BA

5

C HA

B

TE R P

CHAPTER CHAPTER

BAB

Air dan Larutan
I T ISTILAH H Larutan akueus – Aqueous solution • • Larutan pekat – Concentrated solution • Larutan cair – Dilute solution • Elektrolisis – Electrolysis • Peneutralan – Neutralisation • Larutan tepu – Saturated solution

5
Solubility of solute

1
BAB

1

Water and Solution
WOR WORD • Aqueous solution – Larutan akueus • Concentrated solution – Larutan pekat • Dilute solution – Larutan cair • Electrolysis – Elektrolisis • Neutralisation – Peneutralan • Saturated solution – Larutan tepu

CHAPTER

2
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2
CHAPTER

Konsep

PENTING!

!

The

BIG Picture!

UP!

3
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3
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4
BAB

4
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5
BAB

5
CHAPTER

6
BAB

6
CHAPTER

terdiri daripada

didih

Tastes sour

7
BAB
undergoes

7
CHAPTER

mengalami

8
Soalan Tahun-tahun Lepas PMR
Tahun 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Kertas 1 S27 Kertas 2 Bhg. A Bhg. B

8

Changes blue litmus paper to blue Tastes bitter

CHAPTER

BAB

PMR Past-year Questions
Year 2004 Paper 1 Q27 Q20 Q9, 21 Q20–21 Q18–19 Q3 Q3(a)–(c) & 5 Q8 Paper 2 Sec. A Sec. B

9
BAB

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CHAPTER

S20 S9, 21 S20–21 S18–19 S3 S3(a)–(c) & 5 S8

Changes red litmus paper to blue

2005 2006 2007 2008

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Objektif Pembelajaran

Chapter 5

Water and Solution

5.1
TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS

INKUIRI

Eksperimen

5.1 Menganalisis ciri-ciri fizikal air

Learning Objective

Takat beku dan takat didih air

Konstruktivisme

5.1

INQUIRY
Experiment

5.1 Analysing the physical characteristics of water

CHAPTER

BAB

Freezing and boiling points of water

Constructivism

Water and Solution

Chapter 5

1
Mengkaji takat beku dan takat didih air Air suling, ketulan ais, garam biasa Termometer, bikar 250 cm3, tabung didih, penunu Bunsen, tungku kaki tiga, kaki retort, kasa dawai
BAB

1
AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS
CHAPTER

To determine the freezing point and boiling point of water Distilled water, ice, table salt Thermometer, 250 cm3 beaker, boiling tube, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, retort stand, wire gauze

2
BAB

2
CHAPTER

BAHAGIAN

A Takat beku air
termometer

SECTION

A Freezing point of water
thermometer

3
BAB

3

LANGKAH

PROCEDURE

CHAPTER

tabung didih bikar air suling ais + garam biasa

boiling tube beaker distilled water ice + table salt

4
BAB

4
CHAPTER

5
1 Sediakan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah di atas. 2 Catat suhu pada termometer ketika air membeku. PEMERHATIAN
BAHAGIAN

5
CHAPTER

BAB

1 Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram above. 2 Record the temperature of freezing water. OBSERVATION The temperature of freezing water (at freezing point) is 0 °C .

Suhu ketika air membeku (pada takat beku) ialah

0 °C

.

6
B Takat didih air
BAB

6
CHAPTER
SECTION

LANGKAH
termometer

B Boiling point of water

PROCEDURE
The bulb of the thermometer must not be in contact with the base of the beaker. retort stand

7
bikar air suling kaki retort Bebuli termometer tidak boleh menyentuh dasar bikar.

7
CHAPTER

BAB

thermometer beaker distilled water

8
BAB

8
CHAPTER

MindROBICS

panaskan

KPS
• Memerhati • Mengukur dan menggunakan nombor

SPS
heat
• Observing • Measuring and using numbers

Mind MindROBICS

Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd.indd 94

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BAB

9
CHAPTER

1 Susun radas seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah. Catat suhu awal sebelum pemanasan dimulakan. 2 Panaskan air di dalam bikar. Catat suhu ketika air mendidih.
5.1 HP • Menyatakan maksud takat beku air • Menyatakan maksud takat didih air

1 Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. Record the water temperature before heating. 2 Heat the water in the beaker. Record the temperature of boiling water.
5.1 LO • State the meaning of the freezing point of water • State the meaning of the boiling point of water

10 5.1
5.1 Experiment
INQUIRY

10

9494

Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2, Aktiviti Makmal 5.1, hlm. 107

9494

Refer to Essential Science Form 2, Laboratory Activity 5.1, p. 107

Analysing the physical characteristics of water
o

7 State the change of state of matter when steam becomes water. (Condensation)
7/16/09 7:06:38 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th.indd 94

1 State the melting point of ice. (0 C) 2 State the freezing point of water. (0 oC) 3 State the boiling point of water. (100 oC) 4 State the change of state of matter when ice becomes water. (Melting) 5 State the change of state of matter when water becomes ice. (Freezing) 6 State the change of state of matter when water becomes steam. (Boiling/Evaporation)
5.2 Experiment
INQUIRY
PEKA

8 State the change of colour when dry cobalt chloride paper is used to test the presence of water. (Blue to pink) 9 State the change of colour when dry copper(II) sulphate is used to test the presence of water. (White to blue)

7/17/09 9:15:41 AM

10 What is the effect of impurities on the (a) boiling point of water? (Increase the boiling point) (b) melting point of ice? (Decrease the melting point) (c) freezing point of water? (Decrease the freezing point)

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PEMERHATIAN ANALISIS

Suhu ketika air mendidih (pada takat didih) ialah

100 °C

.

OBSERVATION ANALYSIS

The temperature when water boils (at boiling point) is

100 °C

.

CHAPTER CHAPTER

BAB

1 Nyatakan perubahan keadaan jirim bagi air pada takat beku dan takat didih. Perubahan keadaan jirim air Takat beku Takat didih Air bertukar menjadi Air bertukar menjadi
ais stim

1 State the change in state of matter of water at freezing and boiling points. Change in state of matter of water Freezing point Boiling point The water changes to become The water changes to become ice steam Yes . .

1
BAB

1
CHAPTER

. .
Ya

2
2 (a) Are the freezing and melting points of water the same? (b) What is the melting point of water? 0 °C

2

2 (a) Adakah takat beku dan takat lebur air adalah sama? (b) Berapakah takat lebur air?
0 °C

CHAPTER

BAB

3 Adakah suhu berubah semasa air sedang membeku atau mendidih? Tidak 4 Berdasarkan pemerhatian anda dalam aktiviti ini, definisikan secara operasi takat beku dan takat didih air. air membeku . (a) Takat beku ialah suhu di mana (b) Takat didih ialah suhu di mana air mendidih
KPS

3 Is there any change in temperature when water is freezing or boiling? No 4 Based on your observation in this activity, define operationally the freezing and boiling points of water. water freezes . (a) Freezing point is the temperature at which (b) Boiling point is temperature at which water boils
SPS

3
BAB

3
CHAPTER

4

4

.

• Mendefinisi secara operasi

.

• Defining operationally

CHAPTER

BAB

5 Jika eksperimen pada Bahagian B diulang dengan mencatat suhu air pada setiap sela masa 3 minit, lukis graf suhu melawan masa berdasarkan keputusan yang ditunjukkan dalam jadual di bawah. 2007 Bhg. B, S8(b)–(e) Masa (min) Suhu (°C) 3 40 6 60 9 80 12 100 15 100

5 If the experiment in Section B is repeated by recording the temperature of water at an interval time of 3 minutes, draw a graph of temperature against time based on the results shown in the table below.
2007 Sec. B, Q8(b)–(e)

5
BAB

5
CHAPTER

Time (min) Temperature (°C)

3 40

6 60

9 80

12 100

15 100

6
(a) State the variable involved in this experiment. (i) Manipulated variable: Temperature (oC) Time 100 (ii) Responding variable: Temperature 80 (iii) Constant (fixed) variable: Volume of distilled water
60 40 20 0 Time (min)

6

(a) Nyatakan pemboleh ubah yang terlibat dalam eksperimen ini. (i) Pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan: Masa Suhu (oC) (ii) Pemboleh ubah yang bergerak balas: 100 Suhu (iii) Pemboleh ubah yang dimalarkan: 80 Isi padu air suling (b) Apakah hipotesis bagi eksperimen ini? meningkat , suhu air Apabila masa meningkat juga didihnya tercapai. sehingga takat
20 0 Masa (min) 60 40

CHAPTER

BAB

7
BAB

7
CHAPTER

(b) What is the hypothesis of this experiment? increases , the When the time temperature of water also increases until its boiling point. (c) Predict the temperature of the distilled 100 °C water at 18th minute. CONCLUSION The freezing point of water is 100 °C . 0 °C

8
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CHAPTER

(c) Ramalkan suhu air suling pada minit ke-18. 100 °C KESIMPULAN

3

6

9

12

15

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9

3

6

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Takat beku air adalah

0 °C

manakala takat didih air adalah

100 °C

.

while the boiling point of water is

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B. Bunsen burner. kasa dawai. spatula.indd 96 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:20 PM 7/16/09 6:16:25 PM . 96 96 CONCLUSION Impurities increase the boiling point of pure water.indd indd 96 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. Catat suhu campuran air suling dengan garam biasa apabila air mendidih sekali lagi. thermometer. Record the temperature of the distilled water when it boils. E1C5 KPS 103 °C atau lebih tinggi daripadanya . S8(f) 2007 Sec. table salt 100 cm3 beaker. Substance Distilled water Mixture of distilled water and table salt Boiling point (°C) 100 102 E1C3 E1C6 E1C4 5 5 BAB CHAPTER 6 6 BAB E1C3 E1C6 E1C4 CHAPTER ANALISIS E1 C 3 4 5 6 8 9 S 1 Apakah inferens yang dapat dibuat daripada takat didih larutan garam? lebih tinggi Takat didih larutan garam adalah . • Meramal Air suling akan mendidih pada suhu 4 Ramal takat beku air jika sedikit serbuk garam dimasukkan ke dalamnya. tungku kaki tiga.2. Laboratory Activity 5. spatula. It does not contain any 3 Predict what will happen to the boiling point of distilled water if more E1C5 salt is added to it. p.2 LO • Explain through examples the effects of impurities on the physical characteristics of water Refer to Essential Science Form 2. E1C8 E1C5 SPS • Predicting 8 8 BAB . Distilled water is a liquid that 0 °C and freezes at boils °C.2 HP • Menerangkan kesan bendasing terhadap ciri-ciri fizikal air melalui contoh Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2. Record the temperature of the mixture of distilled water and common salt when the water boils again.2 Eksperimen CHAPTER PEKA INKUIRI Kesan bendasing terhadap takat didih cecair tulen Inkuiri-penemuan 5. penunu Bunsen. hlm. 96 96 5. Lower than 0 °C 5 Define distilled water operationally. garam biasa Bikar 100 cm3. E1C5 CHAPTER 9 9 E1C9 E1C9 CHAPTER pada suhu 100 KPS BAB °C dan at a temperature of 100 SPS • Defining operationally • Mendefinisi secara operasi 10 10 KESIMPULAN Bendasing meningkatkan takat didih cecair tulen.2 AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE Experiment INQUIRY PEKA The effect of impurities on the boiling point of pure liquids F2MR-ch5(93-124). 3 Ramal perubahan ke atas takat didih air suling sekiranya lebih banyak garam dimasukkan ke dalamnya. termometer. 109 5. 2 Why is distilled water considered pure water? impurity . tripod stand. Tuang 25 cm3 air suling ke dalam bikar dan didihkannya. Bahan Air suling Campuran air suling dan garam biasa Takat didih (°C) 100 102 1 2 3 4 5 RESULTS Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram above. Q8(f) 1 1 BAB TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS LANGKAH Mengkaji kesan bendasing ke atas takat didih cecair tulen Air suling. B. 2 Mengapakah air suling dikatakan air yang tulen? bendasing Air suling tidak mengandungi sebarang ANALYSIS E1 C 3 4 5 6 8 9 S 1 What is the inference that can be made for the boiling point of salt solution? higher The boiling point of salt solution is .indd T2(93-124)3rd 96 BAB Inquiry-discovery 2007 Bhg. kepingan asbestos termometer To study the effects of impurities on the boiling point of pure liquids Distilled water.5. Tambahkan satu spatula garam biasa ke dalam air suling tersebut. asbestos sheet thermometer CHAPTER 2 2 BAB CHAPTER 3 3 BAB air suling xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx distilled water CHAPTER heat 4 4 BAB panaskan CHAPTER 1 2 3 4 5 KEPUTUSAN Sediakan susunan radas seperti rajah di atas.2. E1C8 7 7 BAB CHAPTER . Add a spatula of table salt to the distilled water. Pour 25 cm3 of distilled water into a beaker and boil it. Aktiviti Makmal 5. 103 °C or higher The distilled water will boil at 4 Predict the freezing point of water if a little table salt is added to it. Lebih rendah daripada 0 °C 5 Berikan definisi secara operasi bagi air suling. mendidih Air suling ialah cecair yang membeku pada 0 °C. 109 7/16/09 7:06:40 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. wire gauze. Catat suhu air suling apabila air mendidih.

Aktiviti Makmal 5. hlm. (Hydrogen and oxygen) 4 State the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in one molecule of water. Laboratory Activity 5. Hidupkan suis dan biarkan arus elektrik mengalir selama 15 minit. 7 Record your observations in the same table. Add a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid to the distilled water.2 Analysing the composition of water CHAPTER BAB Electrolysis of water Inquiry-discovery Water and Solution Chapter 5 1 To study the composition of water through electrolysis Distilled water. wooden splinter. 6 Uji gas dalam silinder penyukat X dan Y masing-masing dengan kayu uji berbara dan kayu uji bernyala. Titiskan beberapa titik asid sulfurik cair ke dalam air suling. CHAPTER BAB rod karbon air suling carbon rods distilled water 4 switch + – 4 CHAPTER BAB suis + – bateri batteries 5 1 2 3 4 Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram above.3.3 LO • Determine the composition of water • Test the presence of hydrogen and oxygen in water 9797 Refer to Essential Science Form 2. (Oxygen gas lights up the glowing wooden splinter) 7/16/09 6:16:25 PM 10 State the test for the presence of hydrogen gas. klip buaya 2 BAB 2 CHAPTER X Y silinder penyukat 3 Elektrolisis Proses penguraian sebatian kimia kepada juzuk-juzuknya dengan mengalirkan arus elektrik melalui sebatian kimia itu. 10 cm3 measuring cylinders.2 Analysing the composition of water 6 Name the positive electrode in electrolysis.3 Experiment & 5. 1 2 3 4 PEMERHATIAN Silinder penyukat Isi padu gas (cm3) Ujian bagi gas Menyalakan CHAPTER BAB 6 BAB 6 CHAPTER 7 BAB 7 OBSERVATION Measuring cylinder Volume of gas (cm3) Test for gas Lights up a glowing CHAPTER X kayu uji berbara 10 X 10 wooden splinter Produces a ‘pop’ sound 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER Y 20 Menghasilkan bunyi ‘pop’ dengan kayu uji bernyala Y 20 with a lighted wooden splinter Mind MindROBICS MindROBICS 9 BAB 9 CHAPTER ANALISIS 1 Namakan elektrod X dan Y. 110 5. (Hydrogen) 9 State the test for the presence of oxygen gas.3. matches Electrolysis set. Switch on the circuit and allow electricity to pass through for 15 minutes. Catat isi padu gas yang terkumpul di dalam silinder penyukat X dan Y dalam jadual yang disediakan. Anode/Positive electrode (a) Electrode X: (b) Electrode Y: Cathode/Negative electrode 10 10 5. silinder penyukat 10 cm3.Objektif Pembelajaran Chapter 5 Water and Solution 5. 5 Biarkan arus elektrik terus mengalir sehingga kedua-dua silinder penyukat penuh diisi gas. (Anode) 7/16/09 7:06:41 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th.3 TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS LANGKAH INKUIRI Eksperimen 5. p.3 AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE INQUIRY Experiment 5. wayar. mancis Set elektrolisis. 6 Test the gas in measuring cylinders X and Y with a glowing wooden splinter and a lighted wooden splinter respectively. 5 Sediakan susunan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan di atas.indd 97 7/23/09 3:07:20 PM . asid sulfurik cair. (Cathode) 7 State the product at the anode for the electrolysis of water (acidified by a little sulphuric acid). 110 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd.indd 97 5. dilute sulphuric acid. crocodile clips X Y measuring cylinder 1 CHAPTER BAB Mengkaji komposisi air melalui proses elektrolisis Air suling. (Oxygen) 8 State the product at the cathode for the electrolysis of water (acidified by a little sulphuric acid).4 DISCUSSION Activity INQUIRY 1 What is the process that can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen? (Electrolysis) 2 Is water a mixture or a compound? (A compound) 3 State two elements that form a water molecule.2 Menganalisis komposisi air Learning Objective Elektrolisis air Inkuiri-penemuan 5. (a) Elektrod X: (b) Elektrod Y: Anod/Elektrod positif Katod/Elektrod negatif ANALYSIS 1 Name the electrodes X and Y. 7 Catat pemerhatian anda dalam jadual yang sama.indd 97 5. Record the volume of gas that is collected in measuring cylinders X and Y in the table below.3 HP • Menentukan komposisi air • Menguji kehadiran hidrogen dan oksigen dalam air 9797 Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2. bateri. (A ‘pop’ sound is heard when the hydrogen gas is tested with a lighted wooden splinter) 97 97 F2MR-ch5(93-124). by passing an electric current through the chemical compound. batteries. kayu uji. (2:1) 5 Name the negative electrode in electrolytic cell. 3 Electrolysis Process of breaking down chemical compounds into their components. wires. 5 Allow electricity to pass through until both measuring cylinders are full of gas.

BAB CHAPTER 1 Water molecules consist of a combination of hydrogen and . oxygen elements. CHAPTER when lighted while pure hydrogen will 4 Kehadiran gas hidrogen boleh diuji dengan menggunakan ‘pop’ kedengaran. tulis simbol bagi satu molekul air.indd indd 98 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. H2O KBSB • Mengitlakkan 2 Name the gas collected in measuring cylinder X. hydrogen . Hydrogen 4 What is the ratio of the volume of hydrogen to that of the oxygen collected? 20 : 10 = 2 : 1 5 From your answer in (4). Hidrogen 4 Apakah nisbah isi padu hidrogen dan oksigen yang terkumpul? 20 : 10 = 2 : 1 5 Daripada jawapan anda di (4). .4 DISCUSSION Activity CHAPTER BAB Composition of water Mastery Isi tempat kosong dengan perkataan yang betul.indd 98 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:20 PM 7/16/09 6:16:26 PM . A electrolysis 8 8 BAB tulen akan terbakar dalam udara dengan nyalaan apabila dinyalakan manakala hidrogen biru . Elektrolisis Hidrogen Oksigen Kayu uji bernyala Meletup ‘pop’ Biru 6 6 BAB Fill in the blanks with the correct words. CHAPTER oksigen di elektrod 5 Electrolysis of acidified water with carbon electrodes produces hydrogen at the negative electrode. Oxygen 3 Name the gas collected in measuring cylinder Y.4 HP • Menentukan komposisi air • Menguji kehadiran hidrogen dan oksigen lighted wooden splinter 9 9 BAB . CHAPTER Electrolysis Hydrogen Oxygen Lighted wooden splinter Explode ‘pop’ Blue 7 7 1 Molekul air terdiri daripada gabungan unsur hidrogen dan elektrolisis oksigen . what is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in one water molecule? 2:1 6 If the symbols for hydrogen and oxygen are respectively represented by H and O. burn in the air with a 4 The presence of hydrogen can be tested by using a ‘pop’ sound can be heard. apakah nisbah hidrogen dan oksigen dalam satu molekul air? 2:1 6 Jika simbol hidrogen dan oksigen masing-masing diwakili oleh simbol H dan O.2 Namakan gas yang terkumpul dalam silinder penyukat X. Untuk meningkatkan kecekapan air untuk mengkonduksikan KESIMPULAN Satu molekul air mengandungi dua bahagian oksigen . hidrogen dan satu bahagian 7 Why was the distilled water acidified with a little sulphuric acid in this activity? electric current To increase the efficiency of water in conducting CONCLUSION One molecule of water contains two parts of oxygen .4 LO • Determine the composition of water • Test the presence of hydrogen and oxygen oxygen at the positive 10 10 98 98 98 98 7/16/09 7:06:42 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. positif dan 5. electrode and 5. Satu bunyi 5 Elektrolisis air berasid dengan elektrod-elektrod karbon menghasilkan hidrogen di elektrod negatif. write the symbol for one water molecule. Oksigen 3 Namakan gas yang terkumpul dalam silinder penyukat Y.4 PERBINCANGAN Aktiviti Komposisi air Masteri 5. H2O TSTS • Making generalisations CHAPTER F2MR-ch5(93-124). kayu uji bernyala .indd T2(93-124)3rd 98 BAB 1 1 BAB CHAPTER 2 2 BAB CHAPTER 3 3 BAB CHAPTER 7 Mengapakah air suling perlu ditambah dengan sedikit asid sulfurik cair dalam aktiviti ini? arus elektrik . 2 Air boleh diurai kepada unsur-unsurnya melalui proses 3 Campuran hidrogen dan oksigen akan meletup 2 Water can decompose into its components through explode 3 A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen will blue flame. 4 4 BAB and one part of CHAPTER 5 5 5.

surface area and air movement The rate at which the damp filter paper dries (c) that responds : Water. air humidity.3 Menganalisis proses penyejatan air Faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar penyejatan air Inkuiri-penemuan 5. surrounding temperature. 100 cm3 beaker. 3 Pemerhatian dicatat bagi kertas turas lembap yang menjadi kering terlebih dahulu. the higher the rate of evaporation of water) 1 State four factors that affect the rate of evaporation of water. 3 The filter paper that dries first was recorded. kalsium klorida kontang. kipas elektrik 1 Sediakan set susunan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam jadual di bawah.indd 99 5. kertas turas. 2 Semua kertas turas dicelupkan di dalam air pada awal eksperimen. the higher the rate of evaporation of water) 99 99 F2MR-ch5(93-124). 1 The apparatus as shown in the table below was set up. Place both sets of apparatus in the laboratory. BAB 2 2 BAB CHAPTER 3 3 BAB CHAPTER MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE BAHAN RADAS LANGKAH Air.5 LO • Explain through examples the factors that affect the rate of evaporation of water with reference to the Kinetic Theory 10 10 Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2.3 Analysing the process of evaporation of water CHAPTER BAB Factors that affect the rate of evaporation of water Inquiry-discovery Water and Solution Chapter 5 2006 Bhg. filter paper. luas permukaan. botol besar. 111 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. 4 4 BAB CHAPTER 5 5 STEPS CARA KERJA CHAPTER BAB 6 6 BAB CHAPTER 7 7 BAB CHAPTER PEMERHATIAN Eksperimen I pita selofan serkup kaca benang kertas turas air OBSERVATION Experiment I cellophane tape gas jar thread filter paper water 8 8 Pemerhatian Penerangan ringkas Observation Brief explanation CHAPTER BAB MindROBICS A B kalsium klorida kontang Kertas turas B kering Udara yang kering kurang mengandungi molekul air.Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective Water and Solution Chapter 5 5.4. 3 Catat pemerhatian bagi kertas turas lembap yang menjadi kering terlebih dahulu. luas permukaan.5 HP • Menerangkan melalui contoh tentang faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar penyejatan air berdasarkan Teori Kinetik terlebih dahulu. electric fan 1 Set up the apparatus as shown in the table below. A. a big bottle. hlm. Mind MindROBICS 9 9 BAB CHAPTER . (Surrounding temperature. Eksperimen 5. p. 1 Set susunan radas disediakan seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam jadual di bawah. air movement and surface area) 2 State the relationship between the surrounding temperature and the rate of evaporation of water. surface area and air movement influence the rate of evaporation of water (a) that is kept constant : The type of filter paper (b) that is manipulated : Air humidity. 2 Dip all the filter papers in water at the beginning of the experiment. bikar 100 cm3. evaporation of water occurs faster . (The faster the air movement.3 Analysing the process of evaporation of water 7/16/09 7:06:42 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. surrounding temperature. suhu sekitar. suhu sekitar. 2 All the filter papers were dipped in water at the beginning of the experiment.5 TERBIMBING Eksperimen 5. Dry air contains less water vapour molecules. thread. S5 2006 Sec. benang. Jadi.indd 99 5. the higher the rate of evaporation of water) 5 State the relationship between the surface area of water and the rate of evaporation of water. (The lower the air 7/16/09 6:16:26 PM humidity (drier air). Experiment 5. 3 Record which damp filter paper dries first. A. anhydrous calcium chloride. cellophane tape. 2 Celupkan semua kertas turas di dalam air pada awal eksperimen. papan kayu Serkup kaca. proses A B Letakkan kedua-dua set radas di dalam makmal. 111 99 99 99 99 Refer to Essential Science Form 2. pita selofan. wooden plank Gas jar.5 AIM PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS VARIABLES GUIDED Experiment 5. the higher the rate of evaporation of water) 4 State the relationship between the air movement and the rate of evaporation of water. penyejatan air berlaku cepat dengan lebih anhydrous calcium chloride Filter paper B dries first. (The bigger the surface area.5 Experiment GUIDED 3 State the relationship between the air humidity and the rate of evaporation of water. (The higher the surrounding temperature.indd 99 7/23/09 3:07:20 PM . dan gerakan udara : Kadar kertas turas lembap menjadi kering To study the factors that affect the rate of evaporation of water What are the factors that affect the rate of evaporation of water? Humidity of air. So. 5. Q5 1 1 TUJUAN PERNYATAAN MASALAH HIPOTESIS PEMBOLEH UBAH CHAPTER Mengkaji faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar penyejatan air Apakah faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar penyejatan air? Kelembapan udara.4. 5. dan pergerakan udara mempengaruhi kadar penyejatan air (a) yang dimalarkan (b) yang dimanipulasikan (c) yang bergerak balas : Jenis kertas turas : Kelembapan udara.

BAB IV papan kayu G botol besar H dahulu. evaporation of water by moving evaporated water molecules away from the filter paper. Gantungkan kertas turas C dan D masingmasing di bawah cahaya matahari dan di dalam almari gelap. A F larger CHAPTER BAB E Filter paper E dries first. 7 7 BAB CHAPTER ANALISIS 1 Apakah peranan kalsium klorida kontang? wap air dalam udara.indd 100 9 What is the process that takes place only on the surface of water? (Evaporation) 10 What is the process that enables wet clothes to become dry under the sun? (Evaporation) 11 What is the process that enables the preparation of salt at the seaside? (Evaporation) 12 What is the process that enables the preparation of distilled water in the school laboratory? (Boiling) 7/16/09 6:16:27 PM 100 100 F2MR-ch5(93-124). Untuk membiarkan kertas turas C 3 Mengapakah kertas turas F dilipat? mengurangkan luas permukaan Untuk ANALYSIS 1 What is the role of the anhydrous calcium chloride? water vapour in the air.CHAPTER Eksperimen almari gelap Pemerhatian Penerangan ringkas Suhu sekitar yang lebih tinggi membekalkan lebih tenaga kepada Experiment II dark cupboard Observation Brief explanation higher BAB Water and Solution Chapter 5 II Water and Solution Chapter 5 A Filter paper C dries first. 6 6 BAB CHAPTER • Letakkan kertas turas G ke dalam botol yang besar.indd 100 9 BAB yang terdedah kepada udara. 4 4 Gantungkan kertas turas E dan F di dalam makmal. Menyerap 2 Apakah tujuan meletakkan kertas turas C di bawah cahaya matahari? dikeringkan oleh cahaya matahari. (boiling point) 7/16/09 7:06:43 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. 2 2 BAB Hang filter papers C and D in the Sun and in a dark cupboard respectively. udara tenang exposed to the air. exposed surface area more enables water molecules to escape into the air. CHAPTER 4 Mengapakah kertas turas G diletakkan di dalam botol besar? Untuk membolehkan kertas turas G berada dalam keadaan . • Tiupkan angin daripada kipas elektrik ke arah kertas turas H. To let filter paper C 3 Why is filter paper F folded? reduce the surface area To 4 Why is filter paper G placed in a big bottle? To enable filter paper G to be in a condition of still air . surrounding 1 1 C D Kertas turas C kering terlebih C D temperature supplies more energy to the water molecules enabling them to escape into the air CHAPTER BAB molekul air untuk terlepas ke udara dengan lebih cepat. Absorbs 2 What is the aim of placing filter paper C in the sunlight? dry in the sunlight. 6 The temperature that enables the boiling process to occur is referred to as 7 What is the process that occurs at any temperature? (Evaporation) 8 What is the process that occurs at a higher rate? (Boiling) . choose either ‘boiling’ or ‘evaporation’ as your answer. IV wooden plank G big bottle CHAPTER 5 5 BAB kipas Kertas turas H kering terlebih Angin (udara bergerak) mempercepat proses penyejatan air dengan membawa molekul air tersejat daripada kertas turas. III dahulu. III faster. Wind (moving air) quickens the H fan CHAPTER Filter paper H dries first. 10 10 100 100 100 100 For Questions 6–12. Hang filter papers E and F in the laboratory. 8 8 BAB CHAPTER Mind MindROBICS MindROBICS 9 5.6 THINKING Activity Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd.indd 100 7/23/09 3:07:20 PM . • Direct a fan at filter paper H. CHAPTER 3 3 E F Kertas turas E kering terlebih Luas permukaan terdedah yang lebih besar membolehkan lebih banyak molekul air terlepas ke udara. dahulu. • Place filter paper G in a big bottle.

6 HP • Menerangkan aplikasi penyejatan air dalam kehidupan harian 101 101 5.6 BERFIKIR Aktiviti Perbandingan antara pendidihan dengan penyejatan 5. BAB 2 CHAPTER 3 3 5. exposed surface area .KESIMPULAN 1 Adakah hipotesis yang dibuat dapat diterima? Ya 2 Kelembapan udara dan .6 THINKING Activity CHAPTER Comparison between boiling and evaporation BAB Contextual Kontekstual 4 BAB 4 CHAPTER Kumpulkan maklumat daripada pusat sumber tentang pendidihan dan penyejatan. Seluruh Minuman Rendah Garam Sebarang masa Tinggi Takat didih Air suling Permukaan Sebarang suhu Pakaian Ikan Collect information from the school resource centre on boiling and evaporation. CONCLUSION 1 Is the hypothesis formed earlier acceptable? Yes 2 and Air humidity surrounding temperature .indd indd 101 Bab 05 T2(93-124)5th. Then. Pakaian basah cepat menjadi kering apabila dijemur penyangkut baju . Throughout Drinking Low Salt Any time High Boiling point Distilled water Surface Any temperature Clothes Fish 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER Boiling Evaporation Pendidihan Penyejatan 6 6 water water particle CHAPTER air zarah air air panaskan BAB water heat 7 Condition for it to happen Only takes place at boiling point Takes place at any temperature any time How it happens Takes place the water throughout Only takes place on the surface of the water Low • Drying of • Drying of • Producing the seaside clothes fish salt by BAB 7 CHAPTER Keadaan situasi ini berlaku Bagaimana berlaku Hanya berlaku pada takat didih Berlaku di air seluruh sebarang suhu Berlaku pada dan sebarang masa Hanya berlaku di air permukaan and 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER Kadar proses Tinggi air suling • Penghasilan di makmal sekolah minuman • Penyediaan air Rendah • Pengeringan • Pengeringan • Penghasilan di tepi laut pakaian ikan garam Rate of the process Application in daily lives High distilled water • Producing in school laboratory drinking • Preparing water 9 9 Aplikasi dalam kehidupan harian CHAPTER BAB 10 10 5. Kemudian. complete the table below. BAB CHAPTER APLIKASI IDEA REFLEKSI Udara panas daripada pengering rambut dapat mengeringkan rambut yang basah dengan lebih cepat.indd 101 F2-BI(93-124)5th indd 7/23/09 3:07:21 PM 7/23/09 10:08:53 AM . from a hair dryer dries wet hair faster. air movement influence the rate of evaporation of water. lengkapkan jadual di bawah.6 LO • Describe the application of evaporation of water in daily life 101 101 F2MR-ch5(93-124).indd T2(93-124)5th 101 7/23/09 10:10:52 AM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)5th. dan digantung dengan di bawah cahaya matahari APPLICATION OF IDEA REFLECTION Hot air 2 Wet clothing becomes dry when hung out hanger . in the sun using a CHAPTER CHAPTER BAB 1 1 mempengaruhi kadar penyejatan air. pergerakan udara suhu sekitar . luas permukaan terdedah .

indd 102 9 BAB CHAPTER 10 10 5. dan larutan Liquid mixture produced when a substance dissolves in a liquid Substance that dissolves in a liquid Liquid that dissolves a substance Universal solvent Solution containing a little solute Solution containing a lot of solute Solution containing the maximum amount of solute Solution containing floating substances • Explain what is solute.7 PERBINCANGAN Aktiviti 5. (Solvent) 2 Name the substance that dissolves in a solvent. 4 4 BAB CHAPTER 5.8 DISCUSSION Activity Water and solution Mastery 5 5 BAB CHAPTER Isi tempat kosong dengan memilih istilah yang bersesuaian dengan pernyataannya. solute and solution Mastery Water and Solution Chapter 5 1 1 Isi tempat kosong dengan perkataan yang betul. (The warmer the solvent. Larutan Zat terlarut Pelarut Melarutkan Pelarut universal BAB Fill in the blanks with the correct words.4 DISCUSSION Activity Activity 5. solvent and solution 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 BAB CHAPTER 8 8 BAB CHAPTER Mind MindROBICS MindROBICS Concentrated solution Saturated solution Suspension 102 102 9 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd.8 & 1 Name the liquid that is used to dissolve a substance.10 Experiment 102 102 F2MR-ch5(93-124). the faster it dissolves in a solvent) 10 State the relationship between the temperature of a solvent and the solubility of substances in it. (The smaller the size of solute. temperature of solvent.8 PERBINCANGAN Aktiviti Air dan larutan Masteri 5. (Solute) 3 Name the mixture that is formed by a solvent and a solute.8 HP 5.indd 102 7/23/09 3:07:21 PM . (Solution) 4 Name the solution that has very little solute. Air Zat terlarut 1 Larutan Larutan cair Larutan pekat Pelarut Larutan tepu Bahan terampai Larutan Zat terlarut Pelarut Air Larutan cair Larutan pekat Larutan tepu Bahan terampai 102 102 Fill in the blanks by choosing the right terms to match the statements.indd 102 7/21/09 11:11:01 AM 5. (Suspension) 7/16/09 7:06:45 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)5th. dan larutan Masteri 5. Solution Solute Solute Solvent Dissolves Universal solvent CHAPTER 2 2 Zat terlarut serbuk natrium klorida sodium chloride powder CHAPTER BAB 3 3 Pelarut air larutan natrium klorida Larutan Solvent water sodium chloride solution Solution CHAPTER BAB Air ialah pelarut universal kerana air melarutkan kebanyakan bahan.7 & 5.4 Menganalisis larutan dan keterlarutan Pelarut.7 & 5.4 Analysing solution and solubility CHAPTER BAB Solvent.9 Experiment INQUIRY INQUIRY 5 Name the solution that has a lot of solute.7 5. (Concentrated solution) 6 Name the solution that has the maximum amount of solute.7 DISCUSSION Activity 5. (Saturated solution) 5. Water is a universal solvent because it dissolves most of the substances.Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective Chapter 5 Water and Solution 5. pelarut. the faster the solutes dissolves in it) 5. (Size of solutes. zat terlarut. stirring and volume of solvent) 9 State the relationship between the size of solutes and the solubility of substances in a solvent. Water Solute 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Solution Dilute solution Concentrated solution Solvent Saturated solution Suspension Solution Solute Solvent Water Dilute solution 6 6 BAB CHAPTER Campuran yang terhasil apabila suatu bahan larut dalam suatu cecair Bahan yang larut dalam suatu cecair Cecair yang melarutkan suatu bahan Pelarut universal Larutan yang mengandungi sedikit zat terlarut Larutan yang mengandungi banyak zat terlarut Larutan yang mengandungi zat terlarut yang maksimum Larutan yang mengandungi bahan terapung • Menerangkan maksud zat terlarut.8 LO Analysing solution and solubility 7 Name the liquid that has suspended substances in it.11 Experiment INQUIRY DISCUSSION 8 State four factors that affect the solubility of substances in a solvent. (Dilute solution) 5.

114 5. spatula. dan larutan tepu Inkuiri-penemuan 5. Refer to Essential Science Form 2. 2 Suggest the taste of the saturated solution if you were to taste it with your tongue. concentrated and saturated solutions Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. 3 Repeat step 1 by adding more table salt until it does not dissolve in water. larutan pekat. p.9 INQUIRY Experiment AIM CHAPTER Dilute solution. water 50 cm3 beaker. a concentrated solution and a saturated solution CHAPTER BAB MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE Fine table salt. air Bikar 50 cm3.5. dan larutan tepu 103 103 Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2.5. the faster the solutes dissolve in it) 13 Name the universal solvent.9 LO • Contrast and compare between dilute. larutan pekat. concentrated solution and saturated solution BAB Inquiry-discovery Chapter 5 Water and Solution Chapter 5 Water and Solution TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS LANGKAH 1 1 Menyediakan larutan cair. 2 Ulang langkah 1 dengan dua spatula garam biasa. spatula.9 INKUIRI Eksperimen Larutan cair. Laboratory Activity 5.indd 103 11 State the relationship between stirring and the solubility of substances in a solvent. 2 Larutan pekat mengandungi 3 Larutan tepu mengandungi zat terlarut yang maksimum . amount of solute. Very salty 7 BAB 7 CHAPTER 3 Draw the particles in the three types of solutions (symbol • represents particle).12 DISCUSSION Activity (c) Rust (Lime juice) (d) Grease (Turpentine/Kerosene) (e) Blood (Sodium chloride solution/Table salt solution) 7/16/09 6:16:30 PM 14 State the organic solvent that can be used to remove the following dirt. 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER Mind MindROBICS MindROBICS 9 9 Larutan cair KESIMPULAN Larutan pekat Larutan tepu Dilute solution CONCLUSION Concentrated solution a little a lot maximum 103 103 Saturated solution CHAPTER BAB sedikit 1 Larutan cair mengandungi hanya zat terlarut. 114 10 10 5. Sangat masin 3 Lukis zarah-zarah dalam tiga jenis larutan (simbol • mewakili zarah). banyak zat terlarut. Aktiviti Makmal 5. larutan pekat. dan larutan tepu Garam biasa yang halus. (a) Chlorophyll (from grass) (Alcohol) (b) Fresh paint (Turpentine/Kerosene) 15 State the organic solvents according to their uses. rod kaca 1 Masukkan satu spatula garam biasa ke dalam 25 cm3 air dan kacau dengan rod kaca.indd 103 7/23/09 3:07:21 PM . (Water) 5. 2 BAB 2 CHAPTER KEPUTUSAN Kuantiti garam yang ditambahkan Satu spatula Hasil larutan Larutan cair RESULTS Amount of salt added One spatula The solution produced Dilute solution 3 BAB 3 CHAPTER 4 Two spatulas Concentrated solution BAB 4 CHAPTER Dua spatula Larutan pekat Many spatulas Saturated solution 5 5 Banyak spatula Larutan tepu CHAPTER BAB ANALISIS ANALYSIS 1 What is the amount of solute in a (a) dilute solution? (b) concentrated solution? (c) saturated solution? A little A lot Maximum TSTS • Generating ideas 1 Apakah kuantiti zat terlarut dalam Sedikit (a) larutan cair? (b) larutan pekat? (c) larutan tepu? Banyak Maksimum KBSB • Menjanakan idea 6 BAB 6 CHAPTER 2 Cadangkan rasa larutan tepu itu jika dirasa dengan lidah anda. To prepare a dilute solution. of solute. hlm. (a) To dissolve iodine to make an antiseptic (Alcohol) (b) To dilute paint (Turpentine) (c) To stick plastic substances (Chloroform) (d) To stick rubber sheets (Benzene) 103 103 F2MR-ch5(93-124).indd 103 12 State the relationship between the volume of solvent and the solubility of substances in it.5. (The solutes dissolve more easily if the solvent is stirred) 7/16/09 7:06:45 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. 1 Dilute solution contains only 2 Concentrated solution contains 3 Saturated solution contains the solute. 3 Ulang langkah 1 dengan menambahkan garam biasa sehingga garam tidak dapat larut dalam air. 2 Repeat step 1 with two spatulas of table salt.9 HP • Membandingkan dan membezakan larutan cair. (The bigger the volume of the solvent. glass rod 1 Add one spatula of table salt to 25 cm3 of water and stir with a glass rod.

Laboratory Activity 5. 2 Mengapakah terdapat bahan terampai yang terapung di dalam air yang dicampur E1C8 dengan serbuk kanji dan tepung gandum? tidak larut Serbuk kanji dan tepung gandum dalam air. p. Larutan jernih Bahan terampai Bahan terampai terhasil. Solution Zinc nitrate solution Sodium chloride solution Suspension Starch powder Wheat flour E1C2 5 5 BAB CHAPTER 6 6 BAB CHAPTER Larutan Larutan zink nitrat Larutan natrium klorida Bahan terampai Serbuk kanji Tepung gandum E1C2 7 7 KESIMPULAN BAB 1 Larutan mengandungi zat terlarut yang 2 Bahan terampai terbentuk apabila zat terlarut larut tidak larut dalam air. 116 9 9 BAB CHAPTER 10 10 (d) isi padu pelarut 5. E1 C 1 2 6 8 S 1 Is there any substance floating in the zinc nitrate solution and sodium chloride solution? E1C8 Give your reason. serbuk natrium klorida. hlm. rod kaca. A. serbuk kanji. starch powder and wheat flour. 116 5. 2 Why is there suspension floating in the water which is mixed with starch powder and E1C8 wheat flour? do not dissolve The starch powder and wheat flour in water.11 HP • Menerangkan maksud keterlarutan • Menerangkan faktor yang mempengaruhi keterlarutan zat terlarut dalam air Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2. sodium chloride powder. dan tepung gandum. Q3 Menentukan faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar keterlarutan zat terlarut dalam air Apakah faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar keterlarutan zat terlarut dalam air? Keterlarutan zat terlarut dalam air dipengaruhi oleh (a) saiz zat terlarut (b) pengacauan (c) suhu pelarut 104 104 To determine the factors that affect the solubility of solutes in water What are the factors that affect the solubility of solutes in water? The solubility of solutes in water is influenced by (a) solute size (c) temperature of the solvent (b) stirring (d) volume of the solvent 104 104 Refer to Essential Science Form 2.7. E1C1 E1C6 AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE 1 1 BAB To show the differences between a solution and a suspension Zinc nitrate powder. air Bikar 50 cm3. Substance Zinc nitrate powder Sodium chloride powder Starch powder Wheat flour A A A A Observation clear solution was formed. clear solution was formed.indd T2(93-124)3rd 104 BAB Solution and suspension Inquiry-discovery TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS LANGKAH Menunjukkan perbezaan antara larutan dengan bahan terampai Serbuk zink nitrat. The zinc nitrate powder and sodium chloride powder dissolve in water. 2 Ulang langkah 1 dengan menggunakan serbuk natrium klorida.11 AIM PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS GUIDED Experiment Factors that affect the solubility of solutes in water CHAPTER Inquiry-discovery 2006 Bhg.10 HP • Menerangkan maksud bahan terampai 5. Record your observations of the condition of the mixture. hlm.10 Eksperimen CHAPTER PEKA INKUIRI Larutan dan bahan terampai Inkuiri-penemuan 5. 115 dan Eksperimen 5. Serbuk zink nitrat dan natrium klorida dalam air. completely in water.11 LO • Explain what solubility is • Explain the factors affecting the solubility of solutes in water 7/16/09 7:06:47 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th.10 Experiment INQUIRY PEKA F2MR-ch5(93-124). suspension suspension was formed. spatula 1 Masukkan setengah spatula serbuk zink nitrat ke dalam 25 cm3 air dan kacau dengan perlahan-lahan. 3 Classify the substances above into solution or suspension. serbuk kanji.5. starch powder. glass rod. Tidak larut . spatula 1 Add half a spatula of zinc nitrate powder to 25 cm3 of water and stir slowly. p. A. No . sepenuhnya dalam air. 8 8 BAB 5. tepung gandum. Aktiviti Makmal 5.7. S3 2006 Sec. terhasil. was formed.10 LO • Explain what suspension is 5. Bahan Serbuk zink nitrat Serbuk natrium klorida Serbuk kanji Tepung gandum Pemerhatian Larutan jernih terhasil. E1C1 E1C6 CHAPTER 2 2 BAB CHAPTER PEMERHATIAN OBSERVATION 3 3 BAB CHAPTER 4 4 BAB CHAPTER ANALISIS E1 C 1 2 6 8 S ANALYSIS 1 Adakah terdapat bahan yang terampai di dalam larutan zink nitrat dan natrium klorida? E1C8 Berikan alasan anda. 115 and Experiment 5.indd indd 104 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. CONCLUSION CHAPTER 1 Solution contains solute that 2 Suspension forms when solute dissolve does not dissolve in water. 3 Kelaskan bahan-bahan di atas kepada larutan dan bahan terampai. Catat pemerhatian anda tentang keadaan hasil campuran.indd 104 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:21 PM 7/16/09 6:16:32 PM . terhasil.6.6. 2 Repeat step 1 using sodium chloride powder. water 50 cm3 beaker. wheat flour.11 TERBIMBING TUJUAN PERNYATAAN MASALAH HIPOTESIS Eksperimen Faktor yang mempengaruhi keterlarutan zat terlarut dalam air Inkuiri-penemuan 5.

spatula. spatula.PEMBOLEH UBAH VARIABLES (a) yang dimalarkan : Jenis garam/Kuantiti garam/Jenis pelarut (b) yang dimanipulasikan : Saiz zat pelarut/Pengacauan/Suhu pelarut/Isi padu pelarut (c) yang bergerak balas : Kadar keterlarutan garam Air. faster than the dissolves coarse salt . 2 Catat pemerhatian anda bagi kadar keterlarutan garam dalam jadual yang sama. CHAPTER CHAPTER BAB 1 BAB 1 MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE CHAPTER cm3. asbestos sheet 1 Set up the apparatus as shown in the table below.indd 105 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:21 PM 7/16/09 6:16:32 PM . kepingan asbestos 1 Sediakan susunan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam jadual di bawah. (c) water fine salt 7 • Masukkan 50 g garam halus masing-masing ke dalam dua bikar yang mengandungi 200 cm3 air. • Kacau campuran garam dan air. • Kacau air dalam salah satu bikar. kasa dawai. glass rod. balance. CHAPTER BAB water fine salt The fine salt dissolves faster if it is stirred. 9 BAB 9 CHAPTER • Masukkan 50 g garam halus masing-masing ke dalam dua bikar yang mengandungi 200 cm3 air. 2 BAB 2 CHAPTER PROCEDURE AND OBSERVATION (a) Experiment Observation 3 BAB 3 CHAPTER air Garam halus garam kasar garam halus larut dengan water lebih cepat daripada garam kasar The coarse salt fine salt fine salt 4 4 CHAPTER . (c) air garam halus panaskan CHAPTER BAB 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER Garam halus larut dengan lebih dipanaskan . tripod stand. (b) stir glass rod 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER 6 6 air garam halus Garam halus larut dengan lebih cepat jika dikacau. cepat jika heated The fine salt dissolves faster if it is heated . • Stir the mixture of salt and water. Bunsen burner. wire gauze. (b) kacau rod kaca • Put 50 g of coarse and fine salt respectively into two beakers with 200 cm3 water. 105 105 • Put 50 g of fine salt each into two beakers with 200 cm3 water. 7 • Put 50 g of fine salt each into two beakers with 200 cm3 water. Eksperimen (a) Pemerhatian BAHAN RADAS LANGKAH LANGKAH DAN PEMERHATIAN (a) that is kept constant : Type of salt/Quantity of salt/Type of solvent (b) that is manipulated : The size of solute/Stirring/Temperature of solvent/Volume of solvent (c) that responds : The solubility rate of salt Water. penunu Bunsen.indd T2(93-124)3rd 105 7/16/09 7:06:48 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. • Panaskan air dalam salah satu bikar. 105 105 10 10 F2MR-ch5(93-124). • Heat one of the beakers. BAB • Masukkan 50 g garam kasar dan garam halus masing-masing ke dalam dua bikar yang mengandungi 200 cm3 air. table salt (sodium chloride) 250 cm3 beaker. 2 Record your observation of the salt’s solubility rate in the same table. tungku kaki tiga.indd indd 105 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. • Stir one of the beakers. penimbang. garam biasa (natrium klorida) Bikar 250 rod kaca.

7 Dua bikar masing-masing diisi dengan 200 cm3 air dan 100 cm3 air. tinggi Semakin suhu. • Masukkan 50 g garam halus ke dalam setiap bikar. 2 2 BAB CHAPTER CARA KERJA 1 50 g garam kasar dan garam halus masing-masing dimasukkan ke dalam dua bikar yang mengandungi 200 cm3 air. 8 50 g of fine salt was added to each of the beakers. cepat cepat CHAPTER 7 7 BAB CHAPTER the volume of the solvent. 8 50 g garam halus dimasukkan ke dalam setiap bikar itu. the the solute dissolves in water. semakin zat terlarut itu larut di dalam air. 7 Two beakers were filled with 200 cm3 and 100 cm3 of water respectively.indd 106 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:21 PM 7/16/09 6:16:34 PM . 6 Campuran dalam salah satu bikar dipanaskan. CHAPTER • Isikan dua bikar masing-masing dengan 200 cm3 dan 100 cm3 air. 3 50 g garam halus masing-masing dimasukkan ke dalam dua bikar yang mengandungi 200 cm3 air. 5 50 g of fine salt was put into each of the two beakers with 200 cm3 of water. TSTS • Relating 3 3 BAB CHAPTER 4 4 BAB CHAPTER 5 5 BAB CHAPTER ANALYSIS 1 Complete the table below to show the factors that affect the solubility of solutes in water. 3 50 g of fine salt was put into each of the two beakers with 200 cm3 of water. 6 Mixture in one of the beakers was heated. Solutes dissolve more easily CHAPTER Zat terlarut lebih mudah larut dalam pelarut jika dikacau. semakin terlarut itu larut di dalam air. 2 Campuran air dan garam dikacau. if stirred. the the solute dissolves in water.CHAPTER Eksperimen (d) 200 cm3 air 100 cm3 Pemerhatian Experiment (d) 200 cm3 100 cm3 Observation F2MR-ch5(93-124). KBSB • Menghubungkaitkan STEPS 1 50 g of coarse and fine salt were respectively put into two beakers with 200 cm3 of water. 9 Campuran garam dan air dalam kedua-dua bikar dikacau. 2 Cadangkan empat cara untuk meningkatkan keterlarutan ketulan gula dalam air. 5 50 g garam halus masing-masing dimasukkan ke dalam dua bikar yang mengandungi 200 cm3 air. The bigger faster Stirring faster faster ANALISIS 6 6 BAB 1 Lengkapkan jadual di bawah untuk menunjukkan faktor yang mempengaruhi keterlarutan zat terlarut di dalam air. higher The the temperature. 4 Mixture in one of the beakers was stirred. 2 The mixture of water and salt was stirred. • Stir the mixture of salt and water. • Fill two beakers with 200 cm3 and 100 cm3 of water respectively. semakin zat terlarut itu larut di dalam air. Cara-cara meningkatkan keterlarutan ketulan gula dalam air: (a) Menghancurkannya (b) Mengacau air (c) Memanaskannya (d) Menambahkan lebih banyak air 2 Suggest four ways to increase the solubility of sugar cubes in water.indd indd 106 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. Faktor Saiz zat terlarut Bagaimanakah faktor mempengaruhi keterlarutan zat terlarut dalam air? kecil Semakin saiz zat terlarut. the the solute dissolves in water. air Ways to increase the solubility of sugar cubes in water: (a) Crush them (b) Stir the water (c) Heat them (d) Add more water 9 9 BAB CHAPTER water 10 10 ketulan gula sugar cube 106 106 106 106 7/16/09 7:06:49 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. • Kacau campuran garam dan air. 4 Campuran dalam salah satu bikar dikacau. Factor Size of solute Temperature Volume of solvent How does the factor affect the solubility of solutes in water? smaller The the solute size.indd T2(93-124)3rd 106 BAB 1 1 BAB garam halus Garam halus larut dengan lebih cepat dalam pelarut yang mempunyai isi padu yang lebih besar . water fine salt The fine salt dissolves faster in a bigger volume of solvent. Suhu Isi padu pelarut Pengacauan zat cepat 8 8 BAB besar Semakin isi padu pelarut. • Add 50 g of fine salt to each of the beakers. 9 The mixtures of salt and water in both beakers were stirred.

solutes in form dissolve more easily in of water. air panas digunakan. Oleh itu. and 2 BAB 2 . hot water is used. powder A solute in form has a bigger total surface area than a solute in the form lump powder . Hence. CHAPTER APLIKASI IDEA REFLEKSI APPLICATION OF IDEA REFLECTION Sugar dissolves faster in a drink if 3 3 Gula larut lebih cepat dalam air minuman sekiranya Zat terlarut dalam bentuk serbuk CHAPTER BAB mempunyai jumlah luas permukaan yang lebih ketulan . serbuk zat terlarut besar daripada zat terlarut dalam bentuk larut dengan lebih mudah dalam air. .indd T2(93-124)4th 107 7/21/09 2:31:29 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)5th.12 LO • Give examples of the uses of organic solvents in our everyday life 107 107 F2MR-ch5(93-124). . Benzena Kloroform Alkohol Turpentin Amil asetat Alkohol 6 BAB 6 CHAPTER 1 Melekatkan huruf dan nombor plastik pada plat nombor kenderaan Kloroform 1 To stick the plastic letters and numbers on the number plates of vehicles Chloroform 7 2 BAB 7 2 Melekatkan kepingan getah pada tayar bocor Benzena To stick a piece of rubber on a punctured tyre Benzene CHAPTER 3 Menyediakan syelek untuk menggilap perabot Alkohol 3 To prepare shellac to give furniture a shiny coat Alcohol 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER 4 Menanggalkan gincu pada pakaian Amil asetat 4 To remove lipstick from dress Amyl acetate 9 9 5 Menanggalkan kotoran cat pada lantai Turpentin BAB 5 To remove paint from the floor Turpentine CHAPTER 6 Melarutkan iodin untuk menyediakan antiseptik Alkohol 6 To dissolve iodine to make antiseptics Alcohol 10 10 5. . 1 1 1 Adakah hipotesis yang dibuat dapat diterima? Ya 2 Apakah kesimpulan yang dapat dibuat daripada eksperimen ini? saiz zat terlarut Kadar keterlarutan zat terlarut dalam air dipengaruhi oleh pengacauan dan isi padu pelarut .3 Bagaimanakah pemanasan dapat meningkatkan keterlarutan zat terlarut dalam air? lebih banyak tenaga dan bergerak dengan Zarah-zarah zat terlarut menerima lebih cepat KESIMPULAN .indd indd 107 Bab 05 T2(93-124)4th. volume of the solvent temperature of the solvent . 3 How does heating increase the solubility of the solute in water? more energy and move The molecules of the solute receive CONCLUSION 1 Is the hypothesis formed earlier acceptable? Yes CHAPTER CHAPTER BAB faster .12 HP • Memberikan contoh kegunaan pelarut organik dalam kehidupan harian 107 107 5.12 2 DISCUSSION Activity Organic solvents Contextual 5 BAB 5 Kontekstual CHAPTER Fill in the blanks with the correct organic solvents. Benzene Chloroform Alcohol Turpentine Amyl acetate Alcohol Isi tempat kosong dengan pelarut organik yang betul. suhu pelarut CHAPTER BAB 2 What is the conclusion that can be made from this experiment? size of the solutes The solubility rate of solutes in water is influenced by the stirring . 4 BAB 4 CHAPTER 5.12 PERBINCANGAN 2 Aktiviti Pelarut organik 5.indd 107 F2-BI(93-124)5th indd 7/23/09 3:07:21 PM 7/21/09 11:13:28 AM .

5 Analysing acid and alkali CHAPTER BAB The properties of acids Inquiry-discovery Water and Solution Chapter 5 1 BAB 1 AIM MATERIALS CHAPTER Mengkaji sifat-sifat asid Cuka. magnesium ribbon Dropper. (Hydrogen) 3 Write a chemical equation in words to show the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. • Compare the colour formed against the universal indicator colour chart. (Ammonia) 9 Acids and alkalis only show their properties in the presence of . filter paper. 5. 2 Jalankan aktiviti dan catat pemerhatian anda dalam jadual yang sama.13 Experiment INQUIRY 9 BAB 9 CHAPTER 10 5.10. tabung uji 1 Sediakan susunan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam jadual. dilute hydrochloric acid. hlm.10. • Titiskan dua titik penunjuk semesta ke dalam asid hidroklorik cair dalam tabung uji. 2 Carry out the activity and record your observations in the same table. (d) penunjuk semesta merah Kertas litmus merah . test tubes 1 Set up the apparatus as shown in the table. universal indicator. kayu uji. corrosive and changes damp red litmus paper to blue/pH more than 7/feel slippery) 8 Name the gas released when ammonium salt is heated with alkali. MindROBICS terhasil.5 10 5. corrosive and changes damp blue litmus paper to red/pH less than 7) 2 Name the gas released when acid reacts with magnesium (or zinc).13 INQUIRY Experiment 5. (Tastes sour. red and blue litmus papers. CHAPTER (b) asid sulfurik pekat kertas turas dikakis Kertas turas menjadi berlubang . Asid hidroklorik cair menunjukkan nilai pH 1 . Bahan kimia dalam makmal tidak boleh dirasa kecuali mendapat kebenaran daripada guru anda. BAB 4 Rasanya masam . carta penunjuk semesta. value of Mind MindROBICS Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER Titiskan setitik asid sulfurik pekat ke atas kertas turas.13 HP • Mengenal pasti sifat-sifat asid • Put two drops of universal indicator into a test tube filled with dilute hydrochloric acid. penunjuk semesta.13 LO • Identify the properties of acid 108 108 Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2. 2 BAB 2 APPARATUS PROCEDURE CHAPTER 3 BAB 3 CHAPTER PEMERHATIAN OBSERVATION Activity (a) Taste the vinegar with your tongue. (water) 1 State three properties of acid. (Magnesium + hydrochloric acid → magnesium chloride + hydrogen) 4 Write a chemical equation in words to show the reaction between zinc and sulphuric acid. Kertas litmus kertas litmus merah asid hidroklorik cair biru merah . (Carbon dioxide) 7 State three properties of alkali. Aktiviti Pemerhatian 4 (a) Rasa cuka dengan lidah anda. • Bandingkan warna yang terhasil dengan carta penunjuk semesta. (Zinc + nitric acid → 7/16/09 6:16:36 PM zinc nitrate + hydrogen) 6 Name the gas released when acid reacts with calcium carbonate. concentrated sulphuric acid.15 DISCUSSION Activity 108 108 F2MR-ch5(93-124). dan The filter paper is corroded hole and a forms. (Tastes bitter. wooden splinter.5 Menganalisis asid dan alkali Learning Objective Sifat-sifat asid Inkuiri-penemuan 5. universal indicator chart. Laboratory Activity 5. (c) kertas litmus biru Place one drop of concentrated sulphuric acid on a piece of filter paper. Aktiviti Makmal 5.Objektif Pembelajaran Chapter 5 Water and Solution 5. turns The bertukar kepada 7 BAB 7 Place both blue and red litmus papers into a test tube filled with dilute hydrochloric acid. 121 Analysing acid and alkali 7/16/09 7:06:51 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. To study the properties of acids Vinegar. asid hidroklorik cair. (c) blue litmus paper 6 BAB 6 CHAPTER The red litmus paper dilute hydrochloric acid blue red red red litmus paper . asid sulfurik pekat. kekal remains CHAPTER 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER Larutan berwarna asid hidroklorik cair merah dilute hydrochloric acid A red solution forms. (d) universal indicator Masukkan kedua-dua kertas litmus merah dan biru ke dalam tabung uji yang berisi asid hidroklorik cair. (b) concentrated sulphuric acid filter paper Observation It tastes sour .indd 108 5 Write a chemical equation in words to show the reaction between zinc and nitric acid.14 Experiment INQUIRY 5. (Zinc + sulphuric acid → zinc sulphate + hydrogen) 5. p. kertas litmus merah dan biru. Dilute hydrochloric acid has a pH 1 . Chemicals in the laboratory cannot be tasted unless you get the approval from your teacher. 121 108 108 Refer to Essential Science Form 2. kertas turas.indd 108 5.indd 108 7/23/09 3:07:21 PM .13 TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS LANGKAH INKUIRI Eksperimen 5. pita magnesium Penitis. litmus paper .

7 7 8 red . 109 109 109 109 10 A substance 5. terkakis luka dan . magnesium klorida + hidrogen Magnesium + asid hidroklorik 3 3 ANALYSIS 1 State the range of pH values for acidic substances.CHAPTER Aktiviti Pemerhatian Activity (e) lighted wooden splinter dilute hydrochloric acid Observation BAB (e) Chapter 5 Water and Solution kayu uji menyala asid hidroklorik cair Water and Solution Chapter 5 1 1 Bunyi ‘pop’ pita magnesium CHAPTER dan nyalaan api kedengaran terpadam BAB magnesium ribbon . define acid operationally. (Sulphuric acid) 14 Name the acid used to coagulate latex. • Place a piece of magnesium ribbon into a test tube filled with dilute hydrochloric acid. Hidrogen KBSB 3 Lengkapkan persamaan perkataan di bawah untuk menunjukkan • Mensintesiskan tindak balas antara asid hidroklorik cair dengan pita magnesium. biru lembap kepada kurang daripada 7 . Nitric acid 6 Based on the results of the activity. blue litmus paper to . A ‘pop’ sound • Masukkan pita magnesium ke dalam tabung uji yang berisi asid hidroklorik cair. Kulit kita akan 5 Berikan satu contoh asid lain yang boleh digunakan untuk menggantikan asid sulfurik dan asid hidroklorik dalam aktiviti ini. masam 2 Asid menukarkan kertas litmus dan bersifat mengakis . pH 1–6 2 Namakan gas yang terbebas apabila asid bertindak balas dengan pita magnesium. merah CONCLUSION 1 Acid has a sour hidrogen apabila bertindak balas dengan logam seperti 2 Acid turns damp of less than 7 value 3 Acid releases taste and is corrosive .18 Experiment INQUIRY 17 Name the reaction that occurs between an acid and an alkali.indd 109 7/23/09 3:07:21 PM . • Dekatkan kayu uji menyala pada mulut tabung uji. Asid nitrik 6 Berdasarkan keputusan aktiviti ini. It has a pH value of less CHAPTER 7 Foto di bawah menunjukkan buah limau nipis. Why does the lime taste sour? 8 Limau nipis berasa masam kerana mengandungi asid . definisikan secara operasi tentang asid. (acid) .16 Experiment Bab 05 T2(93-124)4th. (neutral) . Mengapakah limau nipis berasa masam? 7 The photo below shows lime fruit. (Sodium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid → sodium chloride + water) 19 Name the method that uses burette to study neutralisation. 2 2 BAB CHAPTER ANALISIS 1 Nyatakan julat nilai pH bagi bahan berasid. gastric pills: alkaline) 13 Name the acid used in car battery. menjadi biru lembap litmus paper than 7.indd 109 11 A substance with pH value more than 7 shows the properties of an 12 A substance with pH value 7 is 5. CHAPTER BAB Mind MindROBICS MindROBICS 9 9 KESIMPULAN 1 Asid mempunyai rasa dan mempunyai nilai pH 3 Asid membebaskan gas magnesium. The lime tastes sour as it contains acid . Our skin will be 5 Give one example of an acid which can be used to replace sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid in this activity. (Tartaric acid) 7/21/09 2:33:56 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. (Toothpaste: acidic. . (Neutralisation) 18 Write a chemical equation in words to show the reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. (Ammonia solution) 7/16/09 6:16:37 PM 5. KPS KBSB • Meramal 5 5 BAB CHAPTER KBSB • Menjanakan idea TSTS • Generating ideas 6 6 BAB CHAPTER • Mendefinisi secara operasi SPS • Defining operationally Asid ialah bahan kimia yang dapat menukarkan kertas litmus merah.indd 109 INQUIRY with pH value less than 7 shows the properties of an . (alkali) 15 Name the acid in soft drinks. corroded injured and . (Titration) 20 State the properties of toothpaste and gastric pills. the flame is heard and extinguishes . pH 1–6 2 Name the gas released when acid reacts with magnesium ribbon.17 DISCUSSION Activity 16 Name the alkali used to prevent the coagulation of latex. Hydrogen 3 Complete the word equation below to show the reaction between • Synthesising dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. (Formic acid) 109 109 F2MR-ch5(93-124). Asid mempunyai nilai pH kurang daripada 7. CHAPTER BAB red and has a pH 10 10 hydrogen gas when it reacts with metals like magnesium. magnesium chloride + hydrogen Magnesium + hydrochloric acid 4 Predict what will happen if concentrated sulphuric acid is accidentally poured onto our skin. blue Acid is a chemical substance which changes damp to BAB TSTS • Predicting CHAPTER BAB 4 4 BAB CHAPTER TSTS 4 Ramalkan keadaan yang akan berlaku sekiranya asid sulfurik pekat tertuang pada kulit kita. • Bring a lighted splinter close to the mouth of the test tube.

(d) Kertas litmus biru . 2 Jalankan aktiviti dan catat pemerhatian anda dalam jadual yang sama. tabung uji. Larutan natrium hidroksida cair 14 .indd T2(93-124)3rd 110 BAB The properties of alkalis Inquiry-discovery AIM MATERIALS Mengkaji sifat-sifat alkali Larutan sabun.14 LO • Identify the properties of alkali 10 10 110 110 Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2. menunjukkan nilai pH The dilute sodium hydroxide solution shows a pH value of 14 . terhasil. asbestos sheet 1 Set up the apparatus as shown in the table. Aktiviti Makmal 5. 5. 4 4 BAB CHAPTER (b) Titiskan setitik larutan natrium hidroksida pekat ke atas kertas turas.CHAPTER 5. blue and red litmus papers. • sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) • potassium hydroxide (potash) • calcium carbonate (limestone) 1 1 BAB RADAS LANGKAH Kebanyakan garam berbes adalah garam alkali. 122 7/16/09 7:06:54 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. and a 6 6 BAB Place one drop of concentrated sodium hydroxide solution on a filter paper. universal indicator. The turns The remains red blue blue blue litmus paper . kertas litmus biru dan merah. dan CHAPTER The filter paper is corroded hole forms. • Bandingkan warna larutan yang terhasil dengan carta penunjuk semesta. p. CHAPTER OBSERVATION Activity (a) Taste the soap solution. Feel the soap solution with your fingers. 122 110 110 Refer to Essential Science Form 2. hlm. universal indicator chart Dropper. Most basic salts are alkali salts. filter paper. 2 Carry out the activity and record your observations in the same table. • Compare the colour formed against the universal indicator chart.14 TUJUAN BAHAN INKUIRI Eksperimen Sifat-sifat alkali Inkuiri-penemuan 5. Chemicals in the laboratory cannot be tasted unless you get the approval from your teacher. kertas turas. larutan natrium hidroksida cair. • natrium hidroksida (soda kaustik) • kalium hidroksida (potasy) • kalsium karbonat (batu kapur) CHAPTER 2 2 BAB APPARATUS PROCEDURE CHAPTER 3 3 BAB PEMERHATIAN (a) Rasa larutan sabun dengan lidah dan jari anda. (d) universal indicator 8 8 penunjuk semesta CHAPTER BAB Larutan berwarna larutan natrium hidroksida cair ungu A dilute sodium hydroxide solution purple solution is formed. carta penunjuk semesta Penitis. Laboratory Activity 5. test tubes. Aktiviti To study the properties of alkalis Soap solution. larutan ammonium klorida. test tube holder. 5.indd indd 110 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. penunu Bunsen. Bunsen burner. adalah Observation bitter It has a slippery/soapy taste and is to the touch. larutan natrium hidroksida pekat.14 HP • Mengenal pasti sifat-sifat alkali • Add two drops of universal indicator into a test tube filled with dilute sodium hydroxide solution.11. dilute sodium hydroxide solution. penunjuk semesta. (c) kertas litmus biru kertas litmus merah larutan natrium hidroksida cair larutan natrium hidroksida pekat kertas turas 5 5 BAB dikakis Kertas turas menjadi berlubang . Jangan rasa sebarang bahan kimia di dalam makmal kecuali mendapat kebenaran daripada guru anda. 7 7 BAB CHAPTER Masukkan kedua-dua kertas litmus biru dan merah ke dalam tabung uji yang mengandungi larutan natrium hidroksida cair.14 INQUIRY Experiment F2MR-ch5(93-124). sebagai contohnya.11. penyepit tabung uji. ammonium chloride solution. concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. (b) concentrated sodium hydroxide solution filter paper Pemerhatian Alkali mempunyai rasa pahit dan licin apabila disentuh. (c) blue litmus paper red litmus paper dilute sodium hydroxide solution CHAPTER Kertas litmus bertukar kepada merah biru .indd 110 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:22 PM 7/16/09 6:16:39 PM . for example. kepingan asbestos 1 Sediakan susunan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam jadual. litmus paper . biru kekal Place both red and blue litmus papers into a test tube filled with dilute sodium hydroxide solution. 9 9 BAB CHAPTER • Titiskan dua titik penunjuk semesta ke dalam tabung uji yang berisi larutan natrium hidroksida cair.

Potassium hydroxide solution/Calcium hydroxide solution TSTS • Generating ideas 4 BAB 4 CHAPTER 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER 4 Berikan satu contoh larutan alkali lain yang boleh menggantikan larutan natrium hidroksida dalam aktiviti ini. is slippery blue 9 BAB 9 CHAPTER to the touch and is and has a pH value . • Panaskan tabung uji dengan perlahan-lahan. 2 BAB 2 CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS BAB 3 CHAPTER ANALISIS 1 Nyatakan julat nilai pH bagi bahan beralkali. Mengapakah sabun adalah licin dan mempunyai rasa pahit? Sabun adalah licin apabila disentuh dan mempunyai alkali . contains TSTS 7 BAB 7 CHAPTER 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER 1 Alkali mempunyai rasa bersifat mengakis .indd T2(93-124)3rd 111 7/16/09 7:06:56 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. • Damp red litmus paper turns blue . • Defining operationally changes damp red litmus paper An alkali is a chemical substance which to blue/has a pH value of more than 7. Larutan kalium hidroksida/Larutan kalsium hidroksida KPS KBSB • Menjanakan idea 6 BAB 6 5 Berdasarkan keputusan dalam aktiviti ini. definisikan secara • Mendefinisi secara operasi operasi tentang alkali. • Dekatkan sekeping kertas litmus merah lembap pada mulut tabung uji. • Heat the test tube slowly.indd indd 111 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. Ammonia gas (b) What is the property of the gas? Alkaline 4 Give one example of another alkaline solution which can replace sodium hydroxide solution in this activity. 111 111 2 Alkali changes damp more than 7 of litmus paper to 10 10 3 Alkali reacts with ammonium salt to release 111 111 ammonia gas F2MR-ch5(93-124).indd 111 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:22 PM 7/16/09 6:16:41 PM . pH 8 –14 1 State the range of pH values for alkaline substances. taste. pungent dibebaskan. • Kertas litmus merah lembap biru . Why is soap slippery and taste bitter? The soap is slippery to the touch and tastes bitter as it alkali . pahit dan adalah licin apabila disentuh serta CONCLUSION merah 2 Alkali menukarkan kertas litmus lebih daripada 7 dan mempunyai nilai pH lembap kepada . 3 Alkali bertindak balas dengan garam ammonium untuk membebaskan ammonia . define alkali operationally.CHAPTER CHAPTER Aktiviti (e) larutan natrium hidroksida + larutan ammonium klorida Pemerhatian Activity (e) sodium hydroxide solution + ammonium chloride solution Observation BAB 1 1 kertas litmus merah lembap • Gas berbau panaskan sengit damp red litmus paper CHAPTER BAB • A gas with a smell is released. rasa pahit kerana sabun mengandungi KESIMPULAN CHAPTER 5 Based on the results of this activity. Gas ammonia (b) Apakah sifat gas itu? Beralkali 2 What property in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution causes a hole in the filter paper? Corrosive 3 (a) Name the gas released when the mixture of sodium hydroxide solution and ammonium chloride solution is heated. 6 The photo below shows a soap. • Place a piece of damp red litmus paper at the mouth of the test tube. yang dapat menukarkan kertas litmus merah lembap Alkali ialah bahan kimia kepada biru/mempunyai nilai pH lebih daripada 7. bertukar kepada • Tambahkan sedikit larutan natrium hidroksida ke dalam tabung uji yang berisi larutan ammonium klorida. heated • Add a little sodium hydroxide solution to a test tube filled with ammonium chloride solution. pH 8–14 2 Apakah sifat pada larutan natrium hidroksida pekat yang menyebabkan kertas turas berlubang? Mengakis 3 (a) Namakan gas yang terbebas apabila campuran larutan natrium hidroksida dan larutan ammonium klorida dipanaskan. red . 6 Foto di bawah menunjukkan sabun. biru gas 1 Alkali has a corrosive bitter .

dan beralkali dalam kehidupan harian Inkuiri-penemuan INQUIRY Experiment Acidic. kertas litmus merah mangkuk penyejat pepejal natrium hidroksida A set of apparatus as shown below is prepared to study the role of water in an alkali. neutral. 2 Titiskan setitik larutan litmus ke dalam tabung uji dan goncangkannya. toothpaste. detergent. table salt solution. neutral or alkaline Lime juice. vinegar. soda water. air soda. neutral. p. atau beralkali Air limau. penitis 1 Masukkan setiap bahan (seperti yang disenaraikan di muka surat berikutnya) ke dalam tabung uji. Write the properties of the substances with reference to the guidelines given. larutan garam biasa. larutan litmus Tabung uji. Colour of litmus solution in acidic condition Red neutral condition Purple 112 112 alkaline condition Blue Refer to Essential Science Form 2. Tulis sifat bahan itu dengan merujuk kepada panduan yang diberikan. 4 What conclusion can be made from this activity? Water needs to be present to enable an 3 3 Tiada perubahan BAB CHAPTER 2 Adakah sifat alkali ditunjukkan oleh pepejal natrium hidroksida yang kering? Tidak 3 Bagaimanakah anda dapat menukarkan kertas litmus merah kepada biru? Tambahkan air ke atas pepejal natrium hidroksida. Add a little distilled water if necessary. baking powder. 124 7 7 BAB CHAPTER larutan litmus litmus solution 8 8 BAB CHAPTER bahan material 9 9 BAB CHAPTER 10 10 5.5. 124 AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE To determine whether various substances used in daily life are acidic.indd T2(93-124)3rd 112 BAB The role of water in an alkali Constructivism 1 1 BAB Susunan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah disediakan untuk mengkaji peranan air dalam alkali. hlm. 3 Catat pemerhatian dalam jadual yang sama. Bahan berasid dan beralkali dalam kehidupan harian. red litmus paper solid sodium hydroxide CHAPTER 2 2 BAB evaporating dish CHAPTER 1 Apakah yang dapat diperhatikan pada kertas litmus merah di atas? 1 What can be observed of the red litmus paper in the experiment? No change 2 Are the properties of an alkali shown by the dry solid sodium hydroxide? No 3 What can be done to change the red litmus paper to blue? Add water to the solid sodium hydroxide. 4 Apakah kesimpulan yang dapat dibuat daripada aktiviti ini? Air alkali perlu hadir untuk membolehkan 4 4 BAB CHAPTER menunjukkan sifatnya.16 HP • Mengenal pasti bahan berasid atau beralkali dalam kehidupan harian 5. cuka. Warna larutan litmus dalam keadaan berasid Merah keadaan neutral Ungu 112 112 keadaan beralkali Biru Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2. 3 Record your observations in the same table.16 LO • Identify substances which are acidic or alkaline in everyday life 7/16/09 7:06:57 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)5th.indd indd 112 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. distilled water. litmus solution Test tube.15 HP • Menyatakan bahawa alkali menunjukkan sifatnya hanya dengan kehadiran air 5.16 TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS LANGKAH INKUIRI Eksperimen Bahan berasid. 5 5 BAB CHAPTER 5. nanas. Campurkan dengan sedikit air suling jika perlu. sabun. alkali to show its properties.15 LO • State that an alkali shows its properties only in the presence of water 5. dropper 1 Place each of the substances (as listed on the following page) into a test tube.indd 112 F2-BI(93-124)5th indd 7/23/09 3:07:22 PM 7/21/09 11:14:31 AM . pineapple. detergen. 2 Add in a drop of litmus solution into each test tube and shake (swirl) the test tube.15 5 DISCUSSION Activity F2MR-ch5(93-124). neutral and alkaline substances in daily life Inquiry-discovery 6 6 BAB CHAPTER Menentukan sama ada bahan-bahan yang digunakan dalam kehidupan seharian adalah bahan berasid. Acidic and alkaline substances in everyday life. ubat gigi. air suling. serbuk penaik. soap.15 PERBINCANGAN 5 Aktiviti CHAPTER Peranan air dalam alkali Konstruktivisme 5.

9 3.0 2. The range of pH scale is 0 –14. Nilai pH 14 merupakan alkali paling kuat dan 8 merupakan alkali paling lemah.6 6.0 1. asid . Asid mempunyai nilai pH dari 0 – 6.1 5.5 6.9 14.indd indd 113 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd.4 8.0 6 BAB 6 CHAPTER 7 BAB 7 CHAPTER 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER 9 BAB 9 CHAPTER 10 10 113 113 F2MR-ch5(93-124). Air tulen adalah neutral dan mempunyai nilai pH 7.5 4. The pH value of 14 is being the strongest alkali and 8 being the weakest alkali.4 9.5 11.6 7.2 9.9 10.5 4.9 3.4 9.indd T2(93-124)3rd 113 7/16/09 7:06:57 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th.1 5.5 6.0 5. Alkalis have pH values of 8 –14. Nilai pH 0 merupakan asid paling kuat dan 6 merupakan asid paling lemah.0 7.9 10.0 1. neutral or alkaline .0 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER Bahan Asid hidroklorik pekat Jus gastrik Jus limau Cuka Wain Jus tomato Kopi (hitam) Hujan asid Air hujan Susu Air tulen Darah Larutan serbuk penaik Larutan boraks Ubat gigi Susu magnesia Air kapur Ammonia Natrium hidroksida pekat 113 113 pH 0.0 7.indd 113 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:22 PM 7/16/09 6:16:42 PM .6 7.3 2.0 2. Acids have pH values of 0 – 6.2 9.9 14. Pure water is neutral and has a pH value of 7.6 6. Alkali mempunyai nilai pH dari 8 –14. The table below shows a list of substances and their respective pH values.5 11. 4 BAB 4 CHAPTER Julat skala pH adalah dari 0–14. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan senarai bahan-bahan serta nilai pH masing-masing. CONCLUSION Substances used in our daily lives are either acidic . Substance Concentrated hydrochloric acid Gastric juices Lemon juice Vinegar Wine Tomato juice Coffee (black) Acid rain Rainwater Milk Pure water Blood Baking soda solution Borax solution Toothpaste Milk of magnesia Lime water Ammonia Concentrated sodium hydroxide pH 0.4 8. The pH value of 0 is being the strongest acid and 6 being the weakest acid.0 11.0 5.0 11.3 2.PEMERHATIAN Bahan Air limau Cuka Air nanas Air suling Larutan garam biasa Ubat gigi Sabun Air soda Serbuk penaik Detergen Warna larutan litmus Merah Merah Merah Ungu Ungu Biru Biru Biru Biru Biru Sifat bahan Berasid Berasid OBSERVATION Substance Lime juice Vinegar Colour of litmus solution Red Red Red Purple Purple Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Property of the substance Acidic Acidic Acidic Neutral Neutral Alkaline Alkaline Alkaline Alkaline Alkaline CHAPTER CHAPTER BAB 1 Pineapple juice BAB 1 Berasid Neutral Neutral Beralkali Beralkali Beralkali Beralkali Beralkali CHAPTER Distilled water Table salt solution Toothpaste Soap Soda water Baking powder Detergent 2 BAB 2 CHAPTER 3 BAB 3 CHAPTER KESIMPULAN Bahan-bahan yang digunakan dalam kehidupan seharian kita adalah bersifat neutral atau alkali .

larutan hidroksida. pipet. Aktiviti Makmal 5. p. Asid Kegunaan 1 Pair the acids below with their uses. 250 cm3 conical flask 1 Set up the apparatus shown on the right. retort stand. burette. 125 5.18 LO • Explain the meaning of neutralisation • Write an equation in words to describe the neutralisation process Refer to Essential Science Form 2.17 HP • Menyatakan kegunaan asid dan alkali dalam kehidupan harian 5. buret. 125 7/16/09 7:06:58 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)5th. 3 Record the initial reading of the burette. pipette. 114 114 8 8 BAB CHAPTER asid hidroklorik cair buret larutan natrium hidroksida + penunjuk semesta jubin putih kaki retort 9 9 BAB CHAPTER white tile 10 10 5. 5 Titiskan beberapa titik penunjuk semesta ke dalam larutan natrium hidroksida dan goncangkannya secara perlahan-lahan. 114 114 dilute hydrochloric acid burette sodium hydroxide solution + universal indicator retort stand filter funnel CHAPTER Corong turas.17 PERBINCANGAN 7 Aktiviti CHAPTER Kegunaan asid dan alkali dalam kehidupan harian Kontekstual 5. sodium hydroxide solution. 2 Fill dilute hydrochloric acid into a burette with filter funnel.17 LO • State the uses of acid and alkali in daily life 5.indd T2(93-124)3rd 114 BAB Uses of acid and alkali in daily life Contextual 1 1 BAB 1 Padankan kegunaan dengan asid yang berkenaan.18 HP • Menerangkan maksud peneutralan • Menulis persamaan dalam perkataan untuk menerangkan proses peneutralan Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2. Acid Use CHAPTER (a) Asid sulfurik • (b) Asid asetik • (c) Asid formik • (d) Asid sitrik • • Membekukan susu getah • Digunakan dalam bateri kereta • Mengawet makanan seperti jeruk • Membuat minuman ringan • Membuat jus buah-buahan (a) Sulphuric acid • (b) Acetic acid (c) Formic acid (d) Citric acid (e) Tartaric acid • • • • • Coagulation of latex • Used in car batteries • Preservation of food such as pickles • Production of soft drinks • Production of fruit juices 2 2 BAB CHAPTER 3 3 BAB CHAPTER (e) Asid tartarik • 2 Padankan kegunaan dengan alkali yang berkenaan. kelalang kon 250 cm3 1 Sediakan susunan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan di sebelah. Alkali Use 4 4 BAB CHAPTER Kegunaan (a) Natrium hidroksida (b) Kalsium hidroksida • • • • Membuat simen • Membuat sabun •Mencegah pembekuan susu getah (a) Sodium hydroxide (b) Calcium hydroxide (c) Ammonia solution • • • • Making cement • Making soap • Preventing the coagulation of latex 5 5 BAB CHAPTER (c) Larutan ammonia 6 6 5. hlm.17 7 DISCUSSION Activity F2MR-ch5(93-124). Alkali 2 Pair the alkalis below with their uses. 4 Sukat 25 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida ke dalam sebuah kelalang kon dengan menggunakan pipet. 4 Use a pipette to measure 25 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution into a conical flask.5. 2 Isikan asid hidroklorik cair ke dalam buret dengan menggunakan corong turas. universal indicator Filter funnel. kaki retort. 3 Catat bacaan awal buret. 5 Add a few drops of universal indicator into the sodium hydroxide solution and shake the flask. Laboratory Activity 5.18 TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS LANGKAH INKUIRI Eksperimen Tindak balas peneutralan Inkuiri-penemuan INQUIRY Experiment CHAPTER BAB Neutralisation reaction Inquiry-discovery Mengkaji tindak balas peneutralan Asid hidroklorik cair. penunjuk semesta natrium corong turas 7 7 BAB AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE To study neutralisation reaction Dilute hydrochloric acid.12.indd indd 114 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd.12.indd 114 F2-BI(93-124)5th indd 7/23/09 3:07:22 PM 7/21/09 11:15:18 AM .

weak alkali that neutralises the acid produced by (a) Toothpaste is a type of bacteria in the mouth. 1 Pastikan buret diapit dengan tegak.18 LO • Explain the meaning of neutralisation • Write an equation in words to describe the neutralisation process 115 115 F2MR-ch5(93-124). 4 Hold a piece of white paper behind the meniscus when taking a reading. Salty 6 State two applications of neutralisation in daily life. 2 Tuangkan asid (dan bukannya alkali) ke dalam buret menggunakan corong turas yang bersih. 8 Gambar foto di sebelah menunjukkan teknik pentitratan. 3 Make sure the space below the tap is filled with acid. 7 Catat bacaan akhir buret.indd 115 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:22 PM 7/16/09 6:16:42 PM . 7 Record the final reading of the burette. KEPUTUSAN Isi padu larutan natrium hidroksida = 25 Bacaan akhir buret Bacaan awal buret (cm3) (cm3) (cm3) 6 Add the dilute hydrochloric acid from the burette into the flask containing alkali solution and swirl it until the universal indicator turns from purple to green. CONCLUSION Neutralisation water. CHAPTER BAB 9 BAB 9 CHAPTER 10 10 5. sodium chloride + Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide 5 State the taste of the final product in this activity.18 HP • Menerangkan maksud peneutralan • Menulis persamaan dalam perkataan untuk menerangkan proses peneutralan 115 115 5.6 Titiskan asid hidroklorik cair daripada buret ke dalam kelalang kon yang mengandungi larutan alkali sambil menggoncangnya secara perlahan-lahan sehingga warna penunjuk semesta berubah daripada ungu menjadi hijau. alirkan keluar sedikit asid.indd T2(93-124)3rd 115 7/16/09 7:06:58 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. • Synthesising water TSTS • Generating ideas 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER 6 BAB 6 CHAPTER dalam mulut. Before the initial reading is taken. 2 Pour acid (not alkali) into the burette using a clean filter funnel. garam + air Asid + alkali 4 Lengkapkan persamaan perkataan di bawah untuk menunjukkan tindak balas antara asid hidroklorik dengan larutan natrium hidroksida dalam aktiviti ini. natrium klorida + Asid hidroklorik + natrium hidroksida 5 Nyatakan rasa bagi hasil akhir dalam aktiviti ini. adalah tindak balas antara asid dengan alkali yang membentuk 8 The photo on the right shows the titration technique. 1 Make sure the burette is clamped vertically. salt water + Acid + alkali TSTS CHAPTER 4 BAB 4 CHAPTER air KBSB • Menjanakan idea 4 Complete the word equation below to show the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution in this activity. RESULTS The volume of the sodium hydroxide solution = 25 cm3 Final reading of burette (cm3) Initial reading of burette (cm3) Volume of dilute hydrochloric acid (cm3) 35 10 25 CHAPTER CHAPTER BAB 1 1 cm3 35 10 CHAPTER BAB 2 2 Isi padu asid hidroklorik cair 25 CHAPTER BAB ANALISIS 1 Namakan kaedah yang digunakan dalam aktiviti ini. drain out a bit of the acid. (a) Ubat gigi ialah sejenis dihasilkan oleh (b) Pil gastrik mengandungi dalam perut. 4 Pegang sehelai kertas putih di belakang meniskus apabila mengambil bacaan. alkali acid which neutralises the in the (b) Gastric pills contain stomach. alkali lemah bakteria alkali yang meneutralkan asid yang yang meneutralkan asid KBSB • Mensintesiskan ANALYSIS 1 Name the method used in this activity. Sebelum membaca buret. Titration 3 BAB 3 2 What is the process that takes place when acid reacts with alkali? Neutralisation 3 Write a general word equation to represent the reaction between an acid and an alkali. is the reaction between an acid and an alkali which forms salt and 7 BAB 7 CHAPTER KESIMPULAN Peneutralan garam dan air. 3 Pastikan ruang di bawah pili dipenuhi asid.indd indd 115 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. Pentitratan 2 Apakah proses yang berlaku apabila asid bertindak balas dengan alkali? Peneutralan 3 Tulis persamaan perkataan yang umum untuk mewakili tindak balas antara asid dengan alkali. Masin 6 Nyatakan dua kegunaan peneutralan dalam kehidupan harian.

hlm. bikar 250 cm3. Record your observations.indd 116 5. 6 BAB 6 CHAPTER 7 BAB 7 3 Mengapakah hasil turasan tidak sesuai diminum terus? mikroorganisma Hasil turasan masih mengandungi kepada kesihatan. 128 Analysing the methods of water purification 4 State two water purification methods that can only kill microorganisms in water. penyumbat getah berlubang.19 HP • Menghuraikan pelbagai cara pembersihan air Boiling 5. 2 Tuang sedikit air kolam ke dalam penuras pasir. Bahan-bahan dan ini mempunyai saiz yang sangat kecil dan dapat menerusi penuras pasir. it does not have suspended substances .19 INQUIRY Experiment 5.19 TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS INKUIRI Eksperimen 5. rubber stopper with a hole.indd 116 7/23/09 3:07:22 PM . Cover the water drop with a cover slip. sisip kaca. 2 Pour a little pond water into the sand filter. salur getah. 250 cm3 beaker. These substances and very small pass through in size and can the sand filter. (Filtration) 3 State one disadvantage of purifying water through filtration. 3 Collect the water that flows out through the rubber hose in a beaker. 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER chlorine water MindROBICS air water Mind MindROBICS Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd.indd 116 1 State the natural sources of water that contains the most and the least impurities. kelihatan dalam hasil turasan melalui Mikroorganisma yang bergerak mikroskop. dropper 1 Set up a sand filter as shown in the diagram.13. ANALISIS 1 Namakan bahan-bahan kotoran yang terperangkap di dalam penuras pasir. Perhatikannya melalui mikroskop. 5 Titiskan setitik hasil turasan di atas sisip kaca. 3 Kutipkan air yang mengalir keluar melalui salur getah di dalam bikar. cover slip. Bahan-bahan terampai 2 Apakah dua bahan yang dapat dikesan dalam hasil turasan? Berikan alasan anda. ANALYSIS 1 Name the dirty materials trapped in the sand filter. penutup kaca. 4 Catat pemerhatian anda tentang hasil turasan. mikroskop.6 Menganalisis kaedah pembersihan air Learning Objective Pembersihan air melalui penurasan Inkuiri-penemuan 5. CHAPTER yang mungkin berbahaya 4 Nyatakan dua kaedah lain pembersihan air seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah. Filtration Purifying water by flowing it through a filter. Penurasan Pembersihan air dengan mengalirkannya melalui penuras. (The water still contains microorganisms/ dissolved substances) 5 Name the method of water purification below. (Chlorination) chlorine water water 7/16/09 6:16:43 PM 116 116 F2MR-ch5(93-124). p. Mikroorganisma garam mineral . 4 Record your observations of the filtrate. Q3(b) 1 Mengkaji pembersihan air melalui penurasan Air kolam Penuras pasir. 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER Moving microorganisms can be seen in the filtrate through a microscope. (The most: sea water. Suspended substances 2 What are the two substances detected in the filtrate? Give your reasons. penitis 1 Sediakan penuras pasir seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah . klip kaki retort dan pengapit. Laboratory Activity 5. microscope. Microorganisms mineral salts . retort stand clamp and clips.13. S3(b) 2008 Sec.19 LO • Describe the various types of water purification 116 116 Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2. rubber tubes. 128 116 116 Refer to Essential Science Form 2.Objektif Pembelajaran Chapter 5 Water and Solution 5.19 Experiment INQUIRY 9 BAB 9 CHAPTER Pengklorinan Chlorination 10 5. jernih BAB 1 AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS CHAPTER To study the purification of water by filtration Pond water Sand filter. are 3 Why is the filtrate not suitable for drinking? The filtrate still contains microorganisms which may be harmful to health. OBSERVATION 1 The filtrate looks 2 clear .6 Analysing the methods of water purification CHAPTER BAB Purifying water through filtration Inquiry-discovery Water and Solution Chapter 5 2008 Bhg. Examine it under a microscope. 5 Place one drop of filtrate on a glass slide. Catat pemerhatian anda. The least: rain water) 2 State one water purification method that can only remove coarse impurities such as suspended substances. (Boiling and chlorination) 7/16/09 7:06:59 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. air klorin 4 State another two methods of water purification as shown below. A.6 10 Pendidihan 5. 2 BAB 2 penuras pasir air kolam pasir halus pasir kasar batu kecil batu kelikir salur getah klip sand filter pond water fine sand coarse sand pebbles gravel rubber hose clip CHAPTER LANGKAH PROCEDURE 3 BAB 3 CHAPTER 4 BAB 4 hasil turasan filtrate CHAPTER PEMERHATIAN 1 Hasil turasan kelihatan 2 . Aktiviti Makmal 5. iaitu bebas daripada bahan-bahan terampai . Tutup titisan air dengan penutup kaca. glass slide. A.

tap water Chemicals in the laboratory cannot be tasted unless you get the approval from your teacher. kondenser Liebig.15. 2 CAUTION! CHAPTER BAB Mengkaji kaedah penulenan air dengan menggunakan proses penyulingan Air lumpur. (No. (Microorganisms in the water will be killed. Untuk memecahkan 2 Apakah fungsi kondenser Liebig dan air sejuk di dalamnya? wap menjadi Untuk menyejukkan dan mengkondensasikan cecair BAB 1 Why are porcelain chips put in the muddy water? air bubbles during heating. The water does not contain any dissolved mineral salts) 11 State the water purification method that can be used to prepare distilled water. Give one reason for your answer. (Chlorination) Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. round-bottomed flask. serpihan porselin.20 HP • Menghuraikan pelbagai cara pembersihan air 117 117 Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 2. 129 6 State one method that can be used to kill the microorganisms contained in swimming pools. °C. termometer. 5 Record the temperature when the liquid flows out from the Liebig condenser. Aktiviti Makmal 5. MindROBICS ANALISIS ANALYSIS Mind MindROBICS 9 1 Mengapakah serpihan porselin dimasukkan ke dalam air lumpur? gelembung-gelembung udara semasa pemanasan. Liebig condenser. kelalang kon. Boil the muddy water as shown in the diagram and collect the liquid that flows out from the inner tube of the Liebig condenser in a conical flask. penyumbat getah.indd 117 7/23/09 3:07:22 PM . BAB 8 CHAPTER PEMERHATIAN Suhu ketika cecair sulingan keluar = tawar Rasa cecair sulingan adalah 100 .indd 117 7 State one method that is usually used to kill microorganisms in drinking water at home.20 TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS INKUIRI Eksperimen Penulenan air menggunakan proses penyulingan Inkuiri-penemuan 5. . tungku kaki tiga. tripod stand. 4 Didihkan air lumpur seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah di bawah dan kumpulkan cecair yang mengalir keluar dari kondenser Liebig dengan menggunakan kelalang kon. 2 Masukkan beberapa ketulan kecil serpihan porselin ke dalam air lumpur dalam kelalang. thermometer.20 LO • Describe the various types of water purification 117 117 Refer to Essential Science Form 2.15. penunu Bunsen. (Distillation) 117 117 F2MR-ch5(93-124). To break 2 What is the function of the Liebig condenser and the cold water in it? vapour liquid into To cool and condense 9 CHAPTER . 3 BAB 3 CHAPTER Kasa dawai. 3 Alirkan air pili ke dalam kondenser Liebig dari saluran masuk bahagian bawah. kepingan asbestos 1 Masukkan air lumpur ke dalam kelalang berdasar bulat sehingga separuh penuh. rubber stopper. termometer air keluar Wire gauze. air pili Jangan rasa sebarang bahan kimia di dalam makmal kecuali mendapat kebenaran daripada guru anda. Chapter 5 Water and Solution and Water and Solution Chapter 5 1 BAB 1 CHAPTER 5. . hlm. conical flask. Let the tap water flows in the Liebig condenser from the lower inlet. Bunsen burner. °C.) 7/16/09 7:07:01 PM Experiment Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. retort stand. porcelain chips. Laboratory Activity 5. 5 Catat suhu pada termometer ketika cecair mengalir keluar dari kondenser Liebig. 10 10 5. Add in a few pieces of small porcelain chips into the muddy water in the flask. asbestos sheet 1 2 3 4 Pour muddy water into a round-bottomed flask until it is half-full. 6 Taste a little of the collected liquid with your tongue.indd 117 5.20 INQUIRY 9 State one water purification method that can remove all impurities. bahan terampai dan garam mineral CONCLUSION 1 Water can be purified through 2 Sand filter removes microorganisms tetapi tidak di dalam air. p. kelalang berdasar bulat. (Distillation) 7/16/09 6:16:44 PM 10 State whether water that is purified by distillation is suitable to be consumed as drinking water. 6 Rasa sedikit cecair yang dikutip itu dengan lidah anda. suspended substances mineral salts filtration CHAPTER BAB but does not remove in the water. 4 4 LANGKAH CHAPTER BAB 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER thermometer water out 6 BAB round-bottomed flask 6 CHAPTER Liebig condenser kelalang berdasar bulat air lumpur serpihan porselin xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx panaskan air masuk kondenser Liebig muddy water porcelain xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx chips heat 7 BAB 7 water in conical flask distilled solution CHAPTER kelalang kon cecair sulingan 8 OBSERVATION Temperature when the distilled liquid flows out = bland The taste of the distilled liquid is 100 . (Boiling) 8 State one advantage of purifying water through boiling. 129 5.KESIMPULAN 1 Air dapat dibersihkan melalui proses 2 Penuras pasir menyingkirkan mikroorganisma menyingkirkan penurasan . kaki retort.20 INQUIRY Experiment Purification of water using the process of distillation Inquiry-discovery 2 AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE To study the purification of water using the process of distillation Muddy water.

BAB • Menyimpan . Q3(a) Alum Stores Silt Mud Slaked lime Sink Suspended Acidity Microorganisms Settle Bigger dirt particles Tooth decay (caries) 4 4 BAB CHAPTER 5 5 BAB • Alum dan kapur mati menggumpalkan zarah terampai. Menggaulkan bahan kimia dengan air supaya kotoran halus kelodak besar . • Alum and slaked lime coagulate suspended particles. Mind MindROBICS MindROBICS A closed tank which stores treated water before it is supplied to consumers. keasidan • Kapur mati mengurangkan air. CHAPTER BAB Chapter 5 Water and Solution Chapter 5 Water and Solution 4 State two processes which occurred in this activity. Pendidihan dan kondensasi 5 Apakah hasil sulingan yang dikumpul dalam kelalang? Air tulen/Air suling KESIMPULAN Air dapat dibersihkan dengan menggunakan proses Objektif Pembelajaran 5. Alum Slaked lime pump CHAPTER Big dirt particles sink to the bottom of the tank.indd 118 4 State the function of chlorine that is added into the chlorination tank. 2008 Sec.7 Menganalisis sistem bekalan air 3 Why is the tap water flowed from the bottom of the Liebig condenser and not from the top? fully filled with water To ensure that the Liebig condenser is .7 5. (To reduce tooth decay) 5. A.indd 118 7/23/09 3:07:23 PM .8 & Analysing the water supply system Understanding the preservation of water quality 3 State the substance added to the coagulation tank to reduce the acidity of water. (Domestic waste. industrial waste. 4 Nyatakan dua proses yang berlaku dalam aktiviti ini. . Penuras pasir menyingkirkan zarah terampai . Coagulation tank Mixing tank Sedimentation tank Filtration tank chlorine fluorine Mixes chemicals with water so that fine impurities form bigger dirt particles .22 Activity VISIT 1 State the sequence of the tanks that are used in water purification plants. mud and silt. S3(a) 5. Silt • mud and other large substances will settle to the bottom of reservoir.21 HP • Menerangkan pengoperasian sistem bekalan air 118 118 5. (Coagulation tank → Mixing tank → Sedimentation tank → Filtration tank→ Chlorination tank → Storage tank) 2 State two substances that are added into the coagulation tank to coagulate suspended particles. Alum Menyimpan Kelodak Lumpur Kapur mati Tenggelam Terampai Keasidan Mikroorganisma Mendak Kelodak besar Pereputan (karies) gigi Gather information from the school resource centre on water supply systems and water treatment methods at a water treatment plant. CHAPTER 5.21 LO • Describe how the water supply system works 118 118 5.21 Activity RESEARCH LIBRARY 9 BAB CHAPTER 10 10 5. 6 6 Empangan/Takungan air / CHAPTER Dam/Reservoir Stores . Then. Boiling and condensation 5 What is the distillate collected in the conical flask? Pure water/Distilled water CONCLUSION Water can be purified using the process of Learning Objective 5. • Klorin membunuh mikroorganisma bahaya dalam air.] 5 State the function of sodium fluoride added into water at certain water purification plants.indd 118 5. (Slaked lime) 7/16/09 7:07:02 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. acidity • Slaked lime reduces the of water. membentuk pam 8 8 BAB kepada pengguna to consumers Storage tank pump Chlorination and fluorination tank CHAPTER T Tangki penyimpanan Tangki pengklorinan dan pengfluorinan T Menyimpan air yang telah dirawat dalam keadaan tertutup sebelum dibekal kepada pengguna. Alum Kapur mati pam Zarah-zarah kotoran yang besar tenggelam di dasar tangki.3 Mengapakah air pili dialir dari bahagian bawah kondenser Liebig dan bukannya dari atas? penuh diisi air Untuk memastikan kondenser Liebig . complete the steps taken to purify water in a water supply system. • Fluorine reduces tooth decay (caries) . • Chlorine kills dangerous microorganisms in water. (To kill microorganisms) 7/17/09 9:21:30 AM 5. A. chemical substances in agriculture.21 Activity LIBRARY RESEARCH The water supply system and water treatment methods at a water treatment plant STS 3 3 BAB CHAPTER Kumpulkan maklumat daripada pusat sumber bagi sistem bekalan air dan cara pembersihan air di loji pembersihan. Kemudian. T Tangki penggumpalan T Tangki gaulan T Tangki pengenapan T Tangki penurasan air air klorin fluorin air sungai Kelodak • lumpur • river water. Sand filters remove suspended particles. 9 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. and oil spills) 118 118 F2MR-ch5(93-124). lengkapkan penerangan ringkas bagi langkah-langkah pembersihan air dalam sistem bekalan air.7 Analysing the water supply system 1 1 BAB CHAPTER penyulingan . distillation 2 2 BAB . • Fluorin mengurangkan pereputan (karies) gigi . [Alum and slaked lime (or lime). 7 7 BAB CHAPTER dan bahan terapung lain yang besar akan mendak di dasar empangan.23 DISCUSSION Activity 6 State five types of water pollutants.21 PENYELIDIKAN Aktiviti PUSTAKA Sistem bekalan air dan cara pembersihan air di loji pembersihan STM 2008 Bhg.

buat catatan ringkas bagi langkah-langkah pembersihan air di loji itu. laws to prevent the general public from polluting water sources.22 Activity VISIT BAB A water treatment plant STS Rancangkan satu lawatan bersama guru anda ke loji pembersihan air yang berdekatan. undang-undang untuk mengelakkan orang ramai daripada mencemari sumberuntuk menyedarkan orang ramai tentang kepentingan menjaga 5.indd T2(93-124)3rd 119 7/16/09 7:07:05 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th.22 HP • Menerangkan pengoperasian sistem bekalan air awareness campaigns 3 Conduct the cleanliness of water sources.indd 119 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:23 PM 7/16/09 6:16:47 PM . Kemudian. Objektif Pembelajaran 5. discuss your findings with your friends in class.23 3 DISCUSSION Activity 5. 5. Bincangkan hasil kerja bersama rakanrakan anda di dalam kelas. to create public awareness of the importance of taking care of Langkah-langkah pengawalan pencemaran air 1 Mengitar semula bahan buangan seperti bekas logam dan kertas.indd indd 119 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd.22 LAWATAN Aktiviti Loji pembersihan air STM 5.23 PERBINCANGAN 3 Aktiviti Bahan pencemar air 5.22 LO • Describe how the water supply system works 10 119 119 119 119 5. plan a visit to the nearest water treatment plant. Take down notes on the steps carried out to purify water at the plant. Then.CHAPTER CHAPTER 5. 3 Rubbish Construction industry Destruction of forests Chemical waste Ships Radioactive waste Faeces Oil tankers Fertilisers Animal carcasses Pesticide BAB 3 CHAPTER Sampah-sarap Industri pembinaan Pemusnahan hutan Sisa bahan kimia Kapal laut Sisa bahan radioaktif Najis Kapal tangki minyak Baja Bangkai haiwan Racun perosak 4 BAB 4 CHAPTER Water pollutants Bahan pencemar air 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER 6 Industrial waste Domestic waste Chemicals from agricultural activities BAB 6 CHAPTER Bahan buangan dari industri Bahan buangan dari rumah Bahan kimia daripada aktiviti pertanian Mud Oil spill Lumpur Tumpahan minyak 7 BAB 7 CHAPTER • Sisa bahan kimia • Sisa bahan radioaktif • Sampah-sarap • Bangkai haiwan • Najis • Baja • Racun perosak • Industri pembinaan • Pemusnahan hutan • Kapal laut • Kapal tangki minyak • Chemical waste • Radioactive waste • Rubbish • Animal carcasses • Faeces • Fertilisers • Pesticide • Construction industry • Destruction of forests • Ships • Oil tankers 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER Steps for controlling water pollution Recycle waste materials such as metal containers and paper.23 HP • Memberi contoh bahan pencemar air • Menerangkan cara untuk mengawal pencemaran air 9 BAB 9 1 2 Melaksanakan sumber air. Isi tempat kosong dengan perkataan/frasa yang diberikan.23 LO • Give examples of water pollutants • Explain ways to control water pollution F2MR-ch5(93-124). 2 Implement CHAPTER kempen kesedaran 3 Mengadakan kebersihan sumber-sumber air.8 Memahami pemeliharaan kualiti air Together with your teacher. 10 5.8 Understanding the preservation of water quality Water pollutants 2 BAB 2 CHAPTER Fill in the blanks with the given words/phrases. Learning Objective 1 BAB 1 CHAPTER 5.

Peringkat I Aktiviti Mengumpulkan maklumat tentang kesan pencemaran air terhadap hidupan. prepare a folio of about 15 pages. Information can be collected from the school resource centre or the Internet. Maklumat boleh dikumpulkan daripada pusat sumber atau Internet. factories enter the 6 Prepare your folio using suitable computer software such as Microsoft Word.24 HP • Menerangkan kesan pencemaran air terhadap hidupan • Menerangkan cara untuk memelihara dan memulihara kualiti air 3 You are advised to carry out activities based on the project plan. 4 Then. rantai makanan 6 Sediakan folio anda dengan menggunakan perisian komputer seperti apabila ikan besar memakan ikan kecil Microsoft Word. Effects on living things Water Pollution Ways to control water pollution 2 2 BAB CHAPTER 3 3 Cara-cara memelihara dan memulihara kualiti air BAB CHAPTER Ways to conserve and preserve water quality 4 4 BAB 2 Satu pelan tindakan aktiviti pengumpulan maklumat dicadangkan di bawah. Tempoh masa (Tarikh) Tindakan CHAPTER 2 An action plan to gather information is given below.24 Aktiviti PEKA CHAPTER KOLABORATIF PROJEK Kesan pencemaran air terhadap hidupan Inkuiri-penemuan 5.indd 120 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:23 PM 7/17/09 9:22:12 AM . Folio anda perlu mengandungi perkara-perkara berikut: (a) Tajuk E1 (b) Latar belakang/Pengenalan C • Bahan-bahan (c) Objektif projek 6 pencemar air dibawa E1C6 (d) Jadual/Data kajian/Maklumat dalam pelbagai bentuk 8 ke laut oleh sungai. 4 Kemudian. yang telah memakan kopepod. (Jana idea tentang cara mengawal pencemaran air) II 6 6 BAB CHAPTER III III 7 7 BAB CHAPTER 3 Anda dinasihatkan bertindak mengikut pelan projek.24 LO • Explain the effects of water pollution on living things • Explain ways to preserve and conserve water quality 8 8 BAB BAB CHAPTER 9 9 CHAPTER 10 10 120 120 120 120 7/16/09 7:07:05 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. sediakan satu folio yang mempunyai kira-kira 15 muka surat. (e) Discussion 8 • Fish and shellfish S (f) Conclusion deaths were reported as toxins from 5 You may include photographs in your folio.5. E1C8 (e) Perbincangan S • Ikan dan kerangkerangan dilaporkan (f) Kesimpulan mati apabila toksin dari kilang memasuki 5 Anda boleh sertakan gambar foto di dalam folio anda.) Period (Date) Action 5 5 BAB CHAPTER II Mengumpulkan maklumat tentang caracara untuk mengawal pencemaran air. Your folio should include the following subjects: (a) A title (b) Background research/Introduction E1 (c) Objective of the project C • Water pollutants are E1C6 (d) Table/Data of research/Information in various formats 6 carried into the oceans E1C8 by the rivers.indd indd 120 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. 5.24 PROJECT COLLABORATIVE F2MR-ch5(93-124). Pelan projek ini dibahagikan kepada tiga peringkat untuk memudahkan pengumpulan maklumat. 5. Gather information about ways to control water pollution. 7 Anda diberi tempoh selama dua minggu untuk menyiapkan folio ini. Mengumpulkan maklumat tentang caracara untuk memelihara dan memulihara kualiti air. Stage I Activity Gather information on the effects of water pollution on living things. cara untuk mengawal pencemaran air serta cara untuk memelihara dan memulihara kualiti air. The project is divided into three stages to make the gathering of information easier. ways to control water pollution and how to conserve and preserve water quality.indd T2(93-124)3rd 120 BAB Activity PEKA The effects of water pollution on living things Inquiry-discovery TUJUAN Menimbulkan kesedaran pelajar untuk mencintai alam sekitar AIM 1 1 BAB Create awareness among students on the need to love nature CHAPTER 1 Anda dikehendaki mengumpulkan maklumat tentang kesan pencemaran air terhadap hidupan. Sertakan isu berkaitan dengan kualiti air ke dalam folio. Gather information about ways to conserve and preserve water quality. which has consumed copepods. food chain as larger fish eat smaller fish 7 You are given two weeks to complete this folio. (Think of ideas to control water pollution. Kesan-kesan terhadap hidupan Pencemaran Air Cara-cara mengawal pencemaran air 1 You are required to gather information on the effects of water pollution on living things. Include issues related to water quality in your folio.

tepu (a) Larutan (b) Larutan (c) Larutan cair cair pekat tepu pekat mengandungi sangat sedikit zat terlarut. Oxygen Hydrogen 2 BAB 2 CHAPTER asid hidroklorik cair Atom oksigen + - dilute hydrochloric acid Oxygen atom + - 3 BAB 3 CHAPTER Anod Katod Anode Cathode (c) Water can be decomposed to its constituents through electrolysis . Takat didih 3 (a) Label unsur-unsur yang membentuk molekul air. 2 Bendasing (menaikkan. 9 BAB 9 (c) A CHAPTER 10 Nyatakan pelarut organik yang melarutkan bahan-bahan berikut: alkohol (d) Karat – (a) Syelek – (b) Iodin – (c) Cat – alkohol petrol/kerosin/turpentin (e) Varnis – (f) Darah – air limau alkohol larutan garam biasa 10 State the organic solvents which dissolve the following substances: alcohol (a) Shellac – (d) Rust – (b) Iodine – (c) Paint – alcohol petrol/kerosene/turpentine (e) Varnish – (f) Blood – lime juice alcohol table salt solution 10 10 121 121 121 121 F2MR-ch5(93-124). menurunkan) takat beku air. 4 Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar penyejatan air ialah: Suhu (a) Kelembapan udara (b) (c) 5 Namakan proses-proses di bawah. 7 8 Factors that influence the solubility rate of substances in water are: size of solutes volume of solvent (a) (c) (b) temperature of solvent (d) stirring 7 8 Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar keterlarutan bahan dalam air ialah: saiz zat terlarut isi padu pelarut (c) (a) (b) suhu pelarut (d) pengacauan CHAPTER BAB 9 Isi tempat kosong dengan perkataan yang diberikan.PMR Kunci Kejayaan 1 Takat lebur/beku air ialah 0 °C. Atom hidrogen Soalan-soalan berikut melibatkan konsep atau fakta yang kerap ditanya dalam peperiksaan PMR. (b) Label rajah yang berikut. A mixture of starch and water is called a suspension . mengandungi banyak zat terlarut. Pendidihan Pelarut Zat terlarut Larutan Evaporation 7 Fill in the blank. (b) Label the following diagram. decrease) the boiling point of water but (increase. water particle water 4 CHAPTER BAB Luas permukaan (d) Pergerakan udara (c) Surface area (d) Air movement 6 Label rajah yang berikut dengan perkataan yang diberikan. solution has the maximum amount of solute.indd indd 121 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. (c) Air dapat diuraikan kepada unsur juzuknya melalui elektrolisis . point of water is 100 °C. Solution + Larutan + Pelarut Zat terlarut Solvent Solute 5 BAB 5 CHAPTER Penyejatan 7 Isi tempat kosong. Make sure you can answer all the questions correctly. menurunkan) takat didih air tetapi (menaikkan. decrease) the freezing point of water. PMR Key To Success 1 The melting/freezing point of water is 0 °C. CHAPTER CHAPTER BAB 1 BAB 1 CHAPTER air ialah 100 °C. 9 Fill in the blanks with the words given. Boiling Solvent Solute Solution 6 BAB mixture of starch and water 6 CHAPTER campuran kanji dan air Campuran kanji dan air disebut ampaian .indd T2(93-124)3rd 121 7/16/09 7:07:06 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. The boiling 3 (a) Label the elements that form water molecules. 6 Label the following diagram with the words given. zarah air air Nisbah oksigen : hidrogen ialah 1:2 . 4 4 Factors that influence the rate of water evaporation are: Air humidity Temperature (a) (b) 5 Name the processes below. Hydrogen atom Questions in this section contain concepts and facts that are frequently tested in the PMR exam. The ratio of oxygen : hydrogen is 1:2 .indd 121 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:23 PM 7/16/09 6:16:48 PM . mengandungi kuantiti maksimum zat terlarut. Oksigen Hidrogen 2 Impurities (increase. solution has a lot of solute. saturated (a) A (b) A dilute concentrated saturated dilute concentrated 8 BAB 8 CHAPTER solution has very little solute. Pastikan anda boleh menjawab semua soalan berikut.

Takungan air Tangki penggumpalan Tangki gaulan Tangki pengenapan Tangki penurasan Tangki pengklorinan masih mengandungi garam mineral dan bahan terampai is the cleanest source of water. ‘acid’ and ‘neutral’. (b) (c) State four methods of water purification. (i) Penurasan – hasil mengandungi mikroorganisma dan garam mineral (iii) Pendidihan (ii) Penyulingan – menghasilkan air tulen (iv) Pengklorinan 19 Lengkapkan carta alir untuk menunjukkan langkah-langkah dalam proses pembersihan air. (a) Asid menukarkan kertas litmus biru lembap kepada (b) Alkali menukarkan kertas litmus merah lembap kepada 13 Senaraikan ciri-ciri asid dan alkali. (a) Hydrochloric acid + Zinc carbonate (b) Sulphuric acid + Magnesium 15 Complete the following sentences. releasing (b) Acid reacts with carbonates. 14 Complete the word equations below. .indd T2(93-124)3rd 122 BAB (a) (b) (c) (d) Untuk menyediakan larutan syelek Untuk mencairkan cat Untuk melekatkan bahan plastik seperti plat nombor pada kereta Untuk melekatkan kepingan getah Kloroform Alkohol Benzena Turpentin 1 1 BAB CHAPTER 12 Lengkapkan ayat-ayat berikut. 2 2 BAB CHAPTER (a) (b) (c) Alkali Rasa pahit dan licin Mengakis Mempunyai pH lebih daripada 7 (a) (b) (c) Alkali Tastes bitter and is slippery Corrosive Has pH more than 7 3 3 BAB CHAPTER 14 Lengkapkan persamaan di bawah. Air laut (a) CHAPTER Acid Neutral Alkali pH = 7 pH = 7 ialah sumber air yang terkotor.indd 122 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:23 PM 7/16/09 6:16:49 PM . 11 Match the organic solvents used in daily life. (a) Bahan buangan domestik (b) Bahan buangan industri (c) Bahan kimia dalam pertanian (d) Lumpur dan kelodak/Tumpahan minyak 20 State four types of water pollutants. CHAPTER Air hujan ialah sumber air yang terbersih. CHAPTER 17 Lengkapkan persamaan umum peneutralan: Asid pH < 7 + Alkali pH > 7 Garam + Air pH = 7 17 Complete the common equation of neutralisation: Acid pH < 7 + Alkali pH > 7 Salt + Water pH = 7 6 6 BAB Asid Neutral Alkali 18 Isi tempat kosong. (a) Acid changes the damp blue litmus paper to (b) Alkali changes the damp red litmus paper to 13 List the properties of acids and alkalis. Reservoir Coagulation tank Mixing tank Sedimentation tank Filtration tank Chlorination tank Storage tank Tangki Penyimpanan 9 9 BAB CHAPTER 20 Nyatakan empat jenis bahan pencemar air. (a) (b) (c) (d) To prepare a shellac solution To dilute paint To stick plastic substances like number plates on cars To stick rubber sheets Chloroform Alcohol Benzene Turpentine CHAPTER F2MR-ch5(93-124). . Acid Tastes sour (a) (b) (c) Corrosive Has pH less than 7 red blue . Seawater (a) Rainwater 7 7 BAB is the dirtiest source of water. . 12 Complete the following sentences. (a) Acid reacts with metals. (a) Asid bertindak balas dengan logam membebaskan (b) Asid bertindak balas dengan karbonat membebaskan 16 Isi ruang di bawah dengan perkataan ‘alkali’. dan ‘neutral’. Asid Rasa masam (a) (b) (c) Mengakis Mempunyai pH kurang daripada 7 merah biru . . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 4 4 (a) Asid hidroklorik + Zink karbonat Zink klorida Magnesium sulfat + + Karbon dioksida Hidrogen + Air Zinc chloride Magnesium sulphate + + Carbon dioxide Hydrogen + Water CHAPTER BAB (b) Asid sulfurik + Magnesium 15 Lengkapkan ayat yang berikut.11 Padankan pelarut organik yang digunakan dalam kehidupan harian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 hidrogen karbon dioksida . 18 Fill in the blanks. (i) Filtration – the product has microorganisms and mineral salts (ii) Distillation – produces pure water (iii) Boiling (iv) Chlorination still contain mineral salts and suspended substances 8 8 BAB CHAPTER 19 Complete the flow chart to show the steps of water purification process. hydrogen carbon dioxide 5 5 BAB . releasing 16 Fill in the spaces below with the words ‘alkali’. (b) (c) Nyatakan empat cara pembersihan air.indd indd 122 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. (a) Domestic waste (b) Industrial waste (c) Chemical substances in agriculture (d) Mud and silt/Oil spill 10 10 122 122 122 122 7/16/09 7:07:07 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. ‘asid’.

indd T2(93-124)3rd 123 7/16/09 7:07:07 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)4th. the water in the petri dish dried up. M and N B L and M D K. K. lighted wooden splinter dilute hydrochloric acid 7 Rajah 4 menunjukkan susunan radas yang digunakan dalam suatu eksperimen. 1 Which of the following takes place to water at its melting point? CLONE A Liquid to solid 2008 B Solid to liquid C Liquid to gas B D Gas to liquid 2 Diagram 1 shows a petri dish filled with water and left in the laboratory for two days. yang manakah akan larut paling cepat dalam air? A C KLON 2003 Rajah 5 Kawasan yang manakah menyebabkan pencemaran air sungai? A K dan L B L dan M C K. M.indd 123 F2-BI(93-124)4th indd 7/23/09 3:07:23 PM 7/16/09 6:16:49 PM . 1 Antara yang berikut. L. M. X Y 1 4 Which of the following factors will cause the wet hair to dry faster? I Movement of air II Low humidity of air III Higher temperature of the surroundings A I and II only CLONE 2006 B I and III only C II and III only D D I. B. M and N C 9 At which stage is chlorine added in a water treatment plant? CLONE A Sedimentation 2003 B Coagulation C Chlorination C D Filtration 10 Diagram 6 shows the substances R. yang manakah akan mencepatkan pengeringan rambut yang basah? I Pergerakan udara II Kelembapan udara yang rendah III Suhu di sekeliling yang lebih tinggi A I dan II sahaja KLON 2006 B I dan III sahaja C II dan III sahaja D D I. yang manakah menunjukkan perbezaan antara X dengan Y? X Y A Menyingkirkan Menyingkirkan mineral terlarut zarah terampai B Membunuh Menyingkirkan mikroorganisma mineral terlarut C Menyingkirkan Membunuh zarah terampai mikroorganisma D Membunuh Menyingkirkan mikroorganisma zarah terampai KLON 2007 KLON 2008 8 8 B KLON 2004 D C B CLONE 2004 D Diagram 6 Which of the following substances R.PMR Sudut Pengukuhan 5 KERTAS PMR Enhancement Corner 5 PAPER CHAPTER CHAPTER BAB 1 4 Antara faktor berikut. dan III 5 Rajah 3 menunjukkan satu proses elektrolisis yang dijalankan ke atas asid nitrik cair. dan N 9 Pada peringkat yang manakah klorin ditambahkan ke dalam loji pembersihan air? KLON A Pengenapan 2003 B Penggumpalan C Pengklorinan C D Penurasan 10 Rajah 6 menunjukkan pH bagi bahan R. kayu uji bernyala 9 BAB 9 CHAPTER asid hidroklorik cair ketulan zink zinc piece 10 10 D Rajah 4 C Diagram 4 CLONE 2006 123 123 123 123 F2MR-ch5(93-124). air lumpur air tasik asid nitrik cair sungai Rajah 3 Antara pernyataan berikut. yang manakah berlaku apabila suis dihidupkan? A Hidrogen terkumpul pada elektrod X B Oksigen terkumpul pada elektrod Y C Tiada gas terkumpul pada keduadua elektrod D Oksigen terkumpul pada elektrod X dan hidrogen terkumpul pada elektrod Y D 6 Antara bahan berikut. dan T? R S T A Soda Air Soda penaik suling pencuci B Ubat Air Cuka gigi kapur C Cuka Ubat Air gigi kapur D Air limau Cuka Ubat gigi KLON 2005 KLON 2006 represents T Washing soda Vinegar Lime water Toothpaste C C 7 Diagram 4 shows the apparatus used in an experiment. S and T? R S A Baking Distilled soda water B Toothpaste Lime water C Vinegar Toothpaste D Lime juice Vinegar CLONE 2005 CHAPTER BAB Rajah 6 Antara berikut. S. L. muddy water pond water CHAPTER BAB Diagram 3 CLONE 2003 river 5 BAB 5 Which of the following occurs when the switch is on? A Hydrogen is collected at electrode X B Oxygen is collected at electrode Y C No gas is collected at both electrodes D Oxygen is collected at electrode X and hydrogen is collected at electrode Y D 6 Which of the following substances will dissolve the fastest in water? A C Diagram 5 Which of the following regions cause pollution of river water? A K and L C K. II and III 5 Diagram 3 shows an electrolysis process carried out on dilute nitric acid. Choose the best answer. L. A. X dan Y. II.indd indd 123 Bab 05 T2(93-124)3rd. M and N. en. S. X Y dilute nitric acid 1 BAB Apakah yang dapat diperhatikan dalam eksperimen ini? KLON A Bunyi ‘pop’ kedengaran 2003 B Tabung uji menjadi sejuk C Saiz ketulan zink bertambah A D Isi padu asid bertambah 8 Rajah 5 menunjukkan kawasan. L. L forest N paddy growing areas 2 BAB 2 CHAPTER empat 3 BAB 3 CHAPTER K Rajah 1 KLON 2007 N kawasan tanaman M perumahan padi K Diagram 1 M residential 4 4 Selepas dua hari. L hutan 1 CHAPTER Tiap-tiap soalan yang berikut diikuti oleh empat pilihan jawapan. petri dish water CLONE 2007 What can be observed in this CLONE experiment? 2003 A ‘Pop’ sound is heard B Test tube becomes cold C The size of the zinc piece increases D The volume of acid increases A 8 Diagram 5 shows four regions. C dan D. dan N C D K. A. dan N. K. M. yang manakah berlaku pada air pada takat leburnya? A Cecair kepada pepejal KLON 2008 B Pepejal kepada cecair C Cecair kepada gas B D Gas kepada cecair 2 Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu piring Petri berisi air yang ditinggalkan di dalam makmal selama dua hari. Mengapakah ini berlaku? A Molekul air bertindak balas dengan piring petri B Molekul air membebaskan haba dan bertukar kepada gas C Molekul air meresap ke dalam dinding piring petri D Molekul air menyerap haba dan bertukar kepada gas D 3 Rajah 2 menunjukkan dua kaedah penulenan air. piring petri menjadi kering. B. C and D. 1 7 R S T 14 After two days. piring petri air Each question is followed by four options. yang manakah mewakili bahan R. Pilih jawapan yang terbaik. dan T. Why does this happen? A Water molecules react with the petri dish B Water molecules release heat and turn into gas C Water molecules diffuse into the walls of the petri dish D Water molecules absorb heat and turn into gas D 3 Diagram 2 shows two methods of water purification X and Y. 1 7 R S T CHAPTER 6 BAB 6 CHAPTER 7 heat X 7 CHAPTER BAB panaskan X Y pH of 14 Y Diagram 2 Which of the following shows the difference between X and Y? X Y A Removes Removes dissolved suspended minerals particles B Kill Removes microorganisms dissolved minerals C Removes Kills suspended microorganisms particles D Kills Removes microorganisms suspended particles D CLONE 2007 CLONE 2008 Rajah 2 Antara yang berikut. S and T.

Dilute solution Beaker Y: Beaker X: Saturated solution (c) Nyatakan dua cara untuk melarutkan garam yang tidak larut dalam bikar Y. Question 3 CHAPTER Bahagian A.indd 124 F2-BI(93-124)5th indd 7/23/09 3:07:23 PM 7/21/09 11:17:17 AM . (i) Tambahkan lebih banyak air suling/pelarut (ii) Panaskan larutan (c) State two ways to dissolve the undissolved table salt in beaker Y. (ii) Heat the solution (i) Add more distilled water/solvent (d) What is the type of salt solution formed if all the table salt in (c) dissolve in distilled water? Concentrated solution (e) You are given three types of salt solutions as shown below. Distillation Method: Reason: Distillation removes all sorts of impurities in the water 10 10 124 124 124 124 7/21/09 2:35:40 PM Ch 05 F2-BI(93-124)5th. Alum Kapur mati pam Tangki X Tangki gaulan Tangki pengenapan Tangki penurasan air klorin Saturated solution Larutan tepu 6 BAB Takungan air 6 KLON 2008 CLONE 2008 Section A. 5 5 BAB Larutan tepu Larutan cair Larutan pekat Arrange the types of solution according to the number of salt particles in ascending order in the spaces provided.KERTAS 2 KLON 2006 PAPER 2 CLONE 2006 CHAPTER F2MR-ch5(93-124). Bikar X: Larutan cair Bikar Y: Larutan tepu (b) State the types of salt solutions that formed in beakers X and Y. The glass rod CHAPTER 2 2 BAB salt solution table salt CHAPTER Rajah 1 (a) Namakan pelarut dan zat terlarut yang digunakan. rod kaca 100 cm3 air suling 1 g garam biasa Bikar X larutan garam 100 cm3 air suling 100 g garam biasa Bikar Y garam biasa larutan garam rod kaca cm3 of distilled water and different quantities of table salt. Question 3 1 1 BAB 1 Rajah 1 menunjukkan dua bikar X dan Y yang masing-masing mengandungi 100 cm3 air suling dan kuantiti garam biasa yang berlainan. Berikan satu sebab bagi kaedah yang dipilih. Larutan cair Larutan pekat Bilangan zarah garam bertambah 2 Rajah 2 menunjukkan satu loji pembersihan air. Larutan dikacau dengan menggunakan rod kaca. glass rod 100 cm3 of distilled water 1 g of table salt Beaker X 100 cm3 of distilled water salt solution 100 g of table salt Beaker Y Section A. each containing 100 solutions are stirred using a glass rod. Soalan 3 Section A Answer all the questions. Alum Slaked lime Reservoir pump Tank X Mixing tank Sedimentation Filtration tank tank chlorine water CHAPTER Susun jenis larutan mengikut bilangan zarah garam dalam urutan menaik di ruang yang disediakan. Give one reason for the method chosen. 1 Diagram 1 shows two beakers X and Y. Saturated solution Dilute solution Concentrated solution 4 4 BAB CHAPTER (d) Apakah jenis larutan garam yang terbentuk jika semua garam biasa di (c) terlarut di dalam air suling? Larutan pekat (e) Anda diberi tiga jenis larutan seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah. Bahagian A. Soalan 3 7 7 BAB CHAPTER to consumers Storage tank kepada pengguna pam Tangki penyimpanan Tangki pengklorinan pump Chlorination tank 8 8 BAB (a) Apakah tangki yang berlabel X? Diagram 2 Tangki penggumpalan (a) What is the tank labelled X? Diagram 2 Coagulation tank To coagulate suspended particles To remove suspended particles To kill microorganisms CHAPTER Untuk menggumpalkan zarah-zarah terampai (b) Mengapakah air sungai dialirkan ke dalam tangki X? Untuk menyingkirkan zarah-zarah terampai (c) Apakah fungsi tangki penurasan? (d) Apakah tujuan menambah air klorin ke dalam tangki pengklorinan? Untuk membunuh mikroorganisma (b) Why is the river water flowed into tank X? (c) What is the function of the filtration tank? 9 BAB 9 CHAPTER (d) What is the purpose of adding chlorine water in the chlorination tank? (e) Nyatakan satu kaedah untuk mendapatkan air tulen dalam makmal sekolah. Pelarut: Air suling Zat terlarut: Garam biasa Diagram 1 (a) Name the solvent and solute used.indd T2(93-124)4th 124 BAB Bahagian A Jawab semua soalan. Distilled water Solvent: Solute: Table salt 3 3 BAB CHAPTER (b) Nyatakan jenis larutan garam yang terbentuk di dalam bikar X dan Y.indd indd 124 Bab 05 T2(93-124)4th. Dilute solution Concentrated solution The number of salt particles increases 2 Diagram 2 shows a water treatment plant. Penyulingan Kaedah: Sebab: Penyulingan menyingkirkan semua bendasing dalam air (e) State one method for obtaining pure water in the school laboratory.

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