Specification Instrument Sound testing meters should be an Octave Band Analyzer which essentially complies to ASA Standards S1.4 . From this procedure you can tell which unit or units are causing the higher noise level. 4. then turn off one piece of equipment at a time and take a series of readings. 1. Take readings at each diffuser or within 6 feet of each diffuser which will tell you if a damper or diffuser. 2. if possible. If the specified NC Curve is exceeded. Take a series of readings per specification with all equipment turned on. Slowing a fan down will reduce the noise level if you have an excess of air or if you must compromise. It is important to clear the area. If the background noise level is close to the actual noise level. of persons other than yourself so their disturbances will not be recorded in background noise or final readings. Calibrate the sound meter. make a correction to your db readings per the manufacturer's correction charts before plotting on the NC Chart. etc.. as in normal operation. grille.

isolate the motor from the equipment fan by disconnecting or removing belts of the coupling. 3. 8. then compared with the allowable tolerance for the respective unit of equipment and recorded on the proper form. Misalignment (drive. then trouble is in the HVAC equipment. frequency test.water carried pulsations If the vibration test exceeds recommended limits. 9. Components causing vibration in HVAC equipment. Each point shall be read in mils of deflection. 4. 6. 10.ductwork pulsation Hydraulic .As vibration is a source of sound waves or noise. Where vibration readings deviate from normal. Measurement of vibration in mils of deflection is sufficient to determine the severity of vibration.synchronous frequencies Aerodynamic . are as follows: 1. on top and on the side of each bearing. 5. 7. Then test the motor separately. belts. Tests shall be taken in general. a separate report should be forwarded to the architect and engineer with a recommended action to be taken. and on duct or pipe after the flexible connection. if vibration is normal. 2.) Defective bearings Coupling misalignment Fan wheel or pump impeller out of balance Bent shafts Drive Pulleys out of balance Fan casing or support structure not rigid enough for centrifugal load Electrical . and stroboscopic light. on two points on the equipment housing and base 90° apart. The balancing agency should make vibration tests on all rotating units of equipment and other items. the source of noise or noise level can be reduced by solving the vibration problem. Other measurements. etc. 6-14 . for instance velocity. may be used to locate the exact point of vibration.

debris under unit grounding it to the structure.) on the test area keeping clear of the rotating parts. 4. Record and tabulate all vibration readings on the proper forms. Zero the instrument.Vibration Testing Procedure Balance the unit for proper air or water flow in accordance with design requirements. After balancing proceed as follows: 1. 5. Test the following: a. b. If battery powered. then partial loading of curve conditions could cause excessive vibration. 3. Make certain that the equipment is working at or within the rated capacity. e. etc. give manufacturer 's vibration tolerance if there is any and where measured if poss ible 6-15 2. If not. f. Read out vibration in mils of deflection or velocity as required by the specification. Secure the measuring device (accelerometer. Set up instrumentation for testing on a base other than where the equipment is being tested. . 7. be certain batteries are up to the required power level. Clean the test area so as to be free from grease or dirt that could cause slippage and false readings. c. d. reed. BHP operating pressure across the unit operating flow across the unit check belts for cracks if applicable visually check and note any condition that could be a contributing factor such as vibration isolators not set up correctly. 6.

9. d. machine troubles can be pinpointed and corrective action prescribed. Write the report on what you think the problems are and make your recommendations. 6-16 . b. increased power and higher equipment costs have created new problems that must be analyzed to achieve the above objectives. By comparing this information with known machine characteristics. greater complexity. If vibration exceeds recommended limits per manufacturer's requirements or severity chart. 10. vibration and nOIse. Vibration and Noise Identification The primary objectives of control of vibration and noise in machinery are: a. Evaluate readings and data. c. New and rebuilt machinery installations can be checked for mechanical condition. Shut off the unit and take a reading on the casing to determine if there are external forces of vibration. Vibration and noise analysis is used to diagnose specific machinery problems without major disassembly and physical inspection. machine speeds. e. Vibration and noise analysis is the procedure of measuring the vibration and noise present in a machine and analyzing the characteristics of that vibration and noise to determine the cause.8. disconnect the motor and test separately. to achieve acceptable machinery operating conditions extend machinery life lower maintenance costs reduce machine failures reduce operator discomfort Increased machinery speeds.

---· 12 8 POINT 1&2 3&4 5&6 7&8 9 & 10 11 & 12 Fan bearing drive end top _ _ Fan bearing opposite end top _ _ Motor bearing drive end top _ _ Motor bearing opposite end top _ _ Casing top _ _ Duct or casing after flexible connection discharge _ _ side side-side side-side _ _ suction _ _ Remarks 6·17 .VIBRATION TEST CENTRIFUGAL FAN _ _ 10 Ii. -.

. ---- .VIBRATION TEST IN·LINE FAN _ _ --9 \ . I '/ POINT 1&2 3&4 5&6 7&8 9 & 10 11 & 12 Remarks Fan bearing drive end Fan bearing opposite end Motor drive end Motor opposite end Casing Duct after flexible connection top top top top bottom & top discharge side ...... - / /" 1' 2 \ -( -1+ . 6-20 ..side _ _ side _ _ s ide_~ _ _ side _ _ side .. Gl -.! ....

6-21 .VIBRATION TEST HORIZONTAL SPLIT CASE PUMP _ _ II .

VIBRATION TEST END SUCfION PUMP _ _ II 12 POINT 1&2 3&4 5&6 7&8 9 & 10 11 & 12 Remarks Pump bearing drive end Motor bearing drive end Motor bearing opposite end Coupling or shaft support Structure Pipe after flexible connection top side _ _ top side _ _ top side _ _ top side _ _ top side _ _ discharge _ _ suction _ _ 6-22 .

VIBRATION TEST AHU-UNIT _ _ . I ' ! 14. . 1 6-23 L .13 '. POINT 1&2 3&4 5&6 7&8 9 & 10 11 & 12 13 & 14 Remarks Fan bearing drive end top Fan bearing opposite end top Fan bearing center (if applicable) top Motor bearing drive end top Motor bearing opposite end top Casing bottom & top Duct after flexible connection discharge side side side side side side suction I I .

belt speeds. a careful analysis of the frequency components presented in the complex signal will allow you to positively identify the problem. Calculate all the expected vibration frequencies of a machine based on the rotational speed of the main rotating components. Analysis Procedure Determining the frequencies present in a complex machine vibration or noise signal and relating these frequencies to predetermined possible sources of vibration and noise in that machine is the most powerful technique available for machinery analysis. For example: vibration and noise caused by worn or damaged gears will have a definite frequency component related to the RPM times the number of gear teeth. Using a vibration analyzer with a tunable filter 6-24 2. This provides a rough guide as to the frequencies at which vibration energy might be expected. . to classify its severity.Vibration and noise are the signals that reveal the presence of mechanical faults. The vibration and noise are measured and then compared to standards which enable the analyst to judge whether or not a fault is present. Various machine faults. number of gear teeth. gear reduction speeds. Frequency of noise and vibration is the key. The chart is used by following a definite analysis and troubleshooting procedure. etc. bearing frequencies. Make a preliminary survey of the vibration data at various measuring points. identified in terms of predominant frequency. Table 1 is located at the back of this chapter. Phase measurements are also useful in many cases. In general the analysis technique used is: 1. If a fault reveals its presence. Identification is a simple procedure involving relating observed frequencies to the frequencies generated by known mechanical sources within the machine. number of impeller vanes or blades. and if so. amplitude and noise characteristics are given in the vibration and noise identification chart shown in Table 1.

carefully tune through the appropriate ranges, recording the amplitude and frequency at which significant frequency components are detected. This survey determines: what frequencies are present in the complex signal, what amplitude ranges are most desirable, and whether "displacement", "velocity," or "acceleration" is the most effective parameter to measure. In most cases involving purely analysis, "velocity" will be selected because both high and low frequencies receive equal weight when measuring velocity . 3. Once the measurement parameters and measurement locations are selected, each point is measured and the overall readings recorded. A narrow-band analysis is made on each range and the significant vibration components are recorded on the data sheet. The vibration measured at any point on a machine can be resolved into its component frequencies by use of the tuneable electronic filter in the vibration analyzer. The tuneable filter has been designed to provide frequency analysis by manually tuning the filter dial to the known vibration frequencies that exist in the machine being analyzed. The vibration frequencies are noted and compared to the identification chart to determine the source. The use of a vibration analyzer with an XY recorder will provide you with hard copy vibration signatures which can be used as a baseline against future signatures of the same machine. Vibratio·n trends and mechanical defects are then visually indicated. Good operating machinery history is also confirmed thus eliminating guesswork. The tuneable filter characteristics are selected to provide ease of tuning operation and adequate narrow-band analysis capability to analyze a major number of problems found in all types of rotating machinery. Detailed narrow-band analysis is used to identify specific troubles by relating the observed frequency components to the known rotational elements in the machine.

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Vibration and Noise Source Identification After the characteristics of a machine's vibration have been measured and recorded, the next step is to compare the readings with the characteristics of vibration typical of various types of trouble. The Vibration and Noise Identification Chart in Table 1 lists the causes of vibration and the characteristics of each. In the table, vibration frequency is listed in multiples of the main machine component rotational speed; i.e. 1, 2, 3 or more times RPM. The table identifies mechanical and electrical vibrations as well as aerodynamic or hydraulic. The key to vibration identification is frequency and phase. The remarks tell the operator the probable cause of the predominant vibrations by comparing the observed frequency and phase measurements to the machine's rotating speeds. Unbalance Vibration caused by mechanical faults will be related to the rotating speed or an exact multiple. For example, if frequency of vibration is exactly at rotational speed and the amplitude and phase angle remain constant, the vibration is probably simple unbalance. Simple unbalance may be caused by non-symmetrical rotating parts, a slightly bowed shaft or improperly assembled parts. Unbalance is corrected by following standard balancing procedures. If the vibration frequency is exactly rotational speed but amplitude and/or phase angle drift or change after start-up, the unbalance may be caused by thermal effects where heat in the rotor affects shaft straightness or alignment. With unbalance caused by thermal condition the amplitude and phase readings will stabilize with time. Unstable Machine Conditions
If the vibration frequency is at rotational speed and the amplitude and/or phase angle continues to change over long period of time, the problem may be related to a rotating part rubbing a stationary part, such as a shaft

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seal, or a changing mechanical condition such as a bearing race slipping or moving on a shaft or in its housing. When the amplitude and/or phase are unstable the fault should be located and corrected. Looseness of movement of machine parts may be thought of as a part making contact twice per revolution. Looseness may cause non-repeatable vibration readings from run to run and the readings will be somewhat erratic. Machine components may become loose during operation or after repairs have been made. Misalignment Vibrations occurring at twice rotational speed may indicate looseness, or misalignment. Misalignment may manifest itself in a variety of ways depending on the type. Often the vibration occurring at 1 X RPM and 2 X RPM will be large in the axial direction . Electrical Electrical causes of vibration will disappear quickly when power is turned off. Electrical causes of vibration are related directly to the impressed 60-CPS voltage and will show up at 60-CPS and 120-CPS. Eccentric rotors, unbalanced voltages, rotor misalignment, a bent shaft, unequal air gaps, and defective rotor bars may produce vibration of this type. Another common type of electrically caused vibration occurs at rotational speed with a slow periodic variation in amplitude occurring at exactly slip speed times the number of poles. For example, a four-pole, 1800 synchronous speed induction motor running at 1750 RPM will have a "slip-beat" vibration of 300 CPM. This electrically caused vibration is not to be confused with the "beatfrequency" vibration that occurs when two or more machines, operating at essentially the same speed "beat" one against the other. This "beat frequency" is often heard in areas where two or more machines are operating, each producing some vibration. The slow variation in amplitude of "beat" occurs as the vibration produced by each machine alternately adds or reinforces then subtracts or cancels each other. 6-27

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CHAPTER SEVEN MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING OBJECTIVES
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State the likely consequence on HVAC systems of radial fans being installed backward. State a likely cause for the following HVAC problems:

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The unit runs continuously with insufficient cooling. The unit short-cycles with insufficient cooling.

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State two likely causes for each of the following HVAC system conditions: High head pressure. High suction pressure. State one easily-checked indication of refrigerant undercharge. State the likely result of a restriction in the refrigerant discharge line. Describe the result of a metering' device with a low setting; of a metering device with a high setting.

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Systematic Troubleshooting Techniques Troubleshooting fans Troubleshooting Abnormal Operations (Air Conditioning)

Troubleshooting techniques was chosen to give a basic method of attacking a problem. The other two topics were chosen because if there is a problem involved with an HVAC system, they are usually involved.
SYSTEMATIC TROUBLESHOOTING TECHNIQUES

Troubleshooting is nothing more than problem solving, and as with any problem, there are five major steps in reaching a conclusion of the problem. These steps are: • • Verify a problem exists. Identify the problem. Locate the cause of the problem. Solve the problem. Verify that the problem has been corrected.

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The complexity of the problem determines how long it will take to solve the problem and in some cases there are more than one right answer. But usually when dealing with machinery, there is only one way to actually solve the problem or that will correct the cause of the problem. When dealing with machinery or systems, there is some type of malfunction we want to fix. Approaching troubleshooting in a logical step-by-step manner can save a considerable amount of time. The first step which should be accomplished

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is to verify that a malfunction actually exists. In other words, ensure that the system/components are set up for and operating normally. Identifying and locating the cause of the malfunction can be the hardest step in troubleshooting. This task ·is made much easier based on the technician's level of knowledge of the overall system and its operation. The next step is to solve the malfunction. It is very important to correct the cause of the fault, not just replace or repair a component. Determine if a component failure or another component is in a degraded condition causing the failure of other components. The last step in troubleshooting is to verify that the malfunction has actually been corrected. Operate the system under normal conditions and, if possible, monitor the area of the malfunction. At this time, all operational characteristics should be monitored to ensure they are correct for normal conditions. TROUBLESHOOTING FANS From Chapter Three, we know that fans are used to move air in an HVAC system. How well a fan performs its job depends on a few factors such a size, speed and design of the system. Because the fan plays such a big part of the system, it is very necessary for an HVAC Technician to understand what common problems a fan have and how to troubleshoot for them. The topics we will discuss are; • • • Noise Performance Reduction Rotation

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Also provided is a chart with sources and probable cause of problems with fans.

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1 Probing For Spin 7·6 .Figure 7.

Belts too loose. e. 7-7 l. b. . . ! I r r 2. f. f. Impeller loose on shaft. g. IMPELLER HITIING INLET RING . b. Impeller not centered in inlet ring. b. DRIVE a. Inlet ring damaged. 3. Sheave not tight on shaft (motor and/or fan). I \.. e. d. Belts wrong cross section. h. I. Variable pitch sheaves not adjusted so each groove has same pitch diameter (multibelt drives). c. c. Belts not "matched" in length on multibelt drive. Adjust for belt stretching after 48 hours operating. Cutoff improperly positioned. Belts too tight. IMPElLER HITIING CUTOFF a.A. Misaligned sheaves. Crooked or damaged impeller. Bearing loose in bearing support. Shaft loose in bearing. ! l d. Belts hitting belt tube. Cutoff not secure in housing. l. . . NOISE Source Probable Cause a. c. Belts worn. Cutoff damaged .

BEARING a. Coupling unbalanced. Foreign material inside bearing. d. 6. NOISE Source Probable Cause J. Coating loose. COUPUNG a. Do not run fan. Unbalance. d. e. motor base or fan not securely anchored. 1. b. c. Worn bearing. a. Defective impeller.A. k. Seals misaligned. loose. Fretting corrosion between inner face and shaft. Needs lubrication. Loose on shaft. f. Contact manufacturer. b. or may need lubricant. Loose on shaft. Belts oily or dirty. 4. misaligned. Misaligned. Motor. Loose on bearing support. Needs lubrication. Defective bearing. 5. b. Improper drive selection. SHAFf SEAL SQUEAL a. h. IMPELLER c. g. 7. 7-8 .

bearings or sheave. SHAFf a. • 10. HOUSING a. If more than two bearings are on shaft. c. ELECTRICAL a. mGH AIR VELOCITY a. . b. b. Foreign material in housing. Bent. Cutoff or other part loose (rattling during operation). e. May cause noise at impeller. Heating or cooling coil with insufficient face area for application. b. Starting relay chatter Noisy motor bearings. b. c. Duct work too small for application. . 9. Undersized. t I c. d. 11. Registers or grilles too small for application. Fan selection too small for application. Single phasing a 3 phase motor. they must be properly aligned. Lead-in cable not secure.A. d. 8. Probable Cause Worn as result of abrasive or corrosive material moving through flow passages. 7-9 j . NOISE Source e. AC hum in motor or relay.

B. Sharp elbows near fan outlet. the' fan speed may be increased to overcome this pressure loss. b. 7-12 . . If there is no straight duct at the fan outlet. 8. INSUFFICIENT AIR FLOW Source 6. c. OBSTRUCTIONS IN HIGH VELOCITY AIR STREAM a. NO STRAIGHT DUer AT FAN OUTLET a. 7. cabinet walls or other obstructions restrict air flow. decreased performance will result. Probable Cause Elbows. LOW CFM. OBSTRUCI'ED FAN INLETS a. Fans which are normally used in duct system are tested with a length of straight duct at the fan outlet. Inlet obstructions cause more restrictive systems but do not cause increased negative pressure readings near the fan inlet(s). Obstruction near fan outlet. If it is not practical to install a straight section of duct at the fan outlet. Fan speed may be increased to counteract the effect of restricted fan inlet(s).. Improperly designed turning vanes.

FAN a. d. Registers or grilles not installed. . INSUFFlCIENT AIR FLOW Source d. I. b. e. Access door open.. Filter(s) not in place. Probable Cause Projections. dampers or other obstruction in part of system where air velocity is high.B. I r 7-13 . c. " . Dampers set to by-pass coils. LOW CFM. Probable Cause a. Backward inclined impeller installed backwards (HP will be high). . IDGH CFM. . b. SYSTEM t ! 2. . C. TOO MUCH AIR FLOW Source 1. Fan speed too fast. Oversized duct work.

air density and the amount of air flowing through the system. pressure measurements are indicators of how the installation is operating. The static pressure at a point of measurement in the system is a function of system design (resistance to flow). FAN OR INTERPRETATION OR MEASUREMENTS GENERAL DISCUSSION The velocity pressure at any point of measurement is a function of the velocity of the air or gas and its density. SYSTEM. The static pressure measured in a "loose" or oversized system will be less than the static pressure in a "tight" or undersized system for the same air flow rate.D. Field static pressure measurements rarely correspond with laboratory static pressure measurements unless the fan inlet and fan outlet conditions of the installation are 7-14 . In most systems. These measurements are the result of air flow and as such are useful indicators in defining system characteristics. WRONG STATIC PRESSURE Source Probable Cause 1.

Fan speed too high. Fan speed may be reduced to obtain desired flow rate. CFM LOW a. WRONG STATIC PRESSURE Source Probable Cause exactly the same as the inlet and outlet conditions in the laboratory. Also see D-2 through D-6. l l l • 1.D. GAS DENSITY l • 4.1-S. STATIC PRESSURE LOW. Backward inclined impeller installed backwards. 2. E-2. SYSTEM System has less resistance to flow than expected. • 3.. See general discussion (D-1). FAN • . Fan inlet and/or outlet conditions not same as SYSTEM tested. This is a common occurrence. E. This will reduce HP (operating cost). for specific cases. F1. HP will be high. • i . i l . a. Also see B. Pressures will be less with high temperature gas or at high altitudes. b. j 7-15 . and G-1. .

7-16 . Filter(s) left out.F. 2. Fan speed too high. FAN a. Also see B. d. Fan not operating at efficient point of rating. CFM LOW Source 2. high temperature) but actual gas is heavy (e. 4. FAN SELECTION a. Access door open. Probable Cause Obstruction in system. b. c. Fan size or type may not be best for application.g. Face and by-pass dampers oriented so coil dampers are open at same time by-pass dampers are open. SYSTEM a. d.. Backward inclined impeller installed backwards. HORSEPOWER IDGH 1. SYSTEM a. b. Dirty coil.g. c. Dirty filters. b. System too restricted. Oversized duct work. Calculated horsepower requirements based on light gas (e. G. GAS DENSITY a. cold start up).. 3. STATIC PRESSURE IDGH.1-8.

FAN DOES NOT OPERATE Source 1. SHEAYES IMPELLER. BELTS. f. g. PREMATURE FAILURE 1. GENERAL DISCUSSION Each fan component is designed to operate satisfactorily for a reasonable life time. Not all components are • 7-17 .H. Impeller touching scroll. Class I fans are intended for operation below certain limits of pressure and outlet velocity. Broken belts. ETC. BEARINGS. e. HUBS. c. Electricity turned off. Motor too small and overload protector has broken circuit. Loose pulleys. For example. Probable Cause Mechanical and electrical problems are usually straightforward and are normally analyzed in a routine manner by service personnel. ELECTRICAL OR MECHANICAL I. Fans intended for heavy duty service are made especially for that type of service. b. Blown fuses. In this category are such items as: a. d. Wrong voltage. Class II fans are designed for higher operating limits.

2. For tubular centrifugals. But the rotation would depend upon the position of the viewer relative to the fan. Fan rotation. temperature. etc. 7-18 . e. expected life. COUPLINGS SHAFf See A4.I. A6.. When checking rotation for centrifugal fan the fan must be viewed from the drive side while it is coasting to a stop. is either the "clockwise" or "counterclockwise" spin of the fan impeller. Rotation No system should be tested without first checking the fan rotation.g. as defined by the fan manufacturer. limiting factors may be HP. 3. impeller tip speed. the fan must be viewed from the outlet side. Also see AID. Also see A3. For axial fans the fans must be viewed from the inlet side. Figures 7-2 and 7-3 show the correct rotation for centrifugal and axial fan impellers. corrosive atmospheres. AS. torque. PREMATURE FAILURE Source Probable Cause limited by the same factors. RPM.

b t ROTATION t AIR FLOW AIR FLOW t -t- '" ~~)] ~ 0 t AIR FLOW . . t t t AIR FLOW t tr -t- Figure 7-3 Axial Fan Impellers 7-19 .~OTATION RADIAL BLADE BACKWARD INCLINED AIRFOIL ~(@)J~ RADIAL TIP BACKWARD CU RVED FORWARD CURVED Figure 7-2 Centrifugal Fan Impellers ~ ROTATION d t . ~ t 2) C(~. .

might be the cause of a future service complaint. and the service technician must. 7-20 . There have been complaints from the field that some servicemen do not always measure up to the higher standards. Mechanics must be conscientious in their attempts to put the system back in proper operating condition.) Some manufacturers of components such as expansion valves have had parts returned that were not defective. In small refrigeration units. when this action did not correct the trouble. Rather. be able to recognize the symptoms. each of which may be the source of the complaint or the problem in the refrigeration system. many other troubles may occur in the electrical circuitry but they will have to be determined on case by case basis. (This. there will be some common operating problems encountered. For example. like a doctor. in itself. the medical doctor is able to prescribe medicine or treatment immediately to relieve the patient. one may have added refrigerant to a system when there was indications of a shortage and. but the serviceman would replace the valve. the serviceman was negligent and did not remove the excess refrigerant. the strainers in some of the valves were merely dirty or clogged.TROUBLESHOOTING OPERATIONS ABNORMAL AIR CONDITIONING Regardless of the type of system. and take corrective action. the major problems that occur are: • • The unit runs continuously with insufficient cooling . The refrigeration serviceman may have to arrive at a satisfactory diagnosis through the process of elimination of several possible causes. blaming the trouble on its operation. Of course. In most cases. The unit short cycles with insufficient cooling . diagnose the cause.

the technician diagnose this problem without entering the sealed system. Low suction pressure Insufficient air or heat load on evaporator coil Poor distribution of air over evaporator coil Restricted refrigerant flow Undercharge of refrigerant Faulty expansion valve or capillary tube 3. water.) High temperature condensing medium Restricted discharge line 2. etc. High head pressure Dirty or partially blocked condenser Air or other noncondensable gases in system Overcharge of refrigerant . High suction pressure Heavy load conditions Low superheat adjustment Improper expansion valve adjustment Poor installation of feeler bulb Inefficient compressor High head pressure on capillary tube systems 7-21 . Insufficient condensing medium (air. Some of the variables that could cause these problems and can be diagnosed by using gauges are: 1.Three mam conditions satisfactorily are: • In units that are operating but not cooling High head pressure Low suction pressure High suction pressure • • It is recommended that. if possible.

This condition may be diagnosed during the visual check of the system by the service technician. etc. it is less harmful than moist air. Particularly if the condenser is located outdoors.again from the direction opposite to the normal air flow . or other debris. Care must be taken that electrical connections are protected when the unit is being cleaned. the condensing unit itself may have to be cleaned with a degreasing solvent applied with a brush or spray. If the unit is located indoors. followed by flushing the condenser with water from a hose . oxygen may react with oil or metals to produce sludge. Accumulations of dirt and dust may have to be removed by the application of a soap and water solution. the condenser may not be subjected to leaves and other debris. if a portable air tank is available. but grease in the air collects on the fins. leaves. such as in the back room of a grocery store or restaurant. by the pressure of an air supply in the opposite direction to the normal air flow through the condenser. Air or Noncondensable Gases in System If there is only relatively dry air in a refrigeration system. So will the operation of an air cooled condensing unit be seriously affected if its condenser becomes partially blocked with paper.High Head Pressure Dirty or Partially Blocked Condenser An automobile engine will probably overheat if the radiator becomes clogged with leaves or insects. If grease has accumulated on a condensing unit in a restaurant or store. permitting dust and dirt to accumulate and prohibiting proper heat transfer. External cleaning of the condenser fins and coil may be done with a stiff brush or. metal oxides. but in either case. The same applies if dry nitrogen or dry carbon dioxide has been used to pressure test a system and has not 7-22 . This should be followed with a soap and water solution and external flush ing with water.

However. so the compressor must be shut off (if it is in operation) and the refrigerant allowed to give up its heat to the surrounding air. This process can be speeded up if it is possible to bypass the controls and operate the condenser fan alone. which would be the gauge manifold. Proper evacuation is absolutely necessary to eliminate both air and moisture. The difference in pressure within the condenser should not be more than 5 psig from the pressure corresponding to the temperature of the refrigerant being used . A reduction of the heat transfer area in the condenser will make a greater temperature difference between the cooling medium and the condensing refrigerant necessary to permit removal of the required amount of heat from the refrigerant. Therefore. and can affect heat removal from the superheated vapor and condensation of the saturated vapor.as indicated on the gauge should be 108 psig but not exceed 113 psig. the temperature of the refrigerant in the condenser should be the same as the air surrounding it. If it does. and allow it to be purged without losing too much refrigerant. This will permit the air or noncondensable gas to collect at the high point. The purging should be done in small amounts. moisture-laden air in the system indicates that it was opened for repair or component replacement and was not evacuated properly. Assuming that R-12 is the refrigerant and that the ambient temperature (and that of the refrigerant in the condenser) is 95°P. At higher condensing temperatures.been completely removed. with a few moments of time elapsing between brief periods of purging. so the purging must be done through the gauge manifold. The question now is how to determine if there is a noncondensable gas such as air in the condenser. the air or noncondensable must be purged from the unit. there will be a corresponding increase in head pressure. Space in the condenser occupied by air or other noncondensables is not available for the proper function of that component. the pressure within the condenser . To make a test. It is impossible to purge without 7-23 . Most small condensers do not have purge valves at the top.