Unit 1 – Administration or Management?

UNIT

1

ADMINISTRATION OR MANAGEMENT?

SECTION A

A.1 Answer the following questions:
1. What do you – as reader – expect from a text whose title is a question? 2. Do you have different expectations if the title is based on an "or" question? to administer – administration to manage – manager 3. Try to give a definition to each of the following terms:

A.2 Read the text below carefully and decide whether the question in the title invites the reader to make a choice or to compare the two terms in order to understand them better.

TEXT A

Administration or Management?
This is a question which still generates discussions and controversies. In some contexts, to administer and to

manage are synonyms, in others, they
involve difference in meaning. When applied to public and private

it is these administrative processes that tend to dominate. are clearly performing the same role: they are planning. Other systems as judicial. In management systems. These are normally referred to as management systems which were found notably in the nationalised industries. This gives public organisations their distinctive nature. The main contrasts between administrative and management systems are: 1. while private organisations are managed. to ensure consistency and facilitate control. The people responsible for making the decisions and carrying out the policies and objectives. usually expressed quantitatively. objectives tend to be expressed in very general terms and are rarely reviewed or changed. diplomatic and administrative. The main criteria of success for administrative avoiding systems and are getting mistakes things right. Both types of organisations have goals. Analysts sometimes identify a large number of systems within public organisations. 3. 2. In administrative systems. These differ in their structures and operational styles from management systems. however.English for Public Administration organisations. both use resources to achieve those goals and both are held accountable to their stakeholders for the decisions they make and for the ways they use resources. The latter bear a closer resemblance to private business organisations than do the other systems. Management systems. in both types of organisation. reflecting the diversity of their tasks. organising. in contrast. although this varies from one organisation to another. in other words managing. the criteria are achieving targets. with specific deadlines and targets. have more clearly identified goals and objectives. The economical and efficient use of resources is secondary tasks in . a dominant perception is that public organisations are administered. co-ordinating and controlling. In public organisations. They argue that only a minority of the systems had the primary task of making the best use of resources. Administration in both types of organisation involves establishing procedures which are designed to link policy with practice.

5. averting political controversy and achieving consensus.Unit 1 – Administration or Management? administrative systems but of other hand. The criteria of success in public administrative systems are mistake avoidance. The criteria of success in management systems. Administrative systems tend to focus on role where responsibilities are precisely defined and there is limited delegation structures tend to consist of long hierarchies and there is a tendency to caution and to refer problems upwards. Role and status are – in most cases . there are shorter hierarchies. 4. Managers are judged by their ability to recognise and seize opportunities. react quickly to changed circumstances and make profits or avoid losses. given the elements of risk and uncertainty involved. They are task oriented and maximise individual discretion and there is a high level of decentralisation and wider spans of control. with long chains of command and narrow spans of control. They are heavily bureaucratised and foster defensive and passive behaviour. looking for opportunities. on the . Managerial systems. hinge around achieving the goals set for the organisation. fighting for resources and taking initiatives. tend to have more flexible structures with less hierarchy. In management systems a task is central. The role of the administrator is more one of arbitration and rule interpretation. more delegation and a willingness to make decisions. So administrative systems appear to have mechanistic structures. satisfying public expectations of fairness.routinised to constrain discretion. Hughes) primary importance in the creation of effective management systems. Making the right decision is less important than making an appropriate decision. In contrast the manager is a protagonist. (Adapted and abridged from "Public Management and Administration" by Owen E. conformity and consistency in practice. in contrast.

…17… for resources and …18… initiatives. In …6… systems. They use …2… to achieve their goals.2 Some words in the text appear in verb-noun partnerships.English for Public Administration A. A manager is a …15…. A. administration involves establishing …3… designed …4… policy with …5… .3 Vocabulary A.3.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable words and phrases from the text: Both public and private organisations are held …1… to their stakeholders. objectives are rarely …7… or changed. with specific …10… and …11… . …8… systems have clearer …9… and goals. In both types of organisation. Make up common collocations selecting from the following verbs and nouns. In administrative systems there is limited …12…. looking …16… opportunities. usually referred to as collocations. An administrator has a role of …13… and …14… interpretation. Some verbs may go with more than one noun: to take to achieve to make to avoid to set to delegate to communicate to allocate to carry out profit responsibility targets objectives mistakes initiative resources a policy information a plan .3.

general agreement. quality to work well or to produce the right result or the right work quickly d. . to derive from f. effectiveness 8. to avert 9. to avoid. consensus 4. plan of action made by a government. system of accountability 6. to account for 5. efficiency 3.3 Match up the following words and phrases with the correct meaning: 1. collective opinion i. You have to think of a managerial plan for the new semester. ability. a company or a political party c. Group A – Managers You are all members of the management of a tax collecting organisation. the state of always being the same in behaviour. to emerge 7. h. (Meeting at Top Level) Stage 1 Organising the groups Work in groups of four. thought. work out this plan and be prepared to explain each item from a manager’s point of view. working or producing results e.3. etc. Group B – Representatives of the leading party (Administrators) You have been given administrative responsibilities in a tax collecting organisation. consistency a.Unit 1 – Administration or Management? A.4 Speaking activity: "Improving activity in a public tax-collecting enterprise". to turn away A. system according to which people are held responsible for their work and they have to report to their superiors g. to come out. to justify minutely the way in which some amounts of money have been used b. Discuss within the group and work out an efficient policy so as to improve the activity of this public organisation and meet the public’s expectations. policy 2. On the basis of the text.

take initiative. You have to make the two administrators accept your specific objectives and targets. • you only fix general objectives. The administrators will present the policy. • achieving targets is managers’ business.English for Public Administration Stage 2 Simulation of the meeting Form new groups including two managers and two administrators. you do not have to change them. Role cards: Managers Do not forget that: • administrative policies express objectives in very general terms. • your main interest is to avoid mistakes. • in the end. • you are a protagonist. Define responsibilities clearly. which the managers have to approve after analysing it carefully. Think of opportunities you may have. give arguments. • your purpose is to get the work done. • role is very important from your point of view. Administrators Do not forget that: • the public's expectations are very important to you. fight for your ideas. • efficient use of resources is of primary importance for you. Make a clear distribution of resources. you have to come to a plan accepted by both parties. . make the two administrators accept your proposals. Therefore. However. specific targets fixed by managers may be accepted. work out a system of delegating responsibility. make clear hierarchies to ensure control.

2 Read Text B and find out how many of your ideas are confirmed by it. Many analysts have confirmed that administrators did not see themselves as managers. supporting political policy makers and law makers and ensuring that the law was implemented. This is in part because historically the public services emerged as administrative bodies. TEXT B Although both management and administrative systems are found in the public sector. Public bodies have money appropriated by Parliament or local authorities for specific purposes annually. Any decision to change the use of funds has traditionally required to be vired by the finance department. talk to your deskmate about this and then. work in small groups and compare your opinions with your colleagues'. which had an effect on the way in which the Service was managed. Pair and group work: First. B.Unit 1 – Administration or Management? SECTION B B.1 Discussion Using information from Text A and knowing that both administrative and management systems are found in the public sector. it is the administrative system that has traditionally dominated. The traditional administrative culture is also a consequence of public systems of accountability. . They are required to account for the regularity of their expenditures each year. This invites a cautious attitude to the use of funds and close scrutiny over each commitment of resources. The civil service is still dominated by an elite whose perception of their role is that of policy advisers to ministers and guardians of the public interest. try to establish which of the two systems has dominated and why.

It is generally stated that public organisations have to achieve a balance between resource efficiency and goal effectiveness. In the private sector. These tests are ultimately qualitative and judgmental. in the public domain it is political choice.but in terms of goal effectiveness. it is the administrative function. Traditionally. They are predominantly administratively driven. (Adapted and abridged from "Public Management and Administration" by Owen E. Public organisations should pay special attention to policy tests. Only bureaucratic practices can ensure that this occurs. which is prior to the management one. and the priority given to procedures. . because of their primarily political goals and accountabilities. The law requires that all those entitled to social or welfare rights should receive equal treatment. their dispersal throughout the country and the need to ensure standard and uniform practices. There is no objective way of determining what the right policies or right amount of resources are. In the market it is the price mechanism. Administrative systems are concerned about the use of resources in so far as they constrain what can be done but they do not assess success in terms of product outputs . which arbitrates. their management systems have emerged out of their administrative systems.English for Public Administration Bureaucratic in of administrative It is politicians who finally decide on both the goals and resources to be used in pursuing them. They imply a qualitative judgement about not only the goals but also the relative priority given to different goals. not management driven. Hughes) structures and systems are also part a consequence of the size public bodies. It also sets down rules and procedures to be followed. not vice versa. In public organisations. the management function precedes the administrative one. How public organisations are managed derives from these fundamental facts of political life.

to pursue. in terms of. 5.Unit 1 – Administration or Management? B. cautious attitude. Nu există un mod obiectiv de a decide ce înseamnă o politică administrativă bună. Why did administrative systems dominate traditionally? 2. expenditures B. How can bureaucratic practices of the public system be explained? 4. to assess. in so far as.3 Comprehension Answer the following questions: 1.5 Translate into English: 1. political choice. Testarea politicii administrative implică nu numai aprecierea calitativă a scopurilor. Nu este de loc uşor să evaluezi succesul prin eficacitatea scopului. 2. What do policy tests consist in? 6. What are the consequences of the public system of accountability? 3. ci şi relativa prioritate acordată diferitelor scopuri. to ensure. How is success conceived in administrative systems? 5. Which of the two functions (administrative and management) prevails in public organisations and why? B.4 Make up sentences using the following words and expressions: public bodies. to strike a balance. Li se cere să justifice regularitatea cheltuielilor în fiecare an? 4. . 3. Legea cere ca tuturor cetăţenilor să li se acorde tratament egal.

1 Answer the questions below using "it" as an introductory element to emphasise the words given in bold italics. C. What's that terrible noise? First of all. abc It's the new project that attracts many students.English for Public Administration SECTION C Language focus Initial "it" – used for emphatic purposes The new project attracts many students. It's the champions they are waiting for. political choice arbitrates obviously. They are waiting for the champions. Remember that. "it" is used with nouns in both singular and plural. they want to avoid political controversy. What is the point they want to avoid first of all? They are concerned about the implementation of the law. Who decides on goals and resources? In the public field. What arbitrates obviously in the public field? The children are in the garden and make a terrible noise. the politicians decide on both the goals and resources to be used. for such a function. What are they concerned about? . Finally.

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