Production of Maleic Anhydride

Background Maleic anhydride is a versatile chemical intermediate used to make unsaturated polyester resins, lube oil additives, alkyd resins, and a variety of other products. In 1995, global production of maleic anhydride was estimated at 1.8 billion pounds, with an estimated value of $700 million. Over the last five years, world consumption has increased at an average annual rate of 5.8%, with the fastest growth occurring in Asia, where it is used as an intermediate for production of 1,4-butanediol [1]. The goal of this project is to design a grass roots facility that is capable of producing 40 million pounds of maleic anhydride per year from n-butane. Process Description Figure 1 shows a PFD for the overall process. Pure butane, Stream 2, and

compressed air, Stream 3, are mixed and fed to R-101, an adiabatic reactor, where butane reacts with oxygen to form maleic anhydride. The reaction is exothermic, therefore, one could consider either a fluidized bed reactor or a packed bed reactor with heat removal to stay close to isothermal. The reactor effluent is cooled and sent to T-101, a packed bed absorber, where it is contacted with water, Stream 7, to remove the light gases and all of the maleic anhydride reacts to form maleic acid. The vapor effluent, which consists of non-condensables, Stream 8, must be sent to an after-burner to remove any carbon monoxide prior to venting to the atmosphere. This is not shown here. The liquid effluent, Stream 9, is then cooled and flashed at 101 kPa and 120°C in V-101. The vapor effluent from V-101, Stream 11, is sent to waste treatment. Stream 12, the liquid

Stream 15. which would not allow purification of the maleic anhydride to the purity obtained here. The selectivity for each reaction is as follows [2]: (1) (2) (3) (4) maleic anhydride 70. The process was simulated using the Peng-Robinson thermodynamic package for Kvalues and Peng-Robinson for enthalpy. is sent to R-102 where maleic acid is broken down to maleic anhydride and water.2%. consists of 99-wt. UNIFAC thermodynamic suggested an azeotrope between maleic andhydride and water.5O2 → C4 H 2O3 + 4 H 2O C4 H10 + 5.778. This should be considered when .0% formic acid 1. is sent to waste treatment.0% acrylic acid 1.2 effluent. The distillate. The reactor effluent is then sent to distillation column. T-102.5O2 → 2CO + 2CO2 + 5 H 2O C4 H10 + 3.0% Data that may provide reaction kinetics can be found in US patent 4. the bottoms. Stream 14. Necessary Information and Simulation Hints The following reactions occur during the reaction of butane with oxygen: C4 H10 + 3.% maleic anhydride. designing the separation units.0% carbon dioxide 1. where maleic anhydride and water are separated.317.5O2 → C3 H 4O2 + CO2 + 3H 2O C4 H10 + 6O2 → CH 2O2 + 3CO2 + 4 H 2O (1) (2) (3) (4) The conversion of butane is assumed to be 82.

U.052.S. Slindard.. W.html 2.417 “Vapor Phase Oxidation of Butane Producing Maleic Anhydride and Acetic Acid.com/CIN/JulyAugust96/Article08.3 Equipment Summary C-101 E-101 E-102 E-103 E-104 P-101A/B R-101 R-102 T-101 T-102 V-101 V-102 References 1. Baylis. Patent # 4.sri.” Air Compressor Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger Condenser Reboiler Reflux Pump Packed Bed Reactor Maleic Acid Reactor Absorbtion Tower Distillation Column Flash Vessel Reflux Vessel . A. http://www-cmrc.

7 -9511.6 12 120.9 355.3 -----4.0 101.2 2491.8 17.9 121.4 ----102.9 275.0 Press.3 102.0 602.8 ------27.0 59.0 0.0 9511.1 101.0 9511.0 101.0 410.0 31210.0 11216.0 -----17.0 ----21. (kPa) 170.9 26.3 -102.0 0.0 453.0 -- .7 -21.7 3128.0 3128.0 20.9 27.8 ----0.0 Vapor Fraction 0.0 101.7 Component Flows (kg/h) Nitrogen ---Carbon Monoxide ---Oxygen ---Carbon Dioxide ---Butane 355.0 1.0 1.2 2491.2 -- 14 97.0 31210.0 ---355.0 -31210.0 1.9 355.1 491.1 0.0 1.2 13206.0 41174.8 17.6 -Maleic Acid --33.0 275.0 43174.2 -- 15 162. (°C) 60.6 2659.8 ----0.4 -6287.0 275.5 0.0 147.0 101.9 27.9 ---453.0 120.6 Acrylic Acid 27.5 13639.0 0.0 37621.8 2521.0 200.0 31210.4 2631.0 43174.1 12.4 -3114.0 1.0 31210.2 1.0 1.4 6287.0 0.0 170.6 ----------- Stream 9 10 11 Temp.0 95.0 0.1 496.2 1.4 -31210.4 Stream Tables Stream Temp.0 0.0 0.0 Formic Acid 17.5 ----0.2 11216. (kPa) Vapor Fraction Total Flow (kg/h) Component Flows (kg/h) Nitrogen Carbon Monoxide Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Butane Water Formic Acid Acrylic Acid Maleic Anhydride Maleic Acid 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20.6 110.6 0.0 101.9 ------2659. (°C) Press.8 17.9 355.5 0.0 45.2 0.0 40.7 21.0 0.6 13 160.0 275.0 41174.3 2000.0 Total Flow (kg/h) 16768.6 2659.0 2491.0 170.5 16768.6 Maleic Anhydride 2659.0 453.0 101.0 2000.9 Water 2491.0 6287.0 2526.0 1.0 41174.

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