An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


we have looked at. are made outside as discreet installations. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. we learn to feel truly alive. doctors. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. as a visiting professor at universities. a cartographer charting the land. through history. They occupy a shelf in my studio. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. remain unseen by most. texture. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. fashion designer. of Sketch Book for the Artist. architect. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. Augustine his notes on memory. especially as travel journals. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. undergraduates to fellow professors. I was training in anatomy and studying how. For me personally. by invitation. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. These inspirations led me to invent museums. or engineer. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. and be slowly washed or worn away. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. aspirations. not only to make art. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. shape. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. a sculptor. we learn to see it. and experience. Others can be held in the h a n d or. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. . and through which I can see how I think. It makes me feel excited to be alive. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. night security staff. art schools. It is my love of these. still standing by the door. and size. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. thinking. and a reflector of experience. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. and feeling. and their importance to so many artists. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. geologists. I work with people of diverse ages. By using our imaginations. Chosen in any color. and in a few sessions they will be flying. a composer notating a musical score. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. We can all learn how to draw. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. I will always draw. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and makers of special effects. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. The very first step is to believe it. I also make drawing books. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless.

8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. packaging. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. and in meetings. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. irreverent to language barriers. signs. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. is not afforded us by drawing. and we spend our lives reading it. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. At home and at work we doodle. and patterns on our clothes. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. We can always read each others drawings.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. graffiti. in lectures. Rio Pinturas 13. like a great canvas for them to mark. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. Cueva de las Marios. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. logos.000-9500 bce . Drawing is international.

In cave paintings like the one opposite. had happily scribbled. like all toddlers. ." Until this day. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. I was sitting with my mother. power. we see our oldest surviving images. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. an expression of existence. I. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. at age two-anda-half. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. the hair of my first portrait was most important. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. and belonging to place. I now think this is a picture of proximity. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl.

Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . most of us stop. Young children love to draw. But as adolescents. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . At this point many will insist they cannot draw. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. for example. As you progress. then drag o u r line into a loop.

Someone once told them they must draw in this way.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. and they have never questioned why. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. After experimenting and trying each new idea. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. remember that all advice is only advice. . but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. I ask them their reasons for drawing. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. what they most want to achieve. Occasionally. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. Enjoy the control of your own journey. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals.

boats. We also see differently ourselves. and inspire others." The clarity and empowerment of these words. Below. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. wrote as the opening line of this great work. we can drive out its spirit. but it should be the experienced world we draw. depending on the occasion and our purpose. "There really is no such thing as Art. is. I hope. right. the breast. clear-minded understanding of the sea. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. not for disguise but as a personal choice.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. The observed world may be our subject. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . His notes visually balance his drawings. author of The Story of Art. embedded in this book. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. 11). Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. There are only artists. be visionary. They are also always written backward. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. We all see differently. There are countless reasons for drawing. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them.

. stripped-down parts. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. time spent is not lost. or to discover the best use of a new material. conduct an experiment. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. Don't be disheartened. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. make a calculation. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. it may be best to start afresh. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. shout against a terrible injustice. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. or illustrate a dream. We have both covered our paper with focused.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. while below. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. Opposite.

and sometimes beyond. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. the unknown. silk. and opacity of your subject. It denies the importance of accident. size. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. mists. explain the composition. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. which can offer keys to other things. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. Know the texture. and allowed to flow through the brush. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. and paper. and position in space. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and practice each part before putting the final image together. fire. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. Whatever the material— wood. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. your marks will become the subject on the paper. created centuries and cultures apart. ink. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. This is the alchemy of drawing. declare the idea. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. balance. bone. and how it feels to the touch. However. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. meaning. water. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and an island brushed with trees. and what you discover in the process of making. temperature. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. metal. These two brush drawings. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. The physicality. Our position asvieweris unsteady.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. depth. If you can do this. As you draw any subject—something you see. feel.


acrylic. W a l t e r also makes books: some. gold leaf and spray paint. more than 100 years after its making. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. like folded insects. one of many luminous works in watercolor.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. pastel. right is set inside a rib cage. c. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. left. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . lives on.

One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. diary-like observations. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. As you follow lessons in this book. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Drawing is exploratory.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. even those you dislike. FREEINGTHEHAND . Choose other materials and do the same. With no help and advice at all. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Put them away and look at them later. just through the act of making. potential ideas still forming. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. It is yours. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept.

seek ideas in the life around you. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. 150). This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. In the total wealth of these pages. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. which of course he cannot see. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. Once there. and enfolding new media. caught between action and repose. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. and many more reasons for drawing the world. It rarely flourishes in isolation. As you draw. threedimensionally. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. The real drawing book has yet to come. but not confined to them. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. staring straight through his image of a bull. when they are more experienced. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. Imagination needs nourishment. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . However. adapting its form and occupation. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. and became a great subject for me. the path is yours. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Picasso is poised smiling. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Picasso has just finished his drawing.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. comes from within.


It is also useful to own a portfolio. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. cut. There are dozens to choose from. and cost. Alternatively. 4. y o u n e e d a lifetime. Purchase a h i g h .b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . binding. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. catalogs. and collage their ideas. 6. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. 2. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. 5. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. thick enough not to flex. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . Drawing boards are invaluable. pastels. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. quality. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. drawing book. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. texture. F o r e v e n i n g classes. C A N V A S .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . thickness. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks.q u a l i t y r i n g . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . color. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. 1. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . F o r traveling. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. is perfect. a n d crayons. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. R I N G . which are also sold in an enormous range. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. They can be very expensive in art stores. stitched.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . Smooth plywood.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items.

turning brown and brittle. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. and rolls. from pencil to paint 9. 20.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. smooth. resisting deterioration. absorbency. Use for brushwork drawings. and translucent. 22. or machine made in sheets. blocks. cold. and cost. 15. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 2 5 6 . and white. also good for drawing with colored pencils. mold-. tough. It is available in white or cream. 16. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 17. 21.Papers differ in thickness (weight). 14. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. Ph. 12. and other plant fibers. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. printed on one side only. 11. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. and hot pressed papers. it is made from rice. 8. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. red. They are hand-. and cream sheets or rolls. 13. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. texture. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. blocks. 7. size. 10. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. bamboo. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. color. For use with any media. mulberry. yellow. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p .TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. not. or rolls. fine. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 18. PAPERS . JAPANESE PAPER: Strong.

place it on your right. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. and look to the right. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. place it on your left. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. your lines will distort. your drawing will reflect this. strangledlooking drawings. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. Ideally. If using an upright easel. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). flowing space between your hand. There should be an open. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. Examples are shown here. and subject. if left-handed. but wherever possible. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. body. There are also parallels to dance. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. don't sit too close to the paper. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. With your hand in this position. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. a n d look to the left of it at your subject.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. You do not have to dance to draw. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. . arm. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. 116-17).

and body are not restricted. roughly marking out a large-scale work. To stop this. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. This can be used to great effect.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. liquid will run down your hand. . not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. But be careful not to tense your fingers. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. find an unfamiliar.232-33). hold your material as you find most comfortable. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. or change to the wrong hand. alternative way of holding the pencil. As long as your fingers. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. arm. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp.


we turn and take the features of beasts. insects. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. mermaids.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. White's commission was to ". dogs. their different speeds and patterns of action. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. O v e r the centuries. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. werewolves. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. m u s e u m . which are so unlike ours. cartographer. fish. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. For the novice artist.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. and learn how to Flying Fish c. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. Together they made maps and documented animals. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. sleeping dogs. birds. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. offer challenges and delights to draw. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. and dragons.. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . and silent." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. 1540. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. After the subject of ourselves. and pioneer born c. bats. JOHN WHITE British artist. In medieval England. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. who described in words what White drew. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . floating turtles. and people. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. plants. we have employed artists on expeditions. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation.. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period.

writer. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. and mathematician. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. filled journals with ideas and observations. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. it continued its journey to Rome. printmaker.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. they were rejected. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Converted into a print. years after its publication. but the drowned animal washed ashore. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. naturalist. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. the ship was lost. and wrote four books on proportion. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Carefully stuffed. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. a gift to the Portuguese King. Meanwhile. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. draftsman. Unsurpassed. Sailing to Rome. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority.

knowledge of parts. L o n d o n . The entire project was developed over ten years. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. naturalist. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Anatomy of the Horse.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. a n d anatomist. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. a n d s i d e . is no other work like it. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. which has never diminished. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. composed from notes and observations. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England.

A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. novelist.. I've ended up mixing in pencil. playwright. more or less what I have in view. ink and linseed oil on paper. charcoal. and her distinctive temperament. and leader of the French Romantic movement. and turn. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. VICTOR HUGO Poet. and a love of accident. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths... Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O .28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. Hugo used graphite powder. snarl. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing.". Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Mixed media Here. it silently rises to the light. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. drama. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. sepia. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. coal dust. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . saying ". He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. soot.. her b o n y frame. By contrast. her sharp teeth.

Here. Paris. Before paper became so cheap. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. diagonal strokes of his pencil. since it can lead to a flattened form. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. 124-25 and p. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . of drawings Gericault erased. and keep trying again. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp.118-119). displayed in the Louvre. parallel. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. standing sideways. fiery. 144. s h o r t . At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. facing right. The Raft of the Medusa.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l .

Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. and waves breaking distantly below. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. In Picasso's drawing. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Faune. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. dissolving faun kneels stranded. noise is everywhere. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Artists commonly focus on such actions. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. or proud. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. we see semi-abstract. the whinnying of a frantic horse. slow tortoise. His powdery. and scrolled lines. made only a year apart. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. quivering horse. flapping bird. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. In these two drawings. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. draftsman. Picasso cofounded Cubism. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. gray.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. and brown. hooked. with George Braque (see p90).

and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. draftsman." They chatter around bodies in groups. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . Chicago PAUL KLEE .PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. N e u m a n n Family Collection. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. sculptor. creatures. printmaker. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. violinist.

This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and steerage. He studied the anatomy of fish. plans. balance. the expression of its eye. seemingly looking for our attention. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and to assess our next move. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. It is simply how we read his perspective. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. later called a galleon. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. and the carefully observed gills. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. His birds stare. mathematician. and scales. slim stern). B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). fins. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. adding washes of color with a fine brush. it would achieve greater speed. Baker did not intend this.

w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. The text. numbered. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. written last of all. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. circle and the birds. JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. firmly outlined.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.

ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. PENS . A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. 2. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. s t i c k s . Each pen has a unique character. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . That is an ink. Only fill with suitable inks. from the acacia tree. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. distinguished manufacture. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. 3. where reeds were gathered. In the Far East. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. 5 0 0 years ago. simultaneously 4 . Today. light it. and it is still in use today. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. spots. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. they are associated with rapid. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. The best are goose or swan. which scratch rather than draw." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Intricate or dramatic lines. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. producing a different line. and first used by the Egyptians. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Masters choose brands of long. Quills were later cut from feathers. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. 4. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. They fit into wooden holders. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink.246-47). Dip pens began their history in the Nile River.

INKS 9. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. an often misused term. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. Beechwood soot is best. . Waterproof types contain shellac. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. Crushed. I R O N . from are not 6. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). iron-gall. and sieved. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. they produce a golden dye for drawing. They are the easiest inks to use. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. and sepia. charred bone (Ivory Black).35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. boiled. dated. or charcoal. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7.36. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. waterproof or non-waterproof. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. bistre. 5. 8. reduced. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. and most can be homemade.

of a loaded nib. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. it was gray-purple.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. appears broken to show paper beneath. the blade and cut away from you. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. V a n G o g h . Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Rembrandt. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. T h e y give a finer. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . . are surprisingly tough. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. and delicious to draw with. reduced.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. It dried black. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. for example. and boiled to make a golden ink. then cut a final nib (feathers. Running fresh. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . sieved. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. can also be collected from affected trees. Oak galls. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. Walnut ink is gloopy. giving longer lines. U n d e r heavy pressure. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . red-brown. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. crushed. and turned brown with time. d r y mark. For centuries. giving a s h o r t . fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts.

W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. clean strokes.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. giving a graded. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. withstanding great pressure without sticking. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. . Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. breaking. sharp. marks become fine and needle-sharp. When using dip pens. they splay to make thick o r double lines.

and be brave. Study them before drawing. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Posture . Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Empathize. be bold and press firmly. make another one. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Dip your pen in ink. Geese are nosy birds. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink." If you don't like a stroke. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. waddle. and boldly plunge into your drawing. You cannot break the nib. Cover a sheet. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. test your limits. That said. steel nibs are fine. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and there is no "wrong. Experiment. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Focus on the geese. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. and bellyflop off the waterside. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. to absorb blots when drawing. not on your drawing. draw what the bird is doing. Focus on it.

Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. and diving. Again. running. draw the feeling of what you see. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Use more lines than before to express these. flapping. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water.39 Action With growing confidence. . CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action.

These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. first dip your pen in ink. engaged in his and everyone else's business. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER." . a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. your drawing book. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. Now it will make a pale line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle.34-37). The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. form. This will give a medium-gray line. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. and personality. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town.

in bold layers. quickly draw what you see. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. W i t h pale lies.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. tail. ignoring all detail. 2 Reload your pen with ink. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. To add texture. . and the shadows in his coat. to emphasize how he is curled up. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Then. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. add more detail. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Trust your intuition. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. I added ink to Ras's nose. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Here. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. ears. First lines are first thoughts.

Turtles to observe. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . turtles often pause unexpectedly. they stretch and paddle. A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement.


Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and sharp. . I sought to capture the form. balance. weightlessness of the kiwi. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. India ink. dry. and water. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. With speed. Beginning with very pale tones.



on which our lives depend. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. season. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. In this chapter. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. Later. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. infinitely vivid. and to ornament our lives. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613.Morethan 1. to catalog our knowledge. Plants seventeenth century. nurture. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. and focus. shape. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. manipulations of light and shade. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. The revolution came in the 1530s. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. color. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. and beauty. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. robust. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. Chapters are arranged by out. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Conrad von Gemmingen.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. We collect. form.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. as opposed to only herbal. and diverse kingdom of plants. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. and texture. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore.

Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. or that were diseased. detail." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Sir Joseph Banks. Here. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. B e h i n d detailed. stems. delicate. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. and wilted. and meticulous precision. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . subtle union of beauty. insect-ravaged. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. flowers. leaves. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. o p t i m i s m . Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. fruit. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. measured drawings. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again.

49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. K e w . and perfect coordination of hand and eye. H e r Drawings of British Plants. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.. and follow shadow. it is small and discreet. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. a m o n g o t h e r s .g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a .7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush." This line drawing is one of 1. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t .286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. found among Mackintosh's than reality.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. sensual pencil drawing is later works. a n d he inspired. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Pencil lines cling to. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 .. and it shows how design. imagination.

fluctuations in scale. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Upright shallow perspectives. By Muslim tradition. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Afghanistan. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Below. urgent attentive human activity. and Nanha. Drawing. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. and miraculous growth. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. is remembered in the pages of his journal. which he personally created near Kabul. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). painting. uniform focus. in miniature. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. anticipating their view. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. in the early 16th century. . a notable portrait painter drew the faces.

c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . G e r m a n y . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. However. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. running corner t o corner. a device to help you decide what t o draw. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. Here the left fig is attached to. as also shown here. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. U s e it as a starting point. the uppermost edge of the drawing. When subjects touch two or more edges. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit .57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. bottom-left t o top-right. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. Space as the subject Inallpictures. its illumination. its stem and shadow framing a white center. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. and therefore apparently suspended from. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views.

The box opposite isolates an area. rather than what you see in front of you. tone. an eraser. and a role to play. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. position. In your own version. not leaves. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . remember to draw only space. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. unified. and engaging. and so on. their subject and composition will become more real. a foundation stone in picture-making. this ensures a consistent view.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. which is shown in the three steps below. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. third. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. It helps to start at the center and map outward. then added a second shape. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. dynamic. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. In following this class. fourth. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. a sharp H B pencil. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. But how often do we look at the air between things. but if the artist does.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


We never see everything at once. . they emulate our experience of seeing. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. 62-63). gathering less distinct information on the way. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander.


Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. and sound. It was the mathematicians." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. 74-75).Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. space. composers. film-set design. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. fine artists. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. and computer game imaging. with gray and brown watercolor wash. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. At the core of their practice. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Through the animation of the screen. add and subtract ideas. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. filmmakers. made by the architect himself. of the west facade of St Augustin. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. they have the Golden Section. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. Augustin. This harmony. to help them create new form. once there. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. designers. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients.The church is still in use today.This is a pencil drawing. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Baltard designed the Church of St. mass. each VICTOR BALTARD . drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. architects. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. philosophers. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. balance. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. to 20th-century film fantasy. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. time.

testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and Castle Howard. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. St Paul's Baptistry c. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. and labor. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Blenheim Palace. A student of Wren's. pilasters.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. evoke presence. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). and six London churches. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. and balance. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. and an inscribed entablature. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. relative levels. calculate function. Oxford. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. materials. Below it. and ultimately to show builders what to do. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Hampton Court Palace. embodying a massive investment of ideas. describe a finished look to a client. structure. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere.

1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. embellishment. The Art Nouveau movement. and his love of music. Gaudi air than on paper. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. light. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. churches. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona.

The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. short curved poles. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. installations. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti.223). been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. flat boards. and exhibitions of his drawings. and rooms. We can see. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. upright pictorial space. Satie draws quietly throughout. p. and dotted lines. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. theater sets. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. corridors. He also produces urban and landscape designs. and in a sense hear. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture.

They definespaceand pictorial balance. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE .narrowshape of its paper. and founded his o w n church.Edges are how are of orientation.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.H i s witty. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. theater. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . lived a l o n e . Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. a conventional dip or fountain pen. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.50. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. dressed eccentrically. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. effectively additional lines in a work. a n d ballet. Onpp. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.56—57 we discussed important the shape.

Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. and dramatic lighting. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. arched vaults. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Within it. painter. cylinders. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. and the reverse is true on the right. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and draftsman. made in 1926. spheres. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Boullee lived in Paris. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton.96.

Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and white ink on brown-gray paper. gray. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. architecture.Building shapes are works can be read as text. draftsman.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. and m o d e l . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. mythology. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .a r t director O t t o Hunte. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Kettlehut and his c o . 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .

linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. found at the center of all converging lines. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Piranesi an example of two. I contribute the child's perspective. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. It can be applied to any subject. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. scientists. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. inventors. 206-07). We use it to structure illusions of depth. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI .74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and those of Naive artists and children. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. and thinkers ever to have lived. observations. In his notebooks. and age eight. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. All forms of perspective are of equal value.

SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. including all they recall about the subject. issues of scale when making room for important their story. architect. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. a points in logical narrative of memories. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. . and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. which I saw from home every day. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. New Forest. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. at the top of each lateral column base. Breamore Village. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing.

using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. discovering the image as it progressed. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Erase the dotted construction lines. (See p. then follow the ten steps below. This is where we will begin. Next. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. try composing your own space. In contrast. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through.) . this is your vanishing point. You have completed your first box. corresponding to a single vanishing point. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed.98 for an important note on oscillation. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. imagine. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line.

The larger you make your second rectangle. larger rectangle. the closer it will appear to the viewer. 6 As in step 2. 7 As in step 3. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. andfarside of this first board. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. . when inventing your own compositions.asIhavedonehere. draw a second.willhelptomake them appear more solid. The board's sides should be parallel. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. and erase the dotted lines. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. bottom. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. with two dotted lines.

If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea." imaginary room. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. let simple lines suggest a simple space. 7 4 ) . Then follow the three given steps. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose." . artist and film director. draw a b o x as shown opposite.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . p . APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. it will take you places you never dreamed of. Every work talks In this class. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. it is interaction that makes the work richer. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. As David Lynch.

and leaning surfaces. . 2 first before adding furniture. Here. horizontal. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. With some practice.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. The space has become more solid and real.

or low and we look u p . Potentially. From our normal eye level. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. but they are not confined to this level. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. That is where we e to find them. Elaborations . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. our eye level is very high and we look down. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Here. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. 76-79). they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. o r to the h o r i z o n . verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. do verticals appear inclined.

) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. you will see how. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.Finally. Giving curvature. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .Istarted with two parallel lines.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. and therefore tension. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.75. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Where thelinescross.


Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.


I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. .A N D . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. the water.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .




Previously. H e has described a casting through metaphor. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. color. passing them on to others through the act of making. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. planned. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. In this chapter. drawing c. sculpted. to record an observed detail. design. and a wire violin. r an equestrian statue. H e has described contour and function at drawings. With the sudden onset of mass production. In past eras. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. for example—whether. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. too. for example. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. drawn. these. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. and some apes use simple tools. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. C o m m o n items. texture. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. and made. Today. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. A chair. illuminating snail shells. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. have often carried great weights of allegorical once.

One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Below. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. silverware. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction.. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. texture. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. steaming with music and conversation. a colored canvas. . Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. not of place but of things. Braques image is a Cubist collage. still feel this projected moment. but to clash in virtual deadlock. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. perfect i n their newly made availability. wood-look wallpaper. not to work in harmony. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . charcoal." La Cuitare. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. representing still life. and shading. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. Opposite. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment..90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can.

Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. and New York. and also stamps and bank notes. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.fruit. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Chicago. Pans. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.

With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. mathematician. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. and his hand moving across the light. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. the law o f gravity. into the eyepiece. via a second mirror. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. drawing is there to pin the moment down. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. He counted 1 4 . From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. and the nature o f light and color. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . alchemist. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. astronomer. offering a transparent view. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. a tree outside. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society.

1665). Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. and calculated the theory of combustion. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. It is an exhilarating read. and anchor escarpment. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries.

craft. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and place in the world are truly seen. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. its character. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Woodfine exhibits internationally. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . has published several catalogs of her work. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools.

and Starry Cypress Night. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. The floor few as engagement with the chair.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. drawn opposite way of plan. Cornfield and Sunflowers. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.

one blackandone white. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. perhaps. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. The perceived tone of a black white.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. try this experiment. a n d we can be fooled. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. or colored surface is never constant. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. cards the same size. are translated into a world of space. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. Card experiment cho can gra on .At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. The small squares are identical in tone. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. Below. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. Tape them to the glass. Here. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. think about its illumination. your eye around the circumference of the egg. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. U p s i d e . On acloudyday. less developed than the center.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. We only need small prompts. atmosphere. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. The outermost edge of our vision. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. a n d m o v e m e n t . a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. form. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. gray. but do not appear so.

A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. respectively. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . start o u t w i t h one. B o t h are identical in length. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . .

Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. In the 1960's. others adjust works to avoid their effects. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once." .98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. such as Bridget Riley. among others.76. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Michelangelo. are still not agreeably understood. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. including some shown here. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Yet many illusions. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. o r as a s l o p i n g . w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Op(tical) artists. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. their picture could be ambiguous. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole.

99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . smoke. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. T h e a r t i s t M. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . . P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. 1 6 t h . N e i t h e r triangle exists. clouds.c e n t u r y Italian painters. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. e t c .

as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. (see p. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. for example. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. keep it spinning. I have drawn these for you here. though.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. for example plates or bowls on a table. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. such as bowls and cups. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. w h e n seen at an angle. springlike forms like those I have drawn below.90) takes a different as essentially circular. . hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. Cubism. a n d in o n e bold stroke. I have exaggerated this error here. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. Be aware. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. However. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. giving the cylinder four corners. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. smoothly. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. you will achieve steadiness with practice. while its upper rim remains level. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. circles change into ellipses. there are three common errors people stumble upon. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view.

working from top to bottom. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. . Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Draw quickly. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel.

You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. leaving detail until last. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between.22-23). It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. it will inhibit your perception of tone. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. if any. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. if light shines in them. Remember that shadows. beams of light. Gradually hone your drawing. In the finished drawing there should be few. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). and solid objects are all of equal importance. outlines.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT .

Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. shape. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. draw a rectangle. Remember that its size. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. look at the main areas of darkness. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last.56-57). pale lines with equal importance. with broad sweeps of the eraser. . until you are happy frame. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Draw in the details last of all. Use quick. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. loose. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition.

try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. On p. Third. On p. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. The second is that after achieving this simple example. and on p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. smooth. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). continuous lines. and on p. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. . you can create your own more ambitious works. and physical relationships between them. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. They can also be made in space.

I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Here. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Cut a length. 4 . 2 3 If needed. Once you have completed the body. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. and thick wire a larger one. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument.

Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Oxford. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. . some of which are shown here. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. England. Using found materials.



herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. sculptural description of her form. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. much Western contemporary art. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. and surgically rebuilt. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. and anatomical and erotic art. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. giving physical foundation undulating land. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. but the study of a controlled. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. In this period. During this time. These classes are popular around the world. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. history paintings and other stories. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. R. myths and fables. diseased.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. W I L L I A M S technology. in our privileged and comfortable society. while Durer took his research further— A. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. She the body is still essential. clothed or nude. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. The human body. and because the female was deemed inferior. R. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. Strangely. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . portraiture.

altar pieces. and Vatican frescos. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. anatomy. He trained under Perugino. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . and human defeat. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly.116-17). Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. By way of contrast. filling the page with her presence.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper.

.sculptor.which might be. an appeasing influence. fabric. serenity." of is an art of balance.. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. printmaker. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.designer writer. and Islamic art.. a mental soother. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. Matisse became an artist after studying law.. his pattern. as his w o r k matured.

turned gray. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. form. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Typically. If Seurat had added white. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. other tones. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Opposite. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Beuys's magician. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT .112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . velvet d a r k n e s s . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Below. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . in a perfect e x a m p l e . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. reflected. like small birds attendant on the meditation. or abruptly meeting. Here. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Light is given by the paper alone. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. scratched in seconds. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. there are no outlines. only tones blending into. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color.

Our focus joins shoulders. and drawings. iodine. in different positions. taught workshops with a cult following. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. and made installations. Beuys gave performances. video art. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. This figure is drawn intuitively. transience. and blood. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.

and went on to inspire generations of artists. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Inspired by Michelangelo. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. was perceived as scandalous. As here." as seen here. Paris. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. In Rodins work. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. its soft. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Opposite. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. the women are framed and caressed by long. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. In both drawings. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh.

This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Taylor has drawn. erased and drawn again. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. and gaze. textured paper. London. scrutiny. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . draftsman. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. exposure. and rework rich depths of light and tone.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body.

2 Hold your pencil upright. and wrist joints. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. for example. Align the top with a point on your subject. It is not complicated. Lock your shoulder." . to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. rather that what we believe we know from experience. which is imperceptible from below. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. Smaller. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. London). just making them helps you see. and to draw what we see. Close one eye. Return to this posture every time. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. without taking off. plummeting.limbs happily receding. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. patience. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. elbow. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. or coming forward. or shrivelling at odd. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. It can also be a little demon in the life room. helping us to see more clearly. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. It is not so hard. unfathomable angles. 1 Hold your arm straight. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. If your arm is not straight. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. and a few measured comparisons are key. persistence. Rome. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle.

See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. belly. which feels strange. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. a n d thighs. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. A t a c e r t a i n angle. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board.

. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Layered lines give d e p t h . and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. and height. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. working from her center to her feet and to her head. feeling. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. Leave first thoughts in place.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . To see this. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. balance. and stance before honing her balance and expression. imagine holding up a plumb line. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. work back and forth across the body. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. and energy. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. To draw this effect. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Outline To outline a figure. height.

The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. . the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Tilt Movement Here. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip.

2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. and they need not be daunting to draw.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. W h e n starting. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. feet. These planes. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Draw large shapes and their orientation. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. or those of a friend. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. A mirror increases your range of views. Group the fingers together as one mass. swiftly marking its essential gesture. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Do not separate them yet. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. 3 . general to specific. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. and ignore all details. drawn in relation to each other. starting with the largest. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand.

Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. flattened planes. Hew it roughly in broad. . these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. It can be a mistake. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. though out o f wood. and spontaneity. loose. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. and rapid. depth. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. t o remove t o o many early lines. Leave aside all detail. as if with a chisel. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.

Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. Opposite." . I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.204-05.


and posture of the model.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. length. before honing his or her shape (see pp. 118-19). Phrasing Contours . I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.


characters. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. Forms. perspectives. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. .


each modeled from dissection. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.La Specola At17V i a Romana. 126-27. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Florence. .



or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. . Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and social and political commentaries. single or of groups. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. abstract or figurative. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. or past us. and p r i n t m a k e r . usually strangers from past times. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. buttons. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. their stance. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. religious. In this chapter. look directly at us. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. character. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and it is very rewarding. throat. and expression of the individual.139). and secular narratives. you can capture the subtlety. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. the meaning of their face. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. made as he passed through the ages of man. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. live. having been documented and preserved. bells. Equally. and shoulders. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . Goya. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. historical.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. is here to both meet and look through us. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. became more poignant as he progressed. W h e n drawing a person. and a handprint (see p. neck. and satirical or metaphorical. and their posture can be changed with just one line. and lucrative genre for artists. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. compliant subject to scrutinize. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. who. For centuries. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. draftsman.

hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Through exhibitions and copies in books. teetering on the brink of older age. For the beginner. caught in her last moments of youth.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. breadth. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. While with longer consideration. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. The truth is often the opposite. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Without faltering. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. He makes his flair and skill look easy. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. we can enjoy and learn from them. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. length. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever.30). It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes.

Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. presses against the binding across her face. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. he designed c o u r t costumes. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. which.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. and designer f r o m Basel. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. gently flushed.

Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . and glands also complicate form. but they are irrelevant here. continues to exhibit regularly. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Contrasts Sharp. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. distorted. confusing. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Anatomically. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. . It floats in space. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Nerves. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. and unpleasant to see.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. solid above and almost hollow below. the contours of a grid. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . blood vessels. or defined by. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. London. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. In fact.

It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. which. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. w h e n contracted. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers.

which are characteristically elongated. and heads. painter draftsman. Opposite. The camera watches him at work. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Then. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Without paint and with very little tone.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. with speed and urgency. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Giacometti settled in Paris. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. necks. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. he drew over the whole image at once. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. each locked into a visionary gaze. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. as if seen from a distance. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . They show us clearly the bones of drawing.

H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.25 6 . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Mantegna. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.5 9 ) . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . These are pinholes. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . lyrical. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.

It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. a tribal. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. marks. and indulgence. postcards. Islands of graphic marks. political outcry. spear-brandishing warrior. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. drawn. made with great energy. scratched lines. and everything flux. signing their work SAMO. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. humor. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. scrolls. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. and confrontations with. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. and attitudes. Al Diaz. bells. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. scratched into its surface.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of.221). float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. skull- Self-Portraits headed. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter.

They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. Black ink was printed next and then white. last of all. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. The handprint appears to be made directly. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray probably used his own hand. caked in thick printing ink or paint. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. painter.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer.

b e f o r e priming stretched paper. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. platinum. key. purchase silver wire. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. 5. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . and make o r buy a holder. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. or wood. artists mixed white lead. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. it leaves a deposit. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. and alloys work on matt emulsion. S i l v e r is b e s t . Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. 1 4 4 . To begin. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Historically. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. or ring. bone. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. s e e p . an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. 156). b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . p a r c h m e n t . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Opposite. 1. Be swift and firm. copper. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. laid on paper.54-55). M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Drawn across a prepared surface. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). choose a silver object.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. This is called a three-tone drawing.54) can also b e used. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . 144-45. 2 .s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. 3 . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. W e t o n e length o f g u m . 2. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. and gold have also been used. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s ." Lead.

It will slowly straighten and become taut. so put newspaper under the lower edge. T h r e e . The next step will make a small mess. Here. Make enough to cover your paper. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. v e r y little at a time. Runs blend into each other evenly. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Keep adding smooth. Prop up your board of dry. Keep testing on spare paper. any extra will keep. Make an even line across to the right. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. leaving a smooth surface.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Dip a soft. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing).



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. neck. Moving from the back of the neck. they are also still sweeping and confident. and throat. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. 4 . I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. Keep your first lines light. avoid drawing too dark. down the face to the throat. Here. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. over the cranium. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. too soon.


empathize. muscular tension. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. Above all. the texture of hair.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. . and gravity. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).



seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. . I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Madrid. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.



charcoal. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. c r u m p l e s . and atmosphere. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Previously. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. of Scheherazade. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. toParis. variety.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. and intent. or b u l g e s . caricatured p l u m e s . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. or calm u s w i t h chic. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. e m u l a t e textures. gesture. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. g l o s s y folds.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. w a r m t h . arichand unusual combination of pencil. c u l t u r e . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. . S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. so that c h o i c e . Like it or not. Cities c h a n g e d all. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and e x u b e r a n c e . while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. personality. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. Samoylovich Rosenberg. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. outrageous. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. known as Leon Bakst. shapes. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. In psychology. intriguing. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . and gouache. cool. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form.

Opposite. bands around the columns. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. swirling printed fabrics. However. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. with their jagged edges. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. it is only possible to create very thin. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. and snakelike marks. resonate with their wearers startled expression. dragons. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Sculpted one. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Keisai Eisen's intense. Above them.140-41). Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. delicate lines. Below this. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image.

Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. the cloak sliding to the ground. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Dante. Images are drawn onto smooth. draftsman. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. designer. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. one over the other. Position In this pen and ink drawing. each delivering a different part and color of the design. flat sheets of wood. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). the angle of the head. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print.

Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Its color is also reflected in the metal. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. cinema. The metal. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. w h e r e . lace. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. and even formal portraiture. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. all ruffs and wrinkles. Opposite is a dangerous drawing.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. 160. A s a y o u n g man. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. theater. cartoon. cloth. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . A flamboyant territory.

hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. here dark tawny owl. and her pride. bitten nature. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.35). manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. t h e Jesuit Mission. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e Ridolfi Plot.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. t h e Rising. Top-heavy.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks.

possibly over a pencil outline. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . demanding attention with gesture and flair. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. elegant chic and svelte. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. His model is outlined. Vogue. a n d L'Officiel de la couture.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. as is Spider-Girl opposite. and both share the power of scarlet and black.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . muscular aggression. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Harpers & Queen. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. studio-like rectangle of paper. and gray pigments were applied separately. 158. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. 5 8 . Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. The black red.

Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. moon. not far above the drawing.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink.74-77). and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. beginning with Star Wars. a great characteristic superhero comics. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. MARVEL C O M I C S . to the right of its center. Buildings. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. It is outside the picture frame. sky. and Amazing Spider-Man. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Align your ruler to the upright of each building.

The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. great for tin . or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. size. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. paper-wrapped. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. minerals. oily pigment. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. 3. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). clay. wash. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. and synthetics. plants. 1. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Pastels are finer. soft. Often. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. hue. insects. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. They vary hugely in cost. Before making substantial investments. colored materials available. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. I suggest you do so. Degas built his pastels in layers. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Children's wax crayons are relatives. crumbly. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Beware—some are toxic. and subtlety. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. The higher the quality (and cost). unwrapped harder pastels. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. and sold in many colors. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. slightly oily to the touch. fixing each layer on the front. these work best when slightly warm. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. intensity. 2.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. chalkbased but very subtle. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. shape. 4. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. including iridescents. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. quality. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. used to make colors. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. made in about 80 colors. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. except the final layer. are derived from many sources: rocks. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. animals. Seemingly infinite choices of texture.

Fine lines can be achieved (as above). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. 111). If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. so it is best to test them before buying.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below).163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. . Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Some are nonsoluble. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Some give richer lines than others.

This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. the era in which we live. You. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. Linear Outline Using fine pens. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. will discover m o r e . Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. . imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. personality. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . social and economic status. As artifacts in museums. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. t o o . 104-07). and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. style. values. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. and how we stand and walk.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. structure. To set up. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. and volume in space (see pp. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . and a selection of shoes. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . 100-01 and pp. Here we go one step further. t h e n again as if transparent. they record and reflect our common history.


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. and 252-53). shape. 172-73.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. These characters. selected from different pages of my original book. Madrid.126-27. identity. and motivation of an individual.

To understand how he did this. .T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.170—71). and tangible. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. and visible. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.



stares out from her gloomy sickbed. It middle. . and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. while a quill contact with. the viewer. First. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Third. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. paintings depicting scenes from history. this is not the portrait of an old woman. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. furniture. we. a crowd tells the story from a distance. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. We can direct close. and other masters of Western Art. too. soap operas. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. Later in their lives. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. and its illumination. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. television documentaries. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. even up her were laid with a brush.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. Saskia. Blockbuster movies. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Second. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. in spite of how it may seem. As artists. We can also use clothes. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. and so. daily newspapers. comics. and therefore seem to see. types. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. presumably while he is making this drawing. Here. We read tensions and exchanges between people. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Saskia died after childbirth.

and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . plates shatter. and in. Pans fly oft the stove. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess.. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. In both works. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. and Alice. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. the Cat.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze.. Here. or even the office photocopier. the C o o k . Below. junk."Anything that. narrative is delivered through the air. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. F o r e a c h w o r k . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. and on. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . refuse. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. for example. and projector.

Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. ink.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. beams.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. tabletop. and Poe's Tales Imagination. and Alice's shoulder. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. humor. are very large compared to on p.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Find the singleperspective pp. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. and watercolor. This makes the story appear to leap out at us.

A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. join in the waiting. Magnetic Fields sculpture. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. London. meaning. This is an ironic drawing from Moore.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. heat. and we. and art in the landscape. audiences. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. a sculptor. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. and action of a buffalo hunt. Opposite. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. In culture. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. as fellow watchers. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . and composition they are polar opposites. perhaps these two are the most extreme.

horses. and helping our eye to dart around. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL ." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Stylized hunters. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field.

w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. We also see qualities of line.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. texture. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. color. a n d f o c u s . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . era as Kollwitz. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . w r i t e r a r t i s t . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. p o e t . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. t h e Bible. m a r k . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. Misted in translucent layers of paint. Opposite. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy.

HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. and the family home. however meager or ridiculous their activity. With masterful gentility. humor by making his characters earnest. and clearly focused. sculptor and draftsman. and the impact of death and war upon women. stoical bemusement. He created sincere. poverty. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. plodding along with hazy. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. children.

At a time like this. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e .7 7 and 214-15). rollerballs. For example. a ballpoint will make faint lines. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . in the studio. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. Unlike pencils. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. I keep quantities at home. . which can snap or pierce through your clothes. build to a rich. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. or idea. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. Quick-drying. in the car. a n d pressure-sensitive. 4." 1. jot notes. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . 7 6 . R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . I swiftly focused on gesture. R e m e m b e r . Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. fibertips. turn the page. a n d ranges o f colors. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. dark sheen. shut your book. blob when old.r e s i s t a n t . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. they can be obtained within minutes. p e r m a n e n t . if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. indent paper. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . So many stores sell them. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. t h e y a r e lightfast. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. these pens enable you to sketch.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. trusting shape and form to follow. 2. w a t e r .

FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p. Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. not form.

black. Movement . Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). focus on the action of the event. of course. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. just draw the action. animate them more. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. but they should not be what you dwell on. angles will happen as a matter of course. and companionship. if a person was stout. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. not its outline. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. make them stouter. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. if animated. However. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Don't worry about measuring angles. let it enter the stage and perform. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Above all. You will make outlines.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Exaggeration helps. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. activity. when out drawing.

I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I am watched by the aggravated guard. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. Expression . The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. In turn. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.

elevate them in the pictorial space. When your attention has been caught. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and clothing or bags hang. decide how faces and bodies contort. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. For example. and involvement in the story. start by focusing on its action. if they are being haughty. or bulge. For example. or pushes. focus on action. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. if they are being devious. not outline. and let every detail speak by its size. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. placement. and you decide to draw the moment. and there met this sullen custodian. pulls. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. flap. furniture leans. rather than the works of art they guarded. and reason for happening. . you might place them lower down. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. Place the person carefully. emotion. I took refuge in a church in Venice.

W i t h a few strokes. I added t h e assistant. Here. D r a w their action. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. If drawing a more complex scene. together with any immediate props they are using. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. . In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. continue adding characters. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. Draw their action and props.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation.


I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. . where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings.

Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. followed by the streets. note only their most essential action and feature. and drawn immediately from memory. Caricature each person slightly. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. . then the bridge beneath them. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. To catch characters like this. Each person was glimpsed in an instant.



Sitting at a distance on a hot. and a great subject to draw. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. . quiet afternoon.




speculation. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. and experiment. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. It is better to get up before dawn. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. as opposed the physicality of Earth. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. learning to draw light out of dark. and even how the Sun illuminates. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . a contemporary environmental artist. England. Oxford. the sun comes out to blind it. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. Beginners will often choose calm. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. 199). Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. the face of the Moon. trees. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. and the sea. sunny days. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. our companion. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. and meteor impacts have scarred. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. These conditions are very difficult to express well. and its draws the tides of the seas.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. how the soil is scorched. Richard Long. or the wind carries it away. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. Russell d r e w this. It is Earths satellite. they are the animators of your subject. makes his work by the act of walking. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. The forces of nature. rivers. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum.

and the legal profession. a scratched ghost.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. This wife. sculptor. and gives motion to each image. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. and solidity. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . seeing how it shakes. T h e ship. fluttering heavily. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. is already lost. like an umbrella forced inside-out. lifts. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. distance. painter. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. the bourgeoisie. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. the government. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. serving a prison sentence for his views. we can soon learn to draw its force. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Below. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. speed.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. and pioneer ofexpressionism.

Ship in a Storm c.M. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . wind. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .199 J. a n d his b e s t . Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right).M. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. from left print. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.b l o c kprintmaker.W. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. T U R N E R British landscape.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. seascape. painter. W . 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.

grab their b r u s h . He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. as a subject and second. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. water. or charcoal. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . h a u n t e d shadows. marks. and swim into the page. By contrast. active surfaces of water. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. fantasy palaces.198) admires the majesty of nature. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. as a gestural storm on the paper. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. Turner (see p. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. with a brush. composing banks of waves and dense. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. It looks so contemporary. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. Then. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. In periods b e t w e e n writing. ink. as if drawn j u s t this year. Opposite.28). it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. His subjects include ruins. this is a writer's narrative of terror. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. inks. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works.

and a wheel. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. a hook. a bell. for example). Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . together with half the contents of our garage. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right.

and after tracing her captured line.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. sea-. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). thick. and famed for. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. or cityscape. watching his hand and eye at work together. In a very different work (opposite above). C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Paler. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. his unsurpassed handling of light. made inside a book. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Whether land-. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. rich. and mood simultaneously. rapidly layering contours to shape place. atmosphere. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Views from Velletri c. Nature Profiles Opposite below.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. which he used to unify his compositions. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Drawing with a scalpel. transferred it to a scroll. Even distilled from all other detail. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. and across to the right. Claude is distinguished by. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Over first lines.

Her recent paper photographic. On turning the pages of City.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.5-m)scroll. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN ." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. then hunted destroyed. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. printmaker graphic designer. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. specialty bookbinder.

SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. it looks gray and feels like chalk. and heavier than willow. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. 7. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . b e e c h . As its name implies. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. harder line. vine. or fingertip. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. tape. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. only a little thicker. It c a n be m a d e duller. sticky side down. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. without touching the surface. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Essentially. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. fine. b l a c k e r . Smooth paper accepts few particles. a n d p l u m . they are all intended for fine work. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. 4. between your middle finger and thumb. and offers a rich. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. Then lift it away.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. blacker. It does n o t erase easily. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal.54). this does not exist. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . black finish. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. A great find when available. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. 6. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. In use. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. Alternatively. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. 3. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. resulting in a pale line. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. maple. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. feather. 1. a piece of fresh bread. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. 162) or graphite (see p. 2. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. The same as above. . It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. a rag. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. cylindrical. Artists have also used lime.

or any other dry media. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. 8 . 9. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Here. pastels.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. graphite. sold in several widths. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. . PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. 10. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Here we used a ballpoint. Cotton swabs also work. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds.

it results in flat planes of clutter.212-13). The long view is hidden behind trees. a reel of masking tape. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. On p p . To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. hazy distance. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Seeing tones . Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. At its worst. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. but is often less evocative and engaging. and an abstract. Ironically. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). the less you describe. When you arrive. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. They are also good markers of receding space. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. 9 8 . Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. to contain each of your compositions.

207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. Remember. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . rounded. shadows. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. the trunk of a bare tree. horizontal regions of grass. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). your view is your inspiration. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. dark trees with bright.

Similarly. s e e k places in light After my first drawing." . on p p . taking with you your drawing book and pen. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. shade out of the glare of the sun. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. which was the flow of water over rocks. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day.104-05). settling my concentration. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. engine. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. 2 1 4 . and tiller still standing proud. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. bare ribs. For example. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. and seeing what the real choice of subject is.

209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I drew with quick. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. character. marking straight. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. W h e n you have found your subject. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. and the order and shape of its component parts. and structure. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. its overall balance. w h e n t h e sea recedes. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. unfussy lines. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . ROUND 2 In this tail-end view.



was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. m a d e on s m o o t h . .


I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. pocket-sized notebook. . focusing on the river's eddies. black.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. On the pages of a small. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. since ancient times. shaping the city. pulse.


. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.



and Aboriginal art. First marks. Berne. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. and history. liberating. which are essentially abstract. and it has always been with us. direction. Outsider artists. spontaneous image-making. It was not invented in the 20th century. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. and emotion. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. and young children show us that abstract. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. it is simply itself. . It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. writhing torrents of color. drawn sound. However. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. only rediscovered. and independent means of communication. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. strike the paper to find form. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. As you approach the classes in this chapter. or gestures. abstraction is not so easy to define. belief.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. sounds. Museum of Fine Arts. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. Swirling. opposite. Indian mandalas. such as Adolf Wolfli. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. for example. fictional language. don't be timid. be brave and enjoy them. From one point of view. From another viewpoint. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. poet. Afterward. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. actions.

and plaster in galleries and landscapes. and wood are also part of the work. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. salt. tone. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. ice. Below. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. silence. Abe works with materials such as soil. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. and patient watching. water. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. or. akin to stones in a Zen garden. quoting ink marks on a page. Lines. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Changes paper. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. A line can be finished in a second. Five forged steel shapes. It can proclaim mood. as Twombly shows us opposite. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. and temperature rim of floor space. Iron rods in tone. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. forged steel. Moisture produced rust. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. texture. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. iron. sit in silent harmony. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. brass. rhythmically engaged with itself.

and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. that challenges the separation of word from image. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. and sensuous drawing from painting. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. theories suggest astrological observations.241).000-2. the Babylonian world map. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.England.Thesite's purpose is unknown. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. burials. CY TWOMBLY .400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. energetic.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. emotive. such as the Rosetta stone. evolved a raw.

music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. Hugo." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Gestalt. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . "There is nothing like dream to create the future. he mixed graphite into ink. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. said.28. abstract artists and composers unique. abstract. and participate in the composition. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. opposite. a configuration. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. too. pressed them face down. and inventive of his time. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. below. Bussotti. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here.28). Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. beautiful. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. interpret. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p.

Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Bussotti's first mature work. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. His later works become increasingly abstract. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Following the notes.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . This is a page from Due Voci.

Germany. Compositional rightness (see pp. social outcasts.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . This takes a form in most cultures.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. In the late 1 9 t h century. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. cultures. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. centuries. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. Visually. for e x a m p l e . an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . O p p o s i t e . and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum.

and in places of worship and celebration. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. and birds. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. among others. cultural anthropologist. at the University of London and Ohio State University. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Materials such as rice flour. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.225 STEPHEN P.HUYLER Photographer art historian. animals.000 images. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. In daily practice. chalk. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. lime.

filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. With no depth of field. structure. Oxford. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. performance and installation artist. figurative representation—that is. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. and Fellow of Linacre College. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. and choice of hues. Ruskin School. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. but similarities in mood. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper.

whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. ruler. drew. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. and brush. philosophized.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Klee painted. and might be read as active or passive. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung.97-99. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.31). Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. watercolor.

the impression y o u receive from t h e m . It is also found in nature. angles. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. and put them o n a tray. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. media. a b u n c h of keys." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. or home. As y o u m o v e them around.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . or on a page. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. for instance. It is found in all great art and design. and an apple. culture. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. their impact. they are just. Take." . regardless of style. there is a clear feeling when. they reach a perfect position. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. and ten straight sticks painted black. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. and elements settle in definitive balance. or degree of figuration.Thisexercise will help you start. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. a glass. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. Feel for it when youdraw. after being continuously adjusted. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea.

2 3 In the step above. . Here. as shown here. W h e n the composition falls into place. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. horizontals dominate the top. painted black. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. making the composition seem to float beneath. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.56-57).229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. fix it with glue." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. which now becomes a tight frame. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. horizontals dominate the lower area. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. suggesting a horizon.

Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. To prepare for this lesson. ready-made depths and surfaces. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. he went on to say ". hard or soft. Returning to Russell Page. a compass." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. correction fluid or white paint.69 and Abe's installation on p. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.228-29). glue. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. harmonious. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. and tones. and black ink. found or made items.. an infinite range of voices and meaning. scissors.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage." (Russell Page) . which is the shifting. feels "just" (see pp. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d .Youwill also need spare white paper.220. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. colors. Cut or torn layers and shapes. or discordance. or even strident. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.

COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. then cut out. and shadow to thepicture.228) in front of you. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. . solidity. they deepen pictorial space. four circles of blue tissue paper. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. Obscuring the blue disks. and with a compass and scissors.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. draw. In the last step (left). 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume.


Zen Brushwork]." [Tanchu Terayama. and expectation. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. emotion.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). .

These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. . discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.





247. or in smoke. Neither should be slave or master. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Lord of the Rings.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. sculptures. In the Christian churches of Europe. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. and the Alien trilogy. Star Wars. aliens. thousands of paintings. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Monsters take advantage of both. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. for example. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. beasts. or strange. To learn to flex your imagination. impossible. serpentine tails. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. England. For example. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. angels. feathers. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Today. paradise. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. in the cracks of walls. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Here. wings. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. When creating monsters. scales. happen to us. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Feeding this demand. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. . look for images in the folds of clothing. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life.

Opposite. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. which can swamp the subject Here. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. rushing. it allows the mule to stand forward. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject.30. Saturn devouring his son. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . In this ass. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Opposite below. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. crammed tightly at his desk. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. portraits. Compare his dark. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. reading from a book of asses. such asinine behavior can be hereditary.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. we see the international icon of stupidity. Los Caprichos. deranged masses. vanity. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Pictorially. hags. his lover a dog. to Picasso's similarly tight. noisy seascape on p. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. and men clubbing each other to death. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. The high. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. He would be graceless if he stood.220. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. and exposed the superstitions. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. below. and church murals. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY.

by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN .241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. It was made with a sharp implement. meaning "place of power. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. ideals. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. and personal and social struggles. perhaps a stone. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. of the earth. Wyoming. Wind River Reservation. values.

graphic artist. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. crawl. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul.and 16th-century Holland. as he did the grass. 115. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. to the right of the balloon. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. below left. and scuttle over all known reality.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. If it were to turn and stare this way. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. H e was influenced by his friends. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. the shock would be extreme. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. Techniques demonstrated on pp.

and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Madrid. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . which is still available today. and Ship of Fools. Last Judgment. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. grimacing. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. include The Haywain. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Les Animaux (1840). Light shines from the right.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Smiling. Garden of Earthly Delights.

However. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. she formed a series of ghostly pale. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. and play with its perfection and meaning. topple. lion. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. Opposite. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . Scaly. In her studio. below. St Peter's square. and dog. hatched lines. and dying slaves. Michelangelo's dragon.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. the dome of the Vatican. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. and marble sculptures including Pieto. and mist-swathed land. remembering the cavernous. gamboling copulations. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. pinnacled. snake. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. as we might expect. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. poet. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. a stunning hybrid of a swan. David. architect. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast.

London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. London. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Oxford. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. boards finished paper. her under heavy here.

Brushes vary in size. between them. and writers. 2. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. 1. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. Always clean them thoroughly. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. and has a fine tip for detailed work. shape. drawing tool extending the arm. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. ideally suited to drawing. 3. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. 12.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. S Y N T H E T I C .H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. giving a variety of lines. washes. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. 7. and effects. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. It has exceptional painting characteristics. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. return them to their pointed shape. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. fingers. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. and very fine lines. dense." 6. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. materials. It is capable of very fine pointing. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Some are bold. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. flowing. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. it has good wash capabilities. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. all perfect for drawing and. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and texture. with a fine point for delicate work 4. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. thicknesses. M T RA S AEIL . which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. The living marks of a wet. 13. 10. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. liners. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous.


the speed of the s t r o k e . A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. and type of its hairs. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. length.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.246-47). and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. w i t h m y face close. softness.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. and spatters. the degree of pressure applied.) I . Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and to make pools and stains o n the page. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). unglazed earthenware dish. splashes. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.

. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . a n d b r u s h .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink.

I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. . until we look again. Oxford. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies.


They are a pair and hang opposite each other. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. are two long. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right).Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Here. Isidore. Madrid. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. formal composition. and narrative twists. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. . Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. With further research.


little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. drawn rapidly and with great joy. .


F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Engraving 1. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. pastel. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Cartoon 1.m e d i a d r a w i n g . a n d g r a p h i t e . p r i n t i n g press face up. charcoal. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . 2. p h o t o g r a p h s . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. tapestry. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache.m a d e paper. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. s u c h as a s c r e e n . m e a n i n g "beauty"." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. chance mark-making. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. Air brush A mechanical. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Field In a t w o . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. A f u l l ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . See also Hotpressed papers. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . 2. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. for example. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Also called accelerated perspective. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse.

multiH u e A term for a color. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. 2. It is a strong adhesive. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Padua. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. and is also used as a size. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. the finely ground particles of plant.The degree to which detail is defined. Impressing Stamping or printing. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. and that will "escape" or change over time. glass. A point of interest in a drawing. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism.while secretion of the acacia tree. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. glossy. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. and it has a history in enamel work. work. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. or a family of colors. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. F o r m a t T h e size. purpose. oil-. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Alternatively. cadmium yellow hue. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Negative space The space between things. materials that produce marks on a surface. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. or even a beam of light. After several intervening processes. It is then peeled away. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. ink. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. pastel. which has a rough surface). aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. Focus 1 ." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. and orientation of the image. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. but each print will be unique. rock. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders.257 metal line. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. graphite. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. This may be disregarded in real life. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). sticky paper tape. shape. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. and gray drawing. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. . or plastic surface. mineral. white. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity.

whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. carbon ink. or the right-hand page in a book. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. ink. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. The crude material is called oleoresin.Thedrawing is removed. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. wall or tapestry. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith.Technicaldrawing has been example. watercolor. plaster.258 GLOSSARY together optically. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Vanishing point In linear perspective. or the left-hand page in a book. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Alternatively. . an ink stone usually cut from slate. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. or watercolor paint. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. and flowers. which are then called editions. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. A term borrowed from the theater. pencil. Wash A technique using ink. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. to model areas of light and shade. and paperweights. or pen. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Tortillon A short. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. compound of water-soluble pigment. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. acrylic. plum blossom. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. orchids. Strip Core of a pencil. giving it a brilliance. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. commonly referred to as the lead. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. fruit. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Stylus A sharp. tight. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. paper or canvas. or gouache. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Named paper in place. design. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. using a brush. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Printmaking The act of making a picture." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. fine paper. glasses. or wood. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point.

158. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 202 cloth. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50.89. 74. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 163. 244 and graphite 178 . cut Catling. 94 cylindrical objects. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 50. 178 Cubism 67.44-45.13. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 205 Baltard.162 Conte. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 165. 90 La Guitare. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 139 Nanha) 50. 90. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 71 Blake. 13. 111.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 157 cropping 56-57. 242 Brunelleschi.133. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198.184. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 186 charcoal 114. 221 animals.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 206 checkered floor 80. 179 Bussotti. 137 Besler. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.50. 94 chalk(s) 53. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 204-205. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan.44-45 bird studies 12. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 198. 247-248 carving see lines. 241 action. 41 principal 186. 75.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219.100 curves. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 116. 133. Mamaru 104.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 230-231 Cubist 90. Basilius 47 Beuys. Sylvano 222. Georges 67. 189.163 body. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. to draw 80. 8 cave paintings 8. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 222. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 203 Landline 202. to express 39. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 28 Klee's horses 30. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 200 Bauer. 128. 180 blending: color 133. 220. 38-39. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 204.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 81 cut-out model plan 94. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 113 bird bones 12. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 74.184. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 71 conte 112.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 193 in lifting out 204.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Le (Hugo) 200.226. 182. 162 character: to capture 38-39. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 90. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. Filippo 67. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. to draw 25. 81 135. 206. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 201 collage 111. Clare 203 City 202. 9. 98.198. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202.

252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92.146 from masterworks 126-127.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28.141. 55.37. 25 focus 65. fiber-tip pen 182. to draw 78.91. 161 fashion 160. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198.216 Durelli. 157 . 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich.160.104. 55. 163. 245 Hugo. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 93 horizon 52. 245 Gruau.157 ellipses 100. 137 heads. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68.141. 163. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 122 Hawksmoor. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 216 foreshortening 110. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 104-105.109 Rhinoceros 26. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 134. Statue d'Epouvante. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. M. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 52 foreground 208. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.252-253 from memory 183. 132 Frenz. 79. 243 graphic score 222.230 three-tone 140. 160 Faune. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.103 with eraser 103. 124. 222. 120.12 fixative 54. 99 etching. 222 Grimes.97.69 Gerard. 69. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.116. 55.207. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156.244. The 242. 161 fashion drawings 160. 170-173. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.117 fountain pens 34. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 223. position of 22 Eisen. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 90 gouache 30. 141 tonal 96.160. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 125. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. La (Braque) 90. Francisco de 131. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 73. 162 Flaxman.198 Degas.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 122. Victor 200. to draw 120. C . 115 Escher. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.189. 205 drawing with 103.111 feet.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.103. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 134.184 165. 202.121 felt-tip pens 162. 112. 799 Holbein. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 69.144 and ink 30. 29 H hands. Antonio 68. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. Sir Ernst 12. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. position of 143. Edgar 162 depth. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 134. 242 eyes.112. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 90 G Gaudi. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 245 layers 30 Goya. 240.216. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 40. 240 Black Paintings 152. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 69 Guitare. 200 F fabric. 113. 7 33 Hooke. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 223 graphite 54. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198.

drawing from 183. 135 museums 44. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch.141.102.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 220. 53 Tree II 52. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134.109. 220. 220. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.166 La Specola. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180.120. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 244 Dragon 36. 244. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.109. 31 Klimt. 227 Newsome. Johan 32.104. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.112. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 220.124. 184. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 111. Gustav 49 Knopf. 756 priming for 140. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 789. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 35. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.182 Moore. 36. 53 monoprint 787. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Charles Rennie 48. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 252 ink 16. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252.276. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 60. artistic 240-241. 58-59. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51.115 98. 63. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 203.The (Robinson) 108. 225 masking tape 204. 226 Modernism 67. 34. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. Oxford 106 Prado.141 Metropolis (film) 72.167 line(s) 132. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 757 mandalas 219.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 166. 97 Murillo. 219 Mondrian. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 72. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.96. 77 Miller. Piet 52. Alphonse 90. 74-77. 170-173. 99. drawing from 126-127. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 185 Mucha. 181 Klee. 234 iron-gall 35. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 177 influences. 205 masterworks. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90.134 K Kettlehut. 73 Kigell. 76 Libeskind. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 205.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 176. Matisse. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 248. David 78 M Mackintosh. 221 endless 31 free 113. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202.

Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 34-35. 103. 736 portraits. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 91 outsider artists 33.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 141 Piranesi.240.226. 37 38.139 Autoportrait 138. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. Faune. 161. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 166 fiber-tip 782. 224 0 layers 31. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 159. Bridget 98 Robinson.oise au Bandeau 132. Sue 104. 9 0 . 205 157. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 38. 76 plastic eraser 55. The (Abe) 220 Picasso.Tim.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 57 Ross-Craig. 244 reed 34.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 7 38 Ray 138. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 40-41. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136.9 3 Schongauer. Giovanni Battista 74.759. 74.36.262 INDEX Newton. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 9 8 . to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 74-77. 122. 73 Noble. 36.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 7 77 three-point 80. 759 P Page. 72 Noble. 36. 1 1 6 . 36. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 75 Two Courtyards 75. 36. 76-79. 219.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. and Webster. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. Man 131. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 78 single-point 74.37. 241 Physical Space.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 772 234-237 Sesshu. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34.40.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 30 Fran<.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 81 two-point 74.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 36. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 164. Erik 70. 38. 181 Rodin. 165.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140.184 fountain 34. Pablo 6 7 . 243. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 243. 163. 1 6 3 . 26 Riley. 1 3 2 quill pens 34.37. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 212 Japanese 2 1 . Cheval et Oiseau 30. 160. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.52 pen and wash 158. 97. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. Russell 228. 68 Satie. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 242 reed pens 34. 7 70 Ray. 216. Martin 238.The (Beuys) 112. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.

J. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 74. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. W . C y 138. 186. M . 2 1 2 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. Sue see N o b l e .243 Leonardo's machines 12. 7 77.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 182. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. v i e w s o f 85. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 69. 230 t h r e e . 221 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 202 violin. 7 1 4 .2 1 3 Stubbs. 69. 76. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 2 9 wind. 75. 104-105. 53 trees. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 115. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 102-103 tonal marks. 226 V Van Dyck. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 1 4 0 . 161. 1 8 4 . 156 Van Gogh. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 3 4 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 .Sforza Horse. 57. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 65 symbols 138.1 4 5 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 199. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .1 9 9 wire. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 1 8 4 . A n t h o n y 152.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. t o lay 1 4 0 . 249 t o describe 39.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . t h r e e . 6 9 Wodall. t o draw 1 9 8 .12 W a l t e r .9 1 storms. 1 6 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 159 Wolfli.158 158.2 0 1 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 .241 s i l k . 2 4 2 w Wallis. 79. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 9 0 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 96. 7 9 0 vessels.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 2 4 7 t h r e e . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 2 2 6 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .120.141 S i m b l e t . t o d r a w 2 0 0 .125 W o o d f i n e . 1 4 1 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s .1 4 1 . 1 9 9 . 206-207 202.41. 241. 174 T w o m b l y . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. A l f r e d 1 1 . 49. 158 V a n Eyck.216 W e b s t e r . 77. 97. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75.27 skull 747. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 9 2 Tesshu. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. t o d r a w 5 2 . 1 4 4 . 2 4 4 . 1 3 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 164. 7 6 1 spots. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 141 Three Male Figures.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110.

2 4 0 : w w w .co. Graphische Collection. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Paula Regan. Roddy Bell. Florence/MoMA. 9 7 6 ) . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Havemeyer. R . 1 1 0 : www. Agnieszka Mlicka. 1901. 137: © The British Museum.r. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. NY. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. C o r n e l i s o n & Son.a. 226: Brian Catling. A . 13: www. France. 9 1 : www. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Wolfson Also. Flossie.Strang Print Room ( b ) .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. D a w n Henderson. Natalie G o d w i n . Carole A s h . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 115: Anita Taylor. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 17: J o h n Walter. L o n d o n . Christopher Davis. B M G .bridgeman. Patty Stansfield. Toulouse. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. University of Cambridge. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Collection. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. B e r l i n . G e r m a n y . 179: www. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . 1 . Paul T h o m a s .bridgeman. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. b r i d g e m a n . support. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m .uk/Musee des Augustins. c o . Sarah D u n c a n . A . Jackie Douglas. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . Basel. Diana Bell. Paris./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t .co. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. u k / L o u v r e . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. a n d brushes o n pp. L o n d o n (t). 88: www.20-21 a n d 246-47. Paris. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 114: Musee Museum. K u n s t m u s e u m . c o . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. 3 2 : Pepys /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. U K . papers. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Lisbon. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 .co. P h y l l Kiggell. London 2005.bridgeman. 6 6 : w w w . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). L o n d o n . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) .bridgeman. L o n d o n . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 2 3 8 : akg-images. Rocio Arnaez. Paris a n d D A C S . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum.bridgeman. L o n d o n .bridgeman. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. Kirsten Norrie. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. c o .co. Anders. Paris a n d D A C S . 1 5 : w w w . B e m d Kunzig.Paris ( b ) . Inc. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Paris. University of Oxford./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 11: www. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. Orientabteilung/Ruth Oxford. Corporation of London. 74: Corbis. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. (r). 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Andy Collection. J o h n Walter. Julie O u g h t o n . Angela W i l k e s ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 68: www. B e r l i n . T o n y G r i s o n i . Amsterdam.l. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). 3 1 : Tom Powel Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Jean Pierre Roy. H a y w a r d Gallery. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De Trust. Sophie Laurimore.939).bridgeman. © Tate. H . 1929 (29. F r a n c e . J o h n Roberts. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Paris and D A C S . Winthrop. Peter L u f f . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Magdalene College Cambridge. S i m o n L e w i s . 1879. 72: akg-images. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Paris. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Sammy De Grave. b r i d g e m a n . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . Madrid. 174: Artothek/Munich. 157: U C L Art Collections . H a m b u r g .co. b r i d g e m a n . L e n . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). B . Clare Bryan. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Paris. George M c G a v i n . Anita Taylor. K e w ft)). Germany. 180: www. Sarah Woodfine. Italy. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Sir Brinsley F o r d . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 16: www. Angela Palmer. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Japan. O o n a G r i m e s . F i n n . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. M a n d y Earey. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. L o n d o n . 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n .uk/Kettle's Yard. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Portugal. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 176: Modem Art. Germany/Joerg P. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t .co. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. G e r m a n y . 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. G i n a R o w l a n d . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Fund. Paris. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . Berlin (b). 75: © The British Museum (b).bridgeman. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Kunstmuseum Bern. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . U K . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . J o n Roome. 2 6 : Topfoto. . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library.

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