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ESDEP WG 15 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: MISCELLANEOUS

Lecture 15C.1: Design of Tanks for the Storage of Oil and Water
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE: The lecture describes the basic principles used in the design of tanks for the storage of oil or water. It covers the design of vertical cylindrical tanks, and reference is made to the British Standard BS 2654 [1] and to the American Petroleum Industry Standard API650 [2]. PREREQUISITES None. RELATED LECTURES Lecture 8.6: Introduction to Shell Structures Lecture 8.8: Design of Unstiffened Cylinders SUMMARY Welded cylindrical tanks are commonly used to store oil products or water. The principal structural element of these tanks is a vertical steel cylinder, or shell, which is made by welding together a series of rectangular plates and which restrains the hydrostatic pressures by hoop tension forces. The tank is normally provided with a flat steel plated bottom which sits on a prepared foundation, and with a fixed roof attached to the top of the shell wall. This lecture explains the design basis for the structural elements of cylindrical tanks and illustrates the arrangements and the key details involved.

1. DESIGN OF WELDED CYLINDRICAL TANKS
1.1 General
Oil and oil products are most commonly stored in cylindrical steel tanks at atmospheric pressure or at low pressure. The tanks are flat bottomed and are provided with a roof which is of conical or domed shape. Water is also sometimes stored in cylindrical steel tanks. When used to store potable water they are of a size suitable to act as a service reservoir for a local community; they have a roof to prevent contamination of the water. Cylindrical tanks are also used in sewage treatment works for settlement and holding tanks; they are usually without a roof. The sizes of cylindrical tanks range from a modest 3m diameter up to about 100m diameter, and up to 25m in height. They consist of three principal structural elements - bottom, shell and roof. For petroleum storage, the bottom is formed of steel sheets, laid on a prepared base. Some tanks for water storage use a reinforced concrete slab as the base of the tank, instead of steel sheets. The shell, or cylindrical wall, is made up of steel sheets and is largely unstiffened. The roof of the tank is usually fixed to the top of the shell, though floating roofs are provided in some circumstances. A fixed roof may be self supporting or partially supported through membrane action, though generally the roof plate is supported on radial beams or trusses.

1.2 Design Standards
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5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] Clearly, common standards are generally applicable whether a tank holds oil or water, though it is the petroleum industry which has been responsible for the development of many of the design procedures and standards.

The two standards applied most widely are British Standard BS 2654 [1] and the American Petroleum Institute Standard API 650 [2]. These two Standards have much in common, although there are some significant differences (see Appendix A). Other standards, American and European, are not applied much outside their respective countries. This lecture will generally follow the requirements of BS 2654 [1]. This standard is both a design code and a construction specification. The design code is based on allowable stress principles, not on a limit state basis.

1.3 Design Pressure and Temperature
Tanks designed for storage at nominally atmospheric pressure must be suitable for modest internal vacuum (negative pressure). Tanks may also be designed to work at relatively small positive internal pressures (up to 56 mbar (5,6 kN/m2), according to BS2654. Non-refrigerated tanks are designed for a minimum metal temperature which is based on the lowest ambient air temperature (typically, ambient plus 10oC) or the lowest temperature of the contents, whichever is the lower. No maximum service temperature is normally specified.

1.4 Material
Tanks are usually manufactured from plain carbon steel plate (traditionally referred to as mild steel) of grades S235 or S275 (to EN 10 025 [3]), or equivalent. Such material is readily weldable. The use of higher strength grades of low alloy steel (e.g. Grade S355) is less common, though its use is developing. Notch ductility at the lowest service temperature is obtained for thicker materials (> 13 mm) by specifying minimum requirements for impact tests. This is normally achieved by specifying an appropriate sub-grade to EN 10 025 [3]. Internally, oil tanks are normally unpainted. Water tanks may be given a coating (provided it is suitably inert, where the water is potable), or may be given cathodic protection. Externally, tanks are normally protected. Where any steel is used uncoated, an allowance must be made in the design for loss of thickness due to corrosion.

2. DESIGN LOADING
A tank is designed for the most severe combination of the various possible loadings.

2.1 Dead Load
The dead load is that due to the weight of all the parts of the tank.

2.2 Superimposed Load
A minimum superimposed load of 1,2 kN/m2 (over the horizontal projected area) is applied to the roof of the tank. This load is commonly known as the 'snow load', but in fact represents, as well as a nominal snow load, any other imposed loads, such as maintenance equipment, which might be applied to the roof, and it includes the internal vacuum load. It is therefore applicable even in locations where snow is not experienced. Non-pressure tanks are often fitted with valves which do not open until the vacuum reaches a value of 2,5 mbar, to contain vapour losses. By the time a valve is fully open, a vacuum of 5 mbar (0,5 kN/m2) may have developed. Even without valves a tank should be designed for a vacuum of 5 mbar, to cater for differential pressure under wind loads. In pressure tanks the valves may be set to 6 mbar vacuum, in which case a pressure difference of 8,5 mbar (0,85 kN/m2) may develop. Actual predicted snow load or other superimposed load, plus appropriate vacuum pressure, should be used when it is greater than the specified minimum.

2.3 Contents
The weight and hydrostatic pressure of the contents, up to the full capacity of the tank, should be applied. Full capacity is usually determined by an overflow near the top of the tank; for a tank without any overflow, the contents should be taken to fill the tank to the top of the shell. For oil and oil products, the relative density of the contents is less than 1.0, but tanks for such liquids are normally tested by filling with water. A density of 1000 kg/m3 should therefore be taken as a minimum.
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usually of compacted fill or.uni-lj. a tank must be designed to withstand seismic loads. typically a value of 45 m/s is taken as the design wind speed. specialised knowledge should be applied in determining seismic loads. Lapped and fillet welded joints are preferred to butt welded joints (which must be welded onto a backing strip below the joint) because they are easier and cheaper to make. on average. to give a circular shape. The steel plates are directly supported on a bitumen-sand layer on top of a foundation. The bottom is made up of a number of rectangular plates. A typical foundation pad is shown in Figure 1 and a detailed description of the formation of this example is given in Appendix A of BS 2654 [1]. representing the maximum 3-second gust speed which is exceeded.fgg. only once every 50 years.5 Seismic Loads In some areas.si/kmk/…/l0100. as shown in Figure 2. BOTTOM DESIGN For petroleum storage tanks. Maximum wind speed depends on the area in which the tank is to be built. possibly a reinforced concrete raft. if the subsoil is weak.4 Wind Loads Wind loads are determined on the basis of a design wind speed. surrounded by a set of shaped plates.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] 2. called sketch plates. 3. Whilst some guidance is given in BS 2654 [1] and API650 [2] on the design of the tank.htm 3/21 . www. laid and fully supported on a prepared foundation. The plates slightly overlap each other and are pressed locally at the corners where three plates meet (see Figure 3). 2. steel bottom plates are specified.

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5 m diameter.uni-lj. A typical arrangement is shown in Figure 4.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] For larger tanks (over 12.si/kmk/…/l0100. because of the ring stiffening which the plates provide to the bottom of the shell.htm 5/21 . www. rather than lapped.fgg. The radial joints between the annular plates are butt welded. according to BS 2654) a ring of annular plates is provided around the group of rectangular plates.

fgg. www. just inside the perimeter and is fillet welded to them (see Figure 5).htm 6/21 .uni-lj.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] The shell sits on the sketch or annular plates.si/kmk/…/l0100.

the stress is given by: www. Water tanks may also have a steel bottom. the calculation of stresses is therefore straightforward. The circumferential tension in the shell will vary directly. which is then transmitted directly to the base.si/kmk/…/l0100. in a vertical direction. For a uniform shell thickness. At a water depth H. 4. though a simple arrangement of an angle welded to the bottom edge of the shell and bolted to the slab will usually suffice.htm 7/21 . In some circumstances a reinforced concrete slab is specified instead. is the pressure from the contents. The only load they carry.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] The bottom plates act principally as a seal to the tank.1 Circumferential Stresses Vertical cylinder tanks carry the hydrostatic pressures by simple hoop tension. No circumferential stiffening is needed for this action. according to the head of fluid at any given level. SHELL DESIGN 4. There are no standard details for the connection between a shell and a concrete slab. apart from local stiffening to the bottom of the shell.fgg.uni-lj. Stress calculations are not normally required for the base. though BS 2654 sets out minimum thicknesses of plate depending on the size of the tank.

one on top of the other. rather than the greater pressure at the bottom edge. a convenient opportunity to use thicker plates in the lower rings and thinner plates in the upper rings. Similarly. Each piece will be cylindrically curved and it is convenient to build up the shell in a number of rings.uni-lj. the resulting design equation is of the form in BS 2654: where t is the calculated minimum thickness (mm) w is the maximum density of the fluid (kg/l) H is the height of fluid above the bottom of the course being designed (m) S is the allowable design stress (N/mm2) www. Consequently. (This is known as the 'one foot rule' in API 650 [2]. butt welded together.si/kmk/…/l0100. the bottom edge of any course which sits on top of a thicker course is somewhat restrained because the thicker plate is stiffer. at least for deeper tanks.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] where D is the diameter of the tank t is the thickness of the plate ρ is the density of the fluid g is the gravity constant For practical reasons. The lowest course of plates is fully welded to the bottom plate of the tank providing radial restraint to the bottom edge of the plate. because of these restraints. an empirical adjustment is introduced into the design rules which effectively requires that any course is simply designed for the pressure 300mm above the bottom edge of the course. The effect of this on the hoop stresses is illustrated in Figure 6. or courses.fgg.htm 8/21 . it is necessary to build up the shell from a number of fairly small rectangular pieces of plate. This technique provides.) When the load due to internal pressure is taken into account and an allowance for corrosion loss is introduced.

at least one third of the length of the individual plates. In that case the axial stresses must be calculated. as an axial stress. In addition. BS 2654 defines it as twothirds of the yield stress.si/kmk/…/l0100. in normal service the axial stresses in shells suitable to carry the circumferential loads for the size of tank used for oil and water storage are much smaller than even this level of stress. Axial stress due to overturning moment. but some imperfection is inevitable. provided that the internal pressure exceeds a value which depends on the tank size. especially with thin material. anchorages must be provided. the tank does have to be checked for uplift when it is empty and subject to wind loading. a typical example is shown in Figure 7.0. for a perfect cylinder. Holes in the shell for inlet/outlet nozzles or access manholes cause a local increase in circumferential stresses. for higher strength steels. an allowable stress level of as little as a tenth of the above might be more appropriate. has the value: In practice. but additionally limits the design stress to a smaller fraction of the ultimate strength.2 Axial Stresses in the Shell The cylindrical shell has to carry its weight.20Et/R. butt welded along the vertical join between the plates. M. can be obtained from classical theory and. Further. The critical value of this stress. The calculation of axial stress is therefore not even called for in codes. These plates may take the form of a circular doubling plate welded around the hole or of an inset piece of thicker plate. or wrinkle. Each course is made of a number of plates. Good weld procedures can minimise the distortions or deviations from the ideal flat or curved line of the surface across the weld. www.uni-lj. The nozzle provides some stiffening to the edge of the hole. API650 uses a similar value.htm 9/21 . for the service conditions. it may also be made of sufficient size that shell reinforcement can be omitted. imperfect shells buckle at a much lower stress. such as BS 2654 and API650.fgg. Although axial stresses do not need to be calculated for service conditions. This increase is catered for by requiring the provision of reinforcing plates. and the weight of the roof which it supports. Each course is butt welded to the course below along a circumferential line.5 on the plastic strength of the plate. However. API650 allows a slightly higher stress during the hydrostatic test than the allowable design stress for service conditions when the relative density is less than 1. this is slightly more restrictive. is given simply by the expression: σa = 4M/πtD2 In BS 2654 the axial stress under seismic conditions is limited to 0. If necessary.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] p is the design pressure (pressure tanks only) (mbar) c is the corrosion allowance (mm) The allowable design stress in tension in the shell is generally taken to be a suitable fraction of the material yield stress. Consequently the rules call for the vertical seams to be staggered from one course to the next . API650 also uses two-thirds of the yield stress. which is considered a reasonable value when the cylinder is also under internal hydrostatic pressure. for steel. But under seismic conditions. thus giving an overall factor of 1. larger stresses result because of the large overturning moment when the tank is full. wind loading on the tank contributes tensile axial stress on one side of the tank and compressive stress on the other. A thin-walled cylinder under a sufficient axial load will of course buckle locally. 4. if possible.

fgg. except possibly as part of an effective compression ring (see Section 5. no additional stiffening is needed at the top of the shell.058 D2 H where Z is the (elastic) section modulus (cm3) of the effective section of the ring girder.3 Primary Wind Girders A tank with a fixed roof is considered to be adequately restrained in its cylindrical shape by the roof. investigations into the subject have led to an empirical formula.uni-lj. circumferential stiffening is needed to maintain the roundness of the tank when it is subject to wind load. based on work by De Wit. This stiffening is particularly necessary when the tank is empty.si/kmk/…/l0100.htm 10/21 . In BS 2654 this formula is expressed as a required minimum section modulus given by: Z = 0. At the top of an open tank (or one with a floating roof).5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] 4. including a width of shell plate acting with the added stiffener D is the tank diameter (m) H is the height of the tank (m) www. Fortunately.2). The calculation of the stability of stiffened tanks is a complex matter. which is easily applied in design.

e. It is recognised that application of the above formula to tanks over 60 m diameter leads to unnecessarily large wind girders. i.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] The formula presumes a design wind speed of 45 m/s. the arrangement of a low ring girder and a kerb angle is covered by the design rules.uni-lj.fgg.htm 11/21 . a suitable gutter detail can participate as a primary wind girder. to avoid a corrosion trap. provided it is relatively close to the top of the tank. by (V/45)2. Primary wind girders are normally external to the tank. Settlement tanks usually require a gutter around the inside edge of the tank. Note that continuous fillet welds should always be used on the upper edge of the connection. into which the water spills and passes to the outlet.4 Secondary Wind Girders www. the code allows the size to be limited to that needed for a 60 m tank. In that event a kerb angle is also required at the free edge. For other wind speeds it may be modified by multiplying by the ratio of the basic wind pressure at the design speed to that at 45 m/s. Wind girders are usually formed by welding an angle or a channel around the top edge of the shell. 4. Although this detail is not covered in the code. Examples are shown in Figure 8.si/kmk/…/l0100.

The whole process is illustrated by an example in BS 2654. Minimum sizes for this angle are given in the code [1]. 5.fgg. secondary wind girders are introduced at intervals in the height of the tank. The critical stress for a length of tube. Such buckling would also occur in a longer tube which is restrained at intervals equal to that length. l.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] Although the primary wind girder or the roof will stabilise the tank over its full height. this reduces approximately to the expression in the code: where D is the diameter of the shell (m) Hp is the maximum permitted spacing of rings (m) (equivalent to critical length. courses of height h and thickness t can be converted to an equivalent height of a tube of the thin plate which has the same effective slenderness by applying the correction: where t is the thickness of each course in turn He is the equivalent height of each course at a thickness of tmin The equivalent heights of all the courses are added to give the total equivalent height (length of tube) and divided by the critical length Hp to determine the minimum number of intervals and thus the number of intermediate rings. The positions of the intermediate rings. with the ends held circular.and are usually found only on www. Membrane roofs are more difficult to erect . must be established by converting positions on the tube back to positions on the tank. of radius R and thickness t.they require some temporary support during placing and welding .uni-lj. The determination of the number and position of these secondary wind girders is dealt with in BS 2654 (but not in API 650).si/kmk/…/l0100. FIXED ROOF DESIGN 5. The procedure is based on determining the length of tube for which. The stiffening is achieved by welding an angle to the surface of the shell plate in the same manner as for the primary wind girder. tank shells in practice are made up of courses. is given in Roark [4] by the formula: Using values of E and υ for steel.1 General Fixed roofs of cylindrical tanks are formed of steel plate and are of either conical or domed (spherically curved) configuration. by the reverse of the above procedure. Fortunately. The steel plates can be entirely self supporting (by 'membrane' action). To prevent this local buckling. the elastic critical buckling will occur at a given uniform external pressure. l) tmin is the thickness of the shell plate (mm) Vw is the design wind speed (m/s) va is the vacuum (mbar) However. which are equally spaced on the equivalent tube. this non-uniform situation can be converted into an equivalent uniform situation by noting that the critical length l (or maximum spacing Hp ) is proportional to t5/2.htm 12/21 . rearranging and simplifying. and the thickness of the plating increases from the top to the bottom. local buckling can occur in empty tall tanks between the top of the tank and its base. or they may rest on top of some form of support structure. Taking the thinnest plate (the top course) as reference (tmin ).

Using a value of Pe = 1. Conical roofs usually have a slope of 1:5. butt welded joints have a factor of 1.8 and 1.e.5 times the diameter of the tank.5/19/2011 smaller tanks.2 kN/m2. For upward loads. ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] Permanent support steelwork for the roof plate may either span the complete diameter of the tank or may in turn be supported on columns inside the tank.2 Membrane Roofs In a membrane roof.36 R1 A similar expression is given in API650.7 kN/m2.5kN/m2 for dead load. The use of a single central column is particularly effective in relatively small tanks (15-20 m diameter). they can be fabricated trusses. This is expressed as a requirement for a minimum area of the effective section. They can be simple rolled beam sections or.2 kN/m2).si/kmk/…/l0100. Roof plates are usually lapped and fillet welded to one another.5. R1 = R/sinθ . superimposed load plus 0. the radial tension has to be complemented by a circumferential compression. For low pressure tanks. expressed in imperial units and for a loading of 45lb/ft2 (= 2. for larger tanks.uni-lj.fgg. For downward loads. gives: tr = 0.htm 13/21 . i. for example. under internal pressure. Limitations on buckling under radial compression are expressed in BS2654 as: where R1 is the radius of curvature of the roof (m) Pe is the external loading plus self weight (kN/m2) E is Young's modulus (N/mm2) tr is the roof plate thickness (mm) For conical roofs. The net upward forces from internal pressure minus dead load are resisted by tensile radial stresses. the radial compression is complemented by ring tension. i. 1. but they must normally be welded to the top of the shell. Spherical roofs usually have a radius of curvature between 0. they do not need to be welded to any structure which supports them. For tensile forces. R1 is taken as the radius of the shell divided by the sine of the angle between the roof and the horizontal.0. stresses are limited to: (for spherical roofs) (for conical roofs) where η is the joint efficiency factor S is the allowable design stress (in N/mm2) p is the internal pressure (in mbar) Although lapped and double fillet welded joints are acceptable. radial to the tank. naturally. This compression can only be provided by the junction section between roof and shell. i. The main members of the support steelwork are. (equivalent to about 6 mm plate thickness) and the E value for steel. 5.e. the forces from dead and imposed loads are resisted by compressive radial stresses. they have a joint efficiency factor of only 0.e. as www.

although spherical roofs can be used if the radial beams are curved.si/kmk/…/l0100.uni-lj. Typical arrangements are shown in section in Figures 10 and 11. Radial beams are arranged such that the span of the plate between them is kept down to a minimum of about 2 m.htm 14/21 . Supported roofs are most commonly of conical shape. Self supporting roofs are essential when there is an internal floating cover.5/19/2011 shown in Figure 9: ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] where Sc is the allowable compressive stress (in N/mm2) R is the radius of the tank (in m) θ is the slope of the roof at roof-shell connection The allowable compressive stress for this region is taken to be 120 N/mm2 in BS2654 [1].fgg.3 Supported Roofs Radial members supporting the roof plate permit the plate thickness to be kept to a minimum. The plate simply lies on the beams and is not connected to them. The roof support structure can either be self supporting or be supported on internal columns. www. This limit allows the use of 5 mm plate for the roof. They greatly facilitate the construction of the roof. 5.

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Where internal columns are used they will be beneath the main support members. though it must be noted that both BS 2654 and API650 are allowable stress codes. The main support members need to be restrained at intervals to stabilise them against lateral-torsional buckling.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] When columns are used to support the roof.si/kmk/…/l0100. Not all radial members continue to the centre of the tank. in the same way as described above for membrane roofs.fgg. In API650 it is permitted to assume that friction between the roof plate and the beam is adequate to restrain the compression flange of the secondary rafter beams. Where they are designed for axial thrust. provided that they are not too deep. the secondary radial members may be considered as rafters . The main support members may be subject to bending and axial load. the top of the shell must be designed for the hoop forces associated with the axial forces in the support members. the slope may be as low as 1:16. the central ring must be designed as a compression ring.uni-lj.they are supported at their inner ends on ring beams between the main support members. www. In the British code reference is therefore made to BS449 [5]. rather than to a limit state code. Cross bracing is provided in selected bays. such restraint cannot be assumed for the main beams. Those that do may be considered as main support beams.htm 16/21 . The shell/roof junction zone must be designed for compression. When the roof is self supporting it may be more economic to use a steeper roof. Design of beams and support columns may generally follow conventional building code rules. Typical plan arrangements are shown in Figure 11. however.

an access manhole must be provided through the roof. divided by bulkheads. www. The design is required to ensure that the roof continues to float in the event of a block in the drainage system which results in a surcharge of water on the roof (usually 250 mm of water). A typical arrangement of a pontoon type roof is shown in Figure 12. maintenance personnel need access from the top of the shell to the roof whatever the level of contents in the tank. that the size of the fillet weld between the roof and the shell is limited in size . which must be drained off.1 Use of Floating Roofs and Covers As mentioned in Section 5. 6. At night. fresh air is drawn in and more of the contents evaporates to saturate the air.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] 5.si/kmk/…/l0100. two circular skins are joined to circumferential plates and bulkheads to form a disk or piston. because there is internal pipework. pinned to the shell and resting on the roof.pontoon type and double deck type. Access is usually achieved by a movable ladder or stairway. when the temperature drops. When the mixture expands in the heat of the day.htm 17/21 . The continued breathing can result in substantial evaporation losses. At this stage the roof must be able to carry a superimposed load (1. it catches rain.a limit of 5 mm is typical). buoyancy is achieved by providing liquid-tight compartments in one of two forms of roof .2 Floating Roofs A floating roof is sometimes provided instead of a fixed roof. emergency pressure relief has to be provided to cater for heating due to an external fire. Venting can be provided by pressure relief valves or by open vents. The central diaphragm may need to be stiffened by radial beams. The shell is then effectively open at the top and is designed accordingly. Measures are needed to minimise these losses. Pressure relief can be achieved either by additional emergency venting or by designing the roof to shell joint as frangible (this means. The central deck of a pontoon roof should also be presumed to be punctured for this design condition. Both types of roof must remain buoyant even if some compartments are punctured (typically two compartments).uni-lj.fgg. and a central single skin diaphragm. 6. venting expels some of this vapour.2 kN/m2) plus any accumulated rainwater. the free space above the contents contains an air/vapour mixture.4. floating roofs and covers are commonly used for this purpose. For storage of petroleum products. A double deck roof is effectively a complete set of compartments over the whole diameter of the tank. a floating roof is completely supported on the liquid and must therefore be sufficiently buoyant.4 Venting Venting has to be provided to cater for movement of the contents into and out of the tank and for temperature change of the air in the tank. Because the roof is open to the environment. DESIGN OF FLOATING ROOFS AND COVERS 6. the roof cannot normally be allowed to fall to the bottom of the tank. Drainage is achieved by a system on the roof which connects to flexible pipework inside the tank and thence through the shell or bottom plates to a discharge. When the tank is emptied. tanks need to be vented to cater for the expansion and contraction of the air. During service. principally. For maintenance of the tank when it is empty. For maintenance of the drainage system and for access to nozzles through the roof for various purposes. A pontoon roof has an annular compartment. the roof is therefore fitted with legs which keep it clear of the bottom. In petroleum tanks.

Such access can be provided through the roof or through the shell wall. a much lighter cover or screen can be provided. MANHOLES. water or sand). Access through the shell wall is more convenient for cleaning out (some access holes are D-shaped and flush with the bottom for cleaning out purposes). A typical detail is shown in section in Figure 13. though a shallow steel pan can sometimes be provided. NOZZLES AND OPENINGS 7. depend on the design of the roof.si/kmk/…/l0100.g. Manholes through the roof have the advantage that they are always accessible. Access to the roof manhole must be provided by ladders. and the type of cover.uni-lj. The cover does not need to be provided with access ladders. even when the tank is full. It does have to be designed to be supported at low level when the tank is empty and to carry a small live load in that condition. A manhole through the shell wall should be at least 600 mm diameter and is normally positioned just above the bottom of the tank. Further details of this example. and details of clean-out openings. Stiffening arrangements around the hole in the roof plate. A manhole through a roof should be at least 500 mm diameter.fgg. Detailed recommendations for the design of internal floating covers are given in Appendix E of BS 2654 [1]. 7. Such a cover is likely to be manufactured from lighter materials than steel. nor to be designed for surcharge. www.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] 6.3 Floating Covers Where a cover to the contents is provided inside a fixed roof tank.1 Manholes Access is required inside fixed roof tanks for maintenance and inspection purposes. are given in BS2654 [1]. with suitable handrails and walkways on the roof.htm 18/21 . to reduce evaporation or ingress of contaminants (e.

outlet. the cutting of an opening in the shell interferes with the structural action of the shell. no reinforcement is necessary. An example of a roof nozzle detail is shown in Figure 14. though the actual reinforcement should extend beyond that region. www.uni-lj.fgg. The area must be provided within a circular region around the hole. They are normally made by welding a cylindrical section of plate into a circular hole in the structural plate. For small nozzles.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] Clearly. Reinforcement can be provided in one of three ways: (i) a reinforcing plate welded onto the shell plate (similar to the section in Figure 13) (ii) an insert of thicker plate locally (in which the manhole is cut) (iii) a thicker shell plate than that required for that course of the shell 7.2 Nozzles As well as manholes for access and cleaning out. the extra material is considered sufficient. and drainage pipes. and for vents in the roof. Larger holes must be reinforced in the same way as manholes.htm 19/21 . The loss of section of shell plate is compensated by providing additional cross-section area equal to 75% of that lost.si/kmk/…/l0100. nozzles are required through the shell roof and bottom for inlet.

htm 20/21 . London. W. Specification for the Use of Structural Steel in Building. [4] Young. Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage. Water tanks may also have a steel bottom or a reinforced concrete slab may be specified. Vertical cylindrical tanks carry the hydrostatic pressure by simple hoop tension. British Standards Institution. which will allow oils with any specific gravity up to 1 to be stored in the tank. For open tanks. API. 8th Edition. (b) The allowable design stresses of BS 2654 are based on guaranteed minimum yield strength whereas the design stresses of API 650 are based on the guaranteed minimum ultimate tensile strength. Roofs may be fixed or floating. 9. outlet and drainage.fgg. British Standards Institution. November 1988. A tank is designed for the most severe combination of the various possible loadings.si/kmk/…/l0100. [2] API 650. C. 1989. BS 2654 [1] and the American Petroleum Institute Standard. The two design standards applied most widely to the design of welded cylindrical tanks are BS2654 and API 650. A cover to the contents of a fixed roof tank may be provided to reduce evaporation or ingress of contaminants. CONCLUDING SUMMARY Oil and oil products are most commonly stored in cylindrical steel tanks at atmospheric pressure or at low pressure. and venting of the space under the roof. London. Wind loading on the tank influences the axial stress. 1990. www. Tanks are usually manufactured from plain carbon steel plate. Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain. The cylindrical shell has to carry both its own weight and the weight of the supported roof by axial stresses. Secondary wind girders are needed in tall tanks.. Water is also sometimes stored in cylindrical steel tanks. [3] BS EN 10025. London. API650 [2]: (a) API 650 specifies different allowable stresses for service and water testing. It is readily weldable. McGraw Hill. REFERENCES [1] BS 2654: 1984. Hot Rolled Products of Non-alloy Structural Steels and their Technical Delivery Conditions. laid and fully supported on a prepared foundation.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] 8. steel bottom plates are specified. Appendix A Differences between BS 2654 and API 650 The following are the principal differences between the British Standard. Specification for manufacture of vertical steel welded storage tanks with butt-welded shells for the petroleum industry. Manholes are provided for access and nozzles allow inlet. BS 2654 specifies an allowable stress for water testing only. British Standards Institution.uni-lj. primary wind girders are required to maintain the roundness of the tank when it is subject to wind load. For petroleum storage tanks. [5] BS 449: Part 2: 1969.

This system considers a steel acceptable if.uni-lj. (d) The notch ductility requirements of BS 2654 are based on the results of a great number of wide plate tests. Previous | Next | Contents www.si/kmk/…/l0100. (f) BS 2654 gives a clearer picture of how to determine the size and location of secondary wind girders.5%. (e) The steels specified by API 650 guarantee their notch ductility by chemical analysis but without guaranteed impact values. This system gives the same safety factor for all thicknesses. In API 650 a fixed value and test temperature is given for the impact tests for all thicknesses. for the required thickness. As the tendency to brittle fracture increases with increasing plate thickness it means that API 650 in fact allows a lower safety factor for large tanks than for smaller ones. BS 2654 requires guaranteed impact values where necessary.5/19/2011 ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] (c) BS 2654 specifies more stringent requirements for the weldability of the shell plates.htm 21/21 .fgg. the test plate does not fail at test temperature before it has yielded at least 0.

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