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ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
As an education and training organization within the IT Service Management (ITSM) industry, we have been impressed by the positive changes introduced by the refresh of ITIL® in July 2007. The evolution of the core principles and practices provided by the framework provides the more holistic guidance needed for an industry that continues to mature and develop at a rapid pace. We recognize however, that many organizations and individuals who had previously struggled with their adoption of the framework will continue to find challenges in ‘implementing’ ITIL® as part of their approach for governance of IT Service Management practices. In light of this, one of our primary goals is to provide the quality education and support materials needed to enable the understanding and application of the ITIL® framework in a wide-range of contexts. This workbook’s primary purpose is to complement the accredited ITIL® Release, Control & Validation program provided by The Art of Service or one of our accredited partners. We hope you find this book to be a useful tool in your educational library and wish you well in you IT Service Management career!
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© The Art of Service Pty Ltd ‘All of the information in this document is subject to copyright. No part of this document may in any form or by any means (whether electronic or mechanical or otherwise) be copied, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or provided to any other person without the prior written permission of The Art of Service Pty Ltd, who owns the copyright.’ ITIL® is a Registered Community Trade Mark of OGC (Office of Government Commerce, London, UK), and is Registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
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ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
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2 2.3 5.1.2 6. Control & Validation Best Practices 3 Contents FOREWORD____________________________ 1 2 2.1.4 6.1 3.1 4.3 4 4.2.1 5.4 6 6.2 3.3 4.1.6 SERVICE TRANSITION OBJECTIVES OF SERVICE TRANSITION BENEFITS OF SERVICE TRANSITION INTERFACES TO OTHER SERVICE LIFECYCLE PHASES RELEASE.1 2.1 4. CONTROL PROCESSES AND THE SERVICE LIFECYCLE________________ 5.3 INTRODUCTION_______________________ IT SERVICE MANAGEMENT______________ THE FOUR PERSPECTIVES (ATTRIBUTES) OF ITSM BENEFITS OF ITSM BUSINESS AND IT ALIGNMENT WHAT IS ITIL®?_____________________ THE SERVICE LIFECYCLE MAPPING THE CONCEPTS OF ITIL® TO THE SERVICE LIFECYCLE HOW DOES THE SERVICE LIFECYCLE WORK? COMMON TERMINOLOGY_______________ WHAT ARE SERVICES? BUSINESS UNITS AND SERVICE UNITS CREATING SERVICE VALUE SERVICE PACKAGES AND SERVICE LEVEL PACKAGES SERVICE PORTFOLIOS PROCESSES & FUNCTIONS DEFINING PROCESSES DEFINING FUNCTIONS CONNECTING PROCESSES AND FUNCTIONS OTHER TERMINOLOGY AND VALIDATION 37 39 40 41 42 45 47 47 48 49 49 50 52 ©The Art of Service 1 7 9 10 11 12 15 16 18 20 21 22 24 26 27 29 31 31 33 34 35 5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE RELEASE.1.4 4.1.2 4.3 3 3.2.2 4.2.1. CONTROL AND VALIDATION PROCESSES_________________________ CHANGE MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES SCOPE DESIGNING AND PLANNING CHANGE MANAGEMENT POLICIES CHANGE MODELS TRIGGERS AND INTERFACES .1.1.3 6.1.ITIL® V3 : Release.5 6.1 6.2 4.2 5.1 4.1 6.3 4.1.
1.1 6.11 6.2.2 6.4 6.7 6.2.2 184.108.40.206.5.4 6.4.4 6.10 6.5.2 220.127.116.11 6.8 6.5 6.6 18.104.22.168 6.9 6.1 6.9 ITIL® V3 : Release.7 6.13 6.4.8 6.2.2 6.1 6.2 22.214.171.124.4.1 6.4 6.7 6.5 6.7.5 126.96.36.199.7.5 6.1 6.3 6.8 6.3 6.6 6. Control & Validation Best Practices CHANGE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES WITHIN CHANGE MANAGEMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS) OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AFFECTING CHANGE MANAGEMENT RELATIONSHIP WITH PROJECT MANAGEMENT TYPICAL CONTENTS OF CHANGE DOCUMENTATION RACI EXAMPLE FOR MANAGING CHANGE RELEASE AND DEPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES SCOPE BENEFITS TERMINOLOGY TRIGGERS AND INTERFACES RELEASE DESIGN OPTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS RELEASE POLICY RELEASE AND DEPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS) OF RELEASE & DEPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT SERVICE VALIDATION AND TESTING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES SCOPE BENEFITS POLICIES AND PRINCIPLES TEST MODELS TESTING APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES SERVICE VALIDATION AND TESTING ACTIVITIES TRIGGERS AND INTERFACES KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS) OF SERVICE VALIDATION AND TESTING SERVICE EVALUATION GOALS AND OBJECTIVES SCOPE BENEFITS PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION EVALUATION ACTIVITIES TRIGGERS AND INTERFACES KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS) FOR SERVICE EVALUATION REQUEST FULFILMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES SCOPE BENEFITS REQUEST MODELS REQUEST FULFILMENT ACTIVITIES TRIGGERS AND INTERFACES KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS) FOR REQUEST FULFILMENT SERVICE ASSET AND CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES SCOPE BENEFITS POLICIES AND PRINCIPLES OF SERVICE ASSET AND CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT TERMINOLOGY THE CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS) CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES TRIGGERS AND INTERFACES ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 54 59 60 61 62 63 67 68 68 69 69 69 72 73 75 75 85 86 86 87 87 87 90 91 93 95 96 97 97 97 98 98 98 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 104 106 107 108 108 108 109 109 111 111 114 120 121 ©The Art of Service .2 6.6.6 6.7.4 6.1.6 6.6.7 6.7.3 6.6 6.7.7 188.8.131.52 6.5.7 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 6.1.3 18.104.22.168 6.5 6.7 22.214.171.124 6.4 126.96.36.199 6.3 6.6.
1 11.3 11.1 6.2 8 8.5 6.7.5 11.4 11.8 6.10 6. PROCESSES________________ 9. Control & Validation Best Practices 5 122 123 123 123 124 125 126 127 129 130 133 133 134 139 141 141 142 142 6.8.2 188.8.131.52 6.1 8.ITIL® V3 : Release.2 11.2 6.3 6.8.2 11 11.8 7 7.8.7 12 13 13.8.1 10.1 8.6 184.108.40.206 6.1 9.2 10 10.1 7.1.1 VALIDATION 143 144 145 147 148 149 153 154 155 156 159 160 161 162 163 167 167 THE CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT MODEL MANAGING CULTURAL CHANGE SERVICE TRANSITION SUMMARY_________ SERVICE TRANSITION SCENARIO REVIEW QUESTIONS CHECKLIST FOR RCV PRACTICES_________ SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE SERVICE TRANSITION PRINCIPLES SERVICE TRANSITION PROCESSES SERVICE TRANSITION COMMON OPERATION ACTIVITIES ORGANIZING SERVICE TRANSITION SERVICE TRANSITION TECHNOLOGY CONSIDERATIONS IMPLEMENTING SERVICE TRANSITION GLOSSARY_________________________ CERTIFICATION______________________ ITIL® CERTIFICATION PATHWAYS ©The Art of Service .3 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS) FOR REQUEST FULFILMENT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES SCOPE CHALLENGES FACED BY KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND PRINCIPLES OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT THE SERVICE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SKMS) KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES TRIGGERS AND INTERFACES KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS) OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR RCV____ GENERIC ROLES ROLES WITHIN SERVICE TRANSITION TECHNOLOGY CONSIDERATIONS_________ KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TOOLS COMMUNITIES COLLABORATION WORKFLOW MANAGEMENT CONTROL AND 9 IMPLEMENTING RELEASE.6 11.8.1.
Control & Validation Best Practices ISO/IEC 20000 PATHWAYS ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS REFERENCES 168 169 171 ©The Art of Service .6 13.2 14 15 ITIL® V3 : Release.
it is in fact these conflicting requirements that leads to the necessity of quality practices to be adopted by an organization as part of its approach to quality IT service management. The bad news unfortunately is that there is still a long road to go and considerable challenges to overcome before this maturity is achieved for many IT Service Providers. Assumptions are made by the authors that readers already have some familiarity with IT and ITIL terminology or have already completed an ITIL Foundation program. this workbook aims to develop the reader’s knowledge and appreciation of the practices for IT Service Management. In light of this. Control & Validation Best Practices 7 1 Introduction_______________________ As we approach yet another major information technology (IT) revolution coming in the form of Cloud and Utility Computing.ITIL® V3 : Release. modified and existing IT Services. This workbook is best used in addition to the combination of an accredited ITIL training program as well as practical experience gained in the field. Control and Validation of new. ©The Art of Service . with particular focus on those capabilities required for the Release. While it may seem contradictory that the words Release (let go) and Control (maintain authority) are used together. many observers might have expected that by 2008 the IT industry may have achieved maturity in many of its most fundamental practices.
Control & Validation Best Practices ©The Art of Service .8 ITIL® V3 : Release.
customers and other stakeholders involved. Standard elements for most definitions of ITSM include: • Description of the processes required to deliver and support IT Services for customers. experience and skills. Control & Validation Best Practices 9 2 IT Service Management______________ The term IT Service Management (ITSM) is used in many ways by different management frameworks and organizations seeking governance and increased maturity of their IT organization. • Definition of roles and responsibilities for the people involved including IT staff. the culture that exists within the service organization and the intangible nature of the output and intermediate products of IT services. The ITIL® framework has developed as a major source of good practice in Service Management and is used by organizations worldwide to establish and improve their ITSM practices. being complemented by an industry of professional practice and wealth of knowledge.ITIL® V3 : Release. The official ITIL® definition of IT Service Management is found within the Service Design volume on page 11. • The purpose primarily being to deliver and support the technology or products needed by the business to meet key organizational objectives or goals. ©The Art of Service . However IT Service Management comprises more than just these capabilities alone. • The management of external suppliers (partners) involved in the delivery and support of the technology and products being delivered and supported by IT. These organizational capabilities are influenced by the needs and requirements of customers. The combination of these elements provide the capabilities required for an IT organization to deliver and support quality IT Services that meet specific business needs and requirements. describing ITSM as “A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services”.
This includes IT staff.g. Control & Validation Best Practices 2. tools.1 The Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM Partners/Suppliers People Process Products/Technology Figure 2. transition and eventual adoption by customers. • People Perspective: Concerned with the “soft” side of ITSM.1 – Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM There are four perspectives (“4P’s”) or attributes to explain the concept of ITSM. Do staff have the correct skills and knowledge to perform their roles? • Products/Technology Perspective: Takes into account IT services. hardware & software. in that these four perspectives need to be considered and catered for in order to enable success in its design. customers and other stakeholders. ©The Art of Service . • Process Perspective: Relates the end to end delivery of service based on process flows. • Partners/Suppliers Perspective: Takes into account the importance of Partner and External Supplier relationships and how they contribute to Service Delivery. budgets. Quality IT Service Management ensures that all of these four perspectives are taken into account as part of the continual improvement of the IT organization. E. It is the same when designing new or modified Services themselves.10 ITIL® V3 : Release.
Control & Validation. These stakeholders can come from: • senior management • business unit managers • customers • end users • IT staff • suppliers ©The Art of Service . Customer and User demands • integrated centralized processes • everyone knows their role and knows their responsibilities in service provision • learning from previous experience • demonstrable performance indicators In particular reference to the scope of Release. some typical benefits include: • improved quality service provision • cost justifiable service quality • services that meet business.2 Benefits of ITSM While the benefits of applying IT Service Management practices vary depending on the organization’s needs. It is important to consider the range of stakeholders who can benefit from improved ITSM practices.ITIL® V3 : Release. such benefits include: • improved capability for supporting business growth and change • improved efficiency of business and IT staff though quality information and knowledge being made available • decreased variance between estimated and actual resource requirements • reduction in the number of software license and asset management discrepancies • reduction in the number and impact of failed Changes and Release rollbacks. Control & Validation Best Practices 11 2.
These layers are communicated by the following: 1. CORE Business Processes (These enable the objectives above to be met) 3. A way in which to communicate how IT supports the business is using the following Figure demonstrating business and IT alignment. IT Service Management (The focus here is on the ITIL® processes required for quality delivery and support of the IT Services above) 5.3 Business and IT Alignment A central concept to keep in mind when discussing the benefits of IT Service Management is the goal of business and IT alignment. IT Technical Activities (The actual technical activities required as part of the execution of the ITIL® processes above. they lose sight of the actual purpose and benefit that their efforts deliver to the business. Figure 1. ©The Art of Service .12 ITIL® V3 : Release. These are technology specific and as such not the focus of ITIL® or this document. Control & Validation Best Practices 2. When staff members of an IT organization have an internal focus on the technology being delivered and supported. IT Service Organization (What IT Services are required to enable the effective and efficient execution of the business processes above?) 4.B below divides an organization into a number of supporting layers that work towards meeting a number of organizational goals. Organization (What are the key goals for the organization?) 2.
Control & Validation Best Practices 13 Figure 2.2 – Business and IT Alignment Example to illustrate business and IT alignment: Business: A fashion store What are some of your organization’s objectives or strategic goals? We want to make a lot of money $$$! We want to have a good image and reputation.ITIL® V3 : Release. And therefore we cannot meet or support our overall organization’s objectives!!! ©The Art of Service . automatic procurement system for buying products. marketing. email. Capacity Management etc) Available when we need it (Availability. Service Level MGT) If we don’t manage the IT Services appropriately we cannot rely on these services to be available when we need. What IT Services are these business processes dependent on? Web site. Incident MGT etc. HR etc. procurement.) Provisioned cost-effectively (Financial . Point of Sale Services We have ITSM in order to make sure the IT Services are: What we need (Service Level Management. buying. What Business Processes aide in achieving those objectives? Retail. If this occurs we cannot adequately support our business processes effectively and efficiently.
14 ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices ©The Art of Service .
The ITIL® framework evolved from the UK government’s efforts during the 1980s to document how successful organizations approached service management. including those documented by: • Public frameworks (ITIL®. COBIT. Control & Validation Best Practices 15 3 What is ITIL®?_____________________ ITIL® stands for the Information Technology Infrastructure Library. • Service Strategy • Service Design • Service Transition • Service Operation • Continual Service Improvement ©The Art of Service . ITL has gone through several evolutions and was most recently refreshed with the release of version 3 in 2007. BS 15 000) • Proprietary knowledge of organizations and individuals Generally best practices are those formalized as a result of being successful in wideindustry use. The Office of Government Commerce in the UK continues to operate as the trademark owner of ITIL®. ITL is only one of many sources for best practices.) • Standards (ISO 20 000. This library was eventually entitled the IT Infrastructure Library. Through these evolutions the scope of practices documented has increased in order to stay current with the continued maturity of the IT industry and meet the needs and requirements of the ITSM professional community.1 – ITIL V3 Framework Five volumes make up the IT Infrastructure Library (Version 3). By the early 1990s they had produced a large collection of books documenting the “best practices” for IT Service Management. ITIL® is the international de facto management framework describing “best practices” for IT Service Management. Figure 3.ITIL® V3 : Release. CMMI etc.
Version 2 of the ITIL® Framework provided best practices for ITSM based around the how questions. Control & Validation Best Practices 3. ©The Art of Service . child. which will then be used to direct how services are designed. elderly adult and death. As a result of this previous focus on processes. These included: • How should we design for availability.16 ITIL® V3 : Release. adult. capacity and continuity of services? • How can we respond to and manage incidents. toddler. pre-teen. The concept of the Service Lifecycle is fundamental to the refresh of ITIL® for Version 3.2 – ITIL® Service Lifecycle Model © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC Lifecycle: The natural process of stages that an organism or inanimate object goes through as it matures. human stages are birth. Previously. infant. transitioned. For example. capacity and continuity? By first asking these questions it enables a service provider to provide overall strategic objectives for the IT organization. but also why? • Why does a customer need this service? • Why should the customer purchase services from us? • Why should we provide (x) levels of availability.1 The Service Lifecycle Figure 3. much of the focus of ITIL® was on the processes required to design. supported and improved in order to deliver maximum value to customers and stakeholders. young adult. no longer does ITIL® just answer the how questions. deliver and support services for customers. teenager. problems and known errors? As Version 3 now maintains a holistic view covering the entire lifecycle of a service.
ITIL® V3 : Release. The 5 phases of the Service Lifecycle provide the necessary guidance to achieve this success. Control & Validation Best Practices 17 The ultimate success of service management is indicated by the strength of the relationship between customers and service providers. This end-to-end view of how IT should be integrated with business strategy is at the heart of ITIL’s five core volumes (books). Together they provide a body of knowledge and set of good practices for successful service management. ©The Art of Service .
18 ITIL® V3 : Release.B demonstrates the processes and functions of ITIL® in relation to the 5 Service Lifecycle Phases. Figure 3.3 – The Major Concepts of ITIL® ©The Art of Service . It also demonstrates the increased scope now covered by ITIL® over the previous version. Figure 3.2 Mapping the Concepts of ITIL® to the Service Lifecycle There has been much debate as to exactly how many processes exist within Version 3 of ITIL®. Control & Validation Best Practices 3. Questions asked include: • What exactly constitutes a process? • Shouldn’t some processes be defined as functions? • Why has x process been left out? In developing this material we have based our definitions of processes and functions and where they fit on the guidance provided by the ITIL® Release. Control & Validation syllabus by EXIN International.
ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
NOTES: • The Service Lifecycle phases (and ITIL® books) are shown through the arrows at the bottom. • The concepts in light shading are the V2 ITIL® concepts. • The concepts not shaded are the new ITIL® V3 concepts. • The concepts in dark shading are Functions. • Although Service Level Management officially sits in the Service Design book, it plays a very important role in the Continual Service Improvement phase, and therefore could also fit in the CSI book as a process.
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ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
3.3 How does the Service Lifecycle work?
Although there are 5 phases throughout the Lifecycle, they are not separate, nor are the phases necessarily carried out in a particular order. The whole ethos of the Service Lifecycle approach is that each phase will affect the other, creating a continuous cycle. For this to work successfully, the Continuous Service Improvement (CSI) phase is incorporated throughout all of the other phases. Figure 3.C demonstrates some the key outputs from each of the Service Lifecycle Phases.
Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Service Operation Continual Service Improvement
•Patterns of Business Activity •Service Portfolio information •New and changed service assets •Service Catalogue, SLAs, OLAs, UCs •Testing and Validation Criteria •Known Errors from Development •Testing and validation results •Change Authorization •Incidents & Problems, Events, Service Requests •Request for Changes •Information collected from infrastructure monitoring
Service and Process Improvements
Figure 3.4 – How does the Service Lifecycle Work?
It is important to note that most of the processes defined do not get executed within only one lifecycle phase. As an example we will look at the process of Availability Management and where some activities will get executed throughout Service Lifecycle. Service Design Phase: Designs the infrastructure, processes and support mechanisms needed to meet the Availability requirements of the customer. Service Transition Phase: Validates that the Service meets the functional and technical fitness criteria to justify release to the customer. Service Operation Phase: Monitors the ongoing Availability being provided. During this phase we also manage and resolve incidents that affect Service Availability.
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ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
4 Common Terminology_______________
Critical to our ability to participate with and apply the concepts from the ITIL® framework is the need to be able to speak a common language with other IT staff, customers, end-users and other involved stakeholders. This next section documents the important common terminology that is used throughout the ITIL® framework.
Figure 4.1 – The importance of terminology © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC
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The alternative of course. decorations etc. I can go to a restaurant that delivers a service that provides me with the same outcome (a nice meal) without the time. The official definition of a Service is “a means of delivering value to Customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs or risks”. It requires not just a learned set of skills but also a way of thinking that often challenges the traditional instincts of IT workers to focus on the individual components (typically the applications or hardware under their care) that make up the IT infrastructure.22 ITIL® V3 : Release. I would need to. Now relate this to our role in providing an IT Service. music. Control & Validation Best Practices 4. the customer experience and perceived quality and value will be negatively impacted.1 What are Services? The concept of IT Services as opposed to IT components is central to understanding the Service Lifecycle and IT Service Management principles in general. with the focus being the Service oriented or end-toend view of what their organization actually provides to its customers. It isn’t just the quality of the food itself that will influence my perceptions but also: • • • • • The cleanliness of the restaurant The friendliness and customer service skills of the waiters and other staff The ambience of the restaurant (lighting. If we as IT staff focus on the application or hardware elements being provided and forget or ignore the importance of the surrounding elements that make up the end-to-end service. take these ingredients home. buy the ingredients. Well what does this actually mean? To explain some of the key concepts I will use an analogy that most (food lovers) will understand. effort and general fuss if I was to cook it myself. While I do enjoy cooking. The mindset requires instead an alternative outlook to be maintained. Now consider how I would identify the quality and value of that service being provided. go to a grocery store. then like before. set the table and of course clean up the kitchen afterwards. If I was to cook. there are often times where I wish to enjoy quality food without the time and effort required to prepare a meal.) The time taken to receive my meal (and was it what I asked for?) Did they offer water on top of normal drinks and beverages? If just one of these factors don’t meet my expectations than ultimately the perceived quality and value being delivered to me as a customer are negatively impacted. prepare and cook the meal. ©The Art of Service .
©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 23 But if we take a Service oriented perspective. The IT organization works proactively to identify potential problems that should be rectified or improvement actions that could be made.ITIL® V3 : Release. Appropriate resolution times are maintained for end user and customer enquiries Transparency and visibility of the IT organization and where money is being spent is maintained. we also ensure that: • • • • Communication with customers and end users is effectively maintained. To help clarify the relationship between IT Services and the business we need to look at the concepts of Business Units and Service Units.
©The Art of Service . The relationship is good as long as the customer receives value and the business unit recovers cost and receives some form of compensation or profit. which ensures that the business unit maintains an adequate return on investment. Control & Validation Best Practices 4. and deploy Resources Supply Generate returns (or recover costs) Information Processes People Customers Asset types Applications Infrastructure Financial capital Figure 4.2 – Business Units © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC A business unit is a bundle of assets with the purpose of creating value for customers in the form of goods and services.1. organization. people and processes. Customers pay for the value they receive.24 ITIL® V3 : Release. A business unit’s capabilities coordinate. control. Some services simply increase the resources available to the customer. control and deploy its resources to create value.1 Business Units and Service Units Management Prospects Competitors Regulators Suppliers Influence Demand Organization Create value Business unit Capabilities Goods/ Services Consume assets Knowledge Coordinate. Other services increase the performance of customer’s management. Value is always defined in the context of customers. The relationship with customer becomes strong when there is a balance between value created and returns generated.
4 – Balancing service potential against demand for services © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC ©The Art of Service . possibly by spreading these costs and risks across more than one customer or Business Unit. Customer Performance potential Customer Assets Service potential Service Provider Service Assets + Capabilities + Service Risks Costs + Capabilities – Resources + Demand Idle capacity – Resources (Business Unit) (Service Unit) Figure 4.ITIL® V3 : Release. Business units (customers) and Service units (providers) can be part of the same organization or from multiple independent organizations. Services define the relationships between business units and service units. Control & Validation Best Practices 25 (Service unit) (Business unit) Performance potential Service potential Customer Assets + Services + Service Assets Value potential + Business outcomes Figure 4.3 – Relationship between business units and service units © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC Service units are like business units. a bundle of service assets that specializes in creating value in the form of services. while the Service Units(s) focuses on managing the costs and risks of providing the service. This relationship enables Business Units to focus on the outcomes provided by services.
ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
4.1.2 Creating Service Value
Perhaps historically, both providers and customers have used price as the focal point for communication and negotiation, but it is this path that ultimately leads to a negative experience for both parties. One of the key mantras that exist for any modern Service provider (IT or otherwise) is that it is essential to clearly establish value before you can attach a price to the services offered. This ensures a few key things: • • • It avoids an apple to oranges comparison, which usually occurs with a price focal point. It enables the Service Provider to distinguish their capabilities and differentiation from their competitors. It clearly communicates to the customer what they can expect to receive as part of the delivery service.
Providers of IT Services need to take special appreciation of the concept of value creation and communication, due to the many misunderstandings about technology on behalf of customers (and poor communication by their IT providers). To support this need, one of the major elements of the Service Strategy lifecycle is the creation of value through Services and Service Packages
Performance supported? Constraints removed? Fit for purpose?
Available enough? Capacity enough? Continuous enough? Secure enough? Figure 4.5 – Creating Service Value © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC
Fit for use?
Formula: Service Warranty + Service Utility = Service Value Service Utility describes the positive effect on business processes, activities, objects and tasks. This could be the removal of constraints that improves performance or some other positive effect that improves the outcomes managed and focused on by the customer and business. This is generally summarized as being fit for purpose.
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ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
Service Warranty on the other hand describes how well these benefits are delivered to the customer. It describes the Service’s attributes such as the availability, capacity, performance, security and continuity levels to be delivered by the provider. Importantly, the Service Utility potential is only realized when the Service is available with sufficient capacity and performance. By describing both Service Utility and Service Warranty, it enables the provider to clearly establish the value of the Service, differentiate themselves from the competition and, where necessary, attach a meaningful price tag that has relevance to the customer and associated market space.
4.1.3 Service Packages and Service Level Packages
To discuss Service Packages, Service Level Packages and how they are used to offer choice and value to customers, we’re going to use the example of the packages made available by typical Internet Service Providers (ISPs). As customers, we have a wide range of choice when looking for an ISP to provide broadband internet. So as a result ISPs do need to work hard to attract customers by communicating the value that they provide through their offerings. They also need to offer a wide range of choice for customers, who have varying requirements and needs for their broadband internet service.
A Service Package contains
Core Service Package
(The basic critical services)
Supporting Services Package
(Provides differentiation or more effective use of Core Services)
Service Level Packages
(Defines level of utility and warranty provided by Service Package)
A Service Package provides a detailed description of package of bundled services available to be delivered to Customers. The contents of a Service Package includes: • The core services provided • Any supporting services provided (often the excitement factors) • The Service Level Package (see next page) Service Level Packages are effective in developing service packages with levels of utility and warranty appropriate to the customer’s needs and in a cost-effective way. • Availability Levels • Continuity Measures • Capacity Levels • Security Levels
Figure 4.6 – Service Package Example
Service Level Packages
(Defines level of utility and warranty provided by Service Package)
Availability Levels Continuity
Capacity Levels Security Levels
Features of service Support of service
Figure 4.7 – Service Package Example
©The Art of Service
ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
So for our ISP example, we can define a Service Package in the following way:
Service Package: Broadband SuperUser ($69.95 per month) Core Service Package: • Internet Connection • Email Addresses Supporting Services Package: • Static IP Address • Spam filtering • 100MB Web-Space • VOIP
• • • • •
Service Level Package: Download Speeds: 8000kbs – 24 000kbs (max) Download Quota: 30 GB (Shaped to 512kbs after) Backup dial-up account 98 % Availability Guarantee (otherwise rebate offered) 24 x 7 Service Desk for Support.
Figure 4.8 – Service Package Example (ISP)
Most of the components of Service Packages and Service Level Packages are reusable components of the IT organization (many of which are services). Other components include software, hardware and other infrastructure elements. By providing Service Level Packages in this way it reduces the cost and complexity of providing services while maintaining high levels of customer satisfaction. In our example above, the ISP can easily create multiple Service Packages with varying levels of Utility and Warranty provided in order to offer a wide range of choice to customers, and to distinguish themselves from their competition. The use of Service Packages and Service Level Packages enables Service Providers to avoid a one-size fits all approach to IT Services.
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4 Service Portfolios A Service Portfolio describes provider’s services in terms of business value. 3 Categories of services defined in Service Portfolio • Service Pipeline (proposed or in development) • Service Catalogue (Live or available for deployment) • Retired Services (Decommissioned services) Service Portfolio Requirements Description Value proposition Business cases Priorities Risks Offerings and packages Cost and pricing Service Pipeline Service Catalogue •Service Description •Functional Spec’s •Business English •Options •Gold. It is possible for a Service Provider to have multiple Service Portfolios depending on the customer groups that they support. • Includes the complete set of services managed by a service Provider.ITIL® V3 : Release. Bronze •customizations Availability times •(Price list) Retired Services Figure 4.9 – A Service Portfolio Service Portfolios have a much larger scope than Service Catalogues. ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 29 4. They include the complete set of services managed by a Service Provider. we need to ensure the balance between risk and benefit provided by the Service Portfolio.1. Silver. These portfolios are used to articulate business needs and the Service Provider’s response to those needs. and is used to manage the lifecycle of all services in order to maximize the value of IT Service Management to the business. • Provides the information required to manage the entire lifecycle of all services. Just like a Financial Portfolio. The Portfolio should have the right mix of services in the pipeline and catalogue to secure the financial viability of the service provider.
priorities and risk? 5. Control & Validation Best Practices The Service Portfolio uses the above information to provide informed responses to the following strategic questions: 1.30 ITIL® V3 : Release. What are our strengths and weaknesses. What are the pricing or chargeback models? 4. Why should a customer buy these services? 2. How are resources and capabilities to be allocated? ©The Art of Service . Why should they buy these services from us? 3.
2 Processes & Functions 4. management controls. There may be several Managers for the one process or the same person may be both the process owner and process manager (typically in smaller organizations). standards. A process owner is the person responsible for ensuring that the process is fit for the desired purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process. A process manager is the person responsible for the operational management of a process. policies.1 Defining Processes Processes can be defined as a structured set of coordinated activities designed to produce an outcome and provide value to customers or stakeholders.2. activities and work instructions if they are needed. Control & Validation Best Practices 31 4. A process takes one or more inputs and through the activities performed turns them into defined outputs. guidelines. responsibilities. The ITIL processes covered in detail by this workbook are: • Change Management • Release and Deployment Management • Service Validation and Testing • Evaluation • Request Fulfilment • Service Asset and Configuration Management • Knowledge Management ©The Art of Service . Some principles: • All processes should be measurable and performance driven (not just time. but measuring overall efficiency including cost. effort and other resources used) • Processes are strategic assets when they create competitive advantage and market differentiation.ITIL® V3 : Release. tools. • Processes may define roles.
10 – Generic Process Elements © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC The figure above describes the physical components of processes. is an underlying pattern so deeply embedded and recurrent that it is displayed by most members of the organization and includes decision making. communication and learning processes. which is intangible. Control & Validation Best Practices Figure 4.32 ITIL® V3 : Release. which are tangible and therefore typically get the most attention. Behavioural components have no independent existence apart from the work processes in which they appear. The behavioural component. substance and character of activities and subsequent outputs by shaping how they are carried out. So when defining and designing processes. but at the same time they greatly affect and impact the form. ©The Art of Service . it is important to consider both the physical and behavioural aspects that exist.
The lower groupings (e. Mainframe.2 Defining Functions Functions refer to the logical grouping of roles and automated measures that execute a defined process.ITIL® V3 : Release. Server) are examples of activities performed by Technical Management and are not a suggested organizational structure. Figure 4. The functions within Service Operation are needed to manage the ‘steady state’ operation IT environment. IT Functions define the different roles and responsibilities required for the overall Service Delivery and Support of IT Services.2.g. Just like in sports where each player will have a specific role to play in the overall team strategy. an activity or combination of both. This means that Technical and Application Management can be organized in any combination and into any number of departments. Control & Validation Best Practices 33 4.11 – The ITIL® Functions from Service Operation NOTE: These are logical functions and do not necessarily have to be performed by equivalent organizational structure. ©The Art of Service .
more than one “A” would confuse this) • At least 1 “R” per Row must be (shows that actions are taking place). General Rules that exist: • Only 1 “A” per Row can be defined (ensures accountability. A useful tool to assist the definition of the roles and responsibilities when designing processes is the RACI Model.11 – The RACI Model: A RACI Model is used to define the roles and responsibilities of various Functions in relation to the activities of Incident Management. RACI stands for: R – Responsibility (actually does the work for that activity but reports to the function or position that has an “A” against it).until people get involved. I – Inform (the function or position that is told about the event after it has happened). C – Consult (advice/ guidance / information can be gained from this function or position prior to the action taking place). This saying comes from failure when executing processes due to misunderstandings of the people involved and a lack of clarity regarding the roles and responsibilities that exist.. This role implies ownership. with more than one being appropriate where there is shared responsibility. even if they might not do it themselves).2. ©The Art of Service . RACI Model Service Desk Logging Classification Investigation RACI RACI ACI Desktop RCI RCI Applications RCI Operations Manager CI CI CI Figure 4. Control & Validation Best Practices 4.3 Connecting Processes and Functions It is often said that processes are perfect….34 ITIL® V3 : Release. A – Accountability (is made accountable for ensuring that the action takes place.
IT Services typically don’t provide a source of competitive advantage.g. outsourcing A decision support and planning tool that projects the likely consequences of a business action. issues. They are responsible for continual improvement and management of change affecting Services under their care.: one IT organization to service all businesses in an umbrella organization. people. but must be developed and matured over time. Resources are also considered to be tangible assets of an organization. including costs. one IT organization within each of the business units. Control & Validation Best Practices 35 4.g.3 Other Terminology Terminology IT Service Management: Capabilities: Explanations A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services. Service provider that provides IT services to external customers. application. It provides justification for a significant item of expenditure. person.ITIL® V3 : Release. benefits. The ability of an organization. • The functions and processes utilized to manage services. options. • The ITSM set of organizational capabilities aims to enable the effective and efficient delivery of services to customers. CI or IT service to carry out an activity. but instead support effective and efficient business processes. An internal service provider that provides shared IT service to more than 1 business unit e. risks and possible problems. An internal service provider that is embedded within a business unit. • Capabilities are intangible assets of an organization and cannot be purchased. A generic term that includes IT Infrastructure. Resources: Service Owner: Internal Service Providers: Shared Service Providers: External Service Providers: Business Case ©The Art of Service . money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT service. The person who is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service. process. The key factor is that the IT Services provide a source of competitive advantage in the market space the business exists in. i.e. E.
Control & Validation Best Practices ©The Art of Service .36 ITIL® V3 : Release.
build. This is primarily captured within the Service Lifecycle phase of Service Transition (and supported by Service Operation).1: – Scope of Service Transition © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC ©The Art of Service . systems and functions required to package. Control & Validation Best Practices 37 5 Relationship between the Release. Figure 5. test and deploy a release into production and establish the service according to specified requirements. Control and Validation Processes and the Service Lifecycle________________ The focus of this workbook is on the processes.ITIL® V3 : Release.
ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
Processes that will be discussed that play a role supporting all lifecycle phases (not just Service Transition) are: • • • Change Management Service Asset and Configuration Management Knowledge Management
Service Transition (by means of the RCV processes) is also responsible for testing and managing change to all of the processes found in the other lifecycle phases.
©The Art of Service
ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
5.1 Service Transition
The Service Transition lifecycle phase focuses on the vulnerable transition between the Design phase and the Operation phase of a service. It is particularly critical as functional and technical errors not found during this phase will result in significantly higher impact levels to the business and/or IT infrastructure and will usually cost much more to fix once the Service is in operation. Processes: • Transition Planning & Support** • Change Management • Release & Deployment Management • Service Validation and Testing • Evaluation • Service Asset & Configuration Management • Knowledge Management **(Not covered by the ITIL RCV Program)
Figure 5.2: Service Transition
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ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
5.2 Objectives of Service Transition
The primary objective of Service Transition is the development and improvement of capabilities for transitioning new and modified services into operation. Other objectives include: • To ensure that new and changed services meet customer requirements and do not adversely impact the IT infrastructure or business processes. • To reduce the variation between estimated and actual costs, timeframes, risks and impact scales. • To build, configure, test and deploy quality Releases into operation in the most efficient manner while also minimising disruption to the business and customers.
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Other benefits delivered include: • Increased success rate of Changes and Releases • More accurate estimations of Service Levels and Warranties • Less variation of costs against those estimated in budgets • Less variation from resources plans.3 Benefits of Service Transition Effective Service Transition can significantly improve a Service provider’s ability to effectively handle high volumes of change and releases across its Customer base. ©The Art of Service .ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 41 5.
However there are other inputs and outputs that exist with Service Transition and the Service Lifecycle. The following outputs are typically delivered as following successful execution of Service Transition: • Approved Service Release packages and associated deployment packages • Updated Service Packages • Updated Service Catalogues and Service Portfolios • Documentation and Early Life Support for a transferred or decommissioned service. Control & Validation Best Practices 5. Regulations • Architectures • Service Management Plan (a requirement of ISO/IEC 20000) Inputs from the Service Design phase: • Service Definitions • Service Architecture & Structure (including core and supporting services) • Cost models • Capacity/Resource models • Availability and Capacity plans • Acceptance Criteria • Request For Change (RFC) to initiate the required changes to the environment Outputs from the Service Transition phase: The primary outputs from Service Transition are to Service Operation and the customer and end user community being served.42 ITIL® V3 : Release. Compliance Obligations.4 Interfaces to other Service Lifecycle Phases Service Transition rests between the phases of Service Design and Service Operation. with the majority of day-to-day interfaces involved between these three. Inputs from the Service Strategy phase: • Service Portfolio Information • Customer and Business Portfolios • Supplier and Vendor Contracts Information • Policies • Organizational Strategies • Constraints. ©The Art of Service .
process metrics for improvements. IT infrastructure audits Continual Service Improvement Figure 5. Control & Validation Best Practices 43 FSC. Known Errors from Development. Guidance for SLAs. OLAs. Testing and Validation Results. Change Authorization. Changes to IT infrastructure & services.3: – Some outputs to other lifecycle phases. and UCs. CMDB Service Operation Testing and validation results. ©The Art of Service . PIR Testing and Validation Results. Release Packages.ITIL® V3 : Release. Configuration Item information (CMDB) Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Initial End User Support.
44 ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices ©The Art of Service .
Critical Success Factors (CSFs) and associated Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for all processes involved. maintain. Control & Validation Best Practices 45 6 Release. Regardless of the size of the actual teams responsible for the RCV processes. • The type of business and associated customers being served by IT. the actual RCV team may be a single person in a small IT department or involve a worldwide network of specialist groups in an international organisation. The way in which an organization manages the actual Changes and Releases being implemented depends on many influencing factors including: • The complexity and culture of the organisation • The relative size. customers and end-users. all playing specific roles that contribute to the successful management of change in IT Services and IT Service Management processes. • The use of outsourcing and external suppliers for small or large portions of the overall IT Service Delivery. ©The Art of Service . groups and stakeholders involved. objectives. it is important to always ensure: • Clear definition of roles and responsibilities (using a RACI model) of the people. share and communicate knowledge. • Regulations and compliance factors affecting the business or IT.ITIL® V3 : Release. • Clear definition of the scope. • The management of the RCV processes are based on a defined Service Transition policy (to help define interfaces and resolve possible conflicts). Control and Validation Processes_________________________ The processes of Release Control and Validation (RVC) are highly interdependent. This interdependency can be seen by: • Changes being implemented in a controlled manner by using packaged Releases • The typical scope of a Configuration Management System (CMS) being identical to the defined scope of the Change Management process. • Training and awareness is developed for all stakeholders including IT staff. Based on these influencing factors. • Knowledge Management providing the mechanism to all Service Transition processes by which to record. • Service Validation and Testing providing assurance to satisfy both the associated Changes and Releases being implemented. complexity and maturity of the IT infrastructure.
46 ITIL® V3 : Release. ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices This chapter describes the RCV processes. defining the key elements that exist and how they should be used as part of the successful control and management of change of IT Services.
1. When reviewing the typical strategic objectives defined for an IT service provider. Control & Validation Best Practices 47 6. increased market share or high availability and security platforms.1 Goals and Objectives To ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for controlled. Changes arise for a number of reasons: • From requests of the business or customers. and consequently to improve the day-to-day operations of the organization. In light of this it is important to interpret the following Change Management guidance with the understanding that is intended to be scaled to suit the organization and the size. but every improvement is a change!” ©The Art of Service . most of these are underpinned by the requirement of effective Change control. seeking to improve services. reduce costs or increasing ease and effectiveness of delivery and support. To deliver these benefits while being careful not causing excessive delays or bottlenecks as part of a coordinated approach to Service Transition. 6. efficient and prompt handling of all Changes. it is important to consider the diverse types of Changes that will be assessed and how a balance can be maintained in regards to the varying needs and potential impacts of Changes. • From internal IT groups looking to proactively improve services or to resolve errors and correct service disruption. all of which require a controlled process by which to assess. in order to minimize the impact of Change-related Incidents upon service quality.1 Change Management The ability to control and manage Changes to defined IT services and their supporting elements is viewed as a fundamental element of quality service management. “Remember: Not every change is an improvement. control and manage Changes with varying levels of rigour. The process of Change Management typically exists in order to: • Optimize risk exposure (defined from both business and IT perspectives • Minimize the severity of any impact and disruption • Delivery successful Changes at the first attempt. complexity and risk of Changes being assessed.ITIL® V3 : Release. These include strategies focussing on time-to-market.
4. Control & Validation Best Practices Change Management’s purpose is also to ensure that: 1. modification or removal of approved. system. tactical and operational levels. As discussed in 4.” It is important however that every organization defines those changes which lie outside the scope of their service change process (such as operational or business process and policy changes). environment. This includes the addition. application. network. Service Portfolios provides the clear definition of all planned. All Changes to service assets and configuration items (CIs) are recorded in the Configuration Management Systems (CMS). Figure 6. desktop build or associated documentation. Overall business risk is optimized 6. 2.1.48 ITIL® V3 : Release.1. current and retired services.2 Scope The term Change is often defined in varying ways. software. supported or baselined hardware. however the best definition of a service change is: “Any alteration in the state of a Configuration Item (CI). ©The Art of Service .1: Scope of Change Management for IT Services © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC The figure above demonstrates the typical scope of the Change Management process for an IT Service Provider and how it interfaces with the business and suppliers at strategic.
when and what the consequences of non-compliance to the policy will be.4 Change Management Policies There must be policies and standards defined that clarify.1. Control & Validation Best Practices 49 6. • Roles and responsibilities involved • Procedures required. • Aligning the service Change Management process with business. These processes together will help in the evaluation of impact. • Interfaces to other Service Management processes (e.3 Designing and Planning It is generally advised that the Change Management process should be planned in conjunction with Release & Deployment. and Service Asset & Configuration Management. for internal and external providers.1. 6. urgency and priority codes for changes. Problem Management) • Toolset requirements to support Change Management • Configuration Management interfaces. policy or other compliance requirements • Documentation requirements • Identification of impact. needs. ©The Art of Service .ITIL® V3 : Release. project and stakeholder Change Management • Prioritization of changes • Establishing accountability and responsibilities • Segregation of duty controls • Establish a single focal point for changes • Prevent people who are not authorized to make changes from accessing production environment • Integration with other Service Management processes • Change windows • Performance and risk evaluation • Performance measures for the process.g. who must do what. The checklist of typical requirements when designing the Change Management process includes: • Regulatory. These policies are typically created with information relating to: • Creating a culture of Change Management – with zero tolerance on unauthorized changes. timings and overall risk for changes being assessed.
Control & Validation Best Practices 6. E. STANDARD Change: A pre-approved Change that is low risk. and they are logged and tracked using a different mechanism. password reset or provision of standard equipment to a new employee.50 ITIL® V3 : Release. RFCs are not required to implement a Standard Change. relatively common and follows a procedure or work instruction. Normal Changes will often be further defined by the relative impact and complexity. such as a service request. which will escalate the Change for assessment to the most appropriate person or group. While standard changes are effectively preapproved by Change Management.g. The defined Change Models should also include: • What steps should be taken to manage the change • Roles and Responsibilities • Timescales and thresholds for actions • Escalation procedures’ Change Models defined within ITIL include the following: NORMAL Change: A change that follows all of the steps of the change process. they may still require forms of authorization such as other groups such Human Resources (HR) or Financial departments. See Figure 6.5 Change Models The definition of different process models will allow an organization to maintain a balance between providing an appropriate level of control for changes without causing bottlenecks or restricting business growth.3 for the example process flow for normal changes. Change Models defines how various categories of changes are assessed & authorized. ©The Art of Service . with different mechanisms and activities used to process and deliver changes based on the change type. It is assessed by either a Change Manager or Change Advisory Board.1.
EMERGENCY Change: A change that must be introduced as soon as possible.g. documented and proven • There is a defined trigger to initiate the Request For Change (RFC) • Budgetary approval is typically defined or controlled by the requester • The risk is usually low and always well understood Over time and as the IT organization matures the list of standard changes should increase in order to maintain optimum levels of efficiency and effectiveness. because they are typically more disruptive and prone to failure. with some documentation occurring after the change has occurred. Organizations should be careful to ensure that the number of emergency changes be kept to a minimum. to resolve a major incident or implement a security patch. without sacrificing normal management controls. STANDARD Change: The main elements of a standard change are that: • Authority is effectively given in advance • The tasks are well known.ITIL® V3 : Release.. ©The Art of Service .. The change management process will normally have a specific procedure for handling Emergency Changes quickly. methods of assessment and documentation are typically modified. E. Control & Validation Best Practices 51 Continued. To enable this to occur.
tactical or operational in nature. Normal inputs include: • Request for Changes (RFC) • Policy and strategies for change and release • Plans (change. test report and evaluation reports. Additionally the integration of Change Management with Business Change processes. The inputs required for the change and outputs produced will vary depending on the type defined and whether it is strategic. test. records and reports Interfaces with other service lifecycle processes should also be considered for a coordinated approach to quality service management.1.6 Triggers and Interfaces Requests for Change can come from anywhere within service lifecycle or from interfaces with the business. deployment. Control & Validation Best Practices 6. transition. documents. ©The Art of Service . suppliers or other stakeholders.52 ITIL® V3 : Release. evaluation and remediation) • Current change schedule and projected service outage (PSO) • Current or affected assets and configuration items • Test results. Normal outputs from the process will be: • Rejected RFCs • Approved RFCs • Changes to services. infrastructure components resulting from approved RFCs • Updated change schedule • Revised PSO • Authorized change plans • Change decisions. release. project management and supplier management is recommended to enable seamless level of IT quality to be delivered.
Control & Validation Best Practices 53 Figure 6. including: • RFCs • Service Desk calls • Project Initiation Documents Different types of change require different types of change request. Avoiding a bureaucratic approach to documenting a minor change alleviates some of the cultural barriers and resistance that may exist when adopting the Change Management process.ITIL® V3 : Release. An organization needs to ensure that appropriate procedures and forms are available to cover the anticipated requests from the different parties and stakeholders involved.2: Change Management workflow and key interfaces with Configuration Management © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC There can be various types of Change Requests to initiate the execution of Change Management processes. ©The Art of Service .
2. Control & Validation Best Practices 6. The Change is closed.54 ITIL® V3 : Release. The Change is scheduled.1. 6. The actual steps and procedures need to be further refined depending on any specific Change models that have been created. Authorization or rejection of the Change 5. Change Management coordinates the work performed. Work orders are issued for the build of the Change (but carried out by other groups) 7. 9. Review the RFC for classification and prioritization 3. 8.7 Change Management Activities The following diagram represents the typical activities involved for Normal Changes that have been identified. Create RFC Record the RFC Update change and configuration information in CMS Initiator Change proposal (optional) requested Review RFC Change Management Ready for evaluation Assess and evaluate change Ready for decision Authorize Change Change authority authorized Plan updates Change Management scheduled Co-ordinate change* Change Management implemented Work orders Authorize Change proposal Work orders Review and close Evaluation report Figure 6. Assess and evaluate the Change – may require involvement of CAB or ECAB. The Change is reviewed.3: The Activities of Change Management Overview of Important Steps: 1. ©The Art of Service . 4. The RFC is recorded.
a change proposal may be required. as changes are logged. The change proposal will include sign off by appropriate levels of business management. The change is raised by a request from the initiator. Some information is recorded initially and some information updated as the change document progresses through its lifecycle. The RFC is recorded. together with brief details of the reason for the rejection. risk and resource requirements. Depending on the Change model that has been applied. 3. The level of information recorded for a change depends largely on the size and impact of the change. identify the relative priority of the Change. Control & Validation Best Practices 55 1. and should be incorporated within the procedures. and to ensure that the required details are supplied. This may be recorded directly on the RFC form and details of the change and actions may be recorded in other documents and referenced from the RFC such as business cases. an initial review should act as a filtering mechanism to apply the correct Change model to be used (classification). Review the RFC for classification and prioritization. Assess and evaluate the Change. All changes will be assessed for their relative potential impact. cost and complexity. and the log should record this fact.ITIL® V3 : Release. Procedures should stipulate that. 2. this assessment may require involvement from: • Only the Change Manager and Change Owner for local authorization • The Change Advisory Board (representing all key stakeholders) • The IT Management (Steering) Board • Business Executive Board. To ensure Change Management is using an appropriate level of control based on factors of risk. via normal management channels. which will contain a full description of the change together with a business and financial justification for the proposed change. For a major change with significant organizational and/or financial applications. ©The Art of Service . There should be an opportunity to appeal. Change Management reviews each Change request and return any that are: • Totally impractical • Repeats of earlier RFC’s • Incomplete submissions These requests will be returned to the initiator.
test environments. Formal authorization is obtained for each change from a change authority that may be a role. so the assessment needs to identify potential for: • Impact on customer’s business operation • Effect on SLA’s. The levels of authorization for a change should be judged by: • Type • Size • Risk • Financial implications • Scope. Control & Validation Best Practices The scope of potential impacts on services for failed changes is wide.Executive decision Change impacts multiple services/ organizational divisions Change impacts only local/ service group Change to a specific component of an IT Service Standard Change ©The Art of Service .56 ITIL® V3 : Release. The IT Management (Steering) Board Change Advisory Board (CAB) or Emergency CAB (ECAB) Change Manager Local Authorization Potential Impact/Risk High cost/risk change . Level 1 2 3 4 5 Change Authority Business Executive Board. security etc • Impact on other services • Impact on non-IT infrastructures • Effect of not implementing • Cost and staffing implications • Current Change Schedule • Ongoing resources required after implementation • Impact on continuity plan. and any Service Operation practices. capacity plan. security plan. person or a group of people. The following table describes the type of hierarchical structures that may be used for different levels of change authorization. A degree of delegated authority may also exist within an authorization level. baselines. service models.
5. This also requires empowering the Change Manager with an appropriate level of authority as their primary role is to protect the integrity of the IT infrastructure and the services provided to customers. test or implementation of the change will be scheduled when resources are available and when they least impact on live services or business critical times. customers and end users. Who RAISED the change? 2.What are the consequences to the business? And not doing it? • Technology Approval . as well as the impacts of NOT implementing the Change.What’s it going to cost? And what’s the cost of not doing it? • Business Approval . it is important to consider both the implications of performing the Change. Who is RESPONSIBLE for the build. The timing of events and eventual implementation will be communicated via the Change Schedule. • Financial Approval . These questions are: 1.ITIL® V3 : Release. What is the REASON for the change? 3. What RESOURCES are required to deliver the change? 6. Change Management will need to coordinate with Release and Deployment Management so that any activities required for the build. Control & Validation Best Practices 57 The 7 Rs of Change Management provide a set of guiding questions that need to be answered as part of the overall assessment for Changes. What is the RELATIONSHIP between this change and other changes? 4.What are the consequences to the infrastructure? And not doing it? When authorizing changes. ©The Art of Service . they in turn will ensure they have the approval of three main areas. The assessment of the change will have provided an estimation of the resource requirements for delivering a successful change. Authorization or rejection of the Change While the responsibility for authorization for Changes lies with the Change Manager. in addition to any planned downtime from other causes such as planned maintenance and data backups. The Change is scheduled. test and implementation of the change? 7. Any service disruption is documented in with the Projected Service Outage (PSO). What are the RISKS involved in the change? 5. and visible to the appropriate IT staff members. What is the RETURN required from the change? 4. This details any revised Service Level Agreement and service availability targets because of the events in the Change Schedule.
Only by considering what remediation options are available before instigating a change. 8. are thoroughly tested. Lessons learned should be embedded into future changes as part of continuous improvement. the results should be reported for evaluation to those responsible for managing changes. 7. ©The Art of Service . This is an oversight role to also ensure that all changes that can be. Change Management plays a co-ordination role as implementation is the responsibility of others (under the direction of Release and Deployment management or from Project Management groups). that the initiator and stakeholders are happy with the results and that there have been no unexpected sideeffects. This will be greatly influenced by the availability of staff and any Release policies defining how and when changes are released to the live environment. can the risk of the proposed change be determined and the appropriate actions taken.58 ITIL® V3 : Release. Ideally. In all cases involving changes that have not been fully tested. Work orders are issued for the build of the Change (but carried out by other groups) Change Management will coordinate with Release and Deployment to identify the groups or individuals responsible for the implementation of the various elements making up the Change. no change should be approved without having explicitly addressed the question of what to do if it is not successful. The Change is reviewed. On completion of the change. and by establishing that the remediation is viable. Change Management coordinates the work performed. special care needs to be taken during implementation. The review should confirm that the change has met the defined objectives. through reloading a baselined set of Configuration Items. This includes whether the request should be developed as a standard change or whether another change model is more appropriate for future management of similar requests. There should be a back-out plan that will restore the organization to its initial situation. and then presented as a completed change for stakeholder agreement. Remediation Planning is a critical element during the coordination of Changes. Control & Validation Best Practices 6. Major changes will require more customer and stakeholder input throughout the entire process.
If the change review was satisfactory or the original change is abandoned (e. Change Management must review new or changed services after a predefined period has elapsed. Change Management (or CAB) will decide what follow-up action is required. The CAB is not necessarily a physical meeting of people. since change reviews are a standard CAB agenda item. The Change is closed. This process will involve CAB members. Typical representatives for a CAB under normal conditions are: • The Change Manager (chairs the CAB) • Customer representatives • User management • Application Developers/Supporters • Technical Experts and Consultants • Other Services Staff • Vendors and Suppliers. suppliers and other stakeholders in such a way that all changes that impact their domain can be appropriately assessed from business. archiving or other policy requirements that have been defined. An infrastructure change – concerned with how IT delivers rather that what IT delivers.1. customers. ©The Art of Service . which will be (almost) invisible to the customer. When a change has not achieved its objectives. the needs for the change is decreased or disappears) the RFC should be formally closed in the logging system. 9.g. Members of the CAB are made up by IT staff.8 Roles and Responsibilities within Change Management Change Advisory Board (CAB) The CAB is a body that assists the Change Manager is evaluating and approving changes that have been requested. technical and support viewpoints. 6. These records will be kept for a period of time based on business. compliance. Control & Validation Best Practices 59 Two types of reviews are performed for normal changes: • • The review of a service change – immediately visible to the customer and scheduled for discussion at the next service level management review meeting.ITIL® V3 : Release. but can be enabled with the use of technology such as video-conferencing.
60 ITIL® V3 : Release. the CAB should include both static and dynamic members who will attend based on the needs for the changes being discussed. Metrics should be linked to business goals whenever practical. This may be 3 or 4 members of the normal CAB who between them have the best overview of the potential risks and impacts of implementing the Emergency Change. availability. ©The Art of Service . Ultimately the final decision to authorize changes will rest with the Change Manager or whichever body or person has been delegated for this in the organization (typically the IT director or service manager). • RFCs to be assessed by the CAB ordered by priority. unauthorized or backed-out changes. CAB members should come prepared with any documentation that was produced as part of their evaluation or advice on current changes. it is still important to apply an appropriate level of testing as well as define any roll-back mechanisms relative to the potential risk and impact identified. a separate defined procedure and authorization mechanisms should exist and be clearly documented and understood. and to cost.1. Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB) For Emergency Changes. 6. reliability and customer satisfaction. • Current and outstanding changes. • Concluded changes for review. While complete testing may not be possible. In order to maintain an effective meeting. an ECAB would be used instead. As it will not always be possible to convene a full CAB meeting. which is a sub-group that will provide the assistance for the evaluation of Emergency Changes.9 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of Change Management It is important that a balanced view of metrics is used when assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of the Change Management process. Standard items for the CAB agenda include: • Failed. Control & Validation Best Practices Rather than having a static list of members. • Identified process issues or improvements. • Advance notice of RFCs expected for review at next CAB meeting.
Over time. This will need to be addressed by developing stakeholder awareness at all stages during the implementation project. business area etc. Control & Validation Best Practices 61 These metrics include: • Number of RFCs (Accepted/Rejected) • Number and % of successful Changes • Emergency Changes • Number of Changes awaiting implementation • Number of implemented Changes • Change backlogs and bottle-necks • Business impact of changes • Frequency of Change to CIs • Number of disruptions (incidents and problems) caused by unsuccessful changes • Level of variance between estimated and actual resources and time required for changes • Frequency of change (by service.ITIL® V3 : Release. the scope of Change Management should eventually include the customers and end users just as much as IT staff members themselves.) • Number of changes (by change type) • Number of changes recorded and tracked using automated tools • Staff utilization • Number of unauthorized changes detected by Configuration Management 6. it may be appropriate to run a pilot for Change Management. in order to identify the potential successes and failures and to better refine and scale according to the organization’s needs.1. ©The Art of Service . expectations and ideas. Depending on the current maturity of informal change management practices. including gaining feedback about their needs. as there can be many instances where service quality can be negatively impacted as a result of changes executed by the end-user community.10 Challenges affecting Change Management Implementing Change Management should be managed with particular sensitivity and awareness due to the often large cultural changes that will need to take place.
to execute a controlled change all data MUST be reliable Commitment of the supplier(s) to the process Commitment of management.1 central process comes into place that influences everyone’s activities Bypassing .4: Relationship with Project Management How does Change Management work with Project Management? • Change Management authorizes.62 • • • • • ITIL® V3 : Release. ©The Art of Service .11 Relationship with Project Management Figure 6. controls. 6. • Change Management is also concerned with Remediation Planning to ensure that each RFC has a fallback / rollback plan. test or implement.projects ducking the Change Management planning Optimal link with Configuration Management . • It does not plan. Control & Validation Best Practices Typical challenges that affect the success of Change Management include: Change in culture . coordinates the changes involved in a given project. build.1.
error records. Control & Validation Best Practices 63 6.g. problem report number.1. financial etc.ITIL® V3 : Release. Business Case Summary Full justification Effect of not implementing the change (business.g. legislation) √ Description Summary Full description Identity of item(s) to be changed – description of the desired change Summary Full description Service (for enhancement) or CI with errors (corrective changes) Reason for change.) √ Configuration items and baseline versions to be changed √ Affected baseline / release Details of CIs in baseline / release ©The Art of Service .12 Typical Contents of Change Documentation RFC Change proposal (if appropriate) √ Related assets/CIs Attribute on the change record Unique Number Trigger (e. technical. business need. e. to purchase order.
benefits Provisional Initial Impact √ ©The Art of Service . significant. major Proposed Predicted timeframe. cost. minor. e. Control & Validation Best Practices Contact and details of person proposing the change √ Date and time that the change was proposed √ Change category. costs and quality of service Change priority Summary / reference Full Proposed Risk assessment and risk management plan Summary / reference Full Back-out or remediation plan Possibly Full Impact assessment and evaluation – resources and capacity. resources.64 ITIL® V3 : Release.g.
and test plan? √ Change decision body √ Decision and recommendations accompanying the decision √ Authorization signature (could be electronic) √ Authorization date and time √ Target baseline or release to incorporate change into Target change plan(s) for change to be incorporated into √ √ ©The Art of Service . security plan. capacity plan. Control & Validation Best Practices 65 Plans affected Would the change require consequential amendment of IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) plan.ITIL® V3 : Release.
Control & Validation Best Practices Scheduled implementation time (change window. release window or date and time) √ Location / reference to release / implementation plan √ Details of change implementer √ Change implementation details (success / fail / remediation) √ √ Actual implementation date and time √ Review date(s) √ Review results (including crossreference to new RFC where necessary) Summary Closure Summary ©The Art of Service .66 ITIL® V3 : Release.
g.1.13 RACI Example for Managing Change Change Sponsor.ITIL® V3 : Release. team leader instructing change C Change target. service owners A/R Change agent. process owners. business and IT leaders Change enabler. e. e. etc. team Lead workshops and group analysis of the current processes Run effective meetings Solve problems in groups A/R A/R A/R A A/R A C C C A/R A/R A/R A/R C C C A/R A/R C A/R A/R A/R A C A/R A C C C C A/R A/R A/R A/R A/R A/R A/R A/R A/R ©The Art of Service . Set up a system for communicating change Steer change Mobilize the organization Mobilize their department. unit.g.g. Control & Validation Best Practices 67 6. e.g. e. understand the levers for change and the obstacles Manage change and input to change plan Input to design of target organization or structure. individual performing the change I Role/Responsibility Articulate a vision for the business and service change in their domain Recognize and handle resistance to change Initiate change.
and enable its effective use in order to deliver value to the customer. Release and Deployment will enhance an organization’s capabilities to develop. distribute and rollback releases in accordance with defined policies that improve efficiency and reduce business disruption. Control & Validation Best Practices 6. being of less importance and priority to both the business and IT organizations. systems and functions required to build. transition support to service operation.2 Release and Deployment Management Often forgotten or ignored in many IT Service Management implementations or initiatives. the actual scope includes all of the activities. compile. end users. and Release and Deployment plans with customers and stakeholders. customers. Release and Deployment can be mistakenly seen as the poor cousin of Change Management. In conjunction with the use of Change Management. customers and service operations. 6.68 ITIL® V3 : Release. • Ensure that all release packages can be tracked. verified. uninstalled or backed out if necessary.1 Goals and Objectives To deploy new releases into production. • Ensure the integrity of constructed release packages and that they are recorded accurately in the Configuration Management System (CMS). Much of the confusion and misunderstanding is perpetuated by the idea that Release and Deployment only focuses on the actual distribution of changes to the live environment. • Ensure the required skills and knowledge is transferred to support staff. While timely and accurate distribution is indeed a goal of the process. Other objectives of Release and Deployment are: • To define and agree upon Release policies. suppliers and any other relevant stakeholders. ©The Art of Service .2. reuse. test and deploy a release into product and enable effective handover to service operations. • There is minimal unpredicted impact on the production services. installed.
6.2 Scope Release and Deployment works closely in conjunction with the other RCV processes to enable the quality transition of services. A release is a collection of authorized changes to an IT service.ITIL® V3 : Release. test and distribute a release unit • The complexity of interfaces between the proposed unit and the rest of the services and IT infrastructure • The storage and resources available in the build. suppliers and customers Contributing to meeting auditable requirements for traceability through Service Transition. service teams.2. At worst.3 Benefits When identifying the benefits that Release and Deployment provides for. at best. test. A poorly designed release and deployment will. improvements in the metrics defined for Release and Deployment may be at the expense of the other transition processes. Control & Validation Best Practices 69 6. As a result. The role played specifically by Release and Deployment is to build. 6. ©The Art of Service . Well planned and implemented release and deployment will make a significant difference to an organization's service costs. faster. it can cripple the environment and degrade the live services. distribution and live environments. force IT personnel to spend significant amounts of time troubleshooting problems and managing complexity. When defining the most appropriate release unit structure. it is important to remember that it should be utilized in conjunction with the other Service Transition processes.2. Typical benefits seen as a result of improved Release and Deployment are: • • • • Delivering change. the following factors should be taken into account: • The ease and amount of change necessary to release and deploy the release unit • The amount of resources needed to build. at optimum cost and minimized risk Assuring customers and users can use the new or changed service in a way that supports the business goals Improving consistency in implementation approach across the business change. validate and distribute authorized service changes to the target systems or users.2. package.4 Terminology Release Unit: A ‘release unit’ describes the portion of a service or IT infrastructure that is normally released together according to the organization’s release policy.
70 ITIL® V3 : Release. Typical identification schemes include the following examples: • Major Release: Banking_System v220.127.116.11. v1. it may mean that for critical applications the release unit is the complete set of application components and for optional features or add-ons only the single component itself. the amount of change occurring and resources required will be considered when formulating a complete Release Package.2 etc o A temporary or permanent Quick Fix for a Problem or Known Error ©The Art of Service . including the associated user or support documentation that is required.5: Simplified example of release units for an IT service © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC Release Package: A release package may be a single release unit or a structured set of release units.1.1. Control & Validation Best Practices Based on these factors. Like the definition of release units. Release Identification: The unique release identification scheme which is normally defined in the Release Policy and conforms to any standards defined by Service Asset and Configuration Management. v1. • Emergency Fix: Banking_System v1. v2. factors such as the modularity of components. Figure 6.3 etc o A few minor improvements and fixes to Known Errors. v3 etc o Major roll-out of new hardware and/or software • Minor Release: Banking_System v1. v1.
New IT assemblies are stored here until ready for use.ITIL® V3 : Release.6: The use of the DML by Release and Deployment © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC Definitive Spares: Physical storage of all spare IT components and assemblies maintained at the same level as within the live environment. with Release and Deployment being responsible for any additions. removals or maintenance that needs to be performed. Control & Validation Best Practices 71 Definitive Media Library (DML): The secure library where the definitive authorized versions of all media CIs (typically software) are stored and protected. and additional components can be used when needed for additional systems or in the recovery from Incidents. The DML includes both electronic and physical copies of definitive software releases. Like the DML. details of these assemblies are recorded in the ©The Art of Service . The DML should include definitive copies of purchased software (along with license documents and any controlled information) as well as software developed on site. modifications. Figure 6.
Build Management: The software.2. UCs • Deployment plans and packages • Service Transition Report ©The Art of Service . which for large organizations can significantly reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for the services involved. This should include automation where possible for its compilation and distribution.72 ITIL® V3 : Release. The inputs to release and deployment include: • Authorized RFCs • Service Packages • Service Design Package • Service Acceptance Criteria • Service Management policies and standards (including the Change Policy) • Build Models and plans • Exit and entry criteria for each stage of release and deployment The outputs include: • Release and deployment plan • Updated RFCs for any required activities • Updated service catalogue reflecting any service changes • New or modified service • New or modified processes • Skilled and knowledgeable support staff • End users with capabilities to use the service • SLAs.5 Triggers and Interfaces The primary interfaces of release and deployment exist with Change Management and the surrounding Service Transition processes. and their management and deployment the responsibility of the Release and Deployment process. hardware and documentation that comprise a release unit should be assembled in a controlled manner to ensure a repeatable process. Control & Validation Best Practices CMDB. OLAs. 6. Other inputs will also be provided from Service Strategy and Service Design to ensure that the requirements for value provision have been met.
The common options for deploying releases are described below: Big Bang or Phased Big Bang: Where the new or changed service is deployed to all user areas in one operation. Release Policy Release 1 Release 2 Release 3 1 2 3 4* 5* 1 2 3 4 5 6* 7* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8* Initial Launch ‘Big Bang’ roll-out * Additional Workstations Figure 6. Control & Validation Best Practices 73 6. This will be the case in many scenarios such as in retail organizations for new services being introduced into the stores’ environment in manageable phases.7: Options for ‘big bang’ and phased rollouts.2. © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC Phased roll-out ©The Art of Service . consideration about the potential impact and need for resources will affect how releases will be deployed to the target locations. This will often be used when introducing an application change and consistency of service across the organization is considered important. and then this operation is repeated for subsequent parts of the user base via a scheduled rollout plan. Phased Approach: The service is deployed to a part of the user base initially.6 Release Design Options and Considerations When planning individual releases or defining the policies that should exist.ITIL® V3 : Release.
This may be through new users appearing and requesting downloads or expected users not doing so. delivering updated service components to all users.74 Push or Pull ITIL® V3 : Release. Typical examples of activities that are capable of a degree of automation are: • Discovery tools aid release planning • Automate builds reduce time taken this in turn can resolve scheduling conflicts and delays • Automated configuration baselines procedures save time and reduce errors in identifying the status of CI’s and releases during build. which are typically pulled down to update P. either in big bang or phased forms is the use of a push approach. This will ultimately slow down the release team and create resource and capacity issues that affect the agreed service levels ©The Art of Service . Software is made available in a central location but users are free to pull the software down to their own location at a time of their choosing or when a workstation restarts. The time required to provide a well-designed and efficient automated mechanism may not always be available or viable. The Pull Approach: used for software releases. Automated or Manual Automation: Helps to ensure repeatability and consistency. The use of ‘Pull’ updating a release over the internet has made this concept significantly more pervasive. A good example is virus signature updates. since the new or changed service is delivered into the users’ environment at a time not of their choosing. test and deployment etc Manual: Important to monitor and measure the impact of many repeated manual activities as they are likely to be inefficient and error prone.C’s and servers when it best suits the customer. triggering investigation into their continued existence. Pull approaches do not rest so heavily on accurate configuration data and they can trigger an update to user records. In terms of service deployment. however at times of extreme virus risk this may be overridden by a release that is pushed to all know users. Control & Validation Best Practices The Push Approach: service component is deployed from the centre and pushed out to the target locations.
The Release Plan is the operational implementation for each release. The Deployment Plan is the documented approach for distributing a single Release. preparation & training Logistics. It is the governing policy document for the process and must accommodate the majority of releases being implemented. Control & Validation Best Practices 75 6.7 Release Policy A Release Policy is the formal documentation of the overarching strategy for releases and was derived from the Service Design phase of the Service Lifecycle. Figure 6.2. emergency fixes Expected deliverables for each type of Release Policy on the production and execution of back out plans How and where Releases should be documented Blackout windows for releases based on business or IT requirements Roles and responsibilities defined for the Release and Deployment process Supplier contacts and escalation points 6. Delivery & installation Key Points: The Release Policy is the overarching strategy for Releases and was derived from the Service Design phase of the Service Lifecycle.8 Release and Deployment Activities Release policy & planning Design & develop or order & purchase Build & configure release Release testing & acceptance Deployment planning Communication. Typical contents of a Release Policy include: • • • • • • • • • Level of infrastructure to be controlled by Releases Preferred structure and schedules for Release Packages Definition of major and minor releases.2.ITIL® V3 : Release.8: Phases and activities of Release and Deployment ©The Art of Service .
Service test and pilots 5. Review and close Service Transition 1. Build and test 4. Release Planning Any plans created for the release and deployment will need to be integrated with the overall Service transition plan. Perform transfer. Plan and prepare for deployment 6. The processes of Evaluation and Service Validation and Testing will be integrated here to assist in the determination whether to continue. Review and close the deployment 10. plans should be authorized by Change Management and used to assist in the evaluation of the risk. Preparation for build. Release planning 2. and conform to any policies that have been defined. Control & Validation Best Practices Overview of Important Steps: 1. pause or revert to previous stages of the release. For each release.76 ITIL® V3 : Release. test and deployment 3. ©The Art of Service . impact and resource requirements for components of the change. Deployment and retirement 7. Typically the release and deployment plans should document the: • Scope and content of the release • The risk assessment for the release • Affected stakeholders • Teams responsible for the release • Communication strategy to be used during the release and deployment process Plans should take into account the acceptance criteria that exist for the release and when authorization points will verify a pass or fail. Verify deployment 8. Early Life Support 9.
The activities that occur here are: • Developing build plans based on the Service Design Package and defining any environment requirements. • Scheduling the resources and time required to setup the environments • Testing the build and compilation procedures • Scheduling the build and compilation activities • Assigning resources.ITIL® V3 : Release. For complex releases or in large and diverse organizations it may be appropriate to use more than one pilot for address the different implementation and support issues that exist. Pilots should include mechanisms by which feedback can be gathered about various aspects of the release and associated processes. roles and responsibilities for any key activities • Defining the build exit and entry criteria. For this to be effective the scope needs to be carefully determined. testing and maintaining the controlled environments to production will need to be planned in order to enable optimum use of resources for the development of the release. Environments that may be utilized during this period include: • Build environments • Testing and integration environments • Deployment environments • Pilot environments • Backup and recovery environments Utilizing Pilots Pilots may be useful for testing the service with a group of participants that are representative of the broader end-user community. Control & Validation Best Practices 77 Build and test planning The approach taken for building. as being either too large or too small will likely result in some negatively impact to the overall success and quality of the release and deployment process. Deployment Planning ©The Art of Service .
©The Art of Service . What is the current capability of the service provider? Financial/Commercial Planning Where necessary. including: • Working capital • Contracts and licenses • Funding • Intellectual property requirements 2. build and test teams. test and deployment Before the actual building of the release occurs. various financial and commercial factors will need to be assessed before the deployment activities. Are there location dependences? 4. Who else needs to be prepared well in advance? (training. and any issues documented in an interim evaluation report. What needs to be deployed? 2. When does the deployment need to be completed? 7. Why is the deployment happening? 8. What are the critical success factors and exit criteria? 9. Control & Validation Best Practices There are many factors that will be considered when choosing the most appropriate deployment strategy (refer back to deployment options). This should be an independent evaluation that checks the release will deliver the predicted outcomes. Who are the users? 3. the release design must be validated against the requirements defined for the new or changed service offering. deployment.78 ITIL® V3 : Release. Preparation for build. security etc) 6. Where are the users? 5. Such training could be related to the: • Service management processes to be used • Changes in security or health and safety procedures • Understanding of the Service Design documentation and plans • Technology being utilized for the release. Questions that must be answered include: 1. Training of involved release and deployment staff In many cases the introduction of a release may require additional training for the release.
ensuring proof of licence and triggering updates to the Asset Management System. ©The Art of Service . sharing and archiving knowledge. capturing and recording information.ITIL® V3 : Release. repeatable practices and reusable components should be utilized to during the build and test of releases. This will save time and effort in verifying assets. test and packaging environments • Compilation and packaging tools • Configuration of the releases themselves: o Version control o Documentation templates for testing and validation o Access rights and security procedures Release and build documentation Documentation templates. Typical documentation that will be used by the release teams include: • Contract agreements • Purchase requests • Health and Safety guidelines • Security policies • Licence agreements • Procedures for: o Distributing software o Delivering. Control & Validation Best Practices 79 3. moving and installing equipment o Wiping sensitive data and media o Publishing. knowledge bases and other guidance should be consistently available to support the release team in the activities performed. Build and test Wherever possible. each of the individual components should be tested to verify that any quality criteria has been met. initiating action where quality criteria is not met. procedures. Acquire and test required components Release and Deployment should be interfaced with the organization’s existing procurement processes to acquire any required components for the release. As part of the overall Service Validation and Testing. information and data. This includes managing the: • Build.
service rehearsals may be used. When a definitive package has been assembled. Managing the build and test environments The need for multiple environments in which to build and test will depend on the size. and appropriate access to these environments given based on the priorities defined. a baseline should be taken of the release package and the correct versioning and naming conventions applied. With particular focus on the release itself. which simulates as much of the service as possible in an extensive and widely involved practice session. 4. Pilots Previous planning should have already identified what pilots will be used as part of the overall release and deployment. Key actions to take during pilots are: • Training of any people involved • Documentation of any required procedures • Continual communication and engagement with customers and users • Determine the levels of support required for the actual release • Discover and fix issues wherever possible before the final deployment • Document improvements where appropriate and incorporate them into future plans ©The Art of Service . and is designed to be the last measure to detect any potential issues that will arrive during or after the deployment to the live environment. Test environments should be protected using a range of testing best practices (see also Service Validation and Testing). frequency and impact of the releases being managed. Service testing and pilots (See Service Validation and Testing) As part of a coordinated effort with Service Validation and Testing. complexity. tools and checklists should be utilized as part of the release packaging. Automating the installation of systems and software reduces the workload of people.80 ITIL® V3 : Release. This would normally occur after other pilots have run. testing and validation must be performed at multiple levels. Control & Validation Best Practices Release Packaging Build management procedures. but also requires testing of the scripts and mechanisms that will be used. to provide repeatable practices and expected outcomes.
Plan and prepare for deployment At this stage the focus is to prepare the organization and people for organizational change and to refine and deployment plans that have been documented. These plans should include guidance regarding: • Risk mitigation plans • Disposal and retirement plans • The logistics for delivery • Knowledge transfer • Mobilizing users to be ready to use the service • Mobilizing the support staff for service readiness Figure 6.ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 81 5.9: – Example set of deployment activities © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC ©The Art of Service .
Control & Validation Best Practices 6: Perform transfer. 8: Early Life Support The quality of transition to Service Operation is a crucial element to the success of the overall service change that is being implemented. 7: Verify deployment Once the activities for the deployment of releases are finished. Deploy Service Management Capability 5. enhanced learning and better momentum for continual improvement. deployment and retirement During the actual implementation itself. Remove redundant assets These activities will need to be modified to accommodate any items specified in the deployment plan as part of the acceptance criteria for ‘go live’. Decommissioning and service retirement 8. incidents and problems that are detected in the early of the new or modified service. Transfer financial assets 2. increased customer and user satisfaction. This enables more stability in this vulnerable period. Rather than simply hand off support post-deployment. Deploy processes and materials 4. verification should occur that users are capable of operating the service. Deploy service 7. Transfer changes required to business/organization 3. ©The Art of Service .82 ITIL® V3 : Release. Transfer service 6. the release and deployment teams should assist in managing any calls. the activities performed can be grouped under the following tasks: 1. The resource allocation from these teams will then be gradually reduced while Service Operation takes on more responsibility for support. Verification should ensure that: • The service/release components are in place by means of a configuration audit • Documentation has been updated accordingly • Roles and responsibilities have been correctly assigned • The measurement and reporting systems are established to measure performance of the service Any noted deviations from plans or other items raised should be documented in order to improve future implementations and processes used.
which might include such conditions as: • Users can use the service effectively and efficiently for their business activities • Service delivery is managed and controlled across any service provider interfaces • Service levels and performance standards are being consistently achieved • Stakeholder groups verify the transfer of required knowledge • All deliverables required for the release have been signed off. ©The Art of Service . The acceptance criteria for finalizing Early Life Support should be agreed early in the process.10: Typical Early Life Support Activities © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC Figure 6.ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 83 Figure 6. and the transfer of knowledge to service desk staff (including knowledge base articles). including the training of users and staff.11: The benefits of using Early Life Support The example shown in the figures above demonstrate how the number of incidents for deployment A was significantly reduced through the use of Early Life Support.
12: Transitioning New and Changed Services into Operation ©The Art of Service . Figure 6.84 ITIL® V3 : Release. which will verify successful completion and that the handover to Service Operation is complete. Items that should be reviewed include: • Any quality criteria deviations that exist • Any open actions or necessary fixes that have been identified • Review open changes • Review performance targets and achievements • Experiences and feedback from customers. cost or risk to the organization. impact. This will utilize the process of Evaluation and is driven by Change Management. • All problems and known errors are documented and accepted by the business and/or suppliers • Check that any redundant assets (including licences) have been removed 10: Review and close Service Transition The final step required in finalizing the completion of Service Transition is a formal review appropriate to the relative scale of the change. Control & Validation Best Practices 9: Review and close the deployment A formal review of deployments should be performed for all releases of a determined level of size. The review seeks to ensure that all requirements for the release have been met and to identify and potential improvements that can be made. The “lessons learnt” should be documented to provide any improvement opportunities that can be made and developed by Continual Service Improvement for future transitions. users and staff involved with the deployment.
Release & Deployment. test and deployment activities Customer metrics: • Decreased variance in service performance against predicted performance • Reduced number of incidents during Early Life Support • Increased customer and user satisfaction • Faster adoption of new and modified services amongst end user community ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 85 Note how Change.ITIL® V3 : Release. Service Validation & Testing and Service Asset & Configuration Management work together for the transition of new or modified Services. 6. package.2.9 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of Release & Deployment Management Service Provider metrics: • Reduced resources and costs to diagnose and fix incidents and problems in deployment and production • Reduced discrepancies in configuration audits • Increased accuracy in deployment of software • Increased compliance with software licence requirements and reduced oversubscriptions • Reduced time and resources consumed by build.
86 ITIL® V3 : Release. The underlying concept to which Service Validation contributes is quality assurance – establishing that the service design and release will deliver a new or changed service or service offering that satisfies the requirements and standards of the customers and stakeholders involved.3. ©The Art of Service . • Confirm that customer and stakeholder requirements and criteria are correctly defined and address and variances as early as possible. capacity and constraints.1 Goals and Objectives The overriding goal of Service Validation and Testing is to assure that the new or modified service will provide the appropriate value to customers and their business. Control & Validation Best Practices 6. Other objectives include: • Provide confidence that service changes deliver the expected outcomes and value for customers within the projected costs. This includes verification that the service is ‘fit for purpose’ and ‘fit for use’.3 Service Validation and Testing 6.
In addition to these overall guidance provided by Service Strategy. Release and Deployment and Evaluation will need to be interfaced with Service Validation and Testing. measured and controlled.2 Policies and Principles Service Quality Policy Consideration needs to be given to defining the meaning of service quality.4 Scope The concepts of Service Validation and Testing can be applied throughout the entire service lifecycle to quality assure any aspect of a service and the provider’s capability to deliver and support it. This will require that the all components and providers that are involved in the end-to-end service are considered as part of the approach for Service Validation and Testing. but instead that an appropriate level of confidence can be achieved with appropriate testing and safeguards in place.4. size and number of end users or customers affected. 6. Depending of the criticality. Control & Validation Best Practices 87 6. 6.ITIL® V3 : Release. operated.1 Benefits Insufficient testing practices will usually always result in some level of service failure. Service Strategy should provide guidance regarding the approach and standards for quality. ©The Art of Service . The process of Service Validation and Testing can be used as an opportunity to clarify that it is impossible to guarantee exact levels of performance and quality. which in turn will ensure the appropriate levels of testing are performed for the build. The processes of Change. more detailed service level metrics will be developed during the Service Design phase and handed over as part of the Service Design package. from the perspectives of: • Level of excellence • Value for money • Conformance to specification • Meeting or exceeding expectations While a balanced approach to these perspectives should be maintained. test and deployment activities of the releases required.4. this can result in long-lasting effects on the reputation and success of the provider and business. any dominant focus will influence how services are designed. in extreme circumstances even injury or death.
including the level of Change control. what sacrifices will be made in order achieve the proposed distribution date? Typical elements within Change Management policies that relate to testing include: • The integration of testing within the service lifecycle and projects • Using a risk-based approach to testing • Engaging all appropriate stakeholders throughout the project and service lifecycle for testing • Automation of testing mechanisms ©The Art of Service . the level of confidence established in services will change depending on the safety criticality or compliance factors that apply. In the case of a release that is behind schedule but still needs to be deployed within a defined change window. type and frequency for releases will have a large impact of the levels of testing and validation used. any documented change windows will influence the level of testing that can be provided for throughout Service Transition. As the frequency of releases increases so does the requirement for consistent and reusable test models and automated testing mechanisms. Control & Validation Best Practices Risk policies are designed to influence how a service provider manages risk. Release Policy The documented policy describing the approach.88 Risk Policy ITIL® V3 : Release. As different segments will have varying attitudes and perspectives regarding risk. Change Management Policy Like the Release policy. validation and testing and security provision for services being offered.
13: Design constraints of a service © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC When constructing a Service Design package there are many influencing constraints that influence how a new or modified service will be developed and built (see figure above). Within these constraints. ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 89 Figure 6. the primary focus of service validation is ensuring that the required service utility and warranty (see below) has been delivered by the new or modified service.ITIL® V3 : Release. Service Validation and testing should verify that these boundaries are correctly defined and that the service can be transitioned within those boundaries.
including the allocation of the enabling resources required.3 Test Models A test model describes a test plan. It ensures that testing is a repeatable process and that the defined deliverables are achieved.14: Creating Service Value Value WARRANTY Fit for use? Test Strategy A test strategy describes the overall approach to organizing testing and validation. Test models should be structured so that: 1. There is traceability to the initial design requirements and criteria 2. That test elements can be reused or changed ©The Art of Service . a set of services or a single service. All activities can be measured and audited 3. Control & Validation Best Practices Performance supported? Constraints removed? UTILITY Fit for purpose? Available enough? Capacity enough? Continuous enough? Secure enough? Figure 6. It may apply to the whole organization. execution etc) • Test metrics • Service Provider interfaces • Test criteria • Roles and responsibilities • Environment requirements • Deliverables 6. documentation.90 ITIL® V3 : Release. The typical contents of a test strategy document include: • The purpose. the scope of a test and the test scripts that define how each element will be tested. processes and practices applicable to testing • Test models used • Test process activities (planning and estimation. control. legal and regulatory requirements • Service Management policies.4. goals and objectives of service testing and validation • Scope and organizations • Applicable standards.
ITIL® V3 : Release. Level 1 Define Customer/Business Requirements 1a Define Service Requirements 2a SLR Draft SLA Service Acceptance Criteria/Plan Service Acceptance Test 2b Service Operational Readiness Test 3b Service Release Package Test 4b Service Review Criteria/Plan Contract. Offerings and contracts Level 2 Level 3 Design Service Solution Service Operational Criteria/Plan SDP including: Service Model Capacity and resource plans Service Release Test Criteria 3a Level 4 Design Service Release 4a Release Design Release plan Develop Service Solution 5a Level 5 Component and Assembly Test 5b Service Component Build and Test Levels of configuration and testing Deliveries from internal and external suppliers BL Baseline point Internal and external suppliers Figure 6. Control & Validation Best Practices 91 See the Service V Model for examples of test models used according to the different levels of testing and validation that apply.15: The Service V Model © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC The Service V Model is a concept of establishing acceptance requirements against the various levels of requirements that apply in order to justify release to the customer for trial and assessment. Using techniques such as the Service V model (see below) for Service Validation and Testing. SPI 1b Validate Service Packages. SLP. ©The Art of Service . different test models will ensure that each level is sufficiently tested and validated against that the requirements and any criteria are met. provides a framework to help organize the levels of Configuration Items that are needed and the associated testing and validation activities within and across stages of the change. From the high level business perspective through to the technology perspective.4. Service Package. 6.4 Testing Approaches and Techniques Any test strategy needs to provide for a range of perspectives in order to determine whether the service will deliver as required.
There are many frameworks and sources of guidance focused specifically on testing e. load and scalability testing • Availability. backup and recovery testing • Security testing • Logistics. capacity and resilience testing • Volume. packaging and distribution testing • Operability and maintainability testing. deployment and migration testing • Build.92 ITIL® V3 : Release. stress. Control & Validation Best Practices The left hand side represents the specification of the service requirements down to the detailed Service Design. The right hand side focuses on the validation and test activities that are performed against the specifications defined on the left hand side.g. It also describes that the person/group or sign off on the requirements on the left side should be involved on the right side to accept that the requirements have been met. ©The Art of Service . and there is direct involvement by the equivalent party on the right hand side. The actual tests required at each level should reflect the approach to risk and level of confidence that is required for the service change being transitioned. These normally include: • Usability testing • Accessibility testing • Process and procedure testing • Knowledge transfer and capability testing • Performance. It shows that service validation and acceptance test planning should start with the definition of the high level requirements. Test Management Approach (TMAP) that provide more details about the specific types of testing activities that can be performed.
issues and risks • Ensuring any incoming known-errors from development and their documentation items are processed. ©The Art of Service . Test Management typically involves tasks such as: • Planning and scheduling test resources • Prioritizing and scheduling the sequence of testing events • Managing any non-conformance.4. Control & Validation Best Practices 93 6. • Monitoring progress • Monitoring overall performance and quality of the process. Test Management Test Management is the overall coordination. control and reporting of the validation and testing activities that are performed during Service Transition. This is an activity best suited to be carried out by the Service Test Manager as it involves the coordination of resources based on the analysis of a range of test metrics and management of any issues or conflicts that arise.ITIL® V3 : Release.16: Typical activities used for the Service Validation and Testing process © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC Depending on the relative size of the service change.5 Service Validation and Testing activities Figure 6. or run in sequence or in parallel depending on available resources and testing interdependencies. the activities shown in the figure above may need to be increased or decreased in effort and scope for confidence in service quality. 1.
A baseline should also be captured of the initial test environment for any later comparison in the release process. Checks should also be performed to verify that the test scripts are complete and accurate. 4. using either manual or automated mechanisms. ©The Art of Service . Plan and design test This should be started early in the service lifecycle. errors and any non-conformance that need to be resolved • Resolved problems and errors • Sign off from test agents and stakeholders. Prepare Test Environment There may be configuration required in order to make use of the test environment. and includes: • Resourcing • Ensuring capability for tests required • Acquiring any business/customer resources that are required • Schedule of milestones and deliverable dates • Entry and exit points • Financial requirements – budgeting and funding 3. Based while the outputs from testing will vary depending on the test model defined. they typically include: • Actual results showing proof of appropriate levels testing • Problems. Verify Test Plan and Test Design Review the test plans and designs to verify that the test models used are appropriate for the levels of risk that exist and the level of confidence that needs to be assured for the service change.94 ITIL® V3 : Release. 5. Any exceptions that are raised from the test activities should be documented for future re-tests. Control & Validation Best Practices 2. Perform tests Any tests required will be performed.
the environment should be cleaned or restored to the initial state. including both internal and external boundaries that exist. capacity. the decision to buy or build and any other identified improvements that can be made 6. risks identified and other issues encountered). Evaluate exit criteria and report Documented results from the testing activities must be compared to the expected results. Along with the exit criteria documentation. Any exceptions can be defined as: • Pass/fail • Risk to the business/service provider • Change in expected value outcome (including higher costs to deliver benefits) 7. including the associated operation.ITIL® V3 : Release. Test clean up and closure If testing is complete for a given release. • Release and Deployment plans • Acceptance criteria • Request For Change (RFC) The key outputs from Service Validation and Testing are reports provided to Service Evaluation. ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 95 6. financial models and detailed design and interface specifications • The service package – the combination of core and supporting services that provide the utility and warranty required from the customers and business. • The service provider interfaces.4. other reports submitted will communicate the effectiveness of the utilized test model and process used.6 Triggers and Interfaces The key inputs into the Service Validation and Testing process are: • The Service Design Package. These reports document: • Testing activities carried out (including the information on the test model used) • Configuration baselines for the testing environments • Results from tests • Analysis of the results (identifying reasons for exception.
vendors and partners. • Test incidents.7 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of Service Validation and Testing Service Provider metrics: Internal metrics from the service provider’s perspective are primarily concerned with the effective and efficient execution of the Service Validation and Testing process. 6. The effectiveness of testing and validation in providing this confidence can be measured by: • Early validation that the service will deliver the predicted value • Reduction in the impact of incidents and errors in the live environment due to transitioned services • More effective use of the service by the end user community • Clear understanding of roles and responsibilities for the transitioned service • Reduced cost and resources required due to customer and end user involvement ©The Art of Service .4. These include: • Reduced error rate in later testing stages or production • Number of known errors documented in earlier testing phases • Effort and cost to configure testing environment • Reduction of repeat errors • Re-use of testing data • Percentage of errors at each lifecycle stage • Percentage of incidents and errors caused by externally supplied/controlled component Business/Customer metrics: The primary purpose for testing and validation is to provide a level of confidence in the value being created by a new or modified service. Control & Validation Best Practices Other outputs (used by all elements of the Service Lifecycle): • Updated data. information and knowledge in the CMS and SKMS (see Knowledge Management).96 ITIL® V3 : Release. problems and error records • Improvement ideas for Continual Service Improvement • Feedback for any third party relationships including suppliers.
value for money is appropriate and whether it will be accepted to be built/purchased/deployed etc. with any deviations between the two being managed for risk. during deployment and before final transition to service operations.ITIL® V3 : Release. When interfaced with Change Management.5 Service Evaluation Evaluation is a generic process that considers whether the performance of something is acceptable.2 Scope Within Service Transition. 6. Control & Validation Best Practices 97 6. The actual performance of a change is assessed and compared against the predicted performance.1 Goals and objectives The purpose of evaluation is to provide the capability for consistent and standardized methods that can determine the performance and value of a service change.5. This adds value by: • Evaluating the intended effects and as much of the unintended effects as is reasonably practical for the service change being transitioned • Providing timely and accurate information to assist Change Management is deciding whether a service change will be approved or rejected 6. the process considers the evaluation of new or changed services defined by Service Design.5. The importance of evaluating the actual performance of any service change against its anticipated performance is an important source of information to service providers to help ensure that expectations set are realistic and to identify that if there are any reasons that production performance does not meet what was expected. evaluation will assist in providing accurate information and in managing stakeholders’ expectations. ©The Art of Service . Continual Service Improvement can benefit by identifying areas that can be analyzed for future improvements to the process of change and evaluation.
Evaluate Predicted Performance 3.5. Act (PDCA) Model 6.4 Principles of Evaluation The Evaluation process follows the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) model to ensure consistency across all evaluations. Check. Document Evaluation Report ©The Art of Service . Risk Management 5. Do. Figure 6. with improved capabilities in the determination of the value being delivered by a service change and whether any identified risks are unacceptable to the business. customers or existing IT services. Plan the evaluation 2.5 Evaluation Activities The key activities of Service Evaluation are shown in the figure below. the PDCA model allows enhanced improvement and organizational learning to occur while managing risks that may affect the success of the improvement action or initiative. 6.98 ITIL® V3 : Release.5. When performed correctly.3 Benefits Change Management is the primary beneficiary of enhanced evaluation.17: Plan. These activities are: 1. Evaluate Actual Performance 4.5. Control & Validation Best Practices 6.
ITIL® V3 : Release.18 Typical Activities of Service Evaluation © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 99 Figure 6.
The change documentation should already specify what the intended effects of the change will be and how they will be measured. end users. 2. Through evaluation the involved stakeholders can also identify any potential effects that have not already been identified. highlighting the outcomes of this comparison. When all the appropriate stakeholders are involved in the evaluation. customers. Control & Validation Best Practices 1. Evaluate Predicted Performance Using the input Service Design Package (including all relevant Acceptance criteria). suppliers and other key stakeholders. Evaluate Actual Performance After the service has been implemented. service provider. Plan the evaluation The key factor in planning the evaluation is the consideration of the perspectives required. An interim evaluation report will be provided to Change Management. ©The Art of Service . which can. evaluating whether any differences will cause unacceptable risks. require further analysis through Change Management. with a recommendation for further analysis to be communicated back to Change Management. a comparison is made with the predicted performance. together with a recommendation whether to reject or accept the service change in its current form. Like before.100 ITIL® V3 : Release. it assists in understanding all of the intended and unintended effects of the service change being transitioned. It these are unclear or ambiguous the evaluation should stop. including the business. depending on the risk. 3. If the RFC and associated change documentation is ambiguous. The second interim report produced describes the outcome of this evaluation and provides a recommendation to Change Management whether the service change should be rolled back. a report on the actual performance is generated by service operations and compared against the Service Design Package and performance models defined. an evaluation is made as to whether the actual performance is creating unacceptable risks or if there have been any unintended effects that have occurred. it could mean the implications are not fully understood and it will be more difficult to identify the most suitable roles to include for evaluation.
If a risk is determined to require mitigation. Document Evaluation Report Evaluation Report The evaluation report is provided to Change Management. Control & Validation Best Practices 101 4. e. Risk Management The evaluations that are performed are designed to manage the risks that might be introduced as a result of the service change. plans should be made as to how the threat may be removed.19: Example Risk Profile © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC 5. defence) • Validation statement • Recommendations ©The Art of Service . or how recovery techniques can be used to increase the resilience of a service. with both interim and final reports being delivered.g. The evaluation report contains the sections: • Risk Profile • Deviations report • Qualification statement (for critical services in regulated environments.ITIL® V3 : Release. Figure 6.
5.102 ITIL® V3 : Release.5.6 Triggers and Interfaces Triggers: • Request for Evaluation from Change Management or Service Transition Manager. Control & Validation Best Practices 6. • Project Management request for Evaluation Inputs: • Service Design Package (and Acceptance Criteria) • Test results • Associated Service Package Outputs: Evaluation Reports for Change Management 6.7 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for Service Evaluation Service Provider: • Reduced failed designs that have been transitioned • Reduced cycle time to perform an evaluation Business/customer: • Reduced variance between estimated and actual performance • Reduce number of incidents against transitioned service ©The Art of Service .
Without a separate process it is likely that Change Management would be flooded by a large volume of low risk standard changes. providing comments and making complaints • Users seeking changes to their access levels (utilizes Access Management) • Users wishing to have common services and applications installed for their use Many elements of Request Fulfilment may be automated through the use of self-help such as websites and user applications. it is an appropriate inclusion within the scope of Release.6. Control & Validation Best Practices 103 6.1 Goal and objectives Request Fulfilment is concerned with fulfilling requests from the end user community using consistent and repeatable methods.2 Scope The scope of Request Fulfilment is influenced heavily by the success of Change Management and what types of pre-approved changes can be effectively managed. relatively common and follows a procedure or work instruction. 6.6. Standard Change: A pre-approved Change that is low risk. As part of continual improvement. questions and queries that are placed upon the IT department by users. complaints or comments 6.6 Request Fulfilment Although Request Fulfilment is found in the Service Operation volume. Its primary purpose is to provide effective and efficient capabilities for fulfilling requests. ©The Art of Service .ITIL® V3 : Release. The objectives include: • To provide a channel for users to request and receive standard services for which a pre-defined approval (from Change Management) qualification exists • To provide information to users and customers about the availability of services and the procedure for obtaining them • To source and deliver the components of requested standard services • To assist with general information. Control and Validation. however Change Management will not need to approve each execution of the standard change. controlled and implemented by the IT department. the scope of Request Fulfilment should grow over time as maturity develops for Service Requests. creating bottlenecks and affecting the quality of assessment and coordination for normal changes. including: • Users and customers asking questions. with manual activities being used where necessary to fulfil the request. There may still be authorization from other groups such as Human Resources.
6.6. 6.4 Request Models As many service requests will be frequently recurring.5 Request Fulfilment Activities Figure 6. This is achieved by reduced the bureaucracy involved in making requests and centralizing the end-to-end management of those requests. Control & Validation Best Practices 6.6. 6.104 ITIL® V3 : Release.20: Typical Activities for Request Fulfilment ©The Art of Service . Increased customer and user satisfaction can also be developed as a result of quality Request Fulfilment.3 Benefits Through effective and efficient access to standard services from the IT department. this will enable the IT department (and the Service Desk in particular) with a clear definition of the appropriate types of Service Requests and repeatable actions describing how requests should be fulfilled. the business and customers can be supported in improved productivity of staff and/or higher quality in business services and products offered. predefined request models should be defined that document: • What activities are required to fulfil the request • The roles and responsibilities involved • Target timescales and escalation paths • Other policies or requirements that apply Similar to Change Models.
software deployment and other tools. In some instances the fulfilment of the Service Request can be entirely automated using workflow. an agreed process for charging should follow in the later steps in accordance with the organization’s financial management policies. Where financial approval is involved. manual activities will be required to fulfil the request using resources from the IT department. 4. It may be possible to agree upon fixed prices for ‘standard’ requests. ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 105 1. Financial Approval While the Service Request may already have approval from Change Management. Request Fulfilment should be interfaced with existing procurement and supplier processes. ‘Other’ Approval Where there may be compliance and regulatory implications for the service request. To ensure compatibility. Some requests can be fulfilled using only automated mechanisms. there may be some form of financial approval that is required when there are financial implications (usually those above a defined dollar amount). Menu selection Where practical. where they can select common services and provide input details. some mechanism of self-help should be utilized so that users can generate Service Requests using technology that interfaces with existing Service Management tools. suppliers or other parties involved in the provision of IT services. otherwise the cost must be estimated and submitted to the user/customer for financial approval (who may in turn require their own line management/financial approval). however the Service Desk should maintain control and visibility for all requests regardless where it is fulfilled. This might be via a website that offers users a menu driven interface. wider business approval may be needed.ITIL® V3 : Release. and safeguard these conditions in order for the standard change to be qualified for preapproval. 3. or escalated where necessary to internal or external specialist groups. 2. Fulfilment The tasks required for fulfilment will vary depending on the characteristics of the service request at hand. These approval mechanisms should be built into the request models as appropriate. For others. ERP. Change Management should establish that there are mechanisms in place to check for. Others may be fulfilled by the Service Desk at the first-line.
utilizing the Definitive Media Library (DML) where necessary. 6. or by using a self-help option to make their request. The primary interfaces within Service Management are those with the Service Desk and Incident Management: • Some requests will be triggered during the use of Incident Management (e. it should be referred back to the Service Desk to initiate closure.106 5. and Service Asset and Configuration Management are also important as: • Requests for deployment of software may involve pre-defined releases that can be automatically deployed. • The Service Desk acts as the primary party responsible for managing Service Requests. • Checks will need to be made for any licence requirements for deployed software • The Configuration Management System (CMS) will need to be updated after any deployment or change in the configuration of IT infrastructure. Change Management should be continually transferring standard changes to Request Fulfilment as maturity is gained in dealing with those changes. This should include some verification that the request has been satisfied using either confirmation with the end user or other automated means.g. and maintains visibility for those requests escalated to specialist groups.6 Triggers and Interfaces Most service requests will be triggered through users calling or emailing the Service Desk. a request is made to have a faulty printer serviced). Control & Validation Best Practices When the Service Request has been fulfilled. Closure ITIL® V3 : Release. ©The Art of Service .6. Interfaces with Release and Deployment.
7 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for Request Fulfilment Metrics will be broken down by the request type for each appropriate reporting period. Control & Validation Best Practices 107 Figure 6.ITIL® V3 : Release. ©The Art of Service .6. These include: • The total number of service requests • Percentage of service requests successfully fulfilled • The size of current backlogs for service requests • Mean elapsed time for handling service requests • The average cost per service request • Levels of client satisfaction • Utilization of self-help mechanisms.21: Interfaces with Request Fulfillment 6.
recording services. IT configurations. ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 6. controlling and providing information about Configuration Items (CI’s) and Service Assets throughout their life cycle. baselines and maintains Configuration data so that changes to the IT infrastructure can be controlled. documents. Configuration Management: Identifies. and in particular.7.7. It provides a complete inventory of assets and defines who is responsible for their control. It may cover non-IT assets or business products used or involved in the delivery and support of services. Quality and timely information supplied about CI’s and Service Assets will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of other Service Management processes.2 Scope Asset Management: The scope of Asset Management includes any IT or service asset used within the Service Lifecycle. 6.108 ITIL® V3 : Release. assets and infrastructure and the relationships that exist between them. It provides a logical model of the infrastructure. storing.1 Goal and objectives The goal of Service Asset and Configuration Management is to support the agreed IT service provision by managing. those used within Service Transition. Other objectives include: • To support the business and customer’s control objectives and requirements • To minimize the number of quality and compliance issues caused by improper configuration of services and assets • To optimize the service assets.7 Service Asset and Configuration Management 6. capabilities and resources.
Initially. the focus may be managing assets and services that are business critical or required as part of legal or regulatory compliance obligations.7.7.3 Benefits The majority of benefits enabled by effective Service Asset and Configuration Management can be seen in improvements of other Service Management processes. By having quality asset and configuration data available. 6. desktops) and will define how the type of asset will be purchased. Asset policies may be applicable for certain asset types (e. Control & Validation Best Practices 109 6.ITIL® V3 : Release.4 Policies and principles of Service Asset and Configuration Management There should be clear definition of the scope and objectives for Service Asset and Configuration Management is being planned. the benefits to other processes include: • Better forecasting and planning of changes • Changes and releases to be assessed planned and delivered successfully. but over time should begin to include a greater scope of the IT infrastructure. which will include how it will interface with existing Change and Release Policies. managed and disposed accordingly. ©The Art of Service . • Incidents and problems to be resolved within the service level targets • Changes to be traceable from requirements • Enhanced ability to identify the costs for a service Benefits that may be seen to be provided primarily by the process alone includes: • Better adherence to standards • Greater compliance to legal and regulatory obligations • Optimum software licensing by ensuring correlation between licenses needed against the number purchases.g.
Figure 6. the business. used by all of IT Service Management. The level of information recorded can vary. customers and any other involved party. with more detail applied for complex or critical infrastructure and services.22: Example of a Configuration Model ©The Art of Service . This should become the SINGLE. or those with particular compliance needs. resources and costs. attributes describing those elements. The model aims to show the elements making up the infrastructure. and the relationships that exist. Configuration Models assist the IT department in: • Assessing the impact and cause of incidents and problems • Assess the impact of proposed changes • To plan and design new or changed services • To plan technology upgrades’ • To plan and deploy release packages • To optimize asset utilization. Control & Validation Best Practices The Configuration Model: The development of a configuration model is one of the primary objectives of Configuration Management.110 ITIL® V3 : Release. COMMON representation of the IT infrastructure.
6 The Configuration Management System (CMS) The CMS is a set of one or more connected information sources that provide a logical model of the IT infrastructure. Specific information about CI’s. It captures Configuration Items (CIs) and the relationships that exist between them. hard drive. Reporting of all current and historical data about each CI throughout its lifecycle. After major changes. Incident Records. Used as a reference point for later comparison (e. The figure below demonstrates a simplified representation of the CMS. Service Level Agreements. Control & Validation Best Practices 111 6.ITIL® V3 : Release.7. ©The Art of Service . disaster recovery etc) 6. live.5 Terminology Terminology Configuration Item (CI): Explanations ANY component that supports an IT service (except people). Example: IT components or associated items such as Request for Changes.7. Example: Under Development. It’s a trade-off balancing the value that the information will provide versus the effort and cost to manage the information over time.g. withdrawn etc Attribute: CI Level: Status Accounting: Configuration Baseline: Configuration established at a specific point in time. being tested. Captures both the structure and details of a configuration. Example: Size of RAM. bandwidth Recording and reporting of CI’s at the level that the business requires without being overly complex.
inventory. as well as other sources they feed and interface information together. ©The Art of Service .23: The Configuration Management System (CMS) Scope CI Level As shown. with discovery. Wherever possible. the CMS may be formed by a combination of physical Configuration Management Databases (CMDBs). it is important to determine what level to which the CMDB will record information about the IT infrastructure and to decide what is not covered within the scope of the CMDB. Components out of scope are those typically not under the control of Change Management (e. Control & Validation Best Practices Configuration Items CI’s Include Software & Documentation!! Relationships CI Attributes • Hard disk space • Serial number • Owner • Location • Ram Figure 6.112 ITIL® V3 : Release. the CMS should provide access to information for other inventories rather than duplicating the data captured. HR or other reasons. At the data level.g. including business processes where information is required for financial. telecommunication equipment). compliance. audit. network management and other tools being used with interfaces to the CMS. The CMS is also used for a wide range of purposes. Automation is a factor for success for larger CMS deployments.
Control & Validation Best Practices 113 Figure 6.24: Example of a Configuration Management System © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC ©The Art of Service .ITIL® V3 : Release.
a formal project may be appropriate to plan. too soon with Configuration Management.25 Configuration Management Activities © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC 1. Management and Planning Planning for configuration management should seek to define the objectives. as many implementations fail when organizations try to achieve too much. including the scope and level. manage and control the work performed and deliverables required. as well as how these objectives will be achieved. what activities are performed and how the process will be controlled. an approach driven by continual improvement should be taken. that seeks to develop the maturity and scope of Configuration Management. The scope and level needs to be carefully chosen. Depending on the scale of implementation. ©The Art of Service . Instead. scope and level as early as possible.7 Configuration Management Activities Figure 6. and to increase value provided by its use.7.114 ITIL® V3 : Release. The development of a Configuration Management plan should document the overarching strategy for Configuration Management. Control & Validation Best Practices 6.
traceability. Transition Policies o ISO/IEC 20000. for establishing baselines. Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 115 Example contents of a Configuration Management Plan: • Context and Purpose • Scope o Applicable Services o Environments and infrastructure o Geographical Locations • Requirements o Links to policy. Service Management and contractual requirements o Summarize accountability. auditability requirements o Link to requirements for the Configuration Management System (CMS) • Applicable policies and standards: o Change Management.ITIL® V3 : Release. strategy. 197000/1 • Organization for Configuration Management o Roles and responsibilities o Change and configuration control boards o Authorization mechanisms. changes and releases • Asset and Configuration Management Systems and Tools o Configuration Identification o Version management o Interface management o Supplier management o Release and deployment o Build Management o Establishing and maintaining configuration baselines o Maintaining the CMS o Reviewing and auditing the integrity of configurations and the CMS • CMS Housekeeping o Data migration o Backups o Archiving Data • Links to business processes/customer capabilities o Financial Management o Procurement o Project Management o Customer Service o Human Resources ©The Art of Service .
26 – Example configuration breakdown for an IT Service ©The Art of Service . including the specification of: • How the classes and types of assets and CIs are to be selected. Control & Validation Best Practices 2. Identification: Identification includes the selection. It is the activity that determine what CIs will be recorded. Identification can take place for: • Hardware and Software – include OS • Business systems – custom built • Packages – off the shelf • Physical databases • Feeds between databases and links • Configuration baselines • Software releases • Documentation Identification is also used to define the approach and techniques utilized by Configuration Management. detection. grouped and classified • The approach to identification. labelling and registration of CIs. and what relationships exist with other CIs.116 ITIL® V3 : Release. including the naming and labelling conventions to be used • Define the roles and responsibilities for the owner or custodian of CIs Figure 6. what their attributes are.
As discussed earlier. Defining and documenting selection criteria for CIs 2. CI information is valuable if it facilitates the management of change. Control & Validation Best Practices 117 The identification activity includes the tasks: 1. baselines. or must be recorded for legal and regulatory compliance. Generally. which in turn may be CIs themselves. some of which are document CIs. Specify the relevant attributes for each CI 5. The figure showing an example configuration breakdown for an IT service describes how the service is broken into relative component CIs. The version describes the exact instance of what may be considered the same CI. This should be performed using a top down approach. Selecting CIs for recording based on selection criteria The configuration model should provide information describing the relationship and composition of CIs in each structure. 3. Each individual CI should be uniquely identifiable using an identifier and version reference. the identification and resolution of incidents and problems. When choosing the appropriate level. it involves weighing up the benefit that the information will bring against the cost and effort required to maintain accurate information for each CI. where top-level CIs are broken down into components. Naming conventions should also take into account any existing corporate or supplier structures. Name and Label CIs 4. ©The Art of Service . Identify the owner responsible for each CI item Some identification tasks explained: 1. an important part of Management and Planning is deciding the level at which recording is to occur and control will be exercised.ITIL® V3 : Release. Defining and documenting selection criteria for CIs 2. Select CIs for recording based on selection criteria 3. builds and releases and assemblies. Specify when each CI is brought under the control of Configuration Management 6. Name and Label CIs Configuration Management should work with Release and Deployment to establish policies regarding the naming conventions of CIs. and describes the relationships that exist between CIs.
1. identification includes a reference to the CI that it represents and a version number that will normally have two or three parts.1.1.3 etc • Minor releases: Banking_System v.2 etc 18.104.22.168 etc • Emergency fix releases: Banking_Systen v. and general management of each CI.1. v. For releases.1. Measures are required to ensure that: • Identifiers printed on tags are unique • Tags are difficult to remove or can be identified if removed • Tags are attached at a fixed. As an example: • Major releases: Banking_System v. v.2. Specify the relevant attributes for each CI Attributes are recorded that describe specific characteristics that are valuable for the management and control of change.118 ITIL® V3 : Release. v.1. Typical CI attributes include: • Unique identifier/label for CI • CI type • Name/description • Version • Location • Supply date • Licence details and expiry date • Owner/Custodian • Status • Supplier/source • Related documents • Historical data • Relationships to other CIs • Applicable SLA(s) ©The Art of Service .1.1. v. v. visible and accessible spot depending on the CI type Adding a barcode to the tag can also improve the efficiency and reliability of any reviews or audits that are performed over time.1. Control & Validation Best Practices Physical CIs should be labelled with the identifier and version so that they can be easily identified in the physical environment.
Control should be passed from the project or supplier to the service provider at the scheduled time and with accurate configuration records. with interfaces into existing asset management systems.ITIL® V3 : Release. Configuration Control: Configuration Control is used to ensure that only authorized and identifiable CIs are recorded from receipt to disposal. more automated mechanisms and delegation of authority for CI upkeep will be required. in order to protect the integrity of the CMS. Control occurs anytime the CMS is altered. 4. Each CI will progress through various states. Control & Validation Best Practices 119 3. For small organizations. service management tools. Typical states include: • Registered • Development or draft • Approved • Installed • Under Change/Maintenance • Withdrawn The use of status reporting will provide information on: • Configuration baselines • Latest software item versions • The person responsible for status change • CI change/incident/problem history • Changes implemented and in progress ©The Art of Service . with each state being of significance to the management of the CI. Configuration Control may be primarily utilized by a Configuration Librarian. however for large and complex infrastructures. Status Accounting: Status Accounting provides the capability for the reporting of all current and historical data concerned with each CI throughout its lifecycle. including: • Registration of all new CIs and versions • Update of CI records and licence control • Updates in connection with RFCs and Change Management • Update the CMS after periodic checking of physical items Methods to ensure Configuration Control are wide ranging and include a mix of manual and automated mechanisms. procurement systems etc.
Verification and Audit: Reviews and audits should be used to verify the existence of CIs. the procedures required. checking that they are correctly recorded in the CMS and that there is conformity between the documented baselines and the actual environment to which they refer.8 Triggers and Interfaces Most updates to the CMS are triggered by: • Change requests • Incidents and Problems • Purchase orders • Service Requests • Exceptions found during reviews and audits. accounting and charging. and what implications and non-conformance can have.7. For the service provider. ©The Art of Service . with corrective action taken to rectify the exception and to address possible issues with procedures and the behaviour of staff. with corrective measures restoring CIs to a baselined version where exceptions are found (e. 6. a desktop found with unauthorized software installed). the results ensure: • Conformity between the CMs and live environment • The physical existence of CIs match those recorded in the CMs • The appropriate configuration documentation is provided before a release Configuration Audits should occur at the following times: • Before and after major changes to the IT infrastructure • Following recovery from disaster • In response to the detection of an unauthorized CI • At other determined regular intervals Any unregistered or unauthorized CIs detected during an audit should be recorded and investigated. reports on the number of software licence holdings can be used to assess any over or under licensing in the software environment. Automated tools should be utilized for regular checks. Specifically. Continual training and awareness campaigns should be maintained so that staff understand the importance of Configuration Management.g. Control & Validation Best Practices Status reports of assets for a business unit are often required by financial management for budgeting.120 ITIL® V3 : Release.
some important interfaces are: • Change Management. • To ensure control procedures are complied with to protect the integrity of Configurations. using CMS data for the assessing the impact of Changes • Financial Management. The actual roles related to Service Asset and Configuration Management includes: • Service Asset Manager • Configuration Manager • Configuration Analyst • Configuration Administrator/Librarian • CMS/Tools Administrator • Change Manager (all Changes to CIs must be authorized by Change Management) ©The Art of Service . • To support the information needs of other ITIL® processes. using CMS data to identify potential bottlenecks in the infrastructure • Availability Management.ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 121 While almost every aspect of Service Management is supported by the information maintained within the CMS. assets and infrastructure by recording the relationships between service assets and configuration items. using CMS data to identify single points of failure and for component failure analysis Most important out of all the Service Lifecycle relationships however. 6. using the CMS to capture key financial information • Capacity Management.7. are those maintained with the other Service Transition processes as discussed in this volume. Configuration Management: • To provide a logical model of the services.9 Roles and Responsibilities Service Asset Management: The management of service assets across the whole lifecycle including: • Full lifecycle management of IT and service assets from acquisitions to disposal • Maintenance of the asset inventory.
Control & Validation Best Practices Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for Request Fulfilment Much of the focus for determining the value contribution of Configuration Management requires analysing improvements seen in the other Service Management processes. Potential metrics demonstrating this contribution include: • Improved speed for Incident and Problem Management for identifying and analysing the cause and potential effect • Improved ratio of used licences against paid for licences. should be very close to 100% • Percentage re-use and redistribution of under-utilized assets and resources • Improved aliment between provided maintenance and business support • Improvement in maintenance scheduling and management for CIs Other metrics focused on the effectiveness and efficiency of the process specifically include: • Improved quality and accuracy of configuration information • Decreasing number of exceptions detected during audits • Improved utilization of automation • Increased efficiency for activities performed ©The Art of Service .7.122 6.10 ITIL® V3 : Release.
8 Knowledge Management The quality of decision making within the Service Lifecycle depends on the ability and understanding of those parties involved. This requires accessible. and primarily explained within the context of Service Transition. Benefits: ©The Art of Service . service provider staff have adequate information on: o Who is currently using their services o The current states of consumption o Service delivery constraints o Difficulties faced by the customer in fully realizing the benefits expected from the service. the understanding of the benefits and consequences of actions taken. it is a process used by all elements of the Service Lifecycle to improve the decision making that occurs.ITIL® V3 : Release. increase satisfaction and reduce the cost of service. provided in a way that can be easily accessed and interpreted by the appropriate parties.2 Scope While Knowledge Management is found. • Ensuring staff have a clear and common understanding of the value that their services provide to customers and the ways on which benefits are realized for the use of those services. The primary purpose is to improve efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge.8. • Ensuring that. The objectives of Knowledge Management are: • Enable the service provider to be more efficient and improve quality of service. All of this in turn depends on the availability of accurate and timely knowledge.8. What is not considered to be within the scope of Knowledge Management is the detailed Configuration Item information that is captured and maintained by Service Asset and Configuration Management (but is interfaced with the same tools and systems).1 Goal and Objectives To enable organizations to improve the quality of management decision making by ensuring that reliable and secure information and data is available throughout the service lifecycle. 6. and the analysis of any of the surrounding issues involved. Control & Validation Best Practices 123 6. at a given time and location. quality and relevant data and information to be available to staff. information and data. 6.
support staff and supplier understanding of the new or changed service. knowledge is one of the important elements that needs to be transitioned as part of the service changes and associated releases being managed. as well as documented procedures for resolving known errors and requests. information and data being available. service desk. tactical and operational levels all benefits from quality knowledge.8.124 ITIL® V3 : Release. Having the extra time required to record relevant information and knowledge after actions are made. Examples where successful transition requires effective Knowledge Management include: • User. and the discontinuation of previous versions • Establishment of the acceptable risk and confidence levels associated with the transition. including knowledge of errors signed off before deployment. Control & Validation Best Practices With particular focus on Service Transition. One of the more difficult components of Knowledge Management is ensuring that we do more than simply capture discrete facts about various elements of the organization and IT infrastructure. 6. resources.3 Challenges faced by Knowledge Management • • • • Getting staff to use the systems. Some benefits include: • Optimized service portfolios (with appropriate balance of investments. ©The Art of Service . decision making at the strategic. Outside of Service Transition. Managing information and knowledge that is no longer correct or relevant for the organization. services and technology) • Improved feedback loops between the design architects and the support staff for services • Better real-time information and data for operational staff responding to user requests and incidents. What this requires is an understanding of the different components and processes required to develop and mature knowledge and wisdom. Designing a system that can scale well as an organization grows. to facilitate their roles within that service • Awareness of the use of the service.
Knowledge Management focuses on measures for capturing. and is applied in such a way to facilitate decision making.4 Policies and principles of Knowledge Management Data. ©The Art of Service . finding and reusing information so that work is not duplicated.27: Moving from data to wisdom Data: Data is a set of discrete facts. This usually requires capturing various sources of data and applying some meaning or relevance to the set of facts. Most organizations capture significant amounts of data every day. Knowledge: Knowledge is composed of the experiences.8. Knowledge. where? Data © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC Understanding Figure 6. insights and judgments from individuals and from their peers’. Knowledge Management activities seek to improve the capabilities for capturing. ideas. Context Wisdom Why? Knowledge How? Information Who. Information: Information comes from providing context to data. This usually requires the analysis of information. analyzing. Control & Validation Best Practices 125 6. what. synthesizing data and transforming it into information.ITIL® V3 : Release. Information. when. Wisdom (DIKW) Knowledge Management is usually seen within the context of the DIKW structure seen below.
The SKMS stores.5 The Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS) SKMS (Service Knowledge Management System) CMS (Configuration Management System) Decisions CMDB (Configuration Management Database) KEDB (Known Error Database) Figure 6. manages. updates and presents all information that an IT service provider needs to manage the full lifecycle of its services. including the Configuration Management System as well as other tools and databases. The use of wisdom ultimately enables an organization to direct its strategy and growth in competitive market spaces. but Wisdom cannot be captured this way. Information and Knowledge.8. ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices Wisdom: Gives the ultimate discernment of the material and having the application and contextual awareness to provide a strong common sense judgment. as Wisdom is a concept relating to abilities to use knowledge to make correct judgments and decisions. 6. The main purpose of the SKMS is to provide quality information so that informed decisions can be made by the IT service provider. We can use tools and databases to capture Data.126 ITIL® V3 : Release.2: Components making up the Service Knowledge Management System SKMS: Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS): The SKMS describes the complete set of tools and databases that are used to manage knowledge and information.
6 Knowledge Management Activities The activities of Knowledge Management can be grouped in to the following elements: 1. • Accumulating knowledge through processes and workflow • Generating new knowledge • Accessing valuable knowledge from outside sources • Capturing external knowledge from diverse sources such as databases. processes. distilling. Control & Validation Best Practices 127 Whereas the CMS focuses on providing information relating to the configuration of the IT infrastructure. employees. and how it fits within the larger concept of Knowledge Management (corporate-wide) practices already in place. including: • Experience of staff • Records of peripherals • Supplier & Partner requirements and abilities • Typical and anticipated user skill levels. Using the service knowledge management system 1. Data and information management 4.8. This will include: • Assisting an organization to identify knowledge that will be useful. 6. procedures and methods for KM • Technology and other resource requirements • Performance measures. Knowledge Management Strategy An overall strategy for Knowledge Management (for IT Service Management) should be developed that describes the approach taken by the organization.ITIL® V3 : Release. Knowledge Management strategy 2. storing and presenting information in a way that improves peoples understanding in relevant areas. websites. The strategy will address: • Governance Model • Organizational changes • Establish roles and responsibilities • Policies. suppliers and partners. The strategy should identify and plan for the capture of relevant knowledge and the consequential information and data that will support it. Knowledge transfer 3. • Designing a systematic process for organizing. ©The Art of Service . the SKMS has a broader scope (as implied by the diagram) which includes anything pertaining to the needs of service management.
To support this. photographs etc) • Seminars. dynamic learning. Traditional knowledge transfer relied on formal face-to-face training and documentation. The three main elements involved are: • Establishing data and information requirements o Defines the policies and standards to follow when collecting and using data and information o Encouraging the use of common and uniform content o Establishing the requirements for security. strategic planning and decision making. This covers the monitoring. Control & Validation Best Practices 2. Knowledge Management must define what inputs will provide data and information. o Identify data and information sources that are no longer needed ©The Art of Service . webinars and advertising • Journals and newsletters • Awareness sessions 3. use and distribution of data and information. Knowledge transfer Throughout the service lifecycle. this is supported by a range of techniques including: • ‘Hands-on’ (tactile) learning • Knowledge visualization (visuals.128 ITIL® V3 : Release. capture. In the modern age however. with representatives of each group cascading the knowledge to their working colleagues. an organization will capture. and what mechanisms can be utilized to reduce the manual workload required. and how this will be used for decision making at all levels. diagrams. images. many of the service management processes will be interfaced with knowledge management so that knowledge transfer can occur from one unit to another (or several). privacy and ownership o Defining access requirements o Considering any interfaces required to Change Management • Establishing data and information management procedures o Defining procedures for the storage and retrieval of data and information o Establishing procedures for adequate backup and recovery of data o Identifying the review and audit procedures required o Implement the mechanisms required to capture. store and retrieve data and information from desired sources • Evaluation and improvement o Seek continuous improvement for the capture. Data and Information Management For efficiency purposes. use and re-use of data and information. manage and provide knowledge though problem solving.
Knowledge Management provides value and capabilities throughout the entire Service Lifecycle. Some of the primary interfaces however. Materials to be included are: • Business language and terminology • Business processes and where IT underpins them 6. ©The Art of Service .29: Service Knowledge Management System © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC 4. Using the SKMS A service provider must first establish a SKMS that can be shared.8. partners and customers. are those with the processes of Service Operation and those within Service Transition. and is used in different contexts depending on the requirements for information and knowledge.ITIL® V3 : Release. ‘’updated and used by its operating entities.7 Triggers and Interfaces As previously discussed. Control & Validation Best Practices 129 Figure 6. All training and knowledge material needs to be aligned to the business perspective.
6.8 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of Knowledge Management When planning to implement Knowledge Management. to Service Design • ‘Course corrections’ and other adaption's to the design required during transition. consequences and workarounds will be made available to Service Operations in an easy to use fashion: • Front line incident management staff. Awareness and understanding of these will make future transitions easier. via CSI. Service Transition – Staff capture data of relevance through all lifecycle phases and so need to be aware of the importance of collecting it accurately and completely.8. Service Transition staff capture data and information: • Relevant to adaptability and accessibility of the service as designed. to be fed back. thought should be given as to how the benefits will be measured how to make these benefits visible to all levels of the organization. are the point of capture for much of the everyday ITSM data.130 ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices Service Operations – Errors within the service detected during transition will be recorded and analyzed and the knowledge about their existence. • Problem Management staff will be key users of collected knowledge and typically responsible for the normalization of data capture by means of developing and maintaining scripts supporting data capture within Incident Management. • Reduction in the ‘user error’ category of incidents • Enhanced customer experiences and satisfaction • Reduced time for transition and duration of early life support ©The Art of Service . Normal measures for the benefits of Knowledge Management include: • Successful implementation and early life operation of new and changed services with few knowledge-related errors • Increased responsiveness to changing business demands • Improved accessibility and management of standards and policies • Knowledge dissemination • Reduced time and effort required to support service • Reduced time to find information for diagnosis and fixing incidents and problems • Reduced dependency on personnel for knowledge. on service desk and second-line support.
ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 131 Measures directly relevant to the service provider are: • Usage of the knowledge bases • Contributions made to knowledge bases • Errors reported by staff or in audits • Degree of re-use for information and knowledge • Satisfaction of staff with training and knowledge transfer methods • Involvement of staff in knowledge gathering exercises (e.30 Contribution of knowledge to effectiveness of support staff © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC ©The Art of Service .g. forums) Figure 6.
132 ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices ©The Art of Service .
©The Art of Service .ITIL® V3 : Release. with key responsibilities being: • To act as the primary customer contract for all service-related enquiries and issues • To maintain service quality that meeds agreed customer requirements • To identify opportunities for improvement • To represent the service for CAB meetings • To monitor and report data and statistics in order to provide visibility and insight into service quality and performance • To be accountable to the IT director for the delivery of the service. Control & Validation Best Practices 133 7 Roles and Responsibilities for RCV____ 7. making changes and improvements where necessary • Communication process information to key stakeholders • Ensuring that staff involved have adequate training.1 Generic Roles Process Owner: The person/role that is responsible for ensuring that all activities defined within the process are undertaken. transition and ongoing improvement of a particular service. skills and knowledge • Addressing issues with the process • Providing input into Continual Service Improvement Service Owner: The person/role that is responsible to the customer for the initiation. and is responsible for: • Defining the process strategy and approach • Ensuring the process is designed appropriately for the organization’s needs • Ensuring documentation is produced for the process • Defining appropriate policies and standards • Auditing the process to ensure compliance • Review the process.
Control & Validation Best Practices 7. Figure 7. This includes interfaces to Service Design and Project Management.134 ITIL® V3 : Release.1: Example of Service Transition organization and its interfaces © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC ©The Art of Service . as both require Service Transition in order to deliver one or more service changes.2 Roles within Service Transition To ensure the quality execution of Service Transition and handover to Service Operations. there should be clear definition of the roles and responsibilities involved.
all organizations should ensure that testing is managed and performed by resources independent of other functions and processes. In other organizations. Control & Validation Best Practices 135 The roles required for managing the Release. Change Manager 3. Knowledge Management process owner Depending on the relative size and complexity of the organizations. Control and Validation of service changes that will be described are: 1. Service Transition Manager Has responsibility for the day-to-day management and control of all the resources. there may be the need to formally define extra roles responsible for specific elements of the Service Transition processes. Service Asset and Configuration Management roles 6. 1. Service Transition Manager 2. processes and activities being utilized for Service Transition. Release and Deployment Manager 4. The Change Manager The main responsibilities (including those which may be delegated) include: • To maintain oversight of the Change Management process • Document and communicate agendas for CAB meetings • Choosing appropriate CAB members • Chair CAB and ECAB meetings • Authorizing or rejecting Changes based on evaluation decisions • Issuing Change Schedules to be communicated by the Service Desk • Review changes for completion of objectives • Audit the process for compliance • Review the process for potential inputs to Continual Service Improvement • Producing regular management reports ©The Art of Service .ITIL® V3 : Release. these roles may be combined and performed by one individual. Regardless of size. and requirements for service management. Service Test Manager 5. Their prime responsibilities include: • Overall planning and management of Service Transition delivery • Managing and coordination the Service Transition functions and resources • Budgeting and accounting for the team activities and resources involved • Acting as the main interface with senior management • Ensuring all policies and procedures are followed within transitions • Ensuring the transition meets the agreed requirements • Making a final recommendation regarding the decisions for deploying a release in the live environment 2.
deployment environment managers 4. design. The main responsibilities include: • Manage all aspects of the end-to-end release • Coordinate the resources required for release and deployment activities • Define an appropriate release policy • Assist in release and deployment planning • Oversee communication. testing and deployment of all software and hardware required for service changes. Service Test Manager The Service Test Manager should be an independent (not shared) role within Service Transition. with typical responsibilities including: • Documenting the appropriate test strategy • Designing test models • Allocating and coordinating test resources • Providing management reports on test results. Control & Validation Best Practices 3.136 ITIL® V3 : Release. ©The Art of Service . issues and risks • Oversee test execution • Managing test environments • Verifies tests conducted by Release and Deployment teams • Assisting in the evaluation of service changes based on test results. Release and Deployment Manager Has overall responsibility for the planning. test. preparation and training • Oversee any audits of hardware and software in the DML and Definitive Spares The Release and Deployment Manager may be supported by other defined roles including: • Packaging and build managers • Deployment managers • Early life support • Build. configuration. build.
Service Asset and Configuration Management roles As the scope of implementations for the process can vary greatly. and appropriate policies and standards to be used o Determines appropriate scope and CI recording level for Configuration Management o Develops awareness campaigns to gain support o Assists in evaluating and choosing appropriate systems and tools for the Configuration Management Systems o Oversees the management of the CMS o Provides management reports Configuration administrator/librarian: o Has the operational responsibility for managing the CMS and master copies of software. including the authorization of ownership rights for CIs o Produces Configuration reports and baselines o CMS/tools administrator: o Evaluates off the shelf CMS and interfacing tools that meet the organization’s budget. resource and technical requirements o Manages any tools required for Service Asset and Configuration Management o Liaises with suppliers for customizations and support o Oversees and in-house developed solutions Service Asset Manager: o Has responsibility for the overall management of the service assets used by a service provider o Agrees the scope and strategy of the process o Designs the process. Control & Validation Best Practices 137 5.ITIL® V3 : Release. assets and documentation CIs. there may be one. o Responsible for controlling updates and retrievals of information in the CMS o Provides status reports on CIs o Administers the control activity. including interfaces with other processes such as procurement and HR. or many roles defined to ensure process objectives are met. The key roles normally defined are: • Configuration Manager: o Responsible for designing and implementing the Configuration Management process. o Audits the process for compliance and to detect exceptions o Provide management reports such as audit outcomes and asset reports • • ©The Art of Service .
process and procedures. Control & Validation Best Practices 6. Key responsibilities are: • To interface designs with the organizational policies and processes • To identify information and knowledge sources. and providing capabilities for capturing using electronic means • Maintains the controlled knowledge items to ensure current validity and usefulness • Ensures accessibility of relevant knowledge bases • Advise the business and IT staff members on Knowledge Management concepts and procedures • To provide management reports on the use and value of Knowledge Management ©The Art of Service . Knowledge Management process owner Is responsibility for the design and maintenance of the Knowledge Management strategy.138 ITIL® V3 : Release.
network and applications management tools o Service dashboards and reporting tools Specific ITSM technology and tools that cover: o SKMS o Collaborative. content management. Releases and CIs While the needs for supporting technology will be influenced by a large number of factors. • With particular focus on the Service Transition processes. • Tools targeted more specifically at supporting Service Transition The following systems support the wider scope for enterprise requirements.ITIL® V3 : Release. an integrated suite of ITSM tools and systems should generally include the following functionality: ©The Art of Service . The two main ways in which transition is supported by technology are: • Enterprise-wide tools that support the broader systems and processes within which support is delivered. workflow tools o Data mining tools o Extract. Control & Validation Best Practices 139 8 Technology Considerations_________ Technology is a significant factor in the quality and success of Service Transition for the modern service provider. providing automated support for some elements of Service Transition management: • IT Service Management systems: o Enterprise frameworks o System. load and transform data tools o Measurement and reporting systems o Test Management and testing tools o Database and test data management tools o Copying and publishing tools o Release and deployment technology o Deployment and logistics systems and tools. tools and systems that can be utilized include: • Configuration Management Systems (CMS) and tools • Version control tools • Distribution and installation tools • Discovery tools • Virtualization for simulating multiple environments • Detection and recovery tools • Backup and recovery tools • Reporting tools for Changes.
Control & Validation Best Practices Self-Help Workflow or process engine Integrated CMS Discovery/Deployment/Licensing technology Remote control Diagnostic utilities Reporting Dashboards Integration with Business Service Management What requirements? Evaluate products Identify products Short listing Selection criteria Scoring Rank the products Select product Figure 8.140 • • • • • • • • • ITIL® V3 : Release.1: Typical Activities for selecting ITSM tools and systems © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC Typical items to consider when evaluating various products for the most appropriate selection include: • Data structure • Integration • Conformity • Flexibility • Usability • Support for monitoring service levels • Conversion requirements • Support options • Scalability • Tool and Vendor credibility • Training needs • Customization • What level of adaptation is needed to implement the product successfully? ©The Art of Service .
and enabling and distributing knowledge. captured and disseminated using one or more IT Services such as a website or email system. classification and retirement of documents and information. maintenance and retrieval of documents and information of a system or website. figures. protection. o Is used to manage documentation CIs such as Service Level Agreements. Underpinning Contracts.1 Communities Communities are rapidly becoming the method of choice for groups of people spread across time zones and county boundaries to communicate. Records Management o Defines the set of capabilities to support the storage protection. archiving.1. archiving. ©The Art of Service . Examples of services and functions provided within the typical online community are: • Community portals • E-mail alias management • Wikis and forums groups • Focus groups • Intellectual property. graphics and other forms of knowledge presentation. These needs are typically categorized into the following areas: • Document Management o Defines the set of capabilities to support the storage. Control & Validation Best Practices 141 8. Problem and CI records during Service Transition and Service Operation. collaborate and share knowledge. best practice. work examples and template repository • Online events and net shows. Content Management o Defines the capability that manages the storage. classification and retirement of records. o Includes the management of Incident.ITIL® V3 : Release. o Includes user and customer generated information. User and support documents etc. • • 8.1 Knowledge Management Tools Knowledge Management tools should be utilized to address an organization’s needs for processing information. The result is often a knowledge asset represented in written words.
when properly implemented.1. Typical workflow services provided within this services category include: • Workflow design • Routing objects • Event services • Gate keeping at authorization checkpoints • State transition services. Many knowledge assets today go through a workflow process that creates.142 ITIL® V3 : Release. 8. Workflow applications provide the infrastructure and support necessary to implement a highly efficient process to accomplish these types of tasks.3 Workflow Management Workflow Management is another broad area of knowledge services that provides systematic support for managing knowledge assets through a predefined workflow or process. Control & Validation Best Practices Successful communities often implement reward schemes for their members. ©The Art of Service . or approves aspects of the asset. modifies.1. informs. Knowledge services. Examples of knowledge services. to acknowledge and reward the contribution of valuable knowledge assets. augments. It is also recommended that senior management actively participates in these communities to foster a culture and environment that rewards knowledge sharing and collaboration. can significantly improve the productivity of people by streamlining and improving the way they collaborate. widely available today: • Shared calendars and tasks • Threaded discussions • Instant messaging • White-boarding • Video or teleconferencing • E-mail. 8.2 Collaboration Collaboration is the process of sharing tacit knowledge and working together to accomplish stated goals and objectives.
or those described in the volume of Continual Service Improvement. including those using project management methodologies. Even the practices from Service Transition themselves are useful guidance to consider when implementing these processes in an effective way. There can be many types of approaches used for implementing these processes. Control & Validation Best Practices 143 9 Implementing Release.ITIL® V3 : Release. Control and Validation processes________________ Typically the implementation of RCV processes comes from the identified need for more formalized practices for transitioning service changes in a controlled and efficient manger. ©The Art of Service .
the questions require close interactions with all the other ITIL® processes in order to achieve Continual Service Improvement. © Crown Copyright 2007 Reproduced under license from OGC The Continual Service Improvement Model summarizes the constant cycle for improvement.144 ITIL® V3 : Release. goals and objectives Where are we now? Baseline assessments How do we keep the momentum going? Where do we want to be? Measurable targets How do we get there? Service & process improvement Did we get there Measurement & metrics Figure 9.1 The Continual Service Improvement Model The CSI Model provides the basis by which improvements to Service Transition can be made. They are questions asked in order to ensure all the required elements are identified to achieve the improvements desired. While there may be a focus on Service Transition. Control & Validation Best Practices 9. ©The Art of Service . What is the vision? Business vision.1: Continual Service Improvement Model.
customers and end users involved or affected. or the taking away of power and authority that the staff members may previously have had. so that all those involved understand the reasons for the changes. what is the next course of improvements that can be made? This should feed back into re-examining the vision and following the CSI model steps again. making sure they are fit for purpose and interface as needed with other Service Management processes. especially Change Management. This typically will involve holding awareness sessions. the benefits that are being created and how their role contributes or has changed as a result.2 Managing Cultural Change Formalizing processes and procedures will require the delivery and management of cultural changes. This is largely due to the perception of bottlenecks and bureaucracy being created. Those responsible or accountable for implementing Service Transition should consider the various stakeholders that will be involved or affected. security.ITIL® V3 : Release. including both short term and long term targets. team meetings and face to face discussions. risks and priorities of the Service Provider. Where do we want to be? Defining key goals and objectives that wish to be achieved by the formalization of Service Transition processes. How do we get there? Perform a gap analysis between the current practices and defined targets to begin developing plans to overcome these gaps. Control & Validation Best Practices 145 Steps taken to improve Service Transition: • What is the Vision? Defining what wants to be achieved by improving Service Transition. Typically the process owners and Service Transition manager will oversee the design/improvement of the processes. Did we get there? At agreed time schedules. History has shown that initiatives surrounding Service Transition. tend to create resistance in the IT staff. costs or customer satisfaction? What is the broad approach that we should take? Where are we now? Baselines taken by performing maturity assessments and by identifying what practices are currently being used (including informal and ad-hoc processes) What information can be provided by the Service Portfolio regarding strengths. ©The Art of Service . and how best their support can be gained. Is the focus on Service Quality. checks should be made as to how the improvement initiatives have progressed. weaknesses. compliance. Which objectives have been achieved? Which haven’t? What went well and what went wrong? How do we keep the momentum going? Now that the targets and objectives have been met. • • • • • 9.
Control & Validation Best Practices ©The Art of Service .146 ITIL® V3 : Release.
IT infrastructure audits Continual Service Improvement Figure 10. and UCs. Other benefits delivered include: • Increased success rate of Changes and Releases • More accurate estimations of Service Levels and Warranties • Less variation of costs against those estimated in budgets • Less variation from resources plans. Configuration Item information (CMDB) Service Design Service Strategy Service Transition Initial End User Support. Changes to IT infrastructure & services. OLAs. PIR Testing and Validation Results. Guidance for SLAs.1: Some outputs to other lifecycle phases. Change Authorization. Testing and Validation Results. Known Errors from Development. Control & Validation Best Practices 147 10 Service Transition Summary_________ Effective Service Transition can significantly improve a Service provider’s ability to effectively handle high volumes of change and releases across its Customer base. FSC. CMDB Service Operation Testing and validation results.ITIL® V3 : Release. process metrics for improvements. Release Packages. ©The Art of Service .
impact on live environment • As stated previously. affecting other business critical apps. . • User and support documentation Service Asset and Configuration Management • HYPE software is registered as CI and relationships between it and the other CIs are known if…when… an incident occurs. it is found that the RAM required slows down the pc. Release and Deployment Management • Builds and tests HYPE – decision here to limit video resolution to minimize bandwidth. for example. This will assist to speed up resolution times.eg – through testing. • Organizes training on using HYPE – (inservices Service Desk 1st ) Service Validation and Testing • Tests HYPE based on customer criteria – (set out in Service Design) • looks at access. • The SKMS will also help to determine the team required to build. • Stores original authorized software in DML • Ensures that design aspects are adhered to when building (e. found RAM issues and referred back to Change via RFC • Quality of components ©The Art of Service .148 ITIL® V3 : Release.g. Control & Validation Best Practices 10.ensuring that the password policies are adhered to. • Decision made as to whether webcams are CIs themselves or an attribute of the pc/laptop it is attached to Change Management • Ensure that the introduction of this new service minimizes impact on other services. test and deploy HYPE. you would be able to identify if you have the skills required to support videoconferencing. Change Mgt will assist with decision making to determine best path of action (through CAB).1 Service Transition Scenario Knowledge Management • If your SKMS is established.
? a) Push vs Proposed b) Push vs Pull c) Requested vs Forced d) Proposed vs Forced Question 3 The 4 spheres of knowledge management are: a) Data. Control & Validation Best Practices 149 10. facts. information.ITIL® V3 : Release. Big bang vs Phased 2. wisdom Question 4 Which activity in Service Asset & Configuration Management would help to ascertain which Configuration Items conform to that which exists in the physical environment? a) control b) verification and audit c) identification d) status accounting Question 5 After a Change has been implemented. knowledge. wisdom c) Data. wisdom d) Data. facts knowledge. knowledge.2 Review Questions Question 1 In which process would you find the Service V model? a) Release Management b) Service Transition c) Service Validation and Testing d) Knowledge Management Question 2 Release and deployment options include: 1. What is this evaluation called? a) Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC) b) Post Implementation Review (PIR) c) Service Improvement Programme (SIP) d) Service Level Requirement (SLR) ©The Art of Service . wisdom b) Ideas. Automated vs Manual 3. information. facts. an evaluation is performed.
Control & Validation Best Practices Question 6 Which of the following is not change type? a) Standard change b) Normal change c) Quick change d) Emergency change Question 7 Which process is responsible for maintaining the DML? a) Release and Deployment Management b) Service asset and configuration Management c) Service validation and testing d) Change Management Question 8 Which process or function is responsible for communicating the forward schedule of changes to the users? a) Change Management b) Service Desk c) Release and Deployment Management d) Service Level Management Question 9 Which of the following best describes a baseline? a) Used as a reference point for later comparison b) The starting point of any project c) The end point of any project d) A rollback procedure Question 10 The main objective of Change Management is to? a) Ensure that any changes are approved and recorded b) Ensure that standardised methods and procedures are used for controlled handling of all changes c) Ensure that any change requests are managed through the CAB d) Ensure that the CAB takes responsibility for all change implementation ©The Art of Service .150 ITIL® V3 : Release.
Which of the following is the BEST type of Change to use in this scenario? a) A Standard Change b) An Emergency Change c) A Normal Change d) A Change Implementation Answers can be found on the last page of this book. Control & Validation Best Practices 151 Use scenario for questions 11 & 12 The General Manager (GM) of a mobile phone supplier is in disagreement with her IT organization over the risks of implementing a change to a business service. They agree the Change is needed but insist that the change cannot be implemented within the next Change Window because there is a 30% chance of failure.ITIL® V3 : Release. However. but also urgent because her business operates in a very competitive environment and a major competitor is already offering the new functionality she needs. The GM’s reaction is that very few business initiatives have a 70% chance of success and therefore the change should be implemented without further hesitation. From her perspective the requested Change is not only important. The updated business service has been ready for deployment for 2 weeks and it is very important that it is released within the next Change window in 3 weeks time as a competitor has been offering the same capability for over a month. and there is a danger that a significant number of customers will start to move to the competitor’s service if this is not achieved. Question 11 Which of the following BEST explains the disagreement between the two parties described in the scenario above? a) b) c) d) Differences in the perception of risks involved It is not clear who is responsible for implementing the Change There is a misunderstanding as to who is authorized to request the Change The customer does not understand the value of a good Change Management process Question 12 The GM and her staff first became aware of the need for the new functionality 6 months ago and have been working with IT to develop a solution. IT managers have a different perspective. The IT managers are very surprised by her views. ©The Art of Service .
Control & Validation Best Practices ©The Art of Service .152 ITIL® V3 : Release.
Control & Validation Best Practices 153 11 Checklist for RCV Practices_________ The following section provides common items that should be satisfied as when implementing the practices involved for Release. Figure 11.ITIL® V3 : Release. Control and Validation.1: – Service Transition ©The Art of Service .
1 Service Management as a Practice • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Service Management is clearly defined We know what our services are We have clearly defined functions and processes across the lifecycle We are able to measure the processes in a relevant matter The reason a process exists is to deliver a specific result Every process delivers its primary result to a customer or stakeholder The goals of Service Transition are defined The objectives of Service Transition are defined The purpose of Service Transition is Defined The Scope of Service transition is defined Service Transition enables us to align the new or changed service with the customer's business requirements Service Transition ensures that customers and users can use the new or changed service so that it maximizes value to the business We have measurements for alignment with the business and It plans We have measurements for Service Transition Interfaces to other Service Lifecycle stages are clearly defined ©The Art of Service .154 ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 11.
ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 155 11.2 Service Transition Principles • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Service Utilities are Defined Service Warranties are Defined We have defined and implemented a formal policy for service transition We have a policy for implementing all changes to services through service transition We have a policy for adopting a common framework and standards We have a policy for Maximizing re-use of established processes and systems We have a policy for aligning service transition plans with the business needs We have a policy for establishing and maintaining relationships with stakeholders We have a policy for establishing effective controls and discipline We have a policy for providing systems for knowledge transfer and decision support We have a policy for planning release and deployment packages We have a policy for Anticipating and managing course corrections We have a policy for Proactively managing resources across service transitions We have a policy for ensuring early involvement in the service lifecycle We have a policy for assuring the quality of the new or changed service We have a policy for proactively improving quality during service transition ©The Art of Service .
goal and objective for the Change Management process is defined • The scope for change management is defined • The policies.156 ITIL® V3 : Release.3 Service Transition Processes Change Management: • The purpose. principles and basic concepts for Release and Deployment are defined • Release Unit and Identification is defined • Release design options are considered • Release and deployment models are defined • The planning of releases is managed • Preparation for build. principles and basic concepts for change management are defined • We have defined the types of change requests • We have defined standard (pre-authorized) changes • Remediation planning for changes is defined • Planning and controlling changes is an integrated activity of change management • Change and release scheduling is an integrated activity of change management • Ensuring there are remediation plans is an integrated activity of change management • Measurement and control of changes is an integrated activity of change management • Management reporting is an integrated activity of change management • Understanding the impact of change is an integrated activity of change management • Continual improvement is an integrated activity of change management • Raising and recording changes is defined • Reviewing the RFC is defined • Assessing and evaluating the Change is defined • Authorizing the Change is defined • Co-ordinating change implementation is defined • Reviewing and closing change records is defined • Change process models and workflows are defined • The Change advisory board is defined • Emergency changes are defined • Triggers. Control & Validation Best Practices 11. Input and output and inter-process interfaces are defined • Key performance indicators and metrics are defined Release and Deployment Management: • The purpose. goal and objective of the Release and Deployment Management process is defined • The scope for Release and deployment is defined • The policies. test and deployment is managed • Build and test is managed ©The Art of Service .
principles and basic concepts for Service Validation and testing are defined • Inputs from Service Design are defined • Service quality and assurance is defined • Service Quality. principles and basic concepts for Evaluation are defined • Service Evaluation terms are defined • The Evaluation process and associated plans are defined • Evaluation of predicted performance is managed • Evaluation of actual performance is managed • Risk management is defined • Evaluation reporting is defined • Triggers. Input and output and inter-process interfaces are defined Key performance indicators and metrics are defined Service Validation and Testing: • The purpose. Risk. Deployment and retirement are managed Deployment verification is managed Early life support is managed Review and closing of a deployment is managed Review and closing of the service transition is managed Triggers. release and change management Policies are defined • The Test strategy is defined • Test Models are defined • Validation and testing perspectives are defined • Testing approaches and techniques are examined and defined • Design considerations are defined • Different types of testing are defined • Triggers. service transition. goal and objective of the Service Validation and Testing process is defined • The scope for Service Validation and Testing is defined • The policies. Input and output and inter-process interfaces are defined • Key performance indicators and metrics are defined ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 157 • • • • • • • • • Service testing and pilots are managed Planning and preparing for deployment are managed Transfer.ITIL® V3 : Release. goal and objective of the Evaluation process is defined • The scope for Evaluation is defined • The policies. Input and output and inter-process interfaces are defined • Key performance indicators and metrics are defined Service Evaluation: • The purpose.
Outputs and interfaces • We have defined Request Fulfilment's KPIs and metrics • We have defined Request Fulfilment's Information Management reporting • We have defined Request Fulfilment's Challenges. Inputs. principles and basic concepts for Knowledge Management are defined • Knowledge management is defined using a DIKW (data -information-knowledgewisdom) approach • A Service Knowledge Management System (SKMA) Is in place to capture and manage knowledge • The Knowledge Management Strategy is defined • Knowledge Transfer is defined • Data and information Management is integrated with Knowledge Management • Access and use of the Knowledge Management system is defined • Triggers. Critical Success Factors and Risks ©The Art of Service . Goal. objectives and scope • We have defined Request Fulfilment's Value to the business • We have defined Request Fulfilment's Policies. Control & Validation Best Practices Knowledge Management: • The purpose. Principles and basic concepts • The "Menu Selection" activity is specified • The "Financial approval" activity is specified • The "Other approval" activity is specified • The "Fulfilment" activity is specified • The "Closure" activity is specified • We have defined Request Fulfilment's Triggers. Input and output and inter-process interfaces are defined • Key performance indicators and metrics are defined Service Asset & Configuration Management: • The purpose. principles and basic concepts for SACM are defined • The Configuration Management System is defined • Asset and Configuration Management activities are defined • Management and planning for SACM is defined • Configuration identification is defined • Configuration control is defined • Status reporting is defined • Verification and audit is defined • Triggers.158 ITIL® V3 : Release. Input and output and inter-process interfaces are defined • Key performance indicators and metrics are defined Request Fulfilment: • We have defined Request Fulfilment's Purpose. goal and objective of the Knowledge Management process is defined • The scope for knowledge management is defined • The policies. goal and objective for the Service Asset and Configuration Management process is defined • The scope for SACM is defined • The policies.
ITIL® V3 : Release. Kotter) are applied Stakeholder management is a common operation activity We have a stakeholder management strategy We produce stakeholder maps and analysis Changes in stakeholder commitment are captured ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices 159 11.g.4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Service Transition common operation activities Managing Communication and commitment is a common operation activity Communications during Service Transition are defined Communication planning is managed Different methods of communication are applied Managing Organization and stakeholder Change is a common operation activity The emotional cycle of change is managed Service Transition's role in organizational change is clearly defined Organizational change is planned and implemented A variety of organizational change products is used Organizational readiness for Change is assessed Progress of organizational change is monitored Organization and people issues are dealt with in sourcing changes Organizational Change management's best practices (e.
160 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 11.5 Organizing Service Transition The Process Owner role and the Service Owner role are defined The organizational context for transitioning a service is set Organizational models to support service transition are defined The Service Transition Manager role is defined Planning and support is organized The Service Asset Manager role is defined The Configuration Manager role is defined The Configuration Analyst role is defined The Configuration administrator / librarian role is defined The CMS / Tool administrator role is defined The configuration control board role is defined Change Authority is defined The Change Manager role is defined The Change Advisory Board role is defined Performance and risk evaluation management is defined Service Knowledge management is defined The service test manager role is defined The release and deployment roles are defined The Release packaging and Build roles are defined Deployment is defined Early life support is defined Build and test environment management is defined The Service Transition relationship with other lifecycle stages are defined ©The Art of Service .
mapping and graphical representations with drill down reporting tools are in place ©The Art of Service . Full directory listings with date–time stamps and check sums) are in place Discovery and audit tools (also called ‘inventory’ tools) are in place Detection and recovery tools (where the build is returned to a known state) are in place Visualization. workflow tools are in place Data mining tools are in place Extract.6 Service Transition Technology Considerations • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A service Knowledge Management system is in place Collaborative. directories. content management. load and transform tools are in place Measurement and reporting system tools are in place Test management and testing tools are in place Database and test data management tools are in place Copying and publishing tools are in place Release and deployment technology tools are in place Deployment and logistics systems and tools are in place Configuration Management systems and tools are in place Version control tools are in place Document-management systems are in place Requirements analysis and design tools. Control & Validation Best Practices 161 11.g.ITIL® V3 : Release. databases) are in place Build and Release tools (that provide listings of input and output CIs) are in place Installation and de-installation tools (that provide listings of CIs installed) are in place Compression tools (to save storage space) are in place Listing and configuration baseline tools (e. systems architecture and CASE tools are in place Database management audit tools to track physical databases are in place Distribution and installation tools are in place Comparison tools (software files.
162 • • • • • • • • ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices 11.7 Implementing Service Transition Justification of Service Transition is undertaken Designing Service Transition has been done Applicable standards and policies have been researched Relationships have been defined Budgets and resources have been allocated Service transition has been introduced the Cultural change aspects have been addressed Risks and value have been weighed ©The Art of Service .
or reduction in the quality of an IT service Known Error: A problem that has a documented Root Cause and a Workaround KEDB: Known Error Database Maintainability: A measure of how quickly and effectively a CI or IT service can be restored to normal after a failure. or a failure has occurred. Incident: An unplanned interruption to. CMDB: Configuration Management Database CMS: Configuration Management System Configuration Item (CI): Any component that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service. something has changed. Control & Validation Best Practices 163 12 Glossary_________________________ Alert: A warning that a threshold has been reached. CI etc MTBF: Mean Time Between Failures (Uptime) MTBSI: Mean Time Between Service Incidents MTRS: Mean Time to Restore Service (Downtime) OLA: Operational Level Agreement ©The Art of Service . Application Sizing: Determines the hardware or network capacity to support new or modified applications and the predicted workload.ITIL® V3 : Release. process. Baselines: A benchmark used as a reference point for later comparison. Modeling: A technique used to predict the future behaviour of a system. Asset: Any resource or capability. DML: Definitive Media Library Function: A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or more processes or activities.
Maintainability of IT services/CI’s under control of external suppliers. Reliability. Trigger An indication that some action or response to an event may be needed.164 ITIL® V3 : Release. Remediation: Recovery to a known state after a failed Change or Release RFC: Request for Change Service: A means of delivering value to Customers by facilitating Outcomes Customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific Costs and risks Service Owner: Role that is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT service SCD: Supplier and Contracts Database Service Assets: Any capability or resource of a service provider Serviceability: Measures Availability. UC: Underpinning Contract ©The Art of Service . Process Owner: Role responsible for ensuring that a process is fit for purpose. Control & Validation Best Practices Process: A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. SIP: Service Improvement Plan SKMS: Service Knowledge Management System SLA: Service Level Agreement SLM: Service Level Manager SLR: Service Level Requirements SSIP: Supplier Service Improvement Plan Status Accounting: Reporting of all current and historical data about each CI throughout its lifecycle. Tuning: Used to identify areas of the IT infrastructure that could be better utilized.
©The Art of Service . VBF: Vital Business Function Warranty: A promise or guarantee that a product or service will meet its agreed requirements. Control & Validation Best Practices 165 Utility: Functionality offered by a product or service to meet a particular need.ITIL® V3 : Release. Often summarized as ‘what it does’.
Control & Validation Best Practices ©The Art of Service .166 ITIL® V3 : Release.
artofservice. Currently it is intended that the highest certification is the ITIL® V3 Expert.com. considered to be equal to that of Diploma Status. Control & Validation Best Practices 167 13 Certification______________________ 13.au ©The Art of Service .1 – ITIL® Certification Pathway For more information on certification and available programs please visit our website http://www.1 ITIL® Certification Pathways There are many pathway options that are available to you once you have acquired your ITIL® Foundation Certification.ITIL® V3 : Release. Below illustrates the possible pathways that available to you. Figure 13.
au ©The Art of Service . Control & Validation Best Practices ISO/IEC 20000 Pathways ISO/IEC 20000 Standard is becoming a basic requirement for IT Service providers and is fast becoming the most recognized symbol of quality regarding IT Service Management processes.2 – ISO/IEC 20000 Certification Pathway For more information on certification and available programs please visit our website www. you are eligible to pursue the ISO/IEC 20000 certification pathways.artofservice. Once you have acquired your ITIL® Foundation Certification.2 ITIL® V3 : Release. Figure 13.168 13. ISO/IEC 20000 programs aim to assist IT professionals master and understand the standard itself and issues relating to earning actual standards compliance.com.
9a. 10b. 3d. 11a. 5b. 12c ©The Art of Service . 3b. 6c. 8b. Control & Validation Best Practices 169 14 Answers to Review Questions ANSWERS 1c. 2b. 7a.ITIL® V3 : Release.
170 ITIL® V3 : Release. Control & Validation Best Practices ©The Art of Service .
com ©The Art of Service . Brisbane. Service Transition (2007) OGC. Zaltbommel. Passing your ITIL Foundation Exam (2007) OGC. Implement and Enforce ITIL v3 Best Practices.ITIL® V3 : Release. Zaltbommel. Metrics for IT Service Management. TSO ITIL. TSO ITIL. Metrics and Measurements and Benchmarking Workbook. The Art of Service The Art of Service (2008) How to Develop. The Art of Service The Art of Service (2008) IT Governance. Zaltbommel.theartofservice. London. Continual Service Improvement (2007) OGC.au www. The Art of Service The Art of Service (2008) Risk Management Guide. TSO ITIL. ITSMF International (2006). Service Strategy (2007) OGC. The Art of Service The Art of Service (2007) ITIL Factsheets. Van Haren Publishing The Art of Service (2008) CMDB and Configuration Management Creation and Maintenance Guide. London. Foundations of IT Service Management Based on ITIL V3. Brisbane. Brisbane.artofservice. TSO ITIL.com. London. ISO/IEC 20000: An Introduction. Control & Validation Best Practices 171 15 References ITIL.org www. The Art of Service Websites www. London. TSO ITIL. Brisbane.theartofservice. Service Design (2007) OGC. Brisbane. London. Van Haren Publishing. ITSMF International (2008). Van Haren Publishing. TSO ITSMF International (2007). London. Service Operation (2007) OGC.
55-7. 60. 105 archiving 59. 64. 110-12. 27. 108-9. 41. 120. 108-11. 54. 142. 94. 116. 58. 27. 158 C CAB (Change Advisory Board) 50. 154-5  Business Case 35. 97-8. 149 bang 73 Banking 70. 118. 29. 103 Asset Management 108 Asset Management System 79. 63. 11-12. 24-5. 74. 103. big 73-4. 29. 52. 136-7. 63 Business/customer 102 Business/Customer metrics 96 business/customer resources 94 Business Function 165 business goals 60 business management 55 business/organization 82 business perspective. 148 audits 112. 47. 45. 124 bang. 50. 109. 103. 148. 91. 35. 103. 50. 126 approach. 29. 82-3. 123-4. 40. 116-18. high level 91 business processes 12-13. 137. 120-1. 137. 69.172 INDEX* ITIL® V3 : Release. 23. 47-9. 63. 35. 39-40. 149. 150. 115 accredited ITIL training program 7 activities integrated 156 technical 12 alignment 3. 59. 119 assets 24-5. 145 boundaries 89 Brisbane 171 browser 2 bundle 24-5 business 3. 80. 11-13. 112 business processes/customer capabilities 115 Business Service Management 140 business services 104. 20. 117. 163 attributes 3. 83. 86-7. 154 applications 22. 130  Benefits of Service Transition 41 BENEFITS of SERVICE TRANSITION 3 bottlenecks 47. 59-60. 12-13. 112 availability 13. 137 automation 72. 158 release Configuration 120 authorization 50. 108. 67-8. 47. 141 assemblies 71. 48. 10. 145. 29. 56-7. 102 accountability 34. financial 57. 16. 64. push 74 approval. Control & Validation Best Practices A acceptance criteria 76. 26. 100. 57. 35. 120 Business Units and Service Units 23-4 business value 29 business 154. 24. 151 updated 151 business units 3. 150 ©The Art of Service . 87. 54-6. 118 baselines 56. 163 Behavioural components 32 benefits 4. 48. 95. 35. 123 B balance 24. 9. 34-5. 70. 117 assessment 50-1.
24-6. 97-8. 141-2 competition 27-8 competitors 26. 141. 111 classification 34. 72. 125. 88 Change Management process 45. 54. 108. 57-62. 76. 128. 84. 135 Change Models 50. 30. 55. 52-5. 163-4  capacity 16. 22. 106 CMDB (Configuration Management Databases) 43. 145. 161 CI s 74. 80. 104 change proposal 54-5. 73-4. 91. 135 compliance 59. 119-21. 52. 156 change management process document 135 change management processes 53 change management reviews 55 change management work 62 change management 156 change management Change 156 change management Management 156 change management Measurement 156 change management Raising 156 Change Manager 50. 139. 124 Change Advisory Board. 116-22. 103. 95. 163 CMS data 121 Collaboration 5. 111-12. 121. 51. 112 communication 26. 84. 135 CAB members 59-60 capabilities 7. 75. 53. 63. 79. 58. 141 CI (Configuration Item) 34-5. 57 change window 66. 137. 124. 148-9. 130. 150 change schedule 52. 48. 63 change requests 53. 100-3. 109-10. 106. 64. 112. 9. 95 Capacity Management. 148-9. 111-12. 54-5. 95. 35. 33. 105. 126. 55. 69. 167-8 challenges 4-5.ITIL® V3 : Release. 50. 117. 97. Control & Validation Best Practices 173 CAB meeting 60 CAB meetings 133. 86. 28. 137. 87. 115. 9. 78. 139. see CAB change authority 54. 68. 56-7. 63. 151 changed services 40. 59-60. 48. 147. 56. 108. 40. 94. 91. 96. 72. 167-8 Certification Pathway 5. 26-7. 49. 150  integrated activity of 156 sourcing changes Organizational 159 Change Management. 151. 163-4 CI information 117 CI Level 111-12 CIs (configuration items) 48. 105-6. 111-12. 1267. 76. 108. 78. 148. 119. 159 communities 5. 45. 90-2. 86. 58. 142 combination 7. 121. 97. 68. 124. 141 Clear understanding of roles and responsibilities 96 closure 66. stakeholder 49 Change Management Activities 4. 47. 56 change implementation 150-1 Change Management 47-50. 61-2. 92. 84. 135 complexity 28. 158. financial information 121 certification 5. 115. 117-19. 7. 111-13. 69. 163 CMS (CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM) 4. 154 changes Frequency 61 choice 27-8. 126. 141. 54 change management planning 62 change management Policies 157 Change Management Policies 3. 145 components 22. 112. 32. 151 complaints 103 completion 58. 137. 108. 45. 60. 59. 70-1. 163 required 79 ©The Art of Service . 112. 160-1. 48-9.
30-1. 10. 61-2. 108. 111. change management 156 Continual Service Improvement 19-20. 21. 143-4. 55. 106. 126. 28-9. 113-14. 137 Configuration Management System 4. 158 Configuration Management Database 126. 103. 27 Continuous Service Improvement (CSI) 19-20. 105. 18-19. 57. 89-90 contexts 24. 121. primary 133 customer enquiries Transparency 23 customer experience 22 customer groups 29 customer metrics 85 customer requirements 133 Customer Service 115 customers 9-11. 109-11. 171 Continual Service Improvement Model 5. 108. 154  external 35 increased 82. 166-71  Control & Validation Best Practices Release 80 control. 83. 64. appropriate level of 50. 115. 24. 53. 24-6. 99. 45. 117 conjunction 49. 95-6. see CMDB configuration management roles 135. 103-4. 158 Configuration Control 119 configuration data 74. 48. 130 control 3. 114-17. 136-7. 31. 151. 35. 94. 98 business goals Improving 69 constraints 26. 78-9. 137. 67-9. 120-2 support Change Management 49 Service Asset & 39 Configuration Management Activities 4. 68-9 consistency 73-4. 86-7. 86. 126-7 basic 156-8 confidence 86-7. 42. 92. 53. 68. 96. 114. 90. 35. 144 continuity 16. 149. 7. 111-13. 45. 93. 74. 24-5. 91. 146-9. 115. 81. 147 configuration items. 84-5. 86-7. 113-14  CSFs (Critical Success Factors) 45 CSI (Continuous Service Improvement) 19-20. 96 configuration 91. 39-41. 96-7. 117  improved quality service provision 11 organization's service 69 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) 45 Crown Copyright 16. 125. 159-63. 163 Configuration Management Databases. 26. 130 Customer Assets 25 Customer/Business Requirements 91 customer contract. 86-7. 108-10. 121-9. 135. 16. 93. 70-1. 93. 16-17. 81-4. 55 cook 22 coordinate business unit s capabilities 24 end-to-end release 136 coordination 58. Control & Validation Best Practices service/release 82 concepts 3. 112. 96 level of 88. see CMS Configuration Management Systems and Tools 115 Configuration Models 110. 48. 5. 21-3. 135. 103. 60. 127. 114. 93. 147. 12. 106. 117-19. 45-7. 123. 105. 37. 31. 32. 89. 135 Core Service Package 27-8 costs 22. 68-9. 40. 39-47. 43. 123. 108-9 configuration information 54 configuration information Decreasing number 122 Configuration Item. 163 CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. 91. 153  Control & Validation Best Practices 4-37. 47. 49-61. 133. 123. see CIs Configuration Management 4. 85. 89-111. 132-41. 84. 20-8.174 ITIL® V3 : Release. 129 continual improvement. 152-7. 94. 158. 38. 72-3. 73. 57-9. 104 ©The Art of Service . see CI Configuration Item information 43.
100 effort 12. 130 eLearning Programs 2 Emergency CAB (ECAB) 54. 68-9. 115. 87. 16. see DML delivery. 96. 149. historical 111. 87 Deployment Management 4 deployment management process 156 deployment planning 75. 130 ECAB (Emergency CAB) 54. 106. 60. 76-7 deployment roles 160 deployment staff 78 description 27. 95. 130 estimations of Service Levels 41. 42. 100-2. 94. 80. 58. 68-9. 163 documentation templates 79 E Early Life Support 42. 81. 157 evaluation reports 52. 67. 95. 130. 48. 64. Knowledge. 92. 126-7. 77 deployment plans 68. 45. 135 errors 47. intended 97. 56. 136. 123-6. 110 deploy 24. Control & Validation Best Practices customer s 27 customer s control objectives 108 customer s management 24 175 D data. 117. 128. 139 DML (Definitive Media Library) 71. 98 Evaluation and Service Validation 76 evaluation process 98. 37. 124. 158 Data and Information Management 128 databases 116. 79. 115. 117. 131 effects. 149.ITIL® V3 : Release. 103-5. 111. 49. 55. 78. Information. 87. 92. 148 Design Service Release 91 diagrams 54. 81-2 deployment plans acceptance criteria xf0b7 95 deployment process 72. 96. 157 testing 31. 39 Evaluation Activities 4. 149. 52. 77. 71-2. customer s business operation xf0b7 56 effect. 94-5. 136. 148 defined Evaluation 157 defined Key performance indicators 156-8 defined Release Unit 156 defined Service Evaluation terms 157 Definitive Media Library. 52. 101 ©The Art of Service . 65. 84. 120. 22. 147 evaluation 4. 72. 161 decision 32. 136-8. 80. 54. 75. 139. 82-3. positive 26 effectiveness 47. 74-6. business activities Service 83 department 33. 71. Information. 122. 76. 76. 151 Enforce ITIL 171 Enhanced customer experiences 130 environments 33. 20. 60. 158 disagreement 151 distribute 68-9 distribution 68-9. 54. 93. 74. 127-8 differentiation 26-7 DIKW (Data. 150. 118-19. 68-9. 164 Data. 75. 108. 156-7  deployment activities 4. 51. Wisdom) 125. 56. 106. 135. 60 Effect. 63. 75-6. Knowledge. 95-6. 148 deploy release packages 110 deployment 29. 142 live 58. 67. 60. 69. 60 Emergency Change 51. 63 design 10. Wisdom (DIKW) 125. 85. 110. 97. 54. 78-85. 31. 97-8. 124. 128. 58.
121. 151. 97. 111-12. 123. 47. 136. 61. 51. 120. 122. 79. 167-8  consequential 127 controlled 71 generated 141 interface 112 level of 55. 141. 50. 63. 149. 128. 58. 137. 22. 147 change management 47 H hardware 10. 37. 147 industry 7. 143. 143 incidents 16. 85. 86. 124. 164 focus 7. 137 execution. 28. 95-7. 68. 114. 110. 117. 80-1. 91-2 frequency 80. 18-19. 102. 90. 60. 103. 133 GM (General Manager) 151 goals 3-5. 103. 25. 153. 155 Implementing Change Management 61 Implementing Release 5. 37. 16 Forced 149 Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC) 43. 54. 81. 67. 122. 112. 100 Evaluation Reports for Change Management 102 evolutions 15 example configuration breakdown 116-17 Example of Service Transition organization 134 exceptions 94-5. 29-30. 12. 147. 123-31. 141. 26. 22. 143. 151. 144. 47. 9. 12. 77. Control & Validation Best Practices interim 78. 156-8 organizational 12 goods 24 groups 45. 137-8. 163 fit 18-19. 163 guidance 17-18. 163 G General Manager (GM) 151 Generic Roles 5. 163 HR (Human Resources) 13. 47. 151. 124. 68. 143 implementing 56-7. 15-16. 103. 92. 55. see HR HYPE 148 I identification 116-18. 15 information 20. 33-5. 147. discrete 124-5 failure 34. 148. 144-5 focus of ITIL 12. 141. 50. 88 FSC (Forward Schedule of Changes) 43. 121. 96. 70. 163 Increased success rate of Changes and Releases 147 Increased success rate of Changes and Releases 41. 77. 117. 51. 149 Foundation Certification 167-8 framework 9. 112. 78. 150. 141. 49. 20. 165 functions 3. 56. 149 fulfilment 105 functionality 139. 103. 142. 9. 110 processing 141 real-time 124 record 112 recording 79 reusing 125 ©The Art of Service . 79. 156 identifier 117-18 implementation 57-8. 61. 43. 137. 24. 135. risks xf0b7 Oversee test 136 F factors 45. 31. 109. 115. 108. 82. 90. 34. 69-70. 86. 139. 55. 72. 145. 21. 71. 137 Human Resources. 87. 139 facts. 16.176 ITIL® V3 : Release. 154. 34. 82-3. 130.
ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
timely 108 Communication process 133 information-knowledge-wisdom 158 information management 127-8 information Management 158 information management, defined Request Fulfilment's 158 information management procedures 128 information sources, connected 111 information technology 7 Information Technology Infrastructure Library 15 infrastructure 20, 22, 24, 35, 39-40, 43, 45, 57, 69, 75, 106, 108-12, 115, 121, 124, 127  Infrastructure Library 15 initiator 54-5, 58 inputs 31, 42, 52, 67, 72, 102, 128, 156-8, 161 interface management 115 interfaces 3-5, 42, 45, 48-9, 52, 69, 72, 95, 102, 105-7, 109, 112, 119-21, 128-9, 134-5, 137  inter-process 156-8 primary 72, 106, 129 Internet Explorer 2 Internet Service Providers (ISP) 27-8 inventories 112 involved release 78 ISO/IEC 6, 42, 115, 168, 171 ISP (Internet Service Providers) 27-8 IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) 65 IT Service Management (ITSM) 3, 7, 9-13, 15-16, 22, 29, 35, 45, 68, 110, 127, 139, 168, 171 ITIL official 9 refresh of 16 ITIL Factsheets 171 ITIL Foundation Exam 171 ITIL Foundation program 7 ITIL processes 31 ITIL RCV Program 39 ITIL terminology 7 ITIL V3 Framework Five volumes 15 Itilv3rcv@theartofservice.com 2 ITIL s 17 ITL 15 ITSCM (IT Service Continuity Management) 65 ITSM, see IT Service Management ITSM set of organizational capabilities 35 ITSMF 171 J judgments 125-6
K key, enrolment 2 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS) 4-5, 45, 60, 85, 96, 102, 107, 122, 130, 156-8 Key Performance Indicators, see KPIs knowledge 9-10, 17, 24, 45, 68, 83, 96, 124-31, 141, 149 knowledge assets 141-2 Knowledge Management 31, 38, 123-5, 127-30, 138, 141, 148-9, 158 defined Service 160 knowledge management activities 5, 125, 127 knowledge management process owner 135, 138 Knowledge Management Strategy 127, 158 knowledge management system 158 Knowledge Management Tools 5, 141 knowledge services 142 knowledge transfer 83, 127-8, 155 knowledgeable support staff End users 72 known errors 16, 20, 43, 70, 84, 96, 147, 163 ©The Art of Service
ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) 4-5, 45, 60, 85, 96, 102, 107, 122, 130 KPIS, see KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS L layers 12 levels 27-8, 39, 47, 56, 71, 80, 87-8, 91-2, 94, 111-12, 114, 117, 128, 130, 140 appropriate 55, 57, 60, 87, 94, 117 licences 79, 84, 122 license 16, 21, 24-6, 32, 37, 48, 53, 70-1, 73, 78, 81, 83, 89, 91, 93, 113-14  lifecycle 16, 20, 29, 55, 111, 119, 121, 126, 164 lifecycle phases 20, 38, 43, 130, 147 Links 115 location 66, 74, 112, 123 London 171 M maintainability 92, 163-4 maintenance 71, 122, 138, 141 Major Concepts of ITIL 18 management 9, 24, 35, 45-6, 55-6, 58, 62, 72, 93, 96, 114, 117-19, 122, 135, 137, 141  management reports 137-8 resources Providing 136 managers 31, 151 Managing information 124 meal 22 mechanisms 45, 50, 60, 77, 80, 88, 105, 128 automated 94, 105, 119 meeting, service level management review 59 members 32, 59-60, 142 metrics 60-1, 69, 96, 107, 122, 144, 156-8, 171 Mobilize 67 model 91, 98, 136, 149 logical 108, 111, 121 momentum 82, 144-5 N Name and Label CIs 117 naming conventions 80, 117 non-conformance 93-4, 120 O objectives 3-5, 12-13, 40, 45, 47, 59, 68, 86, 90, 97, 103, 108-9, 114, 123, 142, 144-5  strategic 16, 47 offerings 27, 29, 91 OGC 16, 21, 24-6, 32, 37, 48, 53, 73, 81, 83, 89, 91, 93, 99, 113-14, 171  OGC Release Package 70 operation 39-40, 47, 73, 84, 130 operation activity , common 159 organizational capabilities 9 specialized 9, 35 organizational change 81, 159 organizational objectives 9 organizations 7, 9-10, 12, 15-16, 22-5, 28, 31-2, 35, 47-8, 50-1, 53, 58, 67-8, 90, 123-8, 135  organization s 11, 61, 79, 105, 133, 141 organization s capabilities 68 organization s objectives 13 organization s release policy 69 OS Business systems 116 outcomes 22, 25-6, 31, 100 outputs 9, 31-2, 42-3, 52, 72, 94, 96, 102, 147, 156-8 owner 112, 116-17 P packages 27, 29, 37, 42, 69, 85, 102 ©The Art of Service
ITIL® V3 : Release, Control & Validation Best Practices
parties 26, 53, 92, 105, 123, 151 partners 9, 96, 127, 129 pathways 6, 167-8 PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) 98 performance 24-7, 31, 87, 90, 93, 97 actual 97-8, 100, 157 predicted 97-8, 100, 157 person 31, 35, 50, 56, 60, 64, 119 person/role 133 perspectives 3, 10, 87-8, 91, 100, 151, 157 phases 17, 20, 39, 42, 73, 75 pilots 61, 76-7, 80, 157 PIR (Post Implementation Review) 43, 147, 149 Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) 98 plans 62, 65, 76-7, 80-2, 94, 98, 100-1, 110, 114, 127 configuration management 114-15 release 52 Service Management 42 Policies and principles of Service Asset and Configuration Management portfolios 29 Post Implementation Review (PIR) 43, 147, 149 practices best 15-16, 80, 141, 159, 171 informal change management 61 price 26 principles 4, 31, 87, 109, 125, 156-8 prioritization 54-5 process manager 31 process owners 31, 67, 133, 145, 164 products 9, 13, 68, 104, 140, 165 project 35, 49, 62, 88, 119, 150 Project Management 4, 52, 58, 62, 115 projected service outage (PSO) 52, 57 Proprietary knowledge of organizations 15 providers 25-7, 87 PSO (projected service outage) 52, 57
Q quality 7, 10, 22, 52, 77, 82, 87, 93, 103-4, 108, 123, 139, 155, 163, 168 perceived 22 quality service management 47, 52 R RACI 34 RACI Model 34 RAM 2, 111, 148 RCI 34 RCV processes 38, 45-6, 69, 143 recommendation 65, 100 rejection 54-5, 57 relationships 3-4, 17, 23-5, 37, 57, 62, 108, 110-12, 116-17, 121, 148 Release improved 69 single 75 words 7 Minor 70 Release & Deployment 49, 85 Release & Deployment Management 85 RELEASE & DEPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT 4 Release and Deployment 58, 68-9, 71, 75, 79, 106, 117, 156 Release and Deployment Activities 75 Release and Deployment and Evaluation 87 Release and Deployment management 58 Release and Deployment Management 57, 68, 148, 150, 156 ©The Art of Service
66. 95. unique 70 Release Management 149 Release Packages 43. 96. 135-7. 72. 103. 85. 73. 120 Request For Change. 68-9. 90. 118 pre-defined 106 rollback 68 Emergency fix 118 releases 41. 30-1. 86-8. 147 responsibilities 4-5. 75. 76. 52. 135-6. 82-4. 164 RFCs and Change Management 119 ©The Art of Service . 105. 157 retrievals 128. 50-2. 31. 76 resources 24-5. 118. 41. 160 release planning 76. Control & Validation Best Practices Release and Deployment Management process 156 Release and Deployment Manager 135-6 Release and Deployment plans 68 Release and Deployment process 72 Release and Deployment process Supplier 75 Release and Deployment teams 136 Release Control and Validation 45 release design 4. 69-70. 75. 116-18. 63. 162-4  resources plans 41. 82. 105-7. 9. 37. 59-63. 95. 80. 54-5. 158 scope of 103 request models 4. 147 complete 70 constructed 68 release packaging 80. 73-4. 33-4. 58-60. 56-7. 94. 75. 96. 78 Release Design Options and Considerations 73 Release Design Release plan 91 Release Identification 70 release identification scheme. 141. 61. 111. 57-9. 104-5 resource requirements 55. 82. 122. 49. 64. 65-6.180 ITIL® V3 : Release. 84. 156-7  complex 77 configure 75 deploy quality 40 deploying 73 designed 69 implemented 69 minor 75. 80 release policy 75 releases 3-4. 115-16. 52. 90. 45. 120. 68. 45. 155-6 discovery tools aid 74 Release Policy 4. 79 release tools 161 release unit structure 69 release unit 69 release units 69-70. see RFC Request Fulfilment 4-5. 42. 11. 57. 141 review 54-5. 70. 35. 100. 128 formal 84 RFC (Request For Change) 20. 133-8  restaurant 22 retirement 76. 88 release policy 136 release rollbacks 11 release scheduling 156 release teams 74. 93. 147 packaged 45 releases Asset 115 releases preferred structure 75 reports 34. 77. 70. 72-80. 72 single 70 release unit 69 release window 66 release 76. 137. 15. 77. 100. 20. 156.
37. 67. 82. 29. 106. 164 Service Level Requirements 149. 130. 97-8. 61. 100-1. 17. 76. 164 Service Catalogues 20. 96. 97. 103 potential 60 unacceptable 100 Roles and Responsibilities for RCV 133 Row 34 Rs of Change Management 57 S SACM 158 scenario 73. 16-20.ITIL® V3 : Release. 27. 128. 141. 150 Service Asset & Configuration Management 49. 121. 78. 84. 151 scheduling test resources Prioritizing 93 scope 3-5. 157 Service Improvement Programme (SIP) 149. 129. 124. 48. 164 service Knowledge Management system 161 Service Knowledge Management System 5. 86. 42. 108-9. 39. 27-8 Service Level Requirement (SLR) 149. 94. 105 sequence 93 Service 20. 35. 41. 171 service operations 68. 27. 135. 112. 129. 25. 150 Service Evaluation 4. 103 Scope of Service transition 154 Scope of Service Transition 37 security 2. 35. 137. 92. 68. 29-30. 56. 137. 25. 135. 164 service lifecycle 3. 150 Service Level Packages 3. 19. 37. 128. 29 service changes 48. 108. 154 Service Management processes 49. 108-9. 97-8. 20. 74. Control & Validation Best Practices risk evaluation management 160 Risk Management 98. 87. 104-6. 137 Service Asset Management 121 service assets 25. 115. 91. 94-5. 75. 158 Service Asset & Configuration Management work 85 Service Asset and Configuration Management 70. 56. 130. 134-6 Service Component Build and Test 91 Service Delivery 10. 156-8  Scope of Change Management 48 scope of Release 11. 102. 164 SERVICE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. 116. 122. 147-8. 145 selection criteria 117. 42-3. 95. 82. 145 Service Operation 20. 108-9. 123. 40. 55-8. 106. 86-7. 147. 87-8. 47. 12. 49. 123. 149. 157. 100. 100-1. 33. 163-4 associated deployment packages Updated 42 Service Asset 4. 97-8. 147 service provider interfaces 83 Service Level Agreements 111. 148 Service Asset and Configuration Management roles 135. 42-3. 128-9 Service Lifecycle Phases 3. 144. 126-7. 130. 69. 158. 91 Service Packages and Service Level Packages 27-8 Service Pipeline 29 Service Portfolio information 20 ©The Art of Service 181 . 149. 18. 124. 63. 56. 20 Service Management 5. 114. 52. 9. 22. 59. 45 service deployment 74 Service Design 19-20. 121. 12 Service Package Example 27-8 Service Packages 26-8. 151. 7. see SKMS Service Level 13. 164 Service Level Management 13. 140 self-help 103. 171 Service Desk 34. 15. 35. 48. 84. 51. 42 service lifecycle work 3. 89. 77. 123. 157. 134 service organization 9. 97. 45. 80. 108. 121. 108-9. 75. 22-3. 68-9. 93-4. 127. 15. 101 risks 22. 157-8  low 50.
139. 125. 119-20. 137 external 9. 128. 16. 35. 164 support staff 68. 137 overarching 75. 70-2. 126. 1234. 123-4. 48. 123. 105 storage 69. 54. 91. 104. 147. 115. 139-41. 130. 48. 22-30. 158. 82. 154-5. 31. 47-8. 48. 35. 59. 45. 70-1. 161. 89. 86. 26. 127 staff 9-11. 28. 145 Service Release 42 Service Release Package Test 91 Service Release Test Criteria 91 service requests 20. 47. 45-8. 93. 134-6. 12-13. Control & Validation Best Practices Service Portfolios 3. 143-5. 72-3. 105. 139. 64. 26. 12. 45. 28-9. 59. 103-7 service requests 107 service requirements 91-2 Service Strategy 20. 149. 68. 124. 119. 106. 100-1. 70. 100. 40. 130-1. 164 steps 50. 164 software 10. 82-3. 87. 62. 76. 129-30. 50. 42-3. 74. 135-6 Service Transition 20. 115. 21. 123. 26. 88. 29-30. 96 standard 103-4 Services Package 27-8 SIP (Service Improvement Programme) 149. 127. 67-8. 5. 96. 153-4. 58-9. 118. 139 ©The Art of Service . 124. 85. 80. 23-5 Service Utility 26-7 Service Validation 39. 127. 52. 45. 90 Service Warranty 26-7 services 9-10. 141 strategy 47. 37-43. 157 deployment management 31 Service Validation and Testing process 93. 79-80. 155. 25-6. 151 stakeholders 9-11. 159  SERVICE TRANSITION 3. 133. 35. 92. 80. 126-7. 85-6. 123-4. customer's business requirements 154 Service Transition Manager 102. 86-7. 164 SLR (Service Level Requirement) 149. 16. 157 Service Value 3. 102. 96-7. 105 core 27 modified 10. 108. customer service 22 SKMS (SERVICE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM) 5. 42. 89. 131  service provider interfaces 95 service quality 47. 105. 108-11. 103. 97. 112. 83-4. 145 STANDARD Change 50-1 standards 15. 171 Service Test Manager 93. 163-5  common 103. 97. 87. 81. 119. 114 release Communication 76 suppliers 48. 100. 133. 131 systems 37. 148. 52-3. 116. 95-6. 56-7. 164 skills. 163 T tags 118 target locations 73-4 TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) 72 technology 9. 31. 123-4.182 ITIL® V3 : Release. 15. 86-91. 84. 49. 68-9. 135 service transition organization 134 service transition 155 service transition interfaces 154 service units 3. 96. 95-6. 168 Status Accounting 111. 82. 129. 58-9. 88. 148-9. 137. 95-6. 94. 69-70. 72. 120. 52. 91. 145. 86-7. 128. 61. 145 service provider 7. 129. 126-7. 136-7 software deployment 105-6 software releases 74 definitive 71 sources 9. 157 Service Transition. 78. 147. 93. 100. 16-17. 137.
135. 109. 90-1. 92-3. 150  utility 26-8. 78. 74. 145. 142 183 ©The Art of Service . 116. 84-5. 52-3. 105. 21 test 37. 115. 58 Workflow Management 5. 137. 126. 82-3 transition 10. 34. 130 unintended effects 97. 123. 68. 96. 94-5. 130. 78. 24-7. 145 TSO 171 types 45. 56. 52. 61. 139. 95 level of 27 V validation 7. 111 terminology. 161 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 72 training 75. 156 test environment management 160 test environments 56. 135. 114. 87. 95 Testing and Validation Results 43. 105-6. 139. 156-7 Typical Activities of Service Evaluation 99 U UCs Deployment plans 72 understanding 22. 62. 35. 141.ITIL® V3 : Release. 88. 131. 45. 142-3. 157 testing activities 4. 87. 22. 69. 79-80. 129. 163 deployment technology 161 service management 105. 105-6. 94 Test Management 93. 103. 76. 90. 119 test data management 139. 147 value 9. 127. 94-5 test strategy 90-1. 133 Training of involved release 78 transfer 76. 80. 141. 69. 171 what s 57 wisdom 124-6. 74. 147 TMAP (Test Management Approach) 92 tools 2. 31. 97. 144-5 W warranty 26-8. 75. 78-80. 88. 29. 133 vision 67. 95. 83. 86. 92. 153 Validation Processes 3. 23. change management 119 user base 73 user/customer 105 users 2. 80. 139 Test Management Approach (TMAP) 92 test models 4. 167. 103-4. 82. 68-9. 68-9. 57. common 3. 47. 149 work orders 54. 57. 111. 133. 100. 120. 86. 136. 123. 69. 85. 5. 100 unit 67. 138. 127. 105. 82-4. 37. 123-5. 52. 100. 149 visibility 23. 11. 35. 31. 90-2. 124. 40. 148. 10. 103. 106. 129. Control & Validation Best Practices Terminology 3-4. 90-3. 43. 143 validation results 20. 59. 47. 128 updates. 89-90. 151  value contribution 122 value creation 26 Van Haren Publishing 171 Vendor Contracts Information Policies 42 verification 82. 161. 165 websites 103. 90.