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Singapore Water

Singapore Water

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Published by: kergab on Jun 13, 2012
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Puah Aik Num Deputy Director Technology and Water Quality Office PUB, Singapore

What we were like in the Sixties
40 years ago…


Singapore River Singapore River


What we were like in the Sixties
40 years ago…


Singapore River Singapore River


1960’s Water resources were scarce…

Last water rationing in 1963

water rationing


1960’s Public Health Concerns • Proper sanitary facilities were lacking… Squatters • Public Health Conditions were poor… Street hawkers Outdoor Latrines Night soil buckets 5 .

1960’s Our rivers were polluted… Kallang River Kallang River Singapore River 6 .

1970’s Relocation of businesses & industries New Industrial Estate Dyke in Construction Dredging & improvement works… Relocation from Street to Hawker Centres Resettlement of squatters into proper public housing… New Housing Towns Laying of new sewers… 7 .

80’s and 90’s Clean Rivers Singapore River Singapore River Singapore River 8 .

Pristine reservoirs… Before 1960’s: Reservoirs in Protected Catchments 1970’s: Estuarine Reservoirs 1980’s: Reservoirs in Urbanised Catchments 9 .

10 .


18 million people • Water Demand: 380 MGD  Singapore • Rainfall: 2.4 m  Lack of Storage • Catchment areas: 66% Competing Land Use 12 .Singapore’s Water Challenges • Land Area: ~ 700 km2 • Population: 5.

Challenges Ahead Rising Energy Prices Prices set to increase in the long run Rise of Megacities Population Growth Stringent Regulations & Public Expectations Climate Change No Pristine Water Sources 13 .

2011 water demand = 1.000 cubic metres per day 2060 water demand = 2 x 2011 demand 14 .730.

Integrated Water Resource Management 15 .

16 .

Closing the Water Loop Natural Water Cycle: New drop stormwater management NEWater: 2nd drop treatment of used water rain sea Desalination: New drop collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirs desalination reclamation of used water collection of used water in sewers treatment of raw to potable water supply of water to the population & industries 17 .

Increase Water Resources 2. Improve Water Quality 5. Water Recycling 3.Managing The Complete Water Cycle 1. “Harden” the Water Loop 18 . Improve efficiency stormwater management rain sea reclamation of reclamation used water of used water treatment of used water collection collection of rainfall of rainfall in drains & in drains & reservoirs reservoirs desalination desalination collection of used water in sewers supply of water to the population & industries treatment of raw to potable water 4.

Integrated Water Resource Management 4 National Taps 3P Approach Local catchment Imported water NEWater Desalinated water “Conserve Water” “Value Our Water” “Enjoy Our Waters” “Water for All” “Conserve. Enjoy” 19 . Value.

1st Harvesting Every Drop MacRitchie Reservoir Protected Catchment Unprotected Catchment Marina Reservoir Punggol Urban Stormwater Collection System Legend Unprotected Water Catchment Protected Water Catchment Proposed Water Catchment Punggol Serangoon Reservoir o Two third of Singapore is already water catchment o Further increased to 90% in the future with Variable Salinity Plant Bedok Storm Water Collection System 20 .

 Malaysia PUB pipelines  carrying water  from Johor 21 .2nd Imported Water From Johor Two water agreements with Johor. Malaysia • 1961 to 2011 (expired) • 1962 to 2061 State of Johor.

Mar 2007) Service Reservoir 22 . 2004) Kranji Expansion 12mgd 17mgd (54mld) (77mld) By 2060 to triple current NEWater capacity to meet 50% of future water demand Legend NEWater pipeline NEWater Plant Changi 5th NEWater completed in 2010 Bedok (6 mgd/27mld.3rd NEWater Kranji (9 mgd/40mld. Jan 2003) Seletar (5 mgd/22mld. Jan03) Bedok Expansion 6mgd 18mgd (27mld) (81mld) Ulu Pandan (32 mgd (145mld).

4th Desalinated Water • Infinite resource • Readily available • Enable water self-sufficiency in Singapore By 2060.5 kWh/m3 with RO) 23 . desalinated water will contribute 30% of Singapore’s water demand. increase from 10% currently BUT… Energy consumption is high (about 3.

NEWater & catchment water) DEEP TUNNEL Completed in Feb 2005 Progressive phasing out of used water Progressive phasing out of used water infrastructure with DTSS infrastructure with DTSS • 3 WRPs and 45 pump stations will be • 3 WRPs and 45 pump stations will be phased out.USED WATER RUNS DEEP Ensures long term sustainability of Singapore’s water resources (i.e. freeing 161 ha of land phased out. freeing 161 ha of land completed in 2009 24 .

Enjoy” 25 .Integrated Water Resource Management 4 National Taps 3P Approach Local catchment Imported water NEWater Desalinated water “Conserve Water” “Value Our Water” “Enjoy Our Waters” “Water for All” “Conserve. Value.

Conserving our Waters WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT UFW Control via Integrated Network Management Water Conservation Pricing 6 leaks per 100 Km Reflect the strategic importance and scarcity value of water 155 l/per Water 147 l/per by 2020 Conservation Strategy Voluntary 3P approach Promote ownership of water conservation Mandatory Cut down on excessive flow and wastage of water ~ 5% 26 .

Value and Enjoy” “Conserve Water” “Value Our Water” “Enjoy Our Waters” NEWater Visitor Centre Activities in Reservoirs and Canals Marina Barrage 27 .“Conserve.

ACTIVE New recreational spaces BEAUTIFUL Integration of waters with urban landscape CLEAN Improved water quality . Value. B. C.ABC Waters Programme A.“Conserve. At ABC Waters Public Exhibition Opening (Feb 07) 28 . Enjoy” . “… Turn Singapore into a city of gardens and water” Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.

The Blue Map of Singapore 29 .

Existing 30 Kallang River at Bishan Park .

Proposed 31 Floating island in Sengkang (Sg Punggol) .

Ready for the Future 32 .

  Driver:  “Adequate Water Supply”: •Rainfall: 2.Drivers for PUB’s R&D PUB’s strategy for long term sustainability of our water supply is to continue  leveraging on technological innovation to overcome the water challenges.“Water for All” .Reduce production cost En erg y 1.4 m •Land area: 700 km2 •Large domestic and industrial demand Driver:  “Good Water Quality”: •Water resources coming from  unconventional sources ls ls ica ica em em Ch sage Ch sage U U Objectives of R&D:  2.Increase water resources Key Drivers Waste Minimisation 33 .Protect water quality and  security 3.

PUB’s Investment in R&D Innovation PUB started its R&D programme in  2002. •No.“Water for All” . of Projects to‐date: 294 •Annual R&D Budget:  o S$5 mil from 2004 to 2009 o Increased to S$20 mil in 2010 •Total Project Value: S$160 mil •Average annual R&D investment:   S$18 mil   34 .

R&D Projects in the Water Loop Rainfall Prediction Contaminants of Emerging Concerns Low Energy MBR Microbial Fuel Cells stormwater management rain Biomimicry sea DOHS Backwash Electrochemical Desalting Biomimetic Membranes Capacitive Deionisation treatment of Integrated used water Anaerobic & Aerobic Treatment Microbial Source Tracking Reducing Evaporation Membrane Distillation Forward Osmosis reclamation of used water Membrane Integrity Sensors collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirs Water Quality Modelling and Prediction desalination Variable Salinity Process treatment of raw to potable water Regenerative Photocatalysts Robust Sensors supply of water to the population & industries collection of used water in sewers Source Control Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis 35 .“Water for All” .

Journey to Low Energy Seawater Desalination Current 3.5 kWh/m3 SWRO – Variable Salinity Process : 1.5 kWh/m3 Short-term < 1.term < 0.75 kWh/m3 Biomimetic Membranes / Biomimicry of Natural Desalination Processes Aquaporins Mangrove .5 kWh/m3 Breakthrough R&D Long.0 kWh/m3 – Electrochemical Desalting: 1.7 kWh/m3 – Memstill (with waste heat): 1.

1 kWh/m3 nett energy 5–6 years Current Status: Nett energy of 0.Energy Self-Sufficiency for Used PUB Manages the Entire Water Loop Water Treatment Energy-Self Sufficiency Nett Zero Energy 20 years? 80% Energy Reduction: <0.5 kWh/m3 37 .R&D Approach .

com/global_warming.g. reclaimed land to be constructed to a platform level of 125 cm above the highest tide level Image Source Page: http://www.our-energy.html 38 .KEEPING WATCH ON CLIMATE CHANGE Possible Impact: Rise in the mean sea level around Singapore by 24 to 65 cm by 2100 PUB adopts a four-pronged approach towards climate: Weather-resilient sources (NEWater and desalinated water) Continue investment in R&D to help develop capabilities and innovative solutions to further enhance our water resilience Working closely with its international government and industry partners to help bring water solutions to the region and the world Long-term approach to infrastructure planning e.

Reasons for Success 39 .

Phasing out undesirable activities (pig. chicken and duck farming) 40 . street sweeping.Reasons for Success Close coordination among government agencies Urban Redevelopment Authority Housing Development Board National Environment Agency Land use planning and catchment management Anti-pollution design incorporated at planning stage of development Pollution control measures – strict erosion control. drain maintenance etc.

including rainwater and wastewater collection. as well as NEWater production Policies in place to protect stormwater runoff quality 41 . drinking water and wastewater treatment.Reasons for Success Separation of stormwater from sewage Singapore does not have combined sewer and stormwater drainage systems Integrated water and wastewater management PUB manages the entire water loop.


Per Capita Domestic Water Consumption 43 .

Unaccounted-for-water (1989 -2010) 44 .

Annual Leakage per 100 km of Mains (1994-2010) 45 .

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