Chapter 20: The Conservative Order and the

Challenges of Reform (18151832)

De ember 30, 2007

The Congress of Vienna established onservatism through ooperation and
onsultation, maintaining pea e. They maintained monar hy and aristo ra y.
Two riti isms hallenged this order. Nationalists wished to shape nations a ording to nationalities or ethni groups. Liberals sought reform and freer markets. Latin Ameri an olonies eorts to gain independen e threatened the order.
For the rst fteen years, onservatism was su essful ex ept for Latin Ameri a. But strong hallenge materialized late with the 1830 Fren h Revolution and
1832 reform bill in Parliament. Eastern and entral Europe ontinued to resist
hange.

Contents
1

The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism
1.1

The Emergen e of Nationalism
1.1.1

1.2

2

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.1.2

Opposition to the Vienna Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.1.3

Creating Nations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.1.4

Meaning of Nationhood

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.1.5

Regions of Nationalisti Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Early-Nineteenth-Century Politi al Liberalism . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.2.1

Politi al Goals

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.2.2

E onomi Goals

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.2.3

Relationship of Nationalism to Liberalism . . . . . . . . .

6

Conservative Governments: The Domesti Politi al Order

6

2.1

Conservative Outlooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.2

Liberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and the Germanies

7

2.2.1

. . . . . . . .

7

2.2.2

Defeat of Prussian Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.2.3

Student Nationalism and the Carlsbad De rees

2.3

Dynasti Integrity of the Habsburg Empire

. . . . . .

7

Postwar Repression in Great Britain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

2.3.1

8

Lord Liverpool's Ministry and Popular Unrest

1

. . . . . .

2.3.2
2.4

3

4

5

9

2.4.1

The Charter

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.4.2

Ultraroyalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

10

3.1

The Congress System

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

3.2

The Spanish Revolution of 1820 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

3.3

Revolt Against Ottoman Rule in the Balkans

. . . . . . . . . . .

11

3.3.1

The Greek Revolution of 1821 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

3.3.2

Serbian Independen e

12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Wars of Independen e in Latin Ameri a

12

4.1

Revolution in Haiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

4.2

Wars of Independen e on the South Ameri an Continent . . . . .

13

4.2.1

Creole Dis ontent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

4.2.2

San Martín in Río de la Plata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

4.2.3

Simon Bolívar's Liberation of Venezuela . . . . . . . . . .

15

4.3

Independen e in New Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

4.4

Brazilian Independen e

16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe

5.2

16

Russia: The De embrist Revolt of 1825 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

5.1.1

Unrest in the Army

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.1.2

Dynasti Crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.1.3

The Auto ra y of Ni holas 1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

5.1.4

O ial Nationality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

5.1.5

Revolt and Repression in Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

Revolution in Fran e (1830) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.2.1

The Rea tionary Poli ies of Charles 10 . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.2.2

The July Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.2.3

Monar hy under Louis Philippe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

5.3

Belgium Be omes Independent (1830)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

5.4

The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

5.4.1

Politi al and E onomi Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

5.4.2

Catholi Eman ipation A t

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

5.4.3

Legislating Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

In Perspe tive

23

A AP Test Prep

1

8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Conservative International Order

5.1

6 

Peterloo and the Six A ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bourbon Restoration in Fran e

23

The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism
1. Age of isms: nationalism, liberalism, republi anism, so ialism, ommunism.

2

2. Be areful not to let words obstru t thought.

1.1
1.1.1

The Emergen e of Nationalism
Nationalism

1. Single most powerful ideology 19th/20th.
2. Modern on ept: politi al boundary = ethni boundary.
3. Came during late 18th/early 19th.

1.1.2

Opposition to the Vienna Settlement

1. Vienna held monar hies/dynasties, not ethni ity basis for unity.
2. Oppose multinational and people of same ethni ity in dierent states (Germany).
3. Underlie:

popular sovereigntypeople determine nation, not monar h.

(But not always).
4. Minorities oppressed: majority govern them without onsent. Also, majority aspired to govern those of their ethni ity in regions where nationalism
was not strong.

1.1.3

Creating Nations

1. Elites spread nationalism through print.
(a) Historian hroni le people's past;
(b) Writers/s holars establish national literature by anthologizing
2. S hooltea hers spread: tea h national language, history.
3. Fran e, Italy: o ial national language supplant lo al diale t.
4. S andinavia/E. Europe:

attempt resurre t purer versions of national

languages. Often basi ally invent
5. Yet even in 1850,

more linguisti uniformity.

1
2 Fren h people spoke o ial Fren h.

6. Print ulture xed language more ee tively than spoken.
7. Pro ien y of o ial language

so ial, politi al advan ement.

8. Uniform language persuaded people they were part of a nation.

3

1.1.4

Meaning of Nationhood

1. Unify (Italy, Germany): eliminate/federate dynasti states.

E onomi ,

administrative e ien y.
2. Resemble individuals: personal talent, shape own destiny.
3. Creation of God: like biologi al spe imens.
4. Pla e in divine order. Poland: suering Christ

imply resurre tion.

5. Whi h ethi group be nation? Theory any. . . pra ti e:
(a) Large enough to support viable e on.
(b) Signi ant ultural history.
( ) Cultural elite to spread national language.
(d) Military to onquer/establish/prote t independen e.
6. Many smaller groups la ked military

no independen e but aused do-

mesti unrest.

1.1.5

Regions of Nationalisti Pressure

Challenge SQUO is 6 areas:
1. England subsume Ireland 1800.
(a) Irish want independen e/more self-governan e.
(b) Irish problemhaunt Britain for two enturies.
2. Germany: unify German-speakers; hallenger Austria; pit Austria against
Prussia.
3. Italy: unify Italian-speakers; drive out Austrians.
4. Poland: restore independen e, get rid of Russians.
5. E. Europe: Hungarians, Cze hs, Slovenes, others sought independen e/formal
re ognition within Austria.
6. S.E. Europe, Balkan: independen e from Ottoman and Russian.

1.2

Early-Nineteenth-Century Politi al Liberalism

Present-day Ameri ans think of 19th entury liberals as more onservative than
really.

4

1.2.1

Politi al Goals

1. From E., DRMC.
2. Limit arbitrary power of government.
3. Legitima y from onsent of governed.
4. Ele ted representatives/parliamentary bodies.
5. Ministers answer to representative, not monar h.
6. Constitution.
7. Limited but good onstitutional government nowhere. Even Britain ministers equally answer to monar h.
8. Conservative suspi ious of onstitutionFren h. No written onstitution
embody wisdom of running state.
9. Liberals edu ated, wealthy, a ademi s, professional/ ommer ial, but ex-

luded politi ally.
(a) Felt ex lusion unjustied.
10. No demo ra y. Extend representation to propertied lasses.
11. Hated poor; transform system into wealth-based privilege instead of birth.

1.2.2

E onomi Goals

1. Free trade.
2. Oppose paternalisti regulation/guilds. Labor is ommodity to be freely
traded.
3. Dierent programs in dierent pla es.
(a) Britain: already limited monar hy. Parliamentary reform. Industrial
revolution already in pla e.
(b) Fran e:

Napoleoni Code.

Appeal to prin iples of 1789.

Like

Britain, expand ele torate w/o demo ra y.
( ) Germany/Austria: sti resistan e to liberalism

less dire t politi-

al inuen e. Sharp divide between aristo ra y (in bureau ra y and
o er orps) and small bourgeoisie. No strong tradition of liberty:
freedom = moral onformity.

Tolerated strong state: it was vehi-

le for uni ation. But states didn't ooperate
goals: lower trade barriers.

5

seek more modest

1.2.3

Relationship of Nationalism to Liberalism

1. Not ne essarily/logi ally linked. In fa t, often opposed.
2. Some nationalists want their nation to dominate.
3. Conservative nationalists want nation, but no liberal institution.
4. Often ompatible: nationalists promote representative government, ivil
liberty, e onomi freedom. Gain support of liberals who may not share
their nationalism.
5. Symbols:

Greek nationalists make Athens apital

reveren e of En-

glish/Fren h liberals.

2

Conservative Governments: The Domesti Politi al Order

Inuen e lasted until WW1.

2.1

Conservative Outlooks

1. Legitimate monar hy, landed aristo ra y, established hur h.
2. Self- ons ious allian e new. Fren h Revolution allied them.
3. Arti ulated outlook and set of ooperating institutions was as new a fea-

ture on the politi al lands ape as nationalism and liberalism  (662).
4. Theorists: Burke & Hegel.
5. Attitudes from Louis's exe ution:
(a) Monar hy only trust A./A. allied with B.
(b) A. believe no representative government prote t their interests.
( ) Reje t onstitutions unless they wrote it themselves.
(d) Chur h distrust popular movements. Saw themselves as edu ators of
SQUO.
(e) Chur h hate E.: riti al spirit; undermine revealed religion.
6. Saw selves as surrounded by enemy; one revolution spill into another.
7. War distra ted politi s and fueled e onomy. But with pea e, itizens raise
new issues.
(a) Unemployment.
(b) Conservatives resorted to repression.

6

2.2

Liberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and
the Germanies

Metterni h (17731859) epitomize onservatism. Seemed to ontrol European
rea tion.

2.2.1

Dynasti Integrity of the Habsburg Empire

1. Most dangerous to Austriahad Germans, Poles, Cze hs, Slovaks, Slovenes,
Italians, Croats, others, lient governments in Italy.
2. Re ognize any

demise of empire.

3. Had to dominate German Confederation to pre lude new state that absorb
German heart of Austria.
(a) Created at Vienna; repla ed HRE.
(b) 39 states under Austrian leadership. Ea h mostly autonomous. . .

2.2.2

Defeat of Prussian Reform

1. 1815Frederi k William 3 promised onstitution; stalled and reneged.
2. Created e ient Coun il of Stateanswered to him alone.
3. 1819Repla e reformist ministers with hardened onservatives after quarrel about army organization.
4. 1823Establish 8 Dietsrelink monar hy, army, aristo ra y.

2.2.3

Student Nationalism and the Carlsbad De rees

1. 3 German states (Baden, Bavaria, Württemberg) granted onstitutions.
(a) None re ognized pop. sovereignty;
(b) All dene rights as gift of monar h.
2. University students read nationalism; fought or friends fought Napoleon.
Dreamed United Germany.
3. Burs henshaften student asso iations; repla e provin ial loyalty with unied state loyalty. Often anti-Semiti .
4. 1817, Jenaorganize 4th anniversary of Leipzig, 300th of 95 Theses. Uneased rulers: lubs in luded some republi ans.
5. Karl Sand (B. member) assassinate onservative playwright August von
Kotzebue who ridi uled B.
(a) Tried, publi exe ution

nationalist martyr.

7

(b) Metterni h used this to justify suppression liberalism institutions.
6. Jul. 1819Carlsbad

De rees dissolved B. Also provided ensorship.

7. Final A tlimited subje ts onstitutional hambers of Baden, Bavaria,
Württemberg ould dis uss.

Assert right of monar h to resist onstitu-

tional demands. Se ret poli e harass dissidents (anyone seeking moderate
hange).

2.3

Postwar Repression in Great Britain.

181920 high tide to onservatism inuen e and oppression. Poor harvest and
unemployment in Britain.

2.3.1

Lord Liverpool's Ministry and Popular Unrest

1. Prote t interest of landed and wealthy.
2. 1815Corn Law high pri e for domesti grain; duties of foreign.
3. Repla e in ome tax (only wealthy) with ex ise (all) pay.
4. Ruling lass abandon traditional paternal prote tion of poor.
5. 1799Combination A t outlaw unions.
6. Lower lasses demand hange.
(a) Reform lubs.
(b) Radi al newspapers: Cobbett's Politi al Registrar demand hange.
7. Government saw leaders as demagoguesimages of sans- ulottes.
(a) Cobbett, Major John Cartwright, Henry Orator Hunt.

→ ex use to pass Coer ion A ts
of Mar. 1817suspend habeas orpus ; extend sedition laws.

8. De . 1816mass meeting at Spa Fields

2.3.2 

Peterloo and the Six A ts

Calmed politi s until 1819.
1. 16 Aug. 1819meeting in Man hester at St. Peter's Fields.
2. Royal troops and militia stationed. Magistrate ordered militia to step in;
11 died; s ores injured.
3. Radi al leaders arrested.
4. De . 1819 passed the Six A ts:

8

(a) Forbade large unauthorized publi meetings;
(b) Raise ne for seditious libel;
( ) Sped trials for politi als;
(d) In reased newspaper tax;
(e) Prohibit training or armed groups;
(f ) Allow lo al o ials to sear h homes.
5. Cato Street Conspira y: Arthur Thistlewood led plot to blow up abinet.
Foiled; men hanged. Dis redited Parliamentary reform movement.

2.4

Bourbon Restoration in Fran e

Louis 18 brother of Louis 16. Son of Louis died in prison (regarded as Louis 17).

Realist during exile; a epted onstitutional monar hy with his own onstitution
alled the

2.4.1

Charter.

The Charter

1. Hereditary monar hy; bi ameral legislature.
2. Monar hy appoint upper Chamber of Peers (like House of Lords);
3. Elites ele t Chamber of Deputies.
4. Guarantee DRMC.
5. Toleration with Catholi ism o ial.
6. No hallenge property SQUO ( ons ated from Chur h ould keep).

2.4.2

Ultraroyalism

1. Royalists didn't like Louis 18's moderate.
2. Led by Louis' brother/heir

Count of Artois. More royalist than King;

demand revenge.
(a) Exe uted White TerrorKing powerless to stop.
(b) Sentiment in Chamber of Deputies.
3. So dangerous, King dissolved hamber. Se ond ele tion return moderate
majority.
4. Feb.

1820persuaded Louis 18 Duke of Berri (son of Count of Artois)

murder was by liberals. King responded repressively:
(a) Wealthy ele tors got two votes.

9

(b) Press ensorship.
( ) Suspe ts of dangerous a tivity easily arrested.
(d) Put se ondary edu ation under bishops.
(e) Revealed ontradi tion of restoration: onstitution was façade; liberalism nearly illegal.

3

The Conservative International Order
1. Major powers (Ru/Aus/Prussia, Britain) onsult periodi ally.
2. At rst, post-war ongresses. Later, as dieren es arose, more informal.
3. Con ert of Europe resolve mutual FX poli y. Prevent major unilateral
a tion.
(a) Initial goal: maintain balan e of power against Fran e, Russia.
(b) Long-term goal: maintain pea enovel European idea.
( ) Genuine new step to regulate IR.

3.1

The Congress System

1. First years, ongress of ooperation/ onsultation worked well.
2. 1st: 1818 Aix-la-Chapelle. Powers removed troops from Fran e. Fran e
paid reparations; readmitted to good standing.
3. Alexander 1: Quadruple Allian e uphold existing borders.

Castlereagh

reje tQuadruple Allian e only prevent future Fren h aggression.

3.2

The Spanish Revolution of 1820

1. Bourbon Ferdinand 8 after Napoleon.
2. Promise Constitution; renege. Dissolve Cortés; auto rati .
3. 1820army o ers sent to suppress olonial revolution rebelled.
4. Naples: king of Two Si ilies a ept onstitution.
5. Frighten Metterni hAustria want Italy for buer for S. ank.
(a) Britain oppose intervention in Italy or Spain.
(b) Metterni h turn to Holy Allian e. With uno ial British and Fren h
delegates, form

Congress of Troppau and issue Proto ol of Trop-

pau.
i. Stable governments intervene in revolution ountry.

10

ii.

Congress of Laiba hAustrian troops restore absolutism in
Naples.

iii. Metterni h attempt in rease e ien y and popular support.
6. 1822

Congress of Veronanal postwar ongress. Solve Spain.

(a) Britain oppose joint a tion; Castlereagh sui ide and

Canning new

minister. Less supportive of Metterni h. Britain withdrew from Con-

tinental aairs.
(b) A/P/Russia support Fren h intervention in Spain.
( ) 1823Fren h suppress revolution; remain until 1827.
7. Not aggression; did not use intervention as ex use. Preserve onservative
order. Contrast to 18th- entury wars/Napoleon.
(a) Restraint through onsult prevent major war among powers until
mid- entury; general oni t until 1914.
8. Canning's (new FX minister) ommer ialism: exploit Ameri an revolution
to break Spanish monopoly.
(a) Supported 1823 Monroe Do trine.
(b) British ommer e dominate Latin Ameri a. Brought Jenkins's Year
to su ess.

3.3
3.3.1

Revolt Against Ottoman Rule in the Balkans
The Greek Revolution of 1821

1. One of most famous: attra ted support/parti ipation of writers. Imagine
Greek demo ra y reborn.
2. Philhelleni so iety nearly every major ountry.
3. Enlightenment: W. European liberal freedom vs. Asian despotism.
4. Ottoman didn't hange politi ally or e onomi ally; weak and unstable.
5. The Eastern Question: What Europe do to ensure Ottoman stability?
(a) Powers interested in Mediterranean territories. R/Austria want Balkan
land.
(b) Fran e/Britain on ern w/ ommer e & naval ontrol.
( ) Treatment of Christians/a ess to Holy Land.
(d) Didn't want to strengthen empire

sympatheti to nationalism,

even though goals oni t.
(e) Coni t and distrust prevent intervention.

11

(f ) 1827

Treaty of London demand Turkish re ognition of Greek in-

dependen e; sent eet to aid revolt.
(g) 1828 Russia sent troop to Romania (Ottoman holding). Control in
1829

Treaty of Adrianople. Also let Britain, Fran e, Russia de ide

Greek future.
(h) 1830

Treaty of London de lare independent Gree e.

Otto I (r.

183262) of Bavaria hosen rst king of Greek kingdom.

3.3.2

Serbian Independen e

1. Sin e late 18th, sought independen e.
2. 180413

Kara George led guerrilla war against Ottoman.

(a) Unsu essful;
(b) Built self-identity; attra t interest of powers.
3. 18156 Milos Obrenovit h negotiated administrative autonomy for some
territory, but most Serbs lived outside jurisdi tion.
4. 1830 Sultan grant independen e; later, powers re ognize.
5. Sought additional territory

big problem with Austria.

6. 1820sRussia (Slav, Orthodox state) be ame formal prote tor. 1856
olle tive prote torship of powers; spe ial relationship with Russia ontinue and impa t WW1.

4

The Wars of Independen e in Latin Ameri a
1. Napoleon spark independen e movements.
2. 180424:
(a) Fran e lose Haiti;
(b) Portugal lose Brazil;
( ) Spain lose everything but Cuba and Puerto Ri o.
3. End 3 enturies of Iberian rule and exploitation.

12

4.1

Revolution in Haiti

1. 17911804  Independen e.
(a) Sparked by overow of Fren h Revolution poli ies.
(b) Slaves ould revolt against White masters/mulatto freemen. Terrify

slaveholders.
2. 1791NA de lare mulatto freemen same rights as white. Colonial Assembly resist.
3. 1791slave rebellion from se ret onspira y; Toussaint L'Ouverture, former slave, leader.
(a) Violen e and bloodshed on both sides.
(b) Collapsed, but free bla ks hoped to gain promised rights.

Arms

against whites; ba ked by revolutionary Fren h o ials.
4. 1793Abolish slavery.
5. Spain, Britain attempt interveneopposed to end slavery; wanted ri h
sugar lands.
6. Toussaint support Fren h against Spanish and British; dominate Hispanola by 1800.
(a) Authoritarian onstitution, Governor-General for life, ties with Fran e.
(b) Napoleon distrust; fear undermine Fren h authority.
( ) 1802Napoleon send army to apture L'Ouverture; died in Fren h
prison 1803.
7. Other ex-slave leadersDessalinesresist.
i an empire.

Napoleon abandoned Amer-

Re ognize independen e 1804; rst su essful assault on

olonial rule.

4.2

Wars of Independen e on the South Ameri an Continent

1. Haiti was ex eption.

Generally Creole elite led revolutions.

Feel non-

whites were involved in/beneted from end of Iberian rule. Creoles did
not want to lose so ial privileges.

13

4.2.1

Creole Dis ontent

1. Want free trade with N. Ameri a and Europe. Regulations that benet
Creoles, not Spain.
2. Resent in reases in Spanish tax.
3. Resented peninsulare advantages: politi al patronage for government, hur h,
army. Took best positions.
4. Read E. Required revolutionary examples to lead revolution: Napoleon
invasion of Portugal and appointment of his brother on Spanish throne.
(a) Portuguese royal family ee to Brazil; establish government.
(b) Bourbon Spain overthrown

va uum.

5. Fear Napoleoni monar hy impose reforms and harm interests and drain
wealth.
6. 180810juntas politi al ommittees laim right to govern.
(a) Lied they rule in name of deposed Bourbon Ferdinand 7.
(b) Spain never reestablished authority.
( ) Juntas ended peninsulare privileges, who always depended on rown.

4.2.2

San Martín in Río de la Plata

1. Size, geographi al barriers, regional dieren es, absen e of integrated e onomy

many dierent paths.

2. Buenos Aires: 1806, fought British invasion. Prote t selves rather than
rely on Spain.
3. 1810 junta get rid of Spanish rule; sent armies into Paraguay, Uruguay to
liberate.
(a) Armies defeated but Spain lost ontrol.
(b) Paraguay independent; Brazil took Uruguay.
4. Determined to liberate Perustronghold of royalist power and liberty.
5. 1817 José de San Martín, leading general of Río de la Plata for es, lead
army to Santiago in Chile over Andes.
(a) Bernardo O'Higgins, Chilean independen e leader, di tator.
(b) From Santiago, organize eet; go to Peru by sea 1820.
6. San Martín drove royalists out of Lima; be ame Prote tor of Peru.

14

4.2.3

Simon Bolívar's Liberation of Venezuela

1. Bolívar similar to San Martín; operated in North.
2. Liberating junta in 1810independent republi in Car as.
3. 181114 ivil war:

royalists, slaves and Ilaneros (Venezuelan owboys)

hallenge republi .
(a) Bolívar exiled to Colombia, Jamai a.
(b) 1816  Haiti helped him return to ontinent.
i. Capture Bogotá, apital of New Granada (modern Colombia,
Bolivia, E uador) to se ure base of atta k on Venezuela.
ii. 1821  apture Car as; named president.
4. 1822  Bolívar and San Martín's armies join to liberate Quito, apital of
modern E uador.
5. Meeting in

Guayaquil  disagree about future politi al stru ture.

(a) San Martín: monar hy; Bolívar: republi .
(b) San Martín quietly retire and exile in Europe.
( ) Bolívar deliberately let Peru fall to anar hy, then invade in 1823.
(d) 9 De . 1824

Battle of Aya u ho  liberation army defeat Spanish

royalists; end Spanish South Ameri an empire.

4.3

Independen e in New Spain

1. In lude Mexi o, Texas, California, SW US. Conservative out ome of revolution.
2. 1808 organize junta. Before it did anything, Creole priest Hidalgo y Costilla all for Indian rebellion 1810 in his parish.

They and bla ks re-

sponded.
(a) Hidalgo set reform, hinting landholding hange.
(b) 80,000 followers; apture ities and mar h to Mexi o City.
( ) Hidalgo's for e and royalists many atro ities.
(d) 1811  aptured; exe uted.
3. Leadership go to mestizo (Indian or Bla k

× White) Morelos y Pavónfar

more radi al; end for ed labor and substantial land reform. Exe uted in
1815.
4. Popular uprising and demand for reform unite onservatives, both Creole
and Spanish.

15

(a) No diminish privilege.
(b) 1820  new hallenge.

Revolution in Fran e for e Ferdinand 7 to

a ept liberal onstitution.
( ) Fear liberal monar hy impose reforms on Mexi o.
(d) Royalist Augustín de Iturbide de lare onservative independent Mex-

i o 1821. De lared emperor; regime did not last long.

4.4

Brazilian Independen e

1. Simple and pea eful.
2. Rio de Janeiro royal ity after rown ed there.
3. Prin e regent João address omplaints. Expanded trade.
4. 1815 made Brazil kingdom. Overdue: Brazil larger and more prosperous
than Portugal.
5. 1820 revolution: demand João return to Lisbon, return to olonial status.
(a) Left son Dom Pedro as regent; en ouraged him to be sympatheti to
Brazilian aspirations.
(b) 1822 embra e Brazilian independen e.
( ) Be ame emperor on independent Brazil; remained monar hy under
son Dom Pedro 2 until 1889.
6. Elites want to avoid Spanish wars' destru tion.
7. Leaders wanted to preserve slavery. Wars of independen e led to abolition.

5

The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe
1. Two ex eptions to onservative orderGreek Revolution, Latin Ameri a
o ur in periphery.
2. Mid-1820sRussia, Fran e, Great Britain fa e domesti dis ontent. Russia: suppression; Fran e: revolution; Britain: a ommodation. Independent Belgium.

5.1

Russia: The De embrist Revolt of 1825

Lead in suppressing liberalism and nationalism. No hallenge to auto ra y until
his death.

16

5.1.1

Unrest in the Army

1. Russian o ers exposed to E. by o upying Fran e.
(a) Realized ba kwardness of Russia

reformist sympathy.

(b) Se ret so ieties.
i.

Southern So iety led by Pestel advo ate representative government, abolish serfdom.

Limited independen e for Poland,

demo ra y.
ii.

Northern So iety moderate; onstitutional monar hy, abolish
serfdom, prote t aristo ra y.

2. During 1825, wanted oup d'état in 1826.

5.1.2

Dynasti Crisis

1. 1825  Alexander 1 died unexpe tedly.
(a) No dire t heir.
(b) Brother Constantine, next in line, married non-royal woman and
didn't want throne.
( ) Se ret instru tions named younger brother

Ni holas (r. 182555)

tsar.
2. Constantine a knowledged Ni holas tsar and vi e versa. For three weeks,
Russia no ruler.
3. De ember: army told Ni holas about onspira y. Ni holas took throne.
4. Jr. o ers plotted to rally troops under their ommand for reform.
5. 26 De . 1825  army take oath of allegian e to Ni holasless popular
than Constantine and seen as more onservative.
(a) Mos ow regiment did not take oath.
(b) Mar h into St. Petersburg Senate Square; demand onstitution and
Constantine as tsar.
( ) Pea e settlement fail;
(d) Ni holas order avalry and artillery to atta k.

>

60 died.

(e) 1826, Ni holas presided over ommission to investigate De embrist
Revolt and se ret so ieties.
i. Exe uted 5
ii. Exiled

>

100.

6. Revolt total failure but rst rebellion with spe i goals.
symbolize yearnings of liberals.

17

Martyrdom

5.1.3

The Auto ra y of Ni holas 1

1. Not ignorant or bigoted rea tionary.
2. Know growth and improvement required hange but afraid of it.
3. Abolish serfdom

undermine support of nobility.

4. Literary, politi al ensorship; surveillan e by se ret poli e.
5. Little attempt for e ient and honest administration.
6. Only reform was odi ation of law 1833.

5.1.4

O ial Nationality

1. Count S.S. Uvarov presided over program. Substitute for reform.
2. Orthodoxy, Auto ra y, Nationalism.
3. Chur h arm of se ular government; ontrolled s hools.
4. Young Russians taught to a ept status; reje t so ial mobility.
5. Writers: only under auto ra y of Peter, Catherine, Alexander 1 did Russia
prosper and inuen e world.
6. See Russian ulture as wisdom separating them from immoral West. Alienate intelle tuals from government.

5.1.5

Revolt and Repression in Poland

1. Most of Poland under Russian rule after Vienna but had onstitutional
government with parliament (diet) with limited powers.
2. Constantine ran Polish government.
3. 1830  News of Fren h and Belgian revolutions.
(a) Warsaw insurre tion; spread through ountry.
(b) De . 18  Polish diet de lare revolution nationalist movement.
4. Diet deposed Ni holas as king of Poland.
5. Tsar send troops to suppress.
6. Feb. 1832

Organi Statute de lare Poland part of Russian Empire.

(a) Theoreti ally granted some Polish liberties but Russians ignored them.
7. Ni holas ready to supply troops to suppress liberal and nationalist movements.

18

5.2

Revolution in Fran e (1830)

1. July 1830  overthrew Bourbon dynasty.
2. Louis 18 died in 1824.

Count of Artois su eed as Charles 10; believe

divine right.

5.2.1

The Rea tionary Poli ies of Charles 10

1. Had Chamber of Deputies give aristo rats ba k land lost in revolution.
(a) Lower interest on government bond to reate fund to pay émigrés.
(b) Bourgeoisie bondholders lost in ome; resented.
2. Restore primogeniture.
3. Punished sa rilege whit imprisonment or death.
4. 1827  liberals gain enough seats in Deputies to for e ompromise.
5. Liberals wanted onstitution; unsatised.
6. 1829  Charles 10 repla ed moderate ministry with ultraroyalist headed
by Prin e de Poligna .
7. Opposition negotiated with liberal Orléans bran h of royal family.

5.2.2

The July Revolution

1. 1830 Charles 10 want new ele tion

liberals stunning vi tory.

2. No a ept  attempt to seize power.
3. Jun./Jul.  Poligna sent naval expedition to Algiers  nominally Ottoman but be ame pirate state.
4. Jul. 9  news of Fren h Empire in N. Afri a.
5. 25 Jul.

1830  take advantage of euphoria; issue Four Ordinan es 

royal oup d'état.
(a) Restri t freedom of press;
(b) Dissolve Chamber of Deputies;
( ) Limit fran hise to wealthiest;
(d) New ele tions.
6. Popular rea tion. Liberal newspaper all to reje t monar hy.
(a) Parisian workers barri ade, burdened sin e 1827 by bad e onomy.
(b) Troops sent; 1,800 died but no ontrol Paris.

19

7. 2 Aug.  Charles 10 abdi ate; exile in England.
8. Deputies name new ministry of onstitutional monar hists. Ended Bourbon rule; pro laim Louis Philippe, Duke of Oréans new king instead of
infant grandson Count de Chambord.
9. Liberals ll power va uum reated by Paris uprising and royal failure.
10. If liberals didn't a t qui kly, workers would have tried to establish republi .
11. Fundamental tension under new monar hy: temporary allian e between
laborers and bourgeoisie but soon realized very dierent goal.

5.2.3
1.

Monar hy under Louis Philippe
July Monar hy more liberal; Louis Philippe alled king of the Fren h
instead of Fran e.

2. Tri olor repla ed with Bourbon ag.
3. Constitution regarded as right of people, not monar hi al on ession.
4. Abolish ensorship.
5. Wider, but still restri ted fran hise.
6. King had to ooperate with Deputies.
7. So ially onservative. Oligar hy ontinued inuen e. Mu h orruption.
8. Little sympathy for workers. 1830 workers all for prote tion; ignored.
(a) 1831 suppress revolt in Lyons.
(b) 1832 suppress uprising during funeral of a popular Napoleoni general.

>

800 killed or wounded.

( ) 1834 suppress silk worker strike in Lyons.
(d) Unless government addressed so ioe onomi onditions, ontinue to
erupt turmoil.
9. Algeria give Marseilles mer hants e onomi ties to N. Afri a.
(a) Dismantle Ottoman government; onquer and administer interior
whi h was larger than Fran e.
(b) 1850s extended rule after war to Sahara with Muslim tribesmen.
( ) Fren h and other Europeans settle in Algeria.
part of Fran e despite Muslim population.

20

Regard as integral

5.3

Belgium Be omes Independent (1830)

1. Former Austrian Netherlands; merge with Holland 1815.
2. Dier in language, religion, e onomy. Belgian upper lass never a epted
Dut h rule.
3. 25 Aug.

1830  Brussels disturban es after opera about rebellion in

Naples.
(a) Muni ipal authorities and propertied lasses form provisional national government.
(b) King William 1 sent troops and ships.
( ) 10 Nov. 1830 Dut h defeated.
4. 1831 Liberal onstitution.
5. Powers saw revolution as upsetting Vienna boundaries, but didn't stop.
(a) A/P/Russia, Germany suppressing revolts.
(b) Fran e hoped to dominate Belgium.
( ) Britain didn't are as long as it was safe.
6. Lord Palmerston, Brit. FX minister persuade representatives of powers
to re ognize independen e and neutrality.
7. Jul. 1831 Prin e Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, onne tions with English royal
family; married daughter of Louis Philippe and be ame king of the Belgians.
8.

5.4

Convention of 1839 guaranteed neutrality.

The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832)

1. Death of George 4 (r. 182030) and as ension of William 4 (r. 18307)
required Parliamentary ele tion.
2. Passage of Great Reform Bill dierent from Continent events.

Conser-

vatism and Reform a ommodated ea h other.

5.4.1

Politi al and E onomi Reform

Fa tors ontribute to ompromise.
1. Commer ial/industrial lass larger. No government ould ignore them.
2. Liberal Whig aristo rats favor moderate reforms that make revolution
unne essary.

21

3. British law, tradition, publi opinion respe t ivil liberties.
4. Conservatives in abinet believed they need to a ommodate selves to
hanging so ial/e on. life.
(a) E onomi freedom;
(b) Repeal Combination A ts that prohibited unions.

5.4.2

Catholi Eman ipation A t

1. Maintain union with Ireland. Similar to Russia's relationship with Poland/Austria
with its groups.
2. William Pitt the Younger pass

A t of Union. Ireland send 100 to House

of Commons. But only Protestant Irishmen ele table in Catholi nation.
3. 1820sDaniel O'Connell lead nationalists form Catholi Asso iation.
(a) 1828O'Connell se ure ele tion.
(b) Duke of Wellington realize Ireland may ele t Catholi delegation. No
seat

ivil war.

( ) 1829Wellington & Robert Peel steer Catholi Eman ipation A t.
Together with 1828 repeal against restri tions for Protestant non onformists, end Angli an monopoly.
4. Liberal measure for onservative purpose: keep order in Ireland.
(a) Raised property quali ation: only wealthy vote.
(b) Alienated Wellington's Angli an Tory supporters.
( ) 1830 ele tion return reformists. Some Tories supported reform b/
they thought only orrupt House of Commons ould pass Catholi
eman ipation.
(d) Tories divided; Wellington's ministry fell.
5. William 4 good to

5.4.3

Earl Grey, leader of Whigs.

Legislating Change

Two main goals of reform bill Whigs presented:
1. Repla e rotten boroughs (few voters) with representatives for previously
unrepresented manufa turing ities.
2. In rease fran hiseEngland and Wales votes in rease 50%.
3. 1831Commons narrowly defeat.
4. Grey all new ele tion

won, but Lords reje t.

22

(a) Mass meetings and riots break out.
(b) William 4 agreed to reate more peers to give third reform bill majority. Pressured Lords to a ept.
5.

Great Reform Bill expanded ele torate but no demo ra y.
(a) Some workers lost vote be ause old fran hise rights abolished.
(b) New urban distri ts didn't help workers: new rural distri t for ea h
urban, dominated by aristo ra y.
( ) Permitted wider variety of property to be represented; re on iled un-

represented property owners.
(d) Groundwork for further reform.
(e) Maintained traditional institutions but allowing diverse group to inuen e.

6

In Perspe tive

The Congress system preserved pea e and the status quo for fteen years ex ept
for Greek revolt in 1821 and independen e in Latin Ameri a.

The Russian

De embrist Revolt of 1825 was a total failure.
Nevertheless, liberal ideas and people gained ground and su eeded in 1830
with the Fren h Revolution with liberal monar hy. Belgium a hieved independen e and liberal government. Britain moved to the liberals during the 1820s.
It favored Latin Ameri an independen e for e onomy and pressure at home led
to the moderate reform bill in 1832. Britain would then be viewed as the leading
liberal and nationalist-supporting state.

A

AP Test Prep
1. a
2. e
3. b
4.
5. a
6. d
7.
8. b
9. e

23

10. b
11. e
12. b
13. d
14. e
15. d
16.
17. b
18. a
19. b
20. b

24

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