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ESpfpOfxkwfa0cJhygonf/ ,ckESpfwGifvnf; tcsdefumvESifhukdufnDaom
tcsut
f vufrsm;udk jznfhpGufjyifqifNy;D xkwfa0vkdufygonf/
þpmtkyw
f iG f jrefrmEkid if \
H orkid ;f aMumif;jzpfpOfrsm;? jynfaxmifpo
k r®w
jrefrmEdkifiaH wmf or®wtjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonfh yk*¾dKvfrsm;ESifh 0efBuD;csKyf
tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonfh yk*¾dKvfrsm;? yx0Dqkdif&m tcsuftvufrsm;?
{&m0wDjrpfqpkH rD u
H ed ;f qdik &f m tcsut
f vufrsm;? Edik if aH wmfor®w OD;ode;f pdef
ajymMum;cJhonfh rdefYcGef;? trSmpum;aumufEkwfcsufrsm;ESifh ay;ydkYcJhaom
o0PfvmT rsm;? tpk;d &0efBu;D Xmersm;? jynfaxmifpt
k pk;d &tzGUJ ? wkid ;f a'oBu;D ESihf
jynfe,f 0efBuD;csKyfrsm;? yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfrS twnfjyK

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

cefYtyfcJhonfh &mxl;ae&mESihfyk*¾dKvfrsm;? wkdif;a'oBuD;vTwaf wmfEiS hf jynfe,f
vTwaf wmftoD;oD;ü ceft
Y yfxm;aom vTwaf wmfOuú|rsm;? 'kwd,0efBuD;rsm;?
wkdif;a'oBuD;vTwfawmfESifh jynfe,fvTwfawmftoD;oD;ü zGJUpnf;xm;aom
0efBuD;Xmersm;? jynfaxmifpk a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif? b@ma&;aumfr&Sif?
jrefrmEkdifiH trsKd;om;vlYtcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif? aus;vufa'ozGHUNzdK;a&;ESifh
qif;&JErG ;f yg;rIavQmch sa&; A[kad umfrwD? vkyif ef;aumfrwD? ajrvGw?f ajrvyf
ESifh ajr½kdif;rsm; pDrHcefYcGJa&; A[kdaumfrwD? jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf yl;aygif;
aumfrwDrsm;? jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS fh trsK;d om;vTwaf wmfwiG f zGUJ pnf;xm;onfh
aumfrwDrsm;? 2011 ckESpf jrefrm-w½kwfqufqHa&;? jrefrm-tar&duef
qufqaH &;? jrefrmEkid if H tpk;d &tqufqufwiG f vGwNf ird ;f csr;f omcGiahf y;cJo
h nfh
jzpfpOfrsm;? jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEkdifiHawmf tpkd;&opfvufxufwGif
vGwNf ird ;f csr;f omcGiahf y;cJah om jzpfpOfrsm;? jynfaxmifpo
k r®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf
tpkd;&vufxuf Nidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;rItajctaersm;? yxrtBudrf
jynfaxmifpv
k w
T af wmf? jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf? trsK;d om;vTwaf wmf ykrH eS t
f pnf;
ta0;? yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf? jynfolYvTwfawmf? trsKd;om;
vTwfawmf 'kwd, ykHrSeftpnf;ta0;? jynfe,fESifh wkdif;a'oBuD;toD;oD;\
zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wufrrI w
S w
f rf;rsm;? wyfrawmfqidk &f m odrw
S zf ,
G &f mrsm;? jrefrmEkid if H
&JwyfzUJG qkid &f m odrw
S zf ,
G &f mrsm;? Ekid if w
H uma&;&m odrw
S zf ,
G &f mrsm;? jrefrm
EkdifiH? EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'? bmoma&;qkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;? usef;rma&;
qkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm; ponfwkdYukd A[kokwjzpfzG,f azmfjyxm;onf/
vlwidk ;f odxm;oifhonfrsm;ukd pkpnf;xm;onft
h wGuf pmzwforl sm; tusK;d
&SdapEkdifonfh pmtkyaf umif;wpftyk f jzpfygonf/
xkaYd Mumifh A[kow
k &SmrS;D vko
d rl sm;? &mxl;0ifpmar;yGJ ajzqkMd urnfo
h rl sm;?
q&m? q&mrrsm;? ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm; vufukdifjyKxm;&rnfh
pmtkyjf zpfonf/ tem*wfEidk if aH wmftwGuf vlcRev
f al umif;rsm;? acgif;aqmif
aumif;rsm;? todynm&Sif twwfynm&Sifrsm; ay:xGef;vma&;twGuf
taxmuftuljyKrnf[k ,kHMunfvsuf xkwfa0vkduf&ygonf/
pmwnf;tzGJU
jyefMum;a&;ESifhjynfolYqufqHa&;OD;pD;Xme

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jrefrmEkdifiH\ ordkif;jzpfpOf
jzpfay:ajymif;vJcJh&aom jrefrmEkdifiH\ orkdif;jzpfpOfrsm;rSm atmufyg
twkdif;jzpfygonfat'D 1 &mpk
... AdóEd;k ? [efvif;? oa&acwå&ma'orsm;wGif
ya'o&mZf EdkifiHi,frsm;udk ]ysL} vlrsdK;rsm;u
xlaxmifcJhMuonf/
1044 - 1297
... yk*Hacwf? taemf&xmrif;(1044- 1077)u
yxrjrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk xlaxmifonf/
1552 - 1595
... awmif i l a cwf ? bk & if h a emif r if ; w&m;BuD ;
(1552-1581)u 'kwd,jrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk
xlaxmifonf/
1752 - 1885
... ukef;abmifacwf? tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD ;
(1752-1760)u wwd,jrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk
xlaxmifonf/
1824 - 1826
... t*Fvdyf-jrefrm yxrppfyGJjzpfyGm;onf/
1852 - 1854
... t*Fvdyf-jrefrm 'kwd,ppfyGJjzpfyGm;onf/
1885
... t*Fvyd -f jrefrm wwd,ppfyjJG zpfymG ;Ny;D aemuf
NAw
d o
d Quv
kd ekd eD ,fcsUJ vufatmufoY k d jrefrm Edik if H
usa&mufco
hJ nf/
1906
... Ak'b
¨ momuvsmP,k0toif; (0dik t
f rfbaD t)
udk xlaxmifum trsdK;? bmom? omoem
twGuf BuKd ;yrf;Muonf/ 1918 ckEpS f 'DZifbm
18&ufü NAdwdoQtpdk;&u u&ufa'guf pDrH
udef;udk xkwfjyefonf/

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/8 of 208.

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14

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

... jrefrmhurk m® &Dtoif;ac: jrefrmtrsK;d orD;or*¾
toif;udkzGJUpnf;onf/
1920 atmufwdkbm ... Ak'¨bmomuvsmP,k0toif;BuD;\ t|r
(29-31)
tBurd n
f v
D mcHu jrefrmjynfv;kH qdik &f mtoif;
csKyBf u;D (*spD b
D aD t) [lí trnfajymif;onf/
1920 'DZifbm 5
... &efukefwuúodkvf yxrausmif;om;oydwf
pwifarSmufonf/
1930 ar 30
... wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk; xlaxmifonf/
1930 'DZifbm 22 ... q&mpHO;D aqmifonfh awmifov
l ,form;ta&;
awmfyk H om,m0wDc½dik ?f a&wdu
k &f mG rS pwifonf/
25-2-1936
... &efukefwuúodkvf 'kw,
d ausmif;om;oydwf
arSmufonf/
1923 - 1937
... 'dik t
f mcDtyk cf sKyaf &;umvjzpfonf/
1-4-37 rS 10-12-42 ... ud;k q,fw
h pfXme tkycf sKyaf &;pepf usio
hf ;kH csed f
jzpfonf/
8-1-1938
... acsmufa&eHajroydwfpwifonf/ 1300jynfh
ta&;awmfyHk ay:aygufonf/
27-12-1941
... xdik ;f Edik if ?H befaumufNrKd UwGif Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;
wyfrawmf (bDtdkifat) zGJUpnf;onf/
27-7-1942
... ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfudk ArmhumuG,f
a&; wyfrawmf (bD'Dat) tjzpf ajymif;vJ
zGJUpnf;onf/
1-8-1943
... *syefwu
Ykd twkta,mifvw
G v
f yfa&;ay;onf/
27-3-1945
... zufqpfawmfveS af &; pwifqifETJonf/
1945 - 1947
... e,fcsJUNAdwdoQwdkY\ puúLjzLtkyfcsKyfa&;acwf
jzpfonf/
1947
... qd&k efwAkd v
D mjyefvnfxal xmifa&; pDru
H ed ;f rsm;
csrSwfonf/
12-2-1947
... yifvo
kH abmwlncD suu
f kd Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

16-11-1919

4-1-1948
1948 - 1950

...
...

1958 - 1959

...

2-3-1962

...

3-1-1974

...

1974 - 1988

...

18-9-1988

...

27-5-1990
9-1-1993
30-5-1996

...
...
...

ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;acgif;aqmif 22 OD; vufrw
S f
a&;xd;k onf/
jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&&Sdonf/
ygvDref'Drdkua&pDpepfusifhoHk;NyD; EdkifiHu d k
tkyfcsKyfonf/
wyfrawmfu tdraf pmift
h pd;k &tjzpf EdkifiHudk
xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufonf/
awmfveS af &;aumifpu
D Edik if aH wmf tmPmudk
&,lonf/
zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'ukd qE´rJay;ykdifcGifh&Sdol
rsm;\ 90'or19&mckdifEIef;jzifh twnfjyK
jy|mef;onf/
jrefrmhq&kd ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOfygwD\ OD;aqmifrjI zifh
acwfajymif;awmfveS af &; qifETJonf/ jynfolY
vTwfawmfESifh jynfolYaumifpD tqifq
h ifu
h kd
zG J U pnf ; um jynf o l Y u d k , f p m;vS , f r sm;u
EdkifiHawmf\ Oya'jyKa&;? tkyfcsKyfa&;? w&m;
pD&ifa&;wm0efrsm;udk aqmif&Gufonf/
taxGaxGrauseyfrrI sm;aMumifh qE´jyrIrsm;
jzpfyGm;onf/ jynfwGif;jynfy tzsuftarSmifh
ya,m*rsm; pGuzf ufraI Mumifh rif;rJph ½du
k rf sm;
vTrf;rdk;um wdik ;f qljynfzsuv
f yk &f yfrsm; Bu;D pd;k
vmonf/ w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k rIEiS hf &yf&mG at;csr;f
om,mrIysuo
f Ok ;f um jynforl sm; us;D vefpY mpm;
tajctaeodYk qdu
k af &mufco
hJ jzifh wyfrawmf
u EdkifiHhwm0efu&kd ,lNy;D Edik if aH wmfuu
kd muG,f
apmifha&SmufcJh&onf/
ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDa&G;aumufyGJ usif;yonf/
trsKd ;om;nDvmcH pwifusi;f yonf/
trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd ,m,Dtm;jzifh qdik ;f iHo
h nf/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

16

15-11-1997

30-8-2003
17-5-2004
3-9-2007
10-5-2008

... EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;
aumifpDudk zGJUpnf;í EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;?
vlrIa&; OD;wnfcsuf (12)&yf csrSwfum
at;csr;f om,mNy;D acwfrzD UHG NzKd ;wd;k wufaom
Edik if aH wmfukd qufvufwnfaqmufonf/
... Edik if aH wmfa&SUqufomG ;rnfh rl0g'vrf;pOf(7)&yf
udk aMunmonf/
... 1996 ckEpS üf ,m,Dtm;jzifq
h ikd ;f iHx
h m;cJah om
trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd jyefvnf usif;yonf/
... trsK;d om;nDvmcH atmifjrifpmG usi;f yNy;D pD;cJh
onf/
... zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'rlMurf;ukd jynfvHk;uRwf
qE´cH,lyGJ usif;yonf/
... Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESih f zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifpD
u aMunmcsut
f rSwf (7^28) jzifh zGUJ pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'udk twnfjyKjy|mef;vdu
k af Mumif;
aMunmonf/
... EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;
aumifpu
D aMunmcsut
f rSwf (1^2010)jzifh
jynfaxmifpk a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sifudk zGJUpnf;
cJhonf/
... jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfrq
J E´e,f 330 &So
d nft
h euf
325 e,fwiG v
f nf;aumif;? trsK;d om;vTwaf wmf
rJqE´e,f 330 &Sdonfhteuf 168 e,fwGif
vnf;aumif;? wkid ;f a'oBu;D vTwaf wmf okrYd [kwf
jynfe,fvTwfawmfrJqE´e,f (wkdif;&if;om;
vlrsKd;rJqE´e,f 29 cktygt0if) 673 e,f
&So
d nft
h euf 661 e,fwiG v
f nf;aumif;? ygwDpHk
'Dru
dk a&pD a&G;aumufyrJG sm;ukd usi;f ycJo
h nf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
7-12-2010

... qE´rJay;ykdifcGihf&Sdol OD;a& 29 oef;ausmf
(29021608)OD;&SNd y;D jynfov
Yl w
T af wmftwGuf
qE´raJ y;olO;D a&rSm 22 oef;ausmf (22421123)
OD;&Sdum qE´rJay;rI&mckdifEIef;rSm 77'or26
&mckid Ef eI ;f ? trsK;d om;vTwaf wmftwGuf qE´rJ
ay;olOD;a&rSm 22oef;ausmf(22283465)OD;
&Sdum qE´rJay;rI&mckdifEIef;rSm 76'or78
&mckid Ef eI ;f ? wkid ;f a'oBu;D vTwaf wmf okrYd [kwf
jynfe,fvw
T af wmf (wkid ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d tygt0if)
twGuf qE´rJay;ykdifcGihf&Sdol OD;a& 28oef;
ausmf (28534216)OD;&SdNyD; qE´rJay;olOD;a&
rSm 21oef;ausmf(21863123)OD;&Sdum qE´rJ
ay;rI&mckdifEIef;rSm 76'or62 &mckdifEIef;&Sd
aMumif; jynfaxmifpak &G;aumufyaJG umfr&Siu
f
xkwfjyefaMunmcJhonf/
... EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;
aumifpo
D nf yxrtBurd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf
tpnf;ta0;? yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwf
awmftpnf;ta0;? yxrtBurd f wkid ;f a'oBu;D
okdYr[kwf jynfe,fvTwfawmftpnf;ta0;ukd
aejynfawmfü usif;ycJhonf/
... yxrtBurd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf tpnf;ta0;?
yxrtBurd f trsK;d om;vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;?
yxrtBurd f wkid ;f a'oBu;D okrYd [kwf jynfe,f
vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;ukd aejynfawmfü
atmifjrifpGm usif;yNyD;pD;cJhonf/
... Ekid if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;aumifpD
u aMunmcsut
f rSwf (5^2011)jzifh Ekid if aH wmf
at;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpDukd
zsufodrf;cJhonf/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

29-5-2008

11-3-2010

7-11-2010

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/10 of 208.

31-1-2011

30-3-2011

30-3-2011

17

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

18

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

yxrjrefrmEkdifiHawmf
1/ tcsdefumv
2/ wnfaxmifol

-

at'D 1044 rS 1077 txd
taemf&xmrif;

'kwd,jrefrmEkdifiHawmf
1/ tcsdefumv
2/ wnfaxmifol

-

1/ tcsdefumv
2/ wnfaxmifol

-

t*Fvdyf - jrefrm 'kwd,ppfyGJ
1/ yk*Hrif;vufxuf
2/ 5-4-1852 &ufaeYwGif jzpfyGm;onf/
3/ atmufjrefrmEkdifiHwpfckvkH; tygt0if txufjrefrmEkdifiH ajrxJNrdKU
txdq;Hk ½I;H

at'D 1551 rS 1581 txd
bk&ifhaemifrif;

wwd,jrefrmEkdifiHawmf
at'D 1752 rS 1760 txd
tavmif;rif;w&m;

19

t*Fvdyf - jrefrm wwd,ppfyGJ
1/ oDaygrif;vufxuf
2/ 11-11-1885 &ufaeYwGif jzpfyGm;onf/
3/ jrefrmwpfEkdifiHvkH; t*Fvdyfvufatmufa&muf&Sd

a&S;cwf NrdKY jyEkdifiHrsm;

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
t*Fvdyf - jrefrm yxrppfyGJ

1/ bBu;D awmfrif;w&m;vufxuf
2/ 5-3-1824 &ufaeYwGif jzpfyGm;onf/
3/ &ckdifESifhweoFm&De,fajrrsm;qkH;½IH;

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

waumif;NrdKUjyEkdifiH
AdóEkd;NrdKUjyEkdifiH
[efvif;NrdKUjyEkdifiH
oa&acwå&mNrdKUjyEkdifiH
a0omvDNrdKUjyEkdifiH
ok0PÖbkr®dNrdKUjyEkdifiH

a&S;acwfjrefrmrif;qufrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/11 of 208.

yxrwaumif;rif;quf =
'kw,
d waumif;rif;quf =
oa&acwå&mrif;quf =
yk*Hrif;quf
=
yif;,rif;quf
=
ppfukdif;rif;quf
=
tif;0rif;quf
=
awmifirl if;quf
=

33
17
27
58
6
7
17
4

quf
quf
quf
quf
quf
quf
quf
quf

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/12 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

20

9/ [Hom0wDrif;quf
10/ anmif&rf;rif;quf
11/ uke;f abmifrif;quf

=
=
=

11 quf
11 quf
11 quf

tmZmenfacgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;
ocifjr
'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd
OD;&mZwf
OD;b0if;

6/
7/
8/
9/

ref;bckdif
rkdif;yGefapmfbGm;BuD; p0fpHxGef;
OD;tke;f armif(twGi;f 0ef)
&Jabmfuadk xG; (oufawmfapmih)f

jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;umvwpfavQmuf csKyfqkdcJUaom pmcsKyfrsm;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

21

Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf
1947 ckESpf atmufwkdbmv 17 &ufwGif t*FvefEkdifiH vef'efNrdKUü
NAdwdoQ0efBuD;csKyf rpöwmtufwvDESifh 0efBuD;csKyf OD;EkwkdY vufrSwfa&;xkd;
csKyfqkdcJhaom pmcsKyfjzpfonf/

yifvkHpmcsKyf csKyfqkd&mwGif yg0ifMuolrsm;
1/ AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;
2/ p0fcGefyef;pdef
3/ p0fa&Tokduf
4/ p0f[kHz
5/ p0fEGH
6/ p0fpHxGef;
7/ p0fxeG ;f at;
8/ OD;cGefzkef;
9/ OD;wifat;
10/ OD;Mumyk
11/ p0f,dyfz
12/ OD;cGefxD;
13/ OD;xGef;jrifh
14/ OD;cGefapm
15/ OD;jzL
16/ qrm; 'l0gqif0g;aemif
17/ 'l0gaZmf&pf
18/ OD;'def&wef
19/ 'l0gaZmfxGef;
20/ OD;vbef*a&mif
21/ OD;vTmrIef;
22/ OD;aomifZmckwf
23/ OD;uD,rdk ef;

-

jrefrmtpkd;&ukd,fpm;vS,f
awmifyidk ;f apmfbmG ;
anmifa&TapmfbmG ;
ajrmufyidk ;f odEaDé pmfbmG ;
vJcsm;apmfbmG ;
rkid ;f yGeaf pmfbmG ;
omrkid ;f crf;apmfbmG ;
vlxkukd,fpm;vS,f (ajrmufykdif;)
vlxu
k ,
dk pf m;vS,f (awmifBu;D )
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vlxkukd,fpm;vS,f (yif;w,)
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ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (jrpfBuD;em;)
ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (jrpfBuD;em;)
ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (jrpfBuD;em;)
ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (Aef;armf)
ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (Aef;armf)
csif;ukd,fpm;vS,f (zvrf;)
csif;ukd,fpm;vS,f (wD;wdef)
csi;f uk,
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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

uEéDpmcsKyf
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z&D;rif;wkdY csKyfqkdcJhaom pmcsKyfjzpfoofnf208.
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umv

1910-2002
1918-1996

arG;-qkH;

5/ OD;ae0if;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/13 of 208.

6/ OD;pef;,k

19-8-1988rS
18-9-1988 xd

18-9-1988 rS
23-4-1992 xd

23-4-1992 rS wyfrawmf
15-11-1997 xd (EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)
15-11-1997 rS wyfrawmf
19-3-2011
(Ekid if aH wmat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifpD)

1925-1994

9/ a'gufwmarmifarmif

10/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;apmarmif 1928-1997
11/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;oef;a&T 193312/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;oef;a&T 1933-

wyfrawmf
(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

12-8-1988 rS
19-8-1988 xd

8/ OD;at;uk(d ,m,Dor®w) 1921-2006

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

25-7-1988 rS
12-8-1988 xd

ukd,fpm;jyKEkdifiHa&;ygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

wyfrawmf

1924-2004

7/ OD;pdefvGif

2-3-1962 rS
9-11-1981 xd

2-3-1962 rS
2-3-1974 xd

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

trnf

1910-2002

4/ OD;ae0if;

13-3-1957 rS
2-3-1962 xd

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

ukd,fpm;jyKEkdifiHa&;ygwD

22

pOf

9-11-1981 rS
25-7-1988 xd

1916-1989

3/ ref;0if;armif

16-3-1952 rS
13-3-1957 xd

1887-1963

4-1-1948 rS
16-3-1952 xd

umv

2/ a'gufwmbOD;

arG;-qkH;
1896-1962

trnf

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
1/ pyfa&Tokduf

pOf

jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEkdifiHawmf or®wtjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonfU yk*¾dKvfrsm;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/13 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
23

1915-1987
1907-1995

2/ OD;baqG
3/ OD;Ek('kwd,tBudrf)

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/14 of 208.

1930-

9/ OD;xGe;f wif

19391949-2007
1945-

12/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD;cifñGefY
13/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD;pkd;0if;
14/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD; odef;pdef

11/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;oef;a&T 1933-

10/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;apmarmif 1928-1997

1920-1995

arG;-qkH;

8/ OD;armifarmifc

trnf

1919-1993

29-3-1977 rS
26-7-1988 xd
26-7-1988 rS
18-9-1988 xd
21-9-1988rS
23-4-1992 xd
23-4-1992 rS
25-8-2003 xd
25-8-2003 rS
18-10-2004 xd
19-10-2004 rS
12-10-2007 xd
12-10-2007
29-3-2011

umv

wyfrawmf
(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)
wyfrawmf
(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)
wyfrawmf
(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)
wyfrawmf
(Ekid if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;aumifp)D
wyfrawmf
(Ekid if aH wmfat;sr;f om,ma&;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;aumifp)D

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

ukd,fpm;jyKEkdifiHa&;ygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

pOf

7/ OD;pdef0if;

6/ OD;ae0if;('kw,
d tBurd )f 1910-2002

1907-1995

wyfrawmf

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

ukd,fpm;jyKEkdifiHa&;ygwD
zufqpfqefYusifa&;jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
umv
4-1-1948 rS
12-6-1956 xd
12-6-1956 rS
1-3-1957 xd
1-3-1957 rS
29-10-1958 xd
29-10-1958 rS
4-4-1960 xd
4-4-1960 rS
2-3-1962 xd
2-3-1962 rS
4-3-1974 xd
4-3-1974 rS
29-3-1977 xd

24

5/ OD;Ek(wwd,tBudrf)

4/ OD;ae0if;(yxrtBudrf) 1910-2002

arG;-qkH;
1907-1995

trnf
pOf
1/ OD;Ek(yxrtBudrf)

jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEkdifiHawmf 0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonfU yk*¾dKvfrsm;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/14 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
25

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/15 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

26

jrefrmEkdifiH\yx0Dqkdif&m tcsuftvufrsm;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
urf;½dk;wef;
urf;½dk;wef;t&Snf = 1385 rdkif

jrefrmEkdifiH\wnfae&m
tm&Swdkufta&SUawmifydkif;wGif wnf&SdNyD; ajrmufvwåDwG'f 9 'D*&D 32
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tus,ft0ef;
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onf/

27

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12 rkdif (a&rkdif)
24 rkdif (a&rkdif)
200 rkdif (a&rkdif)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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(C) &cdkifurf;½dk;wef;ajredrfhvGifjyifa'o
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/15 of 208.

{&m0wDjrpf\ jrpfcGJrsm;(tqkdygjrpfcGJrsm;ESihf yifv,ftwGif;odkYpD;0if)
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( * ) O½kjrpf
ppfawmif;jrpf\ jrpfvufwufrsm;
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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/16 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

28

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uRef;yckacsmif;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

29

xif&Sm;aomtdkifBuD;rsm;
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( c ) tif;av;tdik (f &Sr;f jynfe,f)
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wl;ajrmif;rsm;
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tpGefqHk;NrdKUrsm;
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yefeef;'if
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e,fedrdwfxdpyfrItuGmta0;
2226.85 uDvdkrDwm (1384)
234.91 uDvdkrDwm (139)
2098.14 uDvdkrDwm (1304)
271.92 uDvdkrDwm (169)
1452.93 uDvdkrDwm (903)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

oHvGifjrpf\ jrpfvufwufrsm;
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( c ) a[mifoa&mjrpf
( * ) tw¬&Hjrpf

awmifbufrSajrmufbufodkYpD;qif;aomjrpfrsm;
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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/16 of 208.

tus,f0ef;qHk;wdkif;a'oBuD;? jynfe,f
(u) tus,0f ef;qH;k wdik ;f a'oBu;D = ppfuikd ;f wdik ;f
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( c ) vlOD;a&trsm;qHk;jynfe,f
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vlOD;a&tenf;qHk;wdkif;a'oBuD;? jynfe,f
(u) vlO;D a&tenf;qH;k wdik ;f a'oBu;D =weoFm&Dwdkif;
( c ) vlOD;a&tenf;qHk;jynfe,f = u,m;jynfe,f

rdkif
rdkif
rdkif
rdkif
rdkif

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/17 of 208.

30

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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ynmawmfoifqkrsm;? jynfwGif;rSm ynm&nfxl;cRefolrsm;twGuf
ynmoifaxmufyahH Mu;rsm;ukv
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'gh t jyif aus;vuf u sef ; rma&; aq;ay;cef ; rsm;eJ Y usef ; rma&;
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H um
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vlraI &;toif;tzGUJ rsm;eJv
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'ghtjyif yk*¾vduusef;rma&;apmifha&SmufrIeJYywfoufNyD; pepfwus
&Sdapa&;twGuf vkdtyfwJhOya'rsm; jy|mef;aqmif&GufoGm;zkdYvnf;
&Syd gw,f/ tem*wfrmS Ekid if aH wmf? jynfoel YJ y&[dwtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;
yl;aygif;yg0ifwhJ use;f rma&;apmifah &SmufrI pepfwpfcu
k dk xlaxmifNy;D
tajccHuse;f rma&; apmifah &Smufrv
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ay;oGm;rSmjzpfNyD; w&m;a&;r@dKifukdvnf; ckdifcHhatmif wnfaqmuf
ay;oGm;rSmjzpfygw,f/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Ê vmbfay;vmbf,lr[
I m vlwpfO;D csi;f xdcu
dk af ponfomru Ekid if eH YJ

vlrsK;d &JU *kPo
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Ê obm0ywf0ef;usix
f ed ;f odr;f a&;eJyY wfouf&if opfawmopfyif xde;f odr;f
a&;ukd tav;xm;rSmjzpfovkd avxknpfnrf;rIeYJ a&xknpfnrf;rIrsm;
avsmch sa&;? puf½o
Hk ;Hk pGeyYf pfypön;f rsm; xde;f odr;f Muyfrwfa&;? obm0
om;iSufwd&pämefrsm; xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufa&;vkyfief;rsm;ukdvnf;
bufpaHk xmifph u
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Ê uRefawmfwkdY[m pD;yGm;a&;zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufrIeJY obm0ywf0ef;usifxdef;
odr;f a&; vkt
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uGJjym;jcm;em;rI&SdcJhayr,fh EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'rSmawmh bufrvkdufwJh?
vGwv
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twl,SOfwGJaexkdifa&;rlBuD; (5)csufeJYtnD EkdifiHwumqufqHa&;ukd
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rjyKcJhwmwkdY[m tpOftquf jrefrmhEkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'&JU *kPf,lp&m
tcsurf sm;yJ jzpfygw,f/
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tpOftvmrsm;ukdyJ r,drf;r,dkif qufcHusifhokH;oGm;rSmjzpfNyD; EkdifiH
tm;vk;H eJY rdw0f wfrysuf qufqo
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twGi;f rSm 'Dru
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jynfolvlxktwGif;rSmvnf; 'Drkdua&pDusifhpOfrsm; xGef;um;atmif
aqmif&u
G zf v
Ydk ydk gw,f/ 'Dvyk if ef;awGuv
dk yk af qmifwt
hJ cg uReaf wmfwYdk

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

tpk;d &tzGUJ [m vTwaf wmftwGi;f &Sd Ekid if aH &;ygwDrsm;? vTwaf wmfjyify&Sd
pdwf&if;apwem rSefuefwJh EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;? t&yfbufvlrI
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;tm;vk H ; eJ Y yl ; aygif ; aqmif & G u f o G m ;rS m jzpf a Mumif ;
uwdjyKajymMum;vkdygw,f/
Ê jrefrmEkid if eH YJ Ekid if o
H El idk if o
H m;rsm;&JU tusK;d pD;yGm;ukd vkv
d m;olwidk ;f [m
tajccHOya'abmifxJuom EkdifiHeJY vlrsKd;tusKd; aqmif&GufMuzkdYeJY
tajccHOya'jyify enf;vrf;rsm;usio
hf ;Hk Ny;D vuf&'dS rD u
dk a&pDazmfaqmifrI
ukd ysujf ym;atmif? w&m;Oya' pk;d rk;d rIeYJ wnfNird af t;csr;f rI ysujf ym;
atmif vkyaf qmifjcif;rsm; rjyKMuzkYd wku
d w
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Ê txl;ojzifh jrefrmhEidk if aH &;rSm tpOftvmvkjd zpfaewJh tpk;d &eJY twku
d f
tcHqw
dk hJ y#dyu©toGiaf qmifwhJ tjrifoabmxm;rsm;ukd ukid pf jJG cif;
rjyKbJ trsK;d om;tusK;d pD;yGm;tay: tajccHNy;D vkyaf zmfuidk zf ufrsm;tjzpf
oabmxm;vufwJG aqmif&u
G o
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Yd nf; tm;vk;H ukw
d u
dk w
f eG ;f vkd
ygw,f/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

EkdifiHawmfor®w OD;odef;pdef (31-3-2011) &ufaehwGif
jynfaxmifpktqifU tzGJYtpnf;rsm;rS tBuD;tuJrsm;?
jynfaxmifpktpkd;&tzGJY0ifrsm;tm; ajymMum;onfU rdefhcGef;aumufEkwfcsuf
Ê tpkd;&tzGJUopf&JU ta&;BuD;qkH;vkyfief;pOfuawmh aumif;rGefaom

tkyfcsKyfrIpepf (Good Governance) eJY oefY&Sif;aomtpkd;& (Clean
Government) ay:aygufvmatmif 0ki
d ;f 0ef;BuKd ;yrf;vkyaf qmifzyYdk J jzpfyg
w,f/ tJ'DvkdjzpfzkdYtwGufqkd&if jynfaxmifpk tpkd;&eJY wkdif;a'oBuD;?
jynfe,ftpk;d &tzGUJ toD;oD;&JU vkyif ef;pOfrsm;[m yGiv
hf if;rI &S&d ygr,f?
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Y u
dk n
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yg0ifEkdifrI &Sd&ygr,f? tpkd;&tzGJU&JU vkyfief;rsm;[m oGufvufNyD;
xda&mufrI&SdzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
Ê tkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&mtzGJUtpnf;rsm;bufuvnf; tkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&m
vkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Guf&mrSmjzpfap? Oya'rsm; vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;rsm;ukd
taumiftxnfazmf&mrSmjzpfap Edik if o
H m;rsm;&JU rlvtcGit
hf a&;rsm;ukd
[efw
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h Ydk rjzpfapbJ? tJ't
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hf a&;rsm;ukd enf;rSev
f rf;
rSeef YJ jynfaxmifp&k UJ tusK;d pD;yGm;? vlrt
I zGUJ tpnf;&JU tusK;d pD;yGm;rsm;ukd
rxdckdufapbJ usifhokH;Ekdifatmif ulnDxdef;ausmif;ay;zkdYtwGufom
&nf&G,fvkyfaqmifzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
Ê tvm;wlyJ rdrdwkdYvkyfief;wm0efrsm;ukd taumiftxnfazmfaqmif
&Guf&mrSm jynfolrsm;&JU oabmxm;awG? wkHYjyefrIawGukdvnf; tav;
xm;zkdYvkdtyfygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd jynfolrsm;ua&m tkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&m
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;taeeJYyg vGwfvyfrIeJY wm0efodrI? vGwfvyfrIeJY
pnf;urf;&SdrIrsm;ukd rSefrSefuefuef usifhokH;Mur,fqkd&if jrefrmhvlYtzGJU
tpnf;[m 'Dru
dk a&pDusiphf Ofrsm; xGe;f um;wJh vlt
Y zGUJ tpnf;jzpfvmrSm
aocsmygw,f/
Ê EkdifiHawmfukd acwfrDzGHUNzdK;wkd;wufwJh 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHawmftjzpf wnf
aqmufEidk zf t
Ydk wGuf w&m;Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;[m rjzpfrae vkt
d yfygw,f/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

w&m;Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;twGuf vkyaf qmif&mrSm w&m;pD&ifa&; tzGUJ tpnf;
rsm;rSm wm0ef&Sdovkd Oya'pkd;rkd;a&;qkdif&m tzGJUtpnf;rsm;rSmvnf;
wm0ef&Sdygw,f/
w&m;pD&ifa&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;taeeJY w&m;Oya'pkd;rkd;a&;twGuf
vkyfaqmif&mrSm zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'rSm jy|mef;xm;wJh Oya'eJYtnD
vGwfvyfpGm w&m;pD&ifa&;? Oya't& uefYowfcsufrsm;rSty jynfolY
a&SUarSmufwGif w&m;pD&ifa&;? trIrsm;wGif Oya't& ckcH acsycGifhESifh
t,lcyH idk cf iG &hf &Sad &;qkw
d hJ w&m;pD&ifa&;rlrsm;twkid ;f &yfwnfvyk af qmif
oGm;zkdYvkdygw,f/
Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;qkid &f m tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;taeeJu
Y vnf; Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;ukd
taumiftxnfazmf&mrSm ausmom;&ifom;rcGJjcm;bJ vkyfaqmifzkdY?
rdrw
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tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;uvnf; Oya'eJt
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aemufxyftav;xm;vkyfukdif&r,fh vkyfief;pOfwpfckuawmh tpkd;&
vkyfief;rsm; vsifjrefoGufvufa&;eJY xda&mufrI &Sda&;yJjzpfygw,f/
tpk;d &tzGUJ taeeJY vuf&dS (5)ESpf pDru
H ed ;f yg &nfreS ;f csurf sm; atmifjrif
atmif taumiftxnfazmfEkdifzkdYtwGuf t&Sdeft[kefeJY qufvuf
aqmif&GufoGm;zkdYvkdygw,f/
okdYaomf tJ'Dvkdvkyfaqmif&mrSm &nfrSef;csufatmifjrifa&;twGuf
vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;rsm;? pnf;urf;rsm;ukd vspfvsL½Ijcif;? ukefusp&dwfESifh
tavtvGirhf sm;ukd tav;rxm;jcif; pwJh tpGe;f w&m;rsm;ukd a&Smif&mS ;zkYd
vkdygw,f/ aemufNyD; rdrdwkdYtpkd;&tzGJU[m jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfrS
wpfqifh jynforl sm;ukd wm0efc&H wJh tzGUJ tpnf;jzpfwmaMumifh jynfoYl
qE´oabmxm;eJY vkt
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aemufxyf vkt
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G f

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Ê

Ê

rIeJY aygif;pyfnd§EIdif;rI aumif;rGefa&;yJjzpfygw,f/ tckqkd&if zGJUpnf;ykH
tajccHOya't& jynfaxmifpt
k pk;d &omru wkid ;f a'oBu;D eJY jynfe,f
tpkd;&rsm;yg &SdvmNyDjzpfwJhtwGuf tpkd;&tzJGUrsm;twGif; yl;aygif;
aqmif&GufrIeJY aygif;pyfnd§EIdif;rIaumif;rGefa&;[m ykdNyD;ta&;BuD;vmNyD
jzpfygw,f/
'ghaMumifh tpkd;&tzGJUtwGif;rSm txufatmufeJY ab;wdkufyl;aygif;
aqmif&u
G af &;? aygif;pyfnE§d idI ;f a&;[m tkycf sKyaf &;vkyif ef;rsm; vsijf ref
oGufvufxufjrufa&;twGuf tvGefta&;BuD;ygw,f/
jrefrmEkdifiH&JU 'Drkdua&pDpepf[m tckrS arG;zGm;cgpyJ &Sdygao;w,f/
&ifhusufzGHUNzdK;vmatmif wnfaqmufMu&OD;rSmjzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd
wnfaqmufwJhae&mrSm EkdifiHawmf&JU tkyfcsKyfrIa&;&mrsm;ukd wm0ef,l
aqmif&Guf&wJh tpkd;&tzGJUtpnf; tqifhqifh&JUu@[m tifrwefrS
ta&;BuD;ygw,f/ tkyfcsKyfrIa&;&mrsm;[m jynfolawG&JU aeYpOfvlaerI
b0tay: t"duvTr;f rk;d aewJh udprö sm;vnf;jzpfygw,f/ jynfoal wGu
pepfwpfck aumif; raumif;qkH;jzwf&mrSm olwkdY&JU aeYpOf vlaerIb0
tay:rSm b,fvkdtusKd;oufa&mufw,fqkdwmeJYyJ wkdif;wmrSmjzpf
ygw,f/
tkyfcsKyfrI,EÅ&m;u jynfolawG&JU vlaerIb0? vlrIpD;yGm;b0ukd
tqifajyacsmarGUatmif aqmif&Gufay;Ekdifr,fqkd&if? jynfolY0efxrf;
rsm;u jynfolawGukd rQrQww qufqHr,fqkd&if? jynfolawG[m
w&m;Oya'&JU umuG,fapmifha&SmufrI atmufrSm at;csrf;pGm aexkdif
vkyu
f idk pf m;aomufEikd rf ,fq&dk if 'Dtyk cf sKyaf &;r@dKiu
f dk azmfaqmifay;
xm;wJh tajccHOya'ukd ,kHMunftm;ukd;rSmyJjzpfygw,f/ Oya'jyKa&;
vkyfief;awGukd aqmif&Gufay;aewJh Oya'jyKtzGJUtpnf;awG? Oya'jyK
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;rSm wm0ef,laewJh yk*¾dKvfawGukd ,kHMunftm;ukd;rSmyJ
jzpfygw,f/
acwfrDzGHUNzdK;wkd;wufwJh 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHawmf wnfaqmufwJhae&mrSm
tckyxrqk;H ig;ESp[
f m ta&;Bu;D qk;H jzpfygw,f/ 'Dig;ESprf mS uReaf wmfwYdk
taeeJY ckdifrmrSefuefwJh ajcvSrf;awGukd vSrf;Ekdifr,fqkd&if tem*wf

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Ekid if aH wmf&UJ a&SUc&D;[m ajzmifjh zL;aeNyv
D Ydk qkEd idk yf gw,f/ 'Dvadk qmif&u
G f
EkdifzkdYtwGuf rdrdwkdYtpkd;&[m tkyfcsKyfrIpepfaumif;rGefwJh (Good
Governance) tpkd;&aumif;wpf&yfjzpf&ygr,f/ oefY&Sif;wJh (Clean
Government) tpkd;&jzpfzkdY vkdygw,f/
tpkd;&aumif;wpf&yfjzpfzkdYtwGuf pDrHcefYcGJrIaumif;zkdY vkdygw,f/
tkycf sKyrf aI umif;zkYd vkyd gw,f/ jynfoal wGtay: apwemxm;&ygr,f/
jynfol&JUtusKd;pD;yGm;ukd tumtuG,fay;&ygr,f/ jynfolukd tvkyf
tauR;jyKMu&rSm jzpfygw,f/
oefY&Sif;wJh (Clean Government) jzpfzkdYtwGufuawmh t*wdw&m;
uif;&Si;f zkYd vdt
k yfygw,f/ vmbfay;vmbf,jl cif;[m wkid ;f jynfev
YJ rl sK;d &JU
*kPfodu©mukd xdckdufapjcif;aMumifh rdrdukd,fwkdifaomfvnf;aumif;?
rdrw
d m0ef,&l wJh tzGUJ tpnf;tm;vnf;aumif; uif;uif;&Si;f &Si;f &Sad tmif
xdef;ausmif;MuyfrwfoGm;MuzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
jynfaxmifpt
k qifyh *k Kd¾ vrf sm;? wkid ;f a'oBu;D okrYd [kwf jynfe,ftqifh
yk*Kd¾ vrf sm; uk,
d yf idk t
f yk cf sKycf iG &hf wkid ;f okrYd [kwf uk,
d f y k d i ftyk cf sKycf iG &hf a'o
Ouú|ESihf tvkyt
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ESihf aumifp0D ifrsm;&JU vpOfcs;D jri§ ahf iGudk Ekid if aH wmf\ vuf&t
dS ajctae?
EkdifiHawmf\ aiGa&;aMu;a&;tajctaeeJY EkdifiHom;rsm;\tusKd;ukd
a&S;½Iaomtm;jzifh rdrdwkdYcHpm;cGifhjyKxm;aom vpOfcsD;jr§ifhaiGrsm;ukd
tjynfht0cHpm;jcif;rjyKbJ EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;
aumifpD A[kt
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hJ nfh yk*Kd¾ vf
rsm;\ cHpm;cJah om vpOfaxmufyahH iGtwkid ;f om cHpm;oGm;rSmjzpfygw,f/
xkdYtjyif vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,ftoD;oD;&JU wifjycsufrsm;t& EkdifiHh
0efxrf;rsm;&JU vpmESiyhf ifpifvpmwku
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G af y;oGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

45

EkdifiHawmfor®w OD;odef;pdef (6-4-2011)&ufaehwGif
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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/24 of 208.

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tm;aumif;&efvydk gaMumif;/

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46

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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48

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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50

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

EkdifiHawmfor®w OD;odef;pdef (20-6-2011) &ufaeh
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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wpfcck si;f tvdu
k f jynfaxmifp0k efBu;D wpfO;D pDu wm0ef,Nl y;D atmufajc
rSm vufawGUtaumiftxnfazmf aqmif&u
G o
f mG ;Mur,fh wdik ;f a'oBu;D
ESihf jynfe,ftqifh aus;vufa'ozGUH NzKd ;a&;eJY qif;&JErG ;f yg;rIavQmch sa&;
vkyif ef;aumfrwDrsm;udk taxmuftulay;oGm;&ef jzpfygw,f/
'Dvyk if ef;udk taumiftxnfazmfwt
hJ cg tpktzGUJ pkzUJG rIonf t"du
tusq;kH jzpfygw,f/ NrKd Ue,frsm;ESihf aus;&Gmrsm;wGif pdww
f u
l ,
kd w
f rl sm;
pkpnf;í tpktzGJUjzifh tusdK;wlvkyfief;rsm; taumiftxnfazmf
aqmif&u
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f aemifwiG f tpktzGUJ tqifrh S aus;&Gmor0g,r toif;rsm;
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f iG f ajymif;vJzUJG pnf;jcif;udk pDraH qmif&u
G f
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aemifwpfcsed w
f iG f aus;&Gmor0g,rtoif;cGrJ sm; jzpfvmrSm jzpfygw,f/
'Dudpö&yfawGudk aemifESpfESpfcefYMumonfhtcgrSm ul;ajymif;oGm;EdkifzdkY
or0g,r0efBu;D Xmeu csrw
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f m;wJh pkzUJG rIypkH eH YJ pdww
f u
l ,
kd w
f l yl;aygif;
vkyv
f o
kd rl sm;u trsm;oabmwl tpk0ifaiGrsm; xnfo
h iG ;f aqmif&u
G &f rSm
jzpfygw,f/ pkzUJG &mwGif txufraS tmufoYkd trdeaYf y;pepf (Top Down
Policy) jzifh zGUJ pnf;jcif;rsKd ; a&SmifMuOfí vufatmufyg yl;aygif;yg0if
aqmif&u
G v
f mapaom (Bottom Up Initiative) yHkpHjzifh zGJUpnf;&rSm
jzpfygw,f/
awmifov
l ,form;rsm;twGuf t"du0ifaiG (Primary Income ) ESifh
'kw,
d 0ifaiG (Secondary Income) &&S&d eftwGuf awmifov
l ,form;
wpfOD;csif;taejzifh enf;ynmESifh t&if;tESD;rwwfEdkifonfhtwGuf

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Ê

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

qif;&JrIESifh ta<u;wifrIrS rvGwfajrmufEdkifonfh tajctaerS
ausmv
f mT ;Edik &f ef vkyif ef;aumfrwDEiS hf aumfrwDtqifq
h ifo
h nf wpfO;D
wpfa,mufcsif; vufvDpdwfí enf;ynmESifh t&if;tESD;ay;&ef
cufcyJ gw,f/ 'gaMumifh ,ckuo
hJ Ykd NrKd Ue,ftpktzGUJ (NrKd Ue,ftoif;pk)
ESihf aus;&GmtpktzGUJ rsm; (aus;&Gmtoif;cGrJ sm;) zGUJ pnf;aqmif&u
G &f jcif;
jzpfygw,f/
Ê pkzUJG wJt
h cgrSmvnf; e,fajra'oESiq
hf aD vsmo
f nfh awmifov
l ,form;
rsm; vuf&w
dS pfyikd w
f pfEikd f arG;jrLaeaom uR?J EGm;? Muuf? 0uf? bJ?
qdwf? ig;wdkYteuf ¤if;wdkYqE´t& pkzGJUaqmif&GufrIudk vdktyfovdk
aqmif&Guf&rSm jzpfygw,f/ wpfydkifwpfEdkif tqifhxufydkrdkNyD; pdkufysdK;
a&;ESihf arG;jrLa&;udk aygif;pnf;v,f,mtjzpf vkyu
f ikd Ef ikd o
f nfh awmifol
v,form;Bu;D rsm; a&G;cs,í
f aygif;pnf;v,f,m (Integrated Farming)
vkyEf ikd af &; wd;k csUJ aqmif&u
G &f rSm jzpfygw,f/ tcsKd U NrKd Ue,f? aus;&Gmwdw
Yk iG f
wpf&mG vH;k ig;arG;jcif;? wpf&mG vH;k qdwaf rG;jcif;? wpf&mG vH;k MuufarG;jcif;
rsKd ;&Syd gu a½G;cs,pf pk nf;í aus;&GmarG;jrLa&;ESihf om;ig;xkwv
f yk af &;
tpktzGUJ (aus;&Gmtoif;cG)J udk oD;jcm;zGUJ pnf;aqmif&u
G &f rSm jzpfygw,f/
awmifov
l ,form;rsm;taeeJY t"du0ifaiG (Primary Income)twGuf
pdu
k yf sKd ;aom &moDo;D ESrH sm;[m tenf;qH;k av;ig;vMumrS 0ifaiG&Edik f
onft
h wGuf Mum;umvrSm aeYpOf0ifaiG&apzdYk pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;ESihf arG;jrLa&;
udk wpfcsed w
f nf;rSm yl;aygif;jyKvyk o
f nfh aygif;pnf; v,f,mvkyif ef;udk
taumiftxnfazmfay;zdYk vdt
k yfygw,f/ xdo
k Ykd aygif;pnf;v,f,mpepf
jyKvyk jf cif;tm;jzifh tdraf xmifpw
k pfct
k wGuf tvkyt
f udik v
f nf;&? 0ifaiG
vnf;&? obm0ajrMoZm&onfhtjyif ZD0"mwfaiGUavmifpmudkyg
toHk;jyKEdkifrSm jzpfygw,f/
Ê tpktzGUJ rsm; zGUJ pnf;wJt
h cgvnf; wm0efay;onft
h wGuf zGUJ pnf;&onfh
yHpk rH sKd ;xuf aus;vufjynfot
l wGi;f rS ¤if;wdYk ud,
k w
f ikd f ,H,
k MkH unfMunf
vufcHBudK;pm;aqmif&Gufrnfholrsm;jzifhom zGJUpnf;aqmif&GufzdkY wdkif;
a'oBu;D ^jynfe,f vkyif ef;aumfrwDrsm;u pnf;½H;k aqmif&u
G zf Ykd vdyk g
w,f/ tJ'v
D kd aqmif&u
G jf cif;tm;jzifh aus;vufa'ozGUH NzKd ; wd;k wuf
rI&&Sv
d mNy;D qif;&JErG ;f yg;rI avsmu
h svmrSm jzpfygw,f/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Edik if aH wmfor®w OD;ode;f pdef (17-8-2011)&ufaehwiG f
pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &; e,fy,ftoD;oD;? toif;tzGt
YJ oD;oD;rS wm0ef&o
dS rl sm;tm;
ajymMum;onfh trSmpum; aumufEw
k cf suf
Ê qif;&JEGrf;yg;wJh NrKdUay:&yfuGufeJY aus;vufaejynfolrsm;&JU vlrIpD;yGm;

b0udk jri§ w
hf ifay;vdw
k hJ qE´eYJ aus;vufa'ozGUH NzKd ;a&;eJY qif;&JErG ;f yg;rI
avQmhcsa&; tvkyf½HkaqG;aEG;yGJwpfckudk pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifrsm;? pD;yGm;a&;
vkyif ef;&SiBf u;D rsm;? 0efBu;D XmetoD;oD;wdrYk S t&m&dBS u;D rsm;? vlxv
k w
l ef;
pm;tvTmtoD;oD;wdrYk S yk*Kd¾ vrf sm; tygt0ifjzifh aejynfawmfrmS usi;f y
jyKvkyfay;cJhygw,f/ tJ'Dtvkyf½Hk aqG;aEG;yGJrSm &&dSvmwJh tBuHay;csuf
rsm;tay: vkyif ef;pOf(8)&yfukd a&G;xkwcf srw
S Nf y;D A[drk S atmufajctxd
vkyfief;aumfrwDtoD;oD;zGJUpnf;um vufawGUtaumiftxnfazmf
aqmif&GufcJhwJhtwGuf 'DuaeY aus;vufae awmifolv,form;rsm;?
NrKdUay: &yfuGuftygt0if vufvkyfvufpm;rsm;ESifh acgif;&GufAsyfxdk;
aps;onfrsm;ygrusef xdkufoifhwJh tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm;udk vufawGUcHpm;
aeMu&NyD jzpfygw,f/
Ê wpfcsdefu wdkif;jynfwm0efukd xrf;aqmifcJhMuwJh yifpifpm;0efxrf;
rsm;taeeJY ravmufri&cJhMuwJh yifpifvpmuav;eJY olwdkY&JUb0udk
csKUd csKUd wJw
h hJ &yfwnfaecJMh u&wJh tajctaerS ,cktcgrSm yifpifvpmrsm;
wd;k jri§ ahf y;cJw
h t
hJ wGuf pm;Edik ?f aeEdik ?f vSL'gef;Edik w
f hJ olw&Ykd UJ b0udk auseyf
ESpfodrfhNyD; aysmf&Tifcsrf;ajrUaeMuwmudk tm;vHk;jrifawGUaeMu&NyD jzpfyg
w,f/ 'DjrifuGif;udk jrifMu&olwdkif;[mvnf;yJ 'Dyifpifpm;BuD;rsm;eJU
xyfwlxyfrQ aysmf&TifMunfEl;rdMuwm trSefyJjzpfygw,f/
Ê ,cktcgrSm awmifolv,form;rsm;tm; rsKd;pyg;rsm; pDrHay;jcif; pkduf
p&dwu
f kd ,cifwpf{u aiGusyf 20000d^-xkwaf cs;&mrS ,cktcg aiGusyf
40000d^-txd EdkifiHawmfrSwdk;í xkwfacs;ay;cJhwJhtjyif yk*¾vdu
aiGpkaiGacs; toif;rsm;rSvnf; yg0ifulnDNyD; aqmif&Gufay;ygw,f/
pyg;ay:csed rf mS awmifov
l ,form;rsm; t½H;I ray:ap&atmif tpk;d &ESihf
qefukefonfBuD;rsm; zufpyfaiGaMu;pdkufxkwfum tajccHaps;EIef;

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wpfckjzifh owfrSwf0,f,lNyD; EdkifiHawmf&JU t&efqeftjzpf xm;&Sd&ef
tpDtpOfopfwpf&yfudk uRefawmfwdkY pDrHxm;NyD;jzpfygw,f/
jynfyydu
Yk ek f ydaYk ewJh ukeo
f nfBu;D rsm; ydu
Yk ek u
f sqif; roGm;ap&efeYJ a':vm
aps;usqif;rItay: xdckdufepfemrI oufomap&ef ,cifu tcGef
taumuftjzpf ukefoG,fcGef &Spf&mcdkifEIef;udk ig;&mcdkifEIef;odkY avQmhay;
cJh&mrS ,cktcg tm;vHk;avQmhayghay;NyD; ukefoG,fcGefay;&efrvdkbJ
vGwv
f yfpmG ukeo
f ,
G Ef ikd af tmif Edik if aH wmfrS pDraH y;cJyh gw,f/ tjcm;ydu
Yk ek f
rsm;eJY txnfcsKyfvkyfief;rsm;udkvnf; oufomrI&atmif pDrHay;oGm;
rSmjzpfaMumif; today;ajymMum;vdkygw,f/
Ê 'D autdkiftdk? autdkifat tzGJUwifr[kwfygbl;/ &Srf;jynfe,feJY u&if
jynfe,frmS &dw
S hJ tpd;k &udk qefu
Y siaf ewJh rnfonfv
h ufeufuikd t
f zGUJ rqdk
Nidrf;csrf;a&;&,lvdkwJh qE´&dS&if oufqdkif&mjynfe,f tpdk;tzGJUeJY tcsdef
ra&G; aqG;aEG;Edkifygw,f/ 'Dudpö uRefawmfwdkY vrf;zGifhay;xm;ygw,f/
uRefawmfwdkY jynfaxmifpk tpdk;&tzGJUtaejzihf 'dkYwm0efta&;oHk;yg;udk
t"duxm;NyD; zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhtnD aqmif&Gufay;oGm;rSmjzpf
ygw,f/
Ê jynfwGif;rSm&dSwJh oabmxm; tjrifcsif;rwlMuwJh vlyk*¾dKvftzGJUtpnf;
awGudkvnf; rwluGJjym;wmawGudk ab;z,fxm;NyD; wdkif;jynftwGuf
trSefwu,f tusKd;&dSapr,fh bHktusKd;pD;yGm;awGrSm yl;aygif;aqmif
&GufMuzdkY uRefawmfwdkY tjrJzdwfac:ygw,f/ taMumif;trsKd;rsKd;aMumifh
jynfyudak &mufaeMuwJh jrefrmEdik if o
H m; wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;udv
k nf; jypfrI
wpfpHkwpf&m usL;vGefoGm;wm r&dSbl;qdk&if tcsdefra&G; jyefvmEdkifzdkY
uRefawmfwdkY pOf;pm;ay;rSm jzpfygw,f/ jypfrIusL;vGefcJhonfhwdkif xkduf
oifw
h hJ jypf'Pfc,
H zl Ykd jyefvmr,fq&kd ifawmif uReaf wmfwYkd oabmxm;
BuD;pGmeJY pOf;pm;ay;rSm jzpfygw,f/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

todik ;f t0dik ;f udk cifw,
G Mf uygw,f/ Nird ;f csr;f om,m0ajymwJh vlabmif
tzGUJ tpnf;Bu;D udk xlaxmifvdkMuygw,f/ 'g[m uRefawmfwkdY&JU wlnDwJh
qE´jzpfygw,f/ 'D Common Ground ay:tajccHNy;D Nird ;f csr;f om,m
wJh acwfrzD UHG NzKd ;wd;k wufwhJ Ekid if ?H urÇmt
h v,frmS xnfxnf0g0gaeEkid w
f hJ
EdkifiHjzpfatmif 0dkif;0ef;wnfaqmufMuzdkY uRefawmfhtaeeJU wdkufwGef;
vdkygw,f/
Ê 'DuaeY tcsdeftcg[m EdkifiHawmfudk 'Drdkua&pDpepfeJY topfwpfzef
jyefwnfae&wJh tcsed jf zpfygw,f/ pdeaf c:rIawG &daS eovdk tcGit
hf vrf;
aumif;awGvnf; &dSaeygw,f/ pdefac:rIawGudk BuHhBuHhcHausmfvTm;NyD;
tcGifhtvrf;aumif;awGudk t&trd qkyfukdifxm;zdkYvdkygw,f/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

Ê ½dk;om;wJh pdwf&if;apwem &dSolwdkif;[m udk,fhEdkifiHudk cspfMuygw,f/

udk,fhEdkifiHudk aumif;pm;apvdkMuygw,f/ nDnDñGwfñGwf cspfcspfcifcif
pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk;eJY aevdkMuygw,f/ udk,fhajr? udk,fhjynf? udk,fhaqGrsKd;
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Edik if aH wmfor®w OD;ode;f pdef (19-8-2011)&ufaeY
Ekid if aH wmf\ pD;yGma&;zGYH NzKd ;wk;d wufrt
I wGuf jyKjyifajymif;vJrq
I idk &f m
trsK;d om;tqifU tvky½f aHk qG;aEG;yGJ zGiyUf t
JG crf;tem;wGif ajymMum;onfU
rdechf eG ;f aumufEw
k cf suf
Ê rdrw
d EYdk idk if rH mS vuf&pdS ;D yGm;a&;zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wufrt
I wGuf pD;yGm;a&;OD;wnfcsuf

rsm;csrw
S Nf y;D enf;AsL[mtrsK;d rsK;d eJY pOf;pm;ykaH zmfvsu&f &dS mrS ,ckq&dk if
zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wufrv
I rf;aMumif;ay:a&muf&adS eNyjD zpfygw,f/ wk;d wufrI ykrd dk
vsijf refap&efeYJ urÇmt
h ajctaersm;eJu
Y u
dk n
f aD tmif vuf&b
dS @ma&;eJY
aiGaMu;qkid &f m rl0g'rsm;? bPfvyk if ef;pepfrsm; ukeo
f ,
G rf EI iS hf pufrv
I yk if ef;
rsm;zGUH NzKd ;apzkYd rufc½dpk ;D yGm;a&;rl0g'rsm;ukd tjcm;aom taxmuftuljyK
tm;jznfrh 0l g'rsm; (Supporting Policies) jzpfwhJ tajccHtaqmufttkH
zGHUNzdK;rIqkdif&mrl0g'rsm; (Infrastructure Development Policies)? tzGJU
tpnf;qkid &f m rl0g'rsm; (Institutional Framework Policies) pwmawGeYJ
aygif;pyfokH;oyfEkdifygu ykdrkdaumif;rGefwkd;wufEkdifrSmjzpfygw,f/ ,if;
tcsufrsm;[m jrefrmhrufc½kdpD;yGm;a&;wnfNidrfrIrsm;twGuf rsm;pGm
a&mifjyef[yfaewmukd awGUjrifEidk yf gw,f/
Ê aumif;rGew
f hJ tkycf sKyrf pI epf jzpfay:apzkYd tpk;d &XmetoD;oD;? tqifh
toD;oD;rSm&SdwJh wm0ef&Sdyk*¾dKvfrsm;omru pD;yGm;a&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;?
tpk;d &r[kwaf om tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;? vlrt
I zGUJ tpnf;rsm; tjrwftwGuf
vkyu
f idk af omtzGUJ tpnf;? tusK;d tjrwftwGurf [kwaf om tzGUJ tpnf;?
jynforl sm;pwJh vlt
Y zGUJ tpnf;twGi;f rSm&Sw
d hJ yg0iforl sm; (Stake Holders)
tm;vkH;eJYoufqkdifygw,f/ aumif;rGefwJh tkyfcsKyfrIpepfjzpfay:apzkdY
tusiphf ½ku
d ef YJ tavhtxawG[m yg0iforl sm;tm;vk;H tMum; pdr0hf ifysUH ESYH
aezkYd vkt
d yfygw,f/
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f hJ tkycf sKyrf pI epf&UJ tpDtrHwpf&yftjzpf pD;yGm;a&; taqmuf
ttk[
H m tusio
hf u
d m© &S&d dS (Ethical)? wm0ef,lrI&Sd&Sd (Accountable) eJY
oifhawmfNyD; pnf;urf;useaom 0ef;usifaumif;wpf&yfjzpfrSomvQif

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

aps;uGut
f wGi;f oifah wmfrQwaom 0ef;usiaf umif;wpf&yf jzpfay:aprSm
jzpfygw,f/ jyKjyifajymif;vJr&I adS om? acwfrpD epfusaom yk*v
¾ u
d u@
wpf&yf zefw;D &&S&d ef vku
d af vsmnDaxGpmG vnfywfvsu&f w
dS ?hJ oifah wmfwhJ
,SONf yKd irf &I adS om aps;uGuf pD;yGm;a&;pepfwpf&yf vkt
d yfygw,f/ 'grSom
jynforl sm;tMum; tvkyt
f ukid t
f cGit
fh vrf;rsm; ay:aygufNy;D Opöm"eeJY
0ifaiGudk zefw;D &ma&mufygr,f/ o,HZmwrsm;ukv
d nf; olaY e&meJo
Y l
pGr;f aqmif&nfjynf0h pGmeJY tok;H jyKEidk rf mS jzpfygw,f/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Edik if aH wmfor®w OD;ode;f pdef (22-8-2011)&ufaeY
yxrtBurd f jynfaxmifpv
k w
T af wmf 'kw,
d ykrH eS t
f pnf;ta0; yxraehwiG f
ajymMum;onfh rdechf eG ;f aumufEw
k cf suf
Ê uReaf wmfwt
Ydk pk;d &taeeJY wkid ;f &if;om;awG&UJ pum;? pmay? tEkynm?

,Ofaus;rIwu
Ydk dk zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wufap&ef zGUJ pnf;ykt
H ajccHOya'yg jy|mef;csuf
eJt
Y nD aqmif&u
G af y;oGm;rSmjzpfygw,f/ wk;d wufzUHG NzKd ;rI enf;yg;aewJh
e,fpyfa'oawGrmS wnfNird af t;csr;f rI ckid rf mvmwmeJt
Y rQ pD;yGm;a&;
tajctaeaumif;awG tvkyt
f ukid t
f cGit
hf vrf;awG wk;d wufjzpfay:vm
atmif ukeo
f ,
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atmif BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u
G o
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Ê tvm;wl zGUJ pnf;ykt
H ajccHOya'ukd vufrcHEidk Mf uao;wJh jynfwiG ;f Ekid if H
a&; tiftm;pkrsm;ukv
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y#dyu©awG avsmyh g;atmif BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u
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G af ewJh
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d EYdk idk if &H UJ ,Ofaus;rI? vlt
Y zGUJ tpnf;eJY vku
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

61

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

Ê rdrdwdkYtpdk;&onf jynfolrS a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufxm;onfh tpdk;&jzpfí

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

65

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

Ê *sDtrftufpftpDtpOf[m atmifjrif&ifhusufvmonfESifhtwl tzGJU

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/34 of 208.

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/35 of 208.

66

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

67

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Ê *st
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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/35 of 208.

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68

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

69

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

Ê txl;ojzifh jynfolwdkif;\ vdkvm;awmifhwcsufjzpfonfh EdkifiHawmf

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/36 of 208.

Ê Edik if aH cwfrzD UHG NzKd ;wd;k wufap&efEiS hf jynfow
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

75

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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Ê wwd,tqifhrSmawmh EkdifiHawmftpkd;&? wkdif;&if;om;acgif;aqmifawG?

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77

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

81

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(92.48) &mckdifEIef;u jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrmEkdifiHawmfzGJUpnf;ykH
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2/ jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Home Affairs

3/ e,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Border Affairs

4/ EdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Foreign Affairs

5/ jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Information

6/ v,f,mpdkufysdK;a&;ESifh qnfajrmif;0efBuD;Xme

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation

7/ b@ma&;ESifh tcGef0efBuD;Xme

Ministry of Finance and Revenue

8/ aqmufvkyfa&; 0efBuD;Xme

Ministry of Construction

9/ trsdK;om;pDrHudef;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufrI 0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development

10/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;0efBu;D Xme
Ministry of Commerence

11/ qufoG,fa&;? pmwdkufESifh aMu;eef;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Communications, Posts and Telegraphs

12/ vlrI0efxrf;? u,fq,fa&;ESifh jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&; 0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement.

13/ ywf0ef;usif xdef;odrf;a&;ESifh opfawma&;&m 0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry

14/ arG;jrLa&;ESifh a&vkyfief;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

86

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

15/ owåKwGif;0efBuD;Xme

31/ tm;upm;0efBu;D Xme

Ministry of Mines

Ministry of Sports

16/ or0g,r0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Cooperatives

17/ tvkyform;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Labour

87

32/ or®w½kH;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of President's Office

33/ jrefrmhpufrIzGHYNzdK;a&;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Myanma Industrial Development

18/ ydkYaqmifa&; 0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Transportation

jynfaxmifpktpkd;&tzGJY

19/ [kdw,fESifhc&D;oGm;vma&; 0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Hotels and Tourism

20/ pufrI0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Industry

21/ &xm;ydaYk qmifa&;0efBu;D Xme
Ministry of Rail Transportation

1/ OD;odef;pdef
2/ oD[ol&OD;wifatmifjrifOh ;D
3/ a'gufwmpkid ;f armufcrf;
(c) armiftek ;f
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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

22/ pGrf;tif0efBuD;Xme

Ministry of Energy

23/ trSwf(1) vQyfppfpGrf;tm;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Electric Power No.1

24/ trSwf(2) vQyfppfpGrf;tm;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Electric Power No.2

7/ OD;0PÖarmifviG f
8/ OD;ausmq
f ef;

25/ ynma&;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Education

26/ usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Health

27/ ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Culture

28/ omoema&;0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Religious Affairs

29/ odyÜHESifh enf;ynm0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Science and Technology

30/ vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESifh jynfolYtiftm; 0efBuD;Xme
Ministry of Immigration and Population

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9/ OD;jrifhvIdif
10/ OD;0if;xGe;f
11/ OD;vSxeG ;f
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= 0efBu;D ? umuG,af &;0efBu;D Xme
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a&mif;0,fa&;0efBu;D Xme

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

88
15/ OD;ode;f xGe;f
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- OD;odef;pdef
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- OD;xGe;f xGe;f OD;
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trsK;d om;vTwaf wmfOuú|
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jynfaxmifpak &G;aumufyaJ G umfr&SiOf uú| jynfolYvTwfawmf'kwd,Ouú|
trsKd;om;vTwfawmf'kwd,Ouú| jynfaxmifpkpm&if;ppfcsKyf
jynfaxmifpka&SUaecsKyf
jynfaxmifpk&mxl;0eftzGJUOuú|
aejynfawmfaumifpD Ouú|
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OD;wifat;
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25/ OD;cifarmifpkd;
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= 0efBu;D ? qufo,
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arG;jrLa&;ESihf a&vkyif ef; 0efBu;D Xme
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

a'gufwmjrat;
a'gufwmazoufcif
ol&OD;jrifah rmif
OD;at;jrifh
OD;cif&D

31/ OD;ode;f ñGeYf
32/ OD;pd;k armif
33/ a'gufwmxGe;f &Sif
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tpkd;&tzGJU½kH;

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

90

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

91

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AkdvfcsKyfausmfñGefY
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'kw,
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f rm;0efBu;D Xme

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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10/ OD;0if;oef;

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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G af &;0efBu;D Xme

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93

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/49 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

94

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rGefjynfe,f
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawmESihfowåK0efBuD;Xme
5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihfpufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme
&cdkifjynfe,f
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawmESihfowåK0efBuD;Xme
5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihfpufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme
&Srf;jynfe,f
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawmESihfowåK0efBuD;Xme
5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihfpufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme
ppfudkif;wdkif;a'oBuD;
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawm? owåKESifh pGrf;tif0efBuD;Xme
5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihfpufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme
weoFm&Dwdkif;a'oBuD;
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawmESihfowåK0efBuD;Xme

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihfpufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme
yJcl;wdkif;a'oBuD;
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawmESihfowåK0efBuD;Xme
5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihfpufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme
rauG;wdkif;a'oBuD;
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawm? owåKESifh pGrf;tif0efBuD;Xme
5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihfpufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme
rEÅav;wdkif;a'oBuD;
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawmESihfowåKwGif;0efBuD;Xme
5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihfpufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme
&efukefwdkif;a'oBuD;
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawmESihfpGrf;tif0efBuD;Xme
5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihfpufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme
{&m0wDwdkif;a'oBuD;
1/ vkHNcHKa&;ESifhe,fpyfa&;&m0efBuD;Xme
2/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme
3/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifharG;jrLa&;0efBuD;Xme
4/ opfawmESihfowåK0efBuD;Xme
5/ pDrHudef;ESihfpD;yGm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
6/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
7/ vQyfppfESihf pufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme
8/ pnfyifom,ma&;0efBuD;Xme
9/ vlrIa&;0efBuD;Xme

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

99

trsdK;om;nDvmcH

jrefrmEdkifiH\ a&SYqufoGm;rnfU rl0g'vrf;pOf (7)&yf
jrefrmEdkifiH\ a&SUqufoGm;rnfh rl0g'vrf;pOf(7)&yfukd 2003 ckESpf?
Mo*kwv
f wGif urÇmodaMunmcJhonfyxrtqifh 1996 ckEpS u
f pwifí ,m,Dtm;jzifh qdik ;f iHx
h m;cJah om trsKd ;om;
nDvmcHBuD;udk jyefvnfusif;yjcif;?
'kwd,tqifh trsdK;om;nDvmcHBuD; atmifjrifpGmusif;yNyD;pD;onfhtcg
ppfreS Nf y;D pnf;urf;jynf0h aom 'Dru
kd a&pD xGe;f um;a&;twGuf
vdt
k yfaomaqmif&u
G zf ,
G &f mvkyif ef;rsm;udk wpfqifNh y;D wpfqifh
qufvufaqmif&Gufjcif;?
wwd,tqifh trsKd ;om;nDvmcHBu;D u csrw
S af y;aom tajccH&rnfh rlrsm;ESihf
tao;pdwt
f ajccH&rnfrh rl sm;ESit
hf nD zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'
rlMurf;udk a&;qGJjcif;?
pwkw¬tqifh jzpfay:vmonfh zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'rlMurf;udk 2008ckEpS üf
jynfvHk;uRwf qE´cH,lyGJ usif;yí twnfjyKjcif;?
yOörtqifh zJUG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'opft& vTwaf wmfrsm;zGUpJ nf;a&;twGuf
2010wGif w&m;rQwaom a&G;aumufyGJrsm;usif;yjcif;?
qXrtqifh zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'ESit
hf nD vTwaf wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,rf sm;jzifh
vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;usi;f yjcif;?
owårtqifh vTwaf wmfrS a&G;aumufwifajrm§ ufaom Edik if aH wmftBu;D tuJ
rsm;ESihf vTwaf wmfrzS UJG pnf;ay;aom tpd;k &tzGUJ ESihf tmPmydik f
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;jzifh acwfrDízGHUNzdK; wdk;wufaom 'Drdkua&pD
EdkifiHawmfwnfaqmufjcif;/

trsdK;om;nDvmcHOD;wnfcsufrsm;
1/ jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJa&;?
2/ wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDñGwfrI rNydKuGJa&;?
3/ tcsKyftjcmtmPmwnfwHhcdkifNrJa&;?
4/ ppfrSefaom ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfxGef;um;a&;?
5/ EdkifiHawmfü w&m;rQwjcif;? vGwfvyfjcif;ESifh nDrQjcif;wnf;[laom
avmuygv w&m;rsm; ykdrkdxGef;um;a&;?
6/ Edik if aH wmf\ trsKd ;om;Edik if aH &;OD;aqmifrt
I cef;u@wGif wyfrawmfu
yg0ifxrf;aqmifEikd af &;?
trsdK;om;nDvmcH usif;ya&;aumfr&Sif
1/ 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;odef;pdef
Ouú|
twGi;f a&;rSL;(1)
Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;aumifpD
2/ OD;atmifw;kd
'kwd,Ouú|
w&m;olBuD;csKyf
3/ AdkvfcsKyfwifxG#f
'kwd,Ouú|
0efBuD;? or0g,r0efBuD;Xme
4/ AdkvfrSL;csKyfausmfqef;
twGi;f a&;rSL;
0efBuD;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme
5/ AdkvfcsKyfcifatmifjrifh
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; (1)
0efBuD;? ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme
6/ OD;jrifhodef;
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; (2)
ñTefMum;a&;rSL;csKyf? jynfolYvTwfawmf½Hk;
(tzGJU0iftm;vHk; 18 OD;yg0ifygonf/)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

trsdK;om;nDvmcH usif;ya&;vkyfief;aumfrwD
1/ OD;atmifw;kd
Ouú|
w&m;olBuD;csKyf
2/ OD;at;armif
'kwd,Ouú|
a&SUaecsKyf
3/ OD;aomif;ñGeYf
twGi;f a&;rSL;
Oya'tBuaH y;
4/ OD;cifarmifjrifh
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; (1)
ñTeMf um;a&;rSL;csKy?f 0efxrf;a&;&mOD;pD;Xme
5/ a'gufwmaomif;jrifh
wGzJ uftwGi;f a&;rSL; (2)
tBuHay;t&m&Sd? usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme
(tzGJU0iftm;vHk; 35 OD; yg0ifygonf/)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

( c ) wdik ;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nDñw
G af &;ygwD
( * ) jynfaxmifpku&iftrsdK;om;tzGJUcsKyf
(C) jynfaxmifpkytdk0fhtrsdK;om;tzGJUcsKyf
( i ) NrdK (ac:) crDtrsdK;om;nDñGwfa&;ygwD
( p ) vm;[ltrsKd ;om;zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufa&;ygwD
(q) ]]0}} trsdK;om;zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufa&;ygwDwdkYjzpfonf/
6/ 2005 ckESpf? rwfv(31) &ufaeYwGif acwå&yfem;cJhonf/
7/ 2005 ckEpS f 'DZifbm (5)&ufrS 31-1-2006 xd trsKd ;om;nDvmcHBu;D udk
jyefvnfí wpfBudrfusif;ycJhNyD; 2006 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (10)&uf
aeYrpS í pwkwt
¬ Burd jf yefvnf usi;f ycJo
h nf/ 3-9-2007wGif trsK;d om;
nDvmcH atmifjrifpmG usi;f yNy;D pD;onf/ Edik if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccH Oya'
opfwiG f tcef;(1) EdkifiHawmftajccHrrl sm;? tcef;(2) Edik if aH wmfzUJG pnf;
wnfaqmufy?kH tcef;(3) EdkifiHawmftBuD;tuJ? tcef;(4) Oya'jyKa&;?
tcef;(5) tkyfcsKyaf &;? tcef;(6) w&m;pD&ifa&;? tcef;(7) wyfrawmf?
tcef; (8) EkdifiHom;? Edik if o
H m;rsm;\ rlvtcGit
hf a&;ESihf wm0efrsm;?
tcef;(9) a&G;aumufwifajr§mufjcif;? tcef;(10) EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;?
tcef;(11) ta&;ay:umvqdik &f m jy|mef;csurf sm;? tcef; (12) zGUJ pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'jyifqifjcif;? tcef;(13) Edik if aH wmftvH? txdr;f trSww
f q
H yd ?f
oDcsif;ESifh NrdKUawmf? tcef;(14) ul;ajymif;a&;umv jy|mef;csufrsm;ESifh
tcef;(15) taxGaxG jy|mef;csufrsm;[lí tcef;aygif; (15)ck
yg0ifonf/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

trsKd;om;nDvmcHqkdif&m ta&;BuD;tcsufrsm;
1/ trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd &efuek Nf rKd U? usKd uq
ú u
H iG ;f trsKd ;om; nDvmcHcef;rwGif
1993 ckEpS rf S 1996 ckEpS t
f xdusi;f ycJo
h nf/ xdpk Ofu trsKd ;om; 'Dru
kd a&pD
tzGJUcsKyfrS trsdK;om;nDvmcHudk,fpm;vS,frsm; nDvmcHukd,fpm;vS,f
tjzpf wufa&mufcJhonf/
2/ 1996 ckESpf? atmufwdkbmvrSpí &yfqdkif;cJhonf/
3/ 2004 ckEpS ?f arv (17)&ufaeYrpS í trsKd ;om;nDvmcHBu;D udk &efuek w
f ikd ;f ?
arSmfbDNrdKUe,f? anmifESpfyifpcef;wGif usif;ycJhonf/ ,if;trsdK;om;
nDvmcHoYkd trsKd ;om;'Dru
kd a&pD tzGUJ csKyrf S trsKd ;om;nDvmcH ud,
k pf m;vS,f
rsm; rwufa&mufcyhJ g/ 2004 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd f (9)&ufaeYwiG f rd;k &moD acwå
&yfem;cJhonf/
4/ 2005 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv (17)&ufaeYwiG f &efuek w
f ikd ;f ? arSmb
f ND rdKUe,f?
anmifESpfyifpcef;üyif trsdK;om;nDvmcHudk,fpm;vS,f (1071)OD;
wufa&mufcJhonf/
5/ ,if;trsKd ;om;nDvmcHBu;D odYk atmufygEdik if aH &;ygwDrsm;rS ud,
k pf m;vS,f
rsm;vnf; wufa&mufcJhonf(u) udk;uefY'Drdkua&pDESifh nDñGwfa&;ygwD
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102

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

EdkifiHawmf zGJYpnf;yHktajccHOya'rlMurf; a&;qGJa&;aumfr&Sif

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
10/ OD;ode;f pd;k

103
tzGJU0if

[B.Sc(D.S.A), RL]

1/ OD;atmifw;kd (B.A, B.L)
w&m;olBuD;csKyf? w&m;½Hk;csKyf? aejynfawmf
2/ OD;at;armif (B.A, B.L)
a&SUaecsKyf? a&SUaecsKyf½Hk;? aejynfawmf
3/ OD;aomif;ñGeYf (B.Sc, B.L)
Oya'tBuHay;yk*¾dKvf? &efukefNrdKU
4/ AdkvfrSL;csKyfausmfqef;

Ouú|

11/ OD;xGe;f xGe;f OD;

'kwd,Ouú|

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

tzGJU0if

12/ a'gufwmwifatmifat;

tzGJU0if

[B.Sc (D.S.A), Diploma in Defence and Security]

0efBuD;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? aejynfawmf
5 / AdkvfcsKyfcifatmifjrifh

'kwd,w&m;olBuD;csKyf? w&m;½Hk;csKyf? &efukefNrdKU
tzGJU0if

'kwd,w&m;olBuD;csKyf? w&m;½Hk;csKyf? aejynfawmf
tzGJU0if

[B.Sc, B.L, LLM(Germany), LLD(Germany)]

w&m;½Hk;csKyfw&m;olBuD;? w&m;½Hk;csKyf? &efukefNrdKU
13/ OD;wifat;

tzGJU0if

(B.A, H.G.P, RL)

w&m;½Hk;csKyfw&m;olBuD;? w&m;½Hk;csKyf? &efukefNrdKU

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
tzGJU0if

14/ a'gufwmcifarmifñGefY

[B.A, Diploma in Defence and Security]

0efBuD;? ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme? aejynfawmf
6/ AdkvfcsKyfpdk;armif

[B.A, M.A(Modern Hist), Ph.D(London)]

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if? jrefrmhordkif;tzGJU? &efukefNrdKU

15/ OD;xGef;atmifcsdef

[B.Sc (D.S.A), H.G.P, M.A (Defence Studies)]

ppfOya'csKyf? umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme? aejynfawmf
7/ a'gufwmoef;ñGeYf
tzGJU0if
[B.A(Hons), M.Sc(Econ) (London), Ph.D (Cambridge)]

Ouú|? 0efxrf;a&G;cs,favhusifha&;tzGJU? aejynfawmf
8/ a'gufwmxGe;f &Sif
tzGJU0if
[B.A, LL.B(Ygn:), M.A(Business Law)(London),
LL.D, Intl Law(Ghent, Belgium), F.R.G.S(London),
A.M.R.Ae.s(London), Dip. Intl Law(London)]

'kwd,a&SUaecsKyf? a&SUaecsKyf½Hk;? aejynfawmf
9/ OD;xGe;f xGe;f OD;

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

[B.A, M.A(Hist) (USA)]

twGif;a&;rSL;? jrefrmhordkif;tzGJU? &efukefNrdKU
16/ a'gufwmarmifarmif0ifh

tzGJU0if

[M.B.B.S, MRCP (UK), FRCP (Edin),
Dr.Med.Sc. (Int. Med)]

ygarmu©csKyf(Nidrf;)? aq;odyÜHynmOD;pD;Xme
pmayñTeMf um;a&;rSL;? wyfrawmfaq;wuúov
kd f
umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme? &efukefNrdKU
17/ OD;ausmfjrifhOD;

tzGJU0if

[B.Sc, M.Sc, UNDP, Certificate in Environmental Toxicology

[B.A(Law), LL.B, M.A(Defence Studies)]

and Pollution Control Management]

'kwd,a&SUaecsKyf? a&SUaecsKyf½Hk;? aejynfawmf

ygarmu©csKyf(Nidrf;)? '*Hkwuúodkvf? &efukefNrdKU

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/53 of 208.

tzGJU0if

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/54 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

104

18/ OD;jrwfol(wuúodkvfjrwfol)

tzGJU0if

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
25/ OD;wDcGefjrwf

[B.A(Law), LL.B, HGP]

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

pma&;q&m? w&m;½Hk;csKyfa&SUae
t,f'DwmcsKyf(Nidrf;)? &efukefNrdKU

Oya't&m&Sd? uGwfcdkifNrdKU

19/ a'gufwmpd;k &if

26/ a'gufwmcifaZmf
tzGJU0if

ygarmu©csKyf(Nidrf;)? &efukefwuúodkvf
tzGUJ 0if? 0dZmÆ ESio
hf yd yHÜ nm&Sit
f rIaqmiftzGUJ ? &efuek Nf rKd U

tzGJU0if

[B.A(Ed), B.Ed, Ph.D(Moscow)]

27/ OD;oef;ausmf

tzGJU0if

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

tzGJU0if

[M.A(Philo), H.G.P, RL, D.B.L, D.I.L]

ñTefMum;a&;rSL;(Nidrf;)? a&SUaecsKyf½Hk;? &efukefNrdKU
28/ a'gufwma':wifarxGe;f

w&m;½Hk;csKyfa&SUaeESifhOya'tBuHay;? &efukefNrdKU
21/ a'gufwmrsdK;oefYwif

tzGJU0if

ygarmu©csKy(f Nird ;f )? &efuek yf nma&;wuúov
kd ?f &efuek Nf rKd U

[B.Sc (Hons), M.Sc (UK), Ph.D (Italy)]

20/ OD;av;jrifh

105

tzGJU0if

[Ph.D (Myanmar), (International Law)]

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&efukefta0;oifwuúodkvf? &efukefNrdKU

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
[B.E(Chemical), M.Sc (Chem, Eng),

29/ a'gufwmcifrm&D

Ph.D (Loughborough, England)]

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[B.Sc, B.Sc(Hons), M.Sc, B.L, M.A(USA),

ygarmu©(XmerSL;)? Oya'ynmXme?
&efukefwuúodkvf? &efukefNrdKU

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Ph.D(USA)]

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M.S. Ed(USA), Dr.Med.Sc]

[Ph.D (Myanmar), (Civil Law, Family Law)]

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[B.Sc.(Chem:)(Hons;), M.Sc(CS), Ph.D(Singapore)]

ygarmu©csKyf? uGefysLwmwuúodkvf? &efukefNrdKU

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/54 of 208.

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B.A(D.S.A)

[M.B.B.S, DPTM, DCMT(UK),

24/ a'gufwmeDvmode;f

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[Ph.D (Myanmar), (Intellectual Property Law)]

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32/ OD;xGe;f atmif
[B.A(Law), LL.B]

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[B.A(Law), LL.B]

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[B.A(Zoo)]

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[B.A, H.G.P]

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

37/ OD;wd;k &,f

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[B.A(Law), LL.B]

(LL.B., D.C.Sc)

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[B.A(Geog), H.G.P]

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/55 of 208.

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(LL.B)

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(LL.B)

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[M.B.B.S, M.Sc(Forensic Medicine), GDR]

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com
(LL.B, LL.M)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

111

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

113

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com
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leiwaythar.blogspot.com
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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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cJ/h ,if;umv aemufyikd ;f wGif 1988ckEpS f jypfrq
I ikd &f m trIrsm;ydwf
odrf;jcif; jypf'PfuscHae&olrsm;tm; jypf'Pfajymif;vJ avQmhaygh
jcif;ESihf Mum;emppfaq;qJ jypfrq
I ikd &f m trIrsm;ydwo
f rd ;f jcif; ponf
wdkYudkxkwfjyefí uefYowfvGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhay;cJh/
21-7-1989 &ufaeYwGif EdkifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;
tzGJUu trdefYtrSwf(4^89)jzifh tusOf;om; 28453 OD;tm;
vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhay;cJh/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
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1992ckESpf? {NyDv 24&ufaeYwGif aMunmcsuftrSwf11^92udk
xkwfjyefí jypf'PfuscHa&;&mrsm;teuf EdkifiHawmf vHkNcHKa&;udk
xdcdkufrIr&dSaom EdkifiHom; tusOf;om; 2264 OD;ESifh EdkifiHjcm;om;
tusOf;om; 147 OD;udk jyefvTwfay;/
1993ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 1&ufaeYwGif EdkifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnf
aqmufa&;tzGJU trdfefYtrSwf1^93jzifh jypf'Pfrsm; ajymif;vJ
avQmah yghjcif;qdik &f m trdeu
Yf kd xkwjf yefí uefo
Y wf vGwNf ird ;f csr;f om
cGifhjyKcJh/ xdkvGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhaMumifh tusOf;om; 1708 OD;
vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifh&&SdcJhonf/
1995ckESpf? rwfv 25&ufaeYwGif yx&\ pmtrSwf100^1-&z
(31)yx& (wyfrawmf a&T&wktxdrf;trSwf)jzifh tusOf;om;
23901 OD;tm; vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhjyKcJhonf/
1997ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 12&ufaeYwGif EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,m
a&;ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifpD trdet
Yf rSw(f 1^97)jzifh tusO;f om; 4367
OD;tm; vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhjyKcJhonf/
2004ckEpS ?f Ed0k ifbmv 18&ufaeYwiG f Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;
ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifpD pmtrSw?f 06^e&u(O^rn)jzifh jypf'PfuscH
ae&aom EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; 3937 OD;wdkYtm; zsufodrf;cJhaom
trsKd;om;axmufvSrf;a&;tzGJU\ aqmif&GufcJhrIrsm;teuf ravsmf
uefaom aqmif&GufrIrsm; yg0ifEkdifonf[k jyefvnfoHk;oyfNyD;
vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifh ay;cJhonf/
2004ckEpS ?f Ed0k ifbmv 25&ufaeYwiG f Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;
ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifpD pmtrSw?f 04^e&u(O^rn)jzifjh ypf'PfuscH
ae&aom tusOf;om; 5311 OD;wdkYtm; zsufodrf;cJhaomtrsKd;om;
axmufvSrf;a&;tzGJU\ aqmif&GufrIcJhrsm;teuf ravsmfuefaom
aqmif&u
G rf rI sm; yg0ifEikd o
f nf[k jyefvnfo;kH oyfNy;D 'kw,
d tBurd f
vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhay;tyfcJhonf/
2004ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 10&ufaeYwiG f Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;
ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifpD pmtrSw?f 04^e&u(O^rn)jzifh tusO;f om;

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5070 OD;wdt
Yk m; zsuo
f rd ;f cJah om trsK;d om;axmufvrS ;f a&;tzGUJ \
aqmif&u
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onf[k jyefvnfoHk;oyfNyD; wwd,tBudrf vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifh
ay;tyfcJhonf/
Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESizhf NHYG zKd ;a&;aumifp\
D 31-12-2004
&ufpGJygpmtrSwf ? 04^e&u (O^rn) jzifh(57)ESpfajrmuf vGwf
vyfa&;aeY txdr;f trSwt
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rdrt
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pcef;toD;oD;rS 2005ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 3&ufaeYrSpí vTwfay;
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f 3&ufaeYwiG f Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf
zGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpD\ pmtrSwf?04^e&u(O^rn)jzifh tusOf;om;
410OD;tm; vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhjyKcJhonf/
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tusOf;ol 678 OD;wdkYudk vTJajymif;ay;tyfcJhonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
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EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpD\ 2-1-2007
&ufpGJygpmtrSwf? 04^e&u(O^rn)jzifh 2007ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv
4&ufaeYwiG f usa&mufonfh (59)ESpaf jrmuf vGwv
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Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifp\
D 15-11-2007
&ufpGJygpmtrSwf? 06^e&u(O^rn)jzifh 2007ckESpf? Edk0ifbmv
16&ufrS 'DZifbmv 3&uftwGi;f tusO;f om; 8585 OD;tm; 2007
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Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifp\
D 23-9-2008
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rdom;pkrsm;tm; iJhn§maomtm;jzifhvnf;aumif;? 4if;wdkYonf
Edik if aH wmf\ arwÅm? apwemudk em;vnfMuNy;D rdrt
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í vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhrsm; ay;tyfcJhonf/

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EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpD\ 20-2-2009
&ufpGJygpmtrSwf? 06^e&u(O^rn)jzifh 2009ckESpf? azazmf0g&D
21&ufaeYwGif EdkifiHom;tusOf;om;? tusOf;ol6313OD;wdkYtm;
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f nf; trsm;jynfol
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vnf;aumif; jypf'PfuscHjcif;rS &yfpJí vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhrsm;
ay;tyfcJhonf/
2009ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 17&ufaeYwiG f Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,m
a&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpDonf jypfrIqdkif&m usifhxHk;Oya'yk'fr 401?
yk'frcGJ(1)t& tusOf;om; (7114)OD;wdkYtm; vGwfNidrf;csrf;om
cGifhjyKcJhonf/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEdkifiHawmf
tpdk;&opfvufxufwGif vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhay;cJhaom jzpfpOfrsm;
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tusOf;om; 14758 OD;)
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'kwd,tBudrf (11-10-2011&ufaeYwGif vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhjyKcJhonfh
tusOf;om; 6359 OD;)
11-10-2011 &ufaeYwiG f Edik if aH wmfor®w½H;k \ trdet
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vnf;aumif;? vlrIa&;t& iJhn§maomtm;jzifhvnf;aumif; 2-12-2011
&ufaeYwGif jrefrmEdkifiH tusOf;axmiftoD;oD;ü jypf'PfuscHvsuf&dSaom
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cGifhay;um jynfESif'Pfay;cJhonf/
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tusOf;om; 6656 OD;)
2-1-2012 &ufaeYwiG f Edik if aH wmfor®w½H;k \ trdet
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ap&efvnf;aumif;?

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

pwkw¦tBudrf (12-1-2012 &ufaeYwGif vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifh jyKcJhonfh
tusOf;om; 651 OD;)
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kd o
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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1/ tlrGefc
10 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/100 of 208.

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/101 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

198
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

rvdacsmif;
wbuf&ef
w&Gefc
wEkdif;c
w0rfc
erfhrvdc
Aef;armf

10.5
24
150
15
50
123
300

r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

u,m;jynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; ay (180)txufwHwm;
xl;acsmif;wHwm; (zm;aqmif;)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

199

wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpuf½Hk
1/ zmyGef
0.062 r*¾g0yf
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;
[wfBu;D
1360 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ aomufa&cyf(1)
150
2/ txufov
H iG (f e,fjcm;)
4000
3/ atmufov
H iG (f e,fjcm;)
500
4/ ',kid ;f
25
5/ ,Ge;f pvif;
400
6/ aomif&if;(1)
110
7/ aomif&if;(2)
231
8/ aomif&if;(3)
288

r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpuf½Hkrsm;
1/ bDv;l acsmif;(2)
168 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
3/ bDv;l acsmif;(1)
28 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;
1/ bDv;l acsmif;(3)
52 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
2/ &Gmopf
600 r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
3/ erfhwbuf
110 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
4/ erfhyGef
130 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
u&ifjynfe,f

wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD;(3)pif;
1/ oHviG w
f w
H m; (bm;tH)
- t&Snaf y 2252
2/ *sdKif;wHwm;(Zmojyif)
- t&Snfay 2900
3/ *sKd i;f wHwm;(aumhu&dw)f
- t&Snfay 1200
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/101 of 208.

csif;jynfe,f

wnfaqmufNyD; ay(180)txuf wHwm;rsm;
1/ ewfZw
H w
H m;(wGe;f ZH) t&Snaf y 270
2/ vnfrsKdwHwm;(rwlzD) t&Snfay 240
3/ Am;&fww
H m;
t&Snaf y 340
4/ uyfwv
J w
f w
H m;
t&Snaf y 480
5/ rHaqmif;wHwm;
t&Snfay 460
wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpuf½Hkrsm;
1/ ZmvG;D
0.400
2/ a'gif;Am;
0.4000
3/ ippfAm;
1.100
4/ yvuf0
0.050
5/ erfah vmifacsmif;
0.200
6/ vkid Af m;
0.600

r*¾g0yf
r*¾g0yf
r*¾g0yf
r*¾g0yf
r*¾g0yf
r*¾g0yf

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/102 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

200

7/
8/
9/
10/

xD;G aqmif;
csDacsmif;
oif;oJacsmif;
vkdifbGefacsmif;

0.200
0.200
0.050
0.050

r*¾g0yf
r*¾g0yf
r*¾g0yf
r*¾g0yf

rGefjynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD; (3)pif;
1/ tw¬&HwHwm; (armfvNrdKif)
2/ oHvGifwHwm; (armfvNrdKif)
3/ ppfawmif;wHwm; (rkyÜvif)
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ bD;vif;
280 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/
19/
20/
21/

201

rif;acsmif;wHwm;
&marmifww
H m;
a,macsmif;wHwm;
qyfomG ;wHwm;
oHorBu;D wHwm;
0efzkdufwHwm;
rif;aMumif;acsmif;wHwm;
oZifwefaygufwHwm;
oHoracsww
H m;
o,kww
H m;(yJy'k)H

wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ ola|;
111.0
2/ trf;acsmif;
10.0
3/ pkdif;'if
76.5
4/ av;NrdKU
500.0

r*¾g0yf (tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ rsuaf wmacsmif;
10 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
&ckdifjynfe,f

wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD;rsm;
1/ 'vufacsmif;wHwm;
2/ ajrmif;abGww
H m;
3/ upäye'DwHwm;
4/ wef;vTaJ csmif;wHwm;
5/ vrl;acsmif;wHwm;
6/ rtDacsmif;wHwm;
7/ peJaygufww
H m;
8/ vH;k awmfaygufww
H m;
9/ 'D;'kwaf ygufww
H m;
10/ udik ;f &Snw
f w
H m;
11/ yDaumufww
H m;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/102 of 208.

wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ oHwJG
39 r*¾g0yf
2/ usdEÅvD
28 r*¾g0yf
&Srf;jynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; pDrHudef;0ifwHwm;BuD; (8)pif;
1/ oHviG w
f w
H m; (wmaumftuf)
2/ oHviG w
f w
H m; (wmqef;)
3/ erfhwdefwHwm; (uGrf;vHk)
4/ rwfvef;wHwm; (vJcsm;)
5/ vif;ac;wHwm; (vif;ac;)
6/ oHviG w
f w
H m; (wmyg;)

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/103 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

202

7/ 'k|0wDwHwm; (aemifcsdK)
8/ a&Tvw
D w
H m;(erfch rf;)
9/ vde;f vDww
H m;(yifavmif;)
wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpuf½Hkrsm;
1/ aZmf*s(D 1)
18
2/ aZmf*s(D 2)
12
3/ a&Tv(D 1)
600
4/ usKid ;f awmif;
54
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ txufov
H iG (f rkid ;f wk)H
7110
2/ txufusKd i;f awmif;
52.5
3/ a&Tv(D 2)
640
4/ a&TvD(3)
800
5/ txufov
H iG (f rkid ;f wk)H
1400
6/ erfhavG^erfhc
652
7/ txufbv
D ;l acsmif;
16
8/ aemifz^refawmif;
1200

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

203

ppfudkif;wdkif;a'oBuD;

r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0ifay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD;rsm;
1/ rJZmwHwm; (tif;awmf)
2/ a&Tvw
D w
H m; (uom)
3/ csif;wGif;wHwm; (rHk&Gm)
4/ jrpfomwHwm; (uav;0)
5/ O½kwHwm; ([kr®vif;)
wnfaqmufqJ wHwm; (2)pif;
1/ &wemodCw
F w
H m;(txl;pDru
H ed ;f 0ifww
H m;)
2/ aZmfacsmif;wHwm;

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ er®wl-erfhvef
177
2/ erfhukwf
55
3/ erfhr,fqkdif
12.8
4/ refbif;
800

r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)

wnfaqmufNyD;ausmufrD;aoG;okH; a&aEG;aiGu"mwftm;ay;puf½kH
1/ wDuspf
120 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/103 of 208.

wnfaqmufrnfh wHwm;(1)pif;
,ufzacsmif;wHwm;

wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpuf½Hk
1/ ozef;qdyf
30.00 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ xrHoD
1200
2/ rPdy&l
380
3/ a&Tpma&;
660
4/ armfvu
dk f
520

r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

wnfaqmufqJ ausmufrD;aoG;okH;"mwftm;ay;puf½kHpDrHudef;
1/ uav;0
600 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;
1/ jyifom
40 r*¾g0yf(f tBu;D pm;)

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/104 of 208.

204

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

weoFm&Dwdkif;a'oBuD;
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD;(7)pif;
1/ 0if;0wHwm; (o&ufacsmif;)
2/ ykavmufww
H m; (ykavm)
3/ ykavmwHwm; (ykavm)
4/ uRJul;-ausmufzsmwHwm; (Nrdwf)
5/ weoFm&Djrpful;wHwm; (weoFm&D)
6/ avn§m-r@dKiw
f w
H m; (bkwjf yif;)
7/ yaomif;wHwm;
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ weoFm&D
601 r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
2/ ousuf
20 r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
3/ tnmzsm;
9 r*¾g0yf(tvwfpm;)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

205

qGmacsmif;wHwm;(a&wm&Sn)f
yJc;l wHwm;
e*g;aygufacsmif;wHwm;
yJc;l -ppfawmif;wl;ajrmif;wHwm;
NrdKUacsmif;wHwm; (txl;pDrHudef;0if)

wnfaqmufqJ ay180txufwHwm;BuD;
1/ ppfawmif;wHwm;(ewfou
H iG ;f ) (txl;pDru
H ed ;f 0if)
wnfaqmufrnfh wHwm;(3)pif;
1/ ppfawmif;jrpful;wHwm; (1) (txl;pDrHudef;0if)
2/ ppfawmif;jrpful;wHwm; (2) (txl;pDrHudef;0if)
3/ ppfawmif;jrpful;wHwm; (3) (txl;pDrHudef;0if)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

wnfaqmufqJ ausmufrD;aoG;okH;"mwftm;ay;puf½kHpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ aumhaomif;
6 r*¾g0yf(tvwfpm;)
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ qm&m0
11
2/ erfhEGdKif
15
3/ odef;cGef
25
4/ uvkHu&m
40

r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)

yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0ifay(180)txufwHwm;BuD;(8)pif;
1/ e0a';wHwm; (jynf) ({&m0wDjrpful;)
2/ caygif;wHwm; (awmifi)l
3/ ppfawmif;wHwm; (a&Tusif-ra'guf)
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/104 of 208.

wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpuf½Hkrsm;
1/ aZmif;wl
20 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
2/ &JEG,f
25 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
3/ caygif;
30 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufqJa&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ jzL;acsmif;
40
2/ uGeaf csmif;
60
3/ a&Tusif
75
4/ aomufa&cyf(2)
140
5/ abm*w
168

r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

rauG;wkdif;a'oBuD;
wnfaqmufNyD;txl;pDrHudef;0ifay(180)txufwHwm;BuD; (10)pif;
1/ taemf&xmwHwm; (acsmuf) ({&m0wDjrpful;)
2/ avmif*wfwHwm; (*efYa*g)
3/ {&m0wDww
H m; (rauG;)
4/ a&Tacsmif;wHwm;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/105 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

206
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

207

6/ uR&J iS ;f wHwm;
7/ jynfanmifww
H m;

bGuBf u;D wHwm;
trSw(f 1)aygufww
H m;(tke;f awm)
a'gif;aeacsmif;wHwm;
{&m0wDjrpful;wHwm;(yckuúL)
,if;acsmif;wHwm;
usm;xl;wHwm;

wnfaqmufqJ txl;pDrHudef;0ifwHwm;
1/ {&m0wDjrpful;wHwm;(rvGef)
ajy;vrf; ay(1000)ESifh ay(5000)txufav,mOfuGif;opfrsm;
1/ rauG;
2/ ausmufxk
3/ yckuúL

wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpuf½Hkrsm;
1/ uif;wm;
56
2/ qnfawmfBu;D
25
3/ aygif;avmif;
280
4/ &J&Gm
790

r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;

wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ txuf&J&Gm
140
2/ txufaygif;avmif;
140
3/ eefcsdK
40
4/ txufqnfawmfBu;D
60

r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppf½Hk
rke;f acsmif;

75 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ txufA;l &Gm
150 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;
rif;wke;f
18 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
rEÅav;wkdif;a'oBuD;

wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0ifay(180)txufwHwm;BuD;(7)pif;
1/ 'k|0wDww
H m; (wHwm;OD;)
2/ wHigwHwm; (rwå&m)
3/ jrpfi,fwHwm; (pOfhudkif)
4/ {&m0wDwHwm; (&wemyHk) (tr&yl&)
5/ em;a#mif;uswHwm; (a&Tpm&H) (ay 150om)
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/105 of 208.

&efukefwdkif;a'oBuD;

txl;pDrHudef;0ifwHwm;BuD;(10)pif;
1/ atmifaZ,swHwm; (tif;pdef)
2/ r[mAE¨KvwHwm; (ykZGefawmif)
3/ irkd;&dyfwHwm; (urmMunf)
4/ vdIifjrpful;wHwm; (a&Tjynfom)
5/ vIdifjrpfwHwm; (NrdKUacsmif;)
6/ abmv,fjrpfww
H m; (a&ay:aomif)
7/ '*HkwHwm; (qdyfurf;NrdKUe,f)
8/ yef;vIid w
f w
H m;
9/ wGaH w;wHwm;
10/ irk;d &dyw
f w
H m;(oCFe;f uRe;f )

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/106 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

208

wnfaqmufqJ wHwm;
abmfacsmif;wHwm; (oefvsi)f
wnfaqmufNyD; pGefYypftyloHk;"mwftm;ay;puf½Hkrsm;
1/ omauw
35 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
2/ tvHk
54.3 r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
3/ avSmu
f m;
54.3 r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
4/ &Gmr
94.3 r*¾g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
wnfaqmufqJ ausmufrD;aoG;"mwftm;ay;puf½HkpDrHudef;
1/ &efukef
270 r*¾g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
{&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
17/
18/
19/
20/
21/
22/

zsmykHwHwm;
i0efwHwm;(NrdKUuGif;)
uRe;f uke;f wHwm;
&mZl'idk w
f w
H m;(1)
&mZl'idk w
f w
H m;(2)
{&m0wDww
H m;(anmifwek ;f )

wnfaqmufqJ txl;pDrHudef;0ifwHwm;rsm;
1/ bku
d av;jrpfu;l wHwm;
2/ ayyifjrpfwHwm;
3/ ouú,af csmif;jrpfww
H m;
a&eHESifhobm0"mwfaiGUajrrsm;(ukef;wGif;)
1/ jrefatmifa&eHESifh obm0"mwfaiGUajr
2/ a&Tjynfoma&eHESifh obm0"mwfaiGUajr
3/ anmifwek ;f obm0"mwfaiGUajr
4/ rtlyifobm0"mwfaiGUajr

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txufwHwm;BuD;(22)pif;
1/ cwå,
d wHwm;
2/ a';'vlww
H m;
3/ qdyrf acsmif;wHwm;
4/ ewfacsmif;wHwm;
5/ ajrmif;jrwHwm;
6/ rtlyifwHwm;
7/ AdkvfjrwfxGef;wHwm;
8/ vyGwmå wHwm;(yifv,fav;)
9/ yef;waemfww
H m;
10/ *kn
H if;wef;wHwm;
11/ a&Tavmif;wHwm;
12/ 0g;c,frwHwm;
13/ a';'&Jww
H m;
14/ 'g;uwHwm;
15/ ykord w
f w
H m;\
16/ yr®0wDwHwm;(jrif;uqdyf)
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/106 of 208.

obm0"mwfaiGUajr(urf;vGef)
1/ &wemobm0"mwfaiGYajr
2/ pdefobm0"mwfaiGYajr

209

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/107 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

210

wnfaqmufNyD;pD;oGm;aom (wef-60)cH0eftm;&Sd wHwm;BuD;rsm;
ucsifjynfe,f
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

Avrif;xifww
H m;
jrpfBu;D em;-Aef;armf
{&m0wDjrpf
2988 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoaH ygif

u&ifjynfe,f
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211

Ä
Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
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wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

oHviG w
f w
H m;(armfvNrKd i)f
&efukef-armfvNrdKif
oHvGifjrpf
11575 ay
63.8 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+ oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

ppfawmif;wHwm;(rkyv
Ü if)
&efukef-armfvNrdKif
ppfawmif;jrpf
1365 ay
28 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+ oHuluGefu&pf

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

oHviG w
f w
H m; (bm;tH)
oxk-H bm;tH
oHvGifjrpf
2252 ay
38 ay
oHrPdoaH ygif

rGefjynfe,f
Ä
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

tw¬&w
H w
H m;(armfvNrKd i)f
armfvNrdKif-pmojyif-bm;tH
tw¬&Hjrpf
1420 ay
24.6 ay
oHrPdBuKd ;qkid ;f

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/107 of 208.

&ckdifjynfe,f

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

&marmifww
H m;(rif;jym;)
&efukef-ppfawG
&marmifjrpf
ay 1300
24.6 ay
abvDBuKd ;wHwm;

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

upäye'Dww
H m;(ausmufawmf)
&efukef-ppfawG
ukvm;wefjrpf
2513 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoaH ygif

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/108 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

212

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

rif;acsmif;wHwm;
&efukef-ppfawG
rif;acsmif;
2003 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoaH ygif

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

rtDacsmif;wHwm;(awmifuw
k )f
&efukef-ausmufjzL
rtDacsmif;
940 ay
ay 30
BudKwiftm;jznfh uGefu&pf+
oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

rif;aMumif;acsmif;wHwm;(ausmufjzL)
&efukef-ausmufjzL
rif;Bu;D acsmif;
1744.24 ay
31 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

vk;H awmfaygufww
H m;(ausmufjzL)
&efukef-ausmufjzL
vk;H awmfaygufacsmif;
1259.2 ay
29 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

213

ppfukdif;wkdif;a'oBuD;
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

qifjzL&Siw
f w
H m;(acsmif;OD;)
yckuLú -acsmif;OD;
csif;wGif;jrpf
4957 ay
66.26 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

csi;f wGi;f wHwm;(rk&H mG )
rk&H mG -uav;
csif;wGif;jrpf
4730.2 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/108 of 208.

weoFm&Dwkdif;a'oBuD;

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

uRu
J ;l -ausmufzsmwHwm;(Nrw
d )f
xm;0,f-Nrw
d -f aumhaomif;
ausmufzsmjrpf
3612 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+ BudKwiftm;jznfh
uGefu&pf+oHaygif,ufr

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
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wHwm;tvsm;
=

avn§m-r@dKiw
f w
H m;(Nrw
d )f
xm;0,f-Nrw
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avnmjrpf
860 ay

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/109 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

214

Ä wHwm;tus,f
Ä wHwm;trsK;d tpm;

= ay 30
= BuKd wiftm;jznfh uGeu
f &pf
yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
=
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=
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wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

e0a';wHwm;(jynf)
jynf-qifwJ
{&m0wDjrpf
4183 ay
38 ay
oHrPdoaH ygif

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

ppfawmif;wHwm;(a&Tusi)f
a&Tusif-ra'guf
ppfawmif;jrpf
ay 1500
36 ay
oHrPduGefu&pf+ BudKwiftm;jznfh
uGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

215
{&m0wDww
H m;(rauG;)
rauG;-rif;bl;
{&m0wDjrpf
8989 ay
48 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

rEÅav;wkdif;a'oBuD;
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
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=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

&wemykw
H w
H m;
rEÅav;
{&m0wDjrpf
5614 ay
ay 60
oHrPdoaH ygif

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
rauG;wkdif;a'oBuD;

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

taemf&xmwHwm;(acsmuf)
acsmuf-qdyfjzL
{&m0wDjrpf
5192 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+ BudKwiftm;jznfh
uGefu&pf

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/109 of 208.

&efukefwkdif;a'oBuD;

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

oefvsiw
f w
H m;
&efukef-oHvsif
yJcl;jrpf
5977 ay
67.24 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
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=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

'*kw
H w
H m;
&efukef-oHvsif
yJcl;jrpf
4540 ay
84 ay
oHuluGefu&pf

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/110 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

216

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

217

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

r[mAE¨KvwHwm;
&efukef-a'gykH
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3643 ay
84 ay
oHrPdBuKd ;qkid ;f

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

vIdifjrpfwHwm;(NrdKUacsmif;)
BudKUukef;-NrdKUacsmif;
vIdifjrpf
1940 ay
34 ay
oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

bk&ifah emifww
H m;
r&rf;uke;f -vIid o
f m,m
vIdifjrpf
1640 ay
42 ay
oHrPdoaH ygif

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

abmv,fjrpfww
H m;(arSmb
f )D
rif;vSa0-a&ay:aomif
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1940 ay
34 ay
oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

atmifaZ,sww
H m;
tif;pdef-vIdifom,m
vIdifjrpf
3786 ay
52.6 ay
oHrPdBuKd ;qkid ;f

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

vIid jf rpfww
H m;(a&Tjynfom)
a&Tjynfom-vIid o
f m,m
vIdifjrpf
3415 ay
64.6 ay
oHrPdoaH ygif

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/110 of 208.

{&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;

Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
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=

{&m0wDww
H m;(a';'&J)
uGrf;NcHukef;-a';'&J-zsmykH
{&m0wDjrpf
4088.3 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

i0efjrpfu;l wHwm;(a&Munf)
ykodrf-rkH&Gm
i0efjrpf
1164 ay
38 ay
BuKd wiftm;jznfah owåmykH

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/111 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

218

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

219

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
=
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wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

ajrmif;jrwHwm;(ajrmif;jr)
ajrmif;jr-tdrfrJ
ajrmif;jrjrpf
1270 ay
34.7 ay
abvDBuKd ;wHwm;

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
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=

Akv
d jf rwfxeG ;f wHwm;(anmifwek ;f )
&efukef-ykodrf
{&m0wDjrpf
8544 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoaH ygif

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
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=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

vyGwmå wHwm;
ajrmif;jr-vyGwåm
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ay 1300
19.8 ay
abvDBuKd ;wHwm;

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
=
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=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
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=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

'g;uwHwm;(ausmif;uke;f )
&efukef-ykodrf
'g;ujrpf
ay 1400
38 ay
BudKwiftm;jznfhuGefu&pf+
oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
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rtlyifww
H m;
qm;ravmuf-rtlyif-armfuRe;f
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2362 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+BudKwiftm;jznfh
uGefu&pf+oHuluGefu&pf

Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
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wHwm;trnf
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1940 ay
34.6 ay
oHuluGefu&pf

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/111 of 208.

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/112 of 208.

220

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

221

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l aJT jymif;&,l
Ekdifap&ef?

(q) EdkifiHawmf\ tajccHtaqmufttHkrsm; zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufvmap&ef/
txl;pD;yGm;a&;ZkefwGif &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrI jyKvkyfEkdifonfh vkyfief;rsm;ESifh
ae&mXmersm;
(u) ukeyf pön;f xkwv
f yk rf v
I yk if ef;? tqifjh rifeh nf;ynmjzifh xkwv
f yk rf v
I yk if ef;?
pufrv
I yk if ef;rsm;? pdu
k yf sK;d a&;? arG;jrLa&;ESihf a&vkyif ef;? owåKypön;f vkyif ef;ESihf
opfawmxGuyf pön;f xkwv
f yk rf v
I yk if ef;rsm; ponfx
h w
k v
f yk rf u
I kd tajccH
aomvkyif ef;rsm;?

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/113 of 208.

222

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

(c) ukefoG,fa&;? axmufyHha&;ESifh o,f,lydkYaqmifa&;? ukefodkavSmifa&;?
[dkw,fESifhc&D;oGm;vma&;? ynma&;? usef;rma&;? vlae&yfuGufrsm;?
tajccHtaqmufttHk jznfq
h nf;axmufyahH &;Xmersm;? obm0ywf0ef;usif
xde;f odr;f umuG,o
f nfh pdr;f vef;e,fajrrsm;? tem;,ltyef;ajzpcef;rsm;
ponfh 0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;?
(*) vrf;? wHwm;? avqdyf? blwm½Hk? qdyfurf;? vQyfppf? qufoG,fa&;?
a&&&Sda&;? ywf0ef;usifxdef;odrf;a&;ESifh pGefYypfypönf;rsm; xdef;odrf;a&;
ponfh tajccHtaqmufttHkvkyfief;rsm;?
(C) A[dktzGJUu tpdk;&tzGJU\ oabmwlnDcsufjzifh owfrSwfonfh tjcm;
vkyfief;rsm;/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

223

1-1-2011 rS 30-1-2012 xd EdkifiHwpf0ef; zGHY NzdK;wdk;wufrIrsm;
zGifhvSpfcJhNyD; vrf;ydkif;rsm;
1/ wdu
k Bf u;D -azmifBu;D -yJc;l
½dk;rjzwfausmf uwå&mvrf;
2/ ykodrf-rHk&Gm uwå&mvrf;
3/ aejynfawmf-awmifnKd acsmif;euf (awmifwiG ;f Bu;D )vrf;
4/ aejynfawmf-awmifndKNrdKUopf-uefjym; (rauG;)vrf;

42 rdik f 7 zmvHk
450 rdkif 5 zmvHk
5 rdik f 4 zmvHk
106 rdkif 2 zmvHk

zGifhvSpfcJhNyD;&xm;vrf;ydkif;rsm;
1/ rif;bl;-yGifhjzL &xm;vrf;ydkif;
20 rdkif
2/ uRe;f acsmif;-a'gif;om
19.59 rdik f
&xm;vrf;ydik ;f
3/ xm;0,f-Nrdwf &xm;vrf;ydkif; 132.5 rdkif
4/ ,k;d w½kw-f ausmufawmf&xm;vrf;ykid ;f 19.82 rkdif

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
zGifhvSpfNyD; puf½Hkrsm;
1/ trSwf (5) "mwfajrMoZmpuf½Hk? ykodrfNrdKU
2/ tvHkobm0"mwfaiGUoHk; "mwftm;ay;puf½Hk? tvkHNrdKUe,f
3/ wmydef (1) a&tm;vQyfppfpuf½Hk? rkd;armufNrdKUe,f? ucsifjynfe,f
4/ a&Tusifa&avSmifwrHESifh a&tm;vQyfppf"mwftm;ay;puf½Hk?
a&TusifNrdKUe,f

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/113 of 208.

2/ bdkuav;NrdKUe,f? ckwif (100) jynfolYaq;½HkBuD;

3/ v,fa0;NrdKUe,f? ckwif (100) jynfolYaq;½HkBuD;

4/ ykAÁoD&dNrdKUe,f? ckwif (50) trSwf (2) NrdKUe,faq;½Hk?

5/ ckwif (550) uav;aq;½Hk ? &efuif;NrdKUe,f

zGifhvSpfNyD; avqdyf
1/ aejynfawmf tjynfjynfqdkif&mavqdyf

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/114 of 208.
wef 60

wef 60

ykord Nf rKd Ue,f

oDaygNrdKUe,f

a'gif;aeacsmif;? wef 60
rauG;NrKd Ue,f
o½l;acsmif;?
18 wef
pvif;NrKd Ue,f
ompnfNrdKUe,f wef 60

uefYbvlNrdKUe,f wef 60

ysO;f rem;NrKd Ue,f wef 60

24 ay

ay 200

569 ay

28 ay

24 ay

10 ay

ay 260

ay 360

24 ay

24 ay

48 ay

1785 ay

ay 180

ay 180

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf
oHrPdoHaygif

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

abvDoHaygif

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

jzwf a usmf o nf h
cHEdkif0ef wHwm;tvsm; wHwm;tus,f wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
jrpf^acsmif;? NrdKUe,f

zGifhvSpfNyD; aq;½Hkrsm;
1/ armfvNrdKifuRef;NrdKUe,f? ckwif (100) jynfolYaq;½HkBuD;

vrf;trnf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

1/ uRJ&Sif;wHwm; aejynfawmf- awmifnKd acsmif;euf- awmifwiG ;f Bu;D
vrf;
2/ armfacsmif; a&Tbdk-jrpfBuD;em;vrf;
wHwm;
3/ a'gif;aeacsmif; &efukef-jynf-rauG;wHwm;
rEÅav;vrf;
4/ o½l;acsmif; ykord -f rH&k mG vrf;
wHwm;
5/ jynfanmif rdw¬Dvm-awmifBuD;wHwm;
usKdif;wHk-wmcsDvdwfvrf;
6/ ausmufacsmif; ykodrf-acsmif;omvrf;
BuD;wHwm;
7/ oDaygwHwm; rEÅav;-vm;½d;I -rlq,f

pOf wHwm;trnf

224

2011 ckESpftwGif; EdkifiHwpf0ef; wnfaqmufNyD;pD;cJhaomwHwm;BuD;rsm;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/114 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
225

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/115 of 208.
17/ ppfawmif;
'du
k Of ;D -ppfawmif;
wl;ajrmif;
wHwm;
18/ usm;xl;acsmif; rauG;-ewfarmufaysmfbG,f
wHwm;
19/ {&m0wDww
H m;
(anmifwek ;f )
20/ {&m0wDww
H m;
(yckuúL)
21/ {&m0wDww
H m; (pif;cef;)

vrf;trnf

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
wef 60

wef 60

wef 60

wef 60

24 ay
24 ay

ay 240

13.5 ay

24 ay

24 ay
24 ay
24 ay

24 ay

24 ay

ay 270

466 ay

ay 350

ay 360
ay 300
ay 190

ay 250

228 ay

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf
oHuu
l eG u
f &pf
oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

wef 60

wef 60

ppfuid k ;f wkid ;f a'oBu;D wef 60
uomc½kid Ef iS h f ucsif
jynfe,f Aef;armf
c½kid f

yckuúLNrdKUe,f

anmifwek ;f NrKd Ue,f wef 60

ewfarmufNrdKUe,f wef 60

a0gNrdKUe,f

4630 ay

20597 ay

28 ay

-

28 ay

24 ay

ay 480
10814 ay

24 ay

ay 240

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

jzwf a usmf o nf h
cHEdkif0ef wHwm;tvsm; wHwm;tus,f wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
jrpf^acsmif;? NrdKUe,f

ausmufwHcg;
NrdKUe,f
a0gNrdKUe,f

bdkuav;NrdKUe,f wef 60

[dyk ifNrKd Ue,f

rdik ;f udik Nf rKd Ue,f wef 60
awmifomNrdKUe,f wef 60
t*FyNl rKd Ue,f
wef 60

NrdKUopfNrdKUe,f

zm;aqmif;NrdKUe,f wef 60

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

pOf wHwm;trnf

awmifil-armfcsD;vdGKifaumfvrf;
aejynfawmf-awmifndKNrdKUopf-uefjym; (rauG;)
yefauwk-oDayg
&efuek -f jynf-rEÅav;
[oFmw-qHkukef;jrefatmif
a&Tbdk-jrpfBuD;em;

8/ xl;acsmif;
wHwm;
9/ ,if;acsmif;
wHwm;
10/ Am;wHwm;
11/ 0Javmifww
H m;
12/ rjracsmif;
wHwm;
13/ eefcY iG af csmif;
wHwm;
14/ atmufeuf
acsmif;wHwm;
15/ NrdKUacsmif;
wHwm;
16/ e*g;ayguf
wHwm;

jzwf a usmf o nf h
cHEdkif0ef wHwm;tvsm; wHwm;tus,f wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
jrpf^acsmif;? NrdKUe,f

226

bdkuav;-pufqef;axmfydkif-trm
rif;vS-pdeu
f efv
Y ef-Y
NrdKUacsmif;-uRef;ukef;
'du
k Of ;D -ppfawmif;

vrf;trnf

pOf wHwm;trnf

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/115 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
227

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/116 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

228

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif xkdif;EkdifiHu ESpftvkdufjr§KyfESHxm;rI(tar&duefa':vm? oef;)
pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

ckESpf
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009(Zlvkdifvxd)
2010(Ekd0ifbmvxd)
2011(Zefe0g&Dv)

yrmP
1312'or203
1341'or223
7375'or623
7375'or623
7391'or843
7406'or843
9568'or093
9568'or093

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

229

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif w½kwfEkdifiHu ESpftvkdufjr§KyfESHxm;rI(tar&duefa':vm? oef;)
pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

ckESpf
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009(Zlvkdifvxd)
2010(Ekd0ifbmvxd)
2011(Zefe0g&Dv)

yrmP
66'or971
193'or521
194'or221
475'or443
475'or443
1331'or439
6415'or058
9603'or168

urÇmhqefwifykdhrI trsm;qkH; (15)EkdifiH

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

jrefrmEkdifiH\ e,fpyfukefoG,frI(2010) yrmP-tar&duefa':vm? oef;
pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/

vtrnf
Zefe0g&D
azazmf0g&D
rwf
{NyD
ar
ZGef
Zlvkdif
Mo*kwf
pufwifbm
atmufwb
dk m
Ekd0ifbm
'DZifbm

ykdYukef
68'or807
55'or096
87'or319
67'or908
96'or890
51'or326
73'or764
87'or328
112'or133
102'or884
93'or485
104'or451

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/116 of 208.

oGif;ukef
68'or748
54'or733
78'or837
57'or668
68'or405
61'or058
66'or689
68'or381
87'or082
74'or790
94'or212
89'or738

pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/

ckESpf

xkdif;
tdE´d,
AD,uferf
tar&duef
ygupöwef
w½kwf(xkdif0rftygt0if)
tD*spf
tDwvD
O½ka*G;
pydef
tm*siw
f ;D em;
a*G,m;em;
tm&yfapmfbGm;rsm;EkdifiH
b,fvf*sD,rf-vlZifbwf
jrefrm

wefcsdef
oef; 10 wef
oef; 4.8 wef
oef; 4.1 wef
oef; 3.1 wef
oef; 1.8 wef
901550 wef
836940 wef
668940 wef
609170 wef
346030 wef
257750 wef
256330 wef
164350 wef
157190 wef
150030 wef

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

230

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

pOf b@ma&;ESpf
1/ 2003-2004
2/ 2004-2005
3/ 2005-2006
4/ 2006-2007
5/ 2007-2008
6/ 2008-2009
7/ 2009-2010
8/ 2010-2011

ykdYukef
2357'or00
2928'or00
3558'or00
5322'or00
6401'or00
6778'or85
7609'or38
6770'or64

oGif;ukef
2240'or00
1973'or00
1984'or00
2937'or00
3351'or00
4543'or45
4181'or41
4121'or33

ukeo
f ,
G rf yI rmP
4597'or00
4901'or00
5542'or00
8259'or00
9752'or00
11322'or30
11790'or79
10891'or97

jrefrmEkdifiH\ txifu& a&eHajrrsm;ESifh oufqdkifonfhodrSwfzG,f&mrsm;

2003 ckESpfrS 2011 ckESpftwGif; jrefrmEkdifiH\
ESpftvkdufukefoG,frIyrmP(tar&duefa':vm? oef;)

231

wnf&Sd&mae&m
pwifawGU&So
d nfch ek pf ckdatmif;onfhyrmP xkwf,lNyD;yrmP
{&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;
1964
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
jrefatmifNrdKUe,f
76'or46oef;
23'or033oef;
urf;eD
rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ? rif;bl;1985
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
pukNrdKUe,f
55'or571oef; 13'or495oef;
vufyw
H dk
rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
1997
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
aygufNrdKUe,f
76'or668oef; 2'or268oef;
axmuf&Smyifa&eHajr rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ? rif;bl;1978
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
pukNrdKUe,f
157'or283oef; 21'or780oef;
wefMY unfawmif-pHr,f rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
2000
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
aygufNrdKUe,f
134'or8oef;
1'or586oef;
ref;a&eHajr
rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
1970
pnfaygif;
rif;bl;NrdKUe,f
433'or032oef;
acsmufvrf;&Gm
rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
2001
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
acsmufNrdKUe,f
400'or416oef; 149'or309oef;
a&eHacsmif;
rauG;wkid ;f ? a&eHacsmif;
1887
pnfaygif; 540oef; pnfaygif;
226'or366oef;
jynfawmifwef;
yJc;l wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
pnfaygif;
a&TawmifNrdKUe,f
49'or64oef;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/117 of 208.

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/117 of 208.

9/

8/

7/

6/

5/

1/ &ckdifurf;vGef&Sd at0rf;ESifh ato&D; a'0l;ukrP
Ü D
vkyfuGuf
2/ rkwåryifv,fauGU&Sd &wemobm0 wkw
d ,f? jrefrmha&eHEiS o
hf bm0
"mwfaiGUpDrHudef;
"mwfaiGUvkyfief;? csmA&Gef?
yDwDwDtD;yD
3/ rkwåryifv,fauGU&Sd trfEkdif;vkyfuGuf yDwDwDtD;yD
4/ rkwåryifv,fauGU&Sd &JwHcGefobm0 yufx½kdeyfa&eHukrÜPD? jrefrmh
"mwfaiGUpDru
H ed ;f
a&eHEiS hf obm0"mwfaiGUvkyif ef;
(MOGE)? edyeG af &eH&mS azGa&;
(jrefrm)? yDwDwDtD;yD

4/

tpk&S,f&mykdifukrÜPD

3/

vkyfuGuftrnf

2/

pOf

pOf
a&eHajrtrnf
1/ jrefatmif

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

jrefrmEkdifiHESifhtusKd;wlyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdaom obm0"mwfaiGYpDrHudef;rsm;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/118 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

232

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wpfurÇmvkH;qkdif&m a&t&if;tjrpfykdifqkdifrItajctae(xkxnfyrmP)
jyefvnf
jyefvnfjznfh
ajratmuf ajrjyifay:&Sd
jznfw
h if;Ekid f
wif;Ekid af om
pOf EkdifiHtrnf
a&t&if; a&yrmP
aoma&
a&t&if;
tjrpf a&t&if;tjrpf
t&if;tjrpf
tjrpf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/

b&mZD;vf
½k&mS ;
tar&du
uae'g
w½kwf
tif'edk ;D &Sm;
ukv
d b
H ,
D m
tar&duef
yD½l;
tdE´d,
uGef*kd
AifeDZGJvm;
b*Fvm;a'h&fS
jrefrm

5418
4312.7
2818.4
2850
2879.4
2838
2112
2000
1616
1260.54
900
722.45
105
880.6

1874
788
370
832.8
455
510
1300
303
418.54
421
227
21.09
156

5418
4036.7
2840
2774.5
2793
2112
1862
1616
1222
899
700.14
83.91
874.6

8233
4507.25
3069.4
2902
2896.57
2838
2132
2071
1913
1907.76
1283
1233.17
1210.64
1045.6

233

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif trsm;qkH;&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHxm;onfU ekdifiHrsm;
(2011 ckESpf? tar&duefa':vm? oef;)
pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/

EkdifiHtrnf
w½kwf
xkdif;
a[mifaumif
uk&d ;D ,m;
NAdwdef
pifumyl
rav;&Sm;
jyifopf
tar&duef
tif'kdeD;&Sm;
e,fomvef
*syef

9603
568
6308
2935
2659
1818
975
469
243
241
238
211

yrmP
'or 168
'or 093
'or 495
'or 017
'or 954
'or 613
'or 097
'or 000
'or 565
'or 497
'or 835
'or 902

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

2010-2011 ckESpftxd jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif; jynfy&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrI tajctae
w½kwfa[mifaumif
15.5
bDvD,H

xkid ;f
9.56
bDvD,H

awmifu&dk ;D ,m;

NAdwdef

puFmyl

2.915
bDvD,H

2.659
bDvD,H

1.818
bDvD,H

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/118 of 208.

2011-2012 ckESpf b@ma&;ESpftwGif; u@toD;oD;ü
&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHxm;rI tajctae
vQyfppfpGrf;tif a&eHEiS o
hf bm0
u@
"mwfaiGU
14.5
bDvD,H

13.8
bDvD,H

xkwfvkyfrI [kdw,fESifh
ow¬K
u@ c&D;oGm;vma&;
wl;azmfa&;
2.8
bDvD,H

1.7
bDvD,H

1
bDvD,H

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/119 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

234

em*pfrkefwkdif;aMumifU aoaMu'Pf&m&&SdrIESifUysufpD;qkH;½IH;rI
1/ vlaoqkH;? aysmufqkH;'Pf&m&SdrI
(u) aoqk;H rI
= 77738 OD;
( c ) aysmufq;Hk rI
= 55917 OD;
( * ) 'Pf&m&&SdrI
= 19359 OD;
pkpkaygif;

= 153014 OD;

2/ ysufpD;qkH;½IH;rIwefzkd;aygif;
(u) EkdifiHykdif(usyf) = 3.3577 x&DvD,H?
(tar&duefa':vm 3.05 bDv,
D )H
( c ) yk*v
¾ u
d ykid (f usy)f = 8.3800 x&DvD,H?
(tar&duefa':vm 7.62bDv,
D )H

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

235

22-10-2010 &ufaeYwGif wkdufcwfonfU qkdifuvkef;rkefwkdif;
*D&dab;'PfaMumifh ysufpD;qkH;½IH;rI
pOf ysufpD;qkH;½IH;rI

rauG;wdkif; rEÅav;wkdif; &ckdifjynfe,f pkpkaygif;

1/ vlaoqk;H rI

7

3

35

45

2/ vlaysmufq;Hk

3

-

10

13

158

3

20232 20393

4/ ab;oift
h rd af xmifpk 158

3

48272 48433

5/ v,fysufpD;rI({u)

-

-

70919 70919

6/ ysupf ;D pmoifausmif;

-

-

365

365

-

-

1

1

8/ ysupf ;D aq;cef;

-

-

27

27

9/ ysupf ;D aq;½kH

-

-

4

4

10/ ysupf ;D wHwm;

2

-

2

4

11/ ysupf ;D qnf? wmwrH

-

-

11

11

3/ ysufpD;tdrfajc

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
pkpkaygif;(usyf)

= 11.7377 x&Dv,
D ?H
(tar&duefa':vm10.67bDvD,H)

(xuf? v,f? rl)

7/ ysufpD;wuúokdvf?
aumvdyf

3/ EkdifiHykdiftaqmuftOD
(u) NydKus^ysufpD;
( c ) trkd;vef
( * ) tjcm;ysufpD;rI
pkpkaygif;

ysufpD;qkH;½IH;rItajctae
= 13099
=
9794
=
2594
=

25487

4/ yk*¾vduykdif vlaetaqmuftODrsm; ysufpD;rI
(u) NydKus^ysufpD; = 407093
( c ) trkd;vef
= 343111
pkpkaygif;

= 750204

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/119 of 208.

ysufpD;wefzkd;pkpkaygif; usyf odef; 240233
usyf 24 bDvD,sH

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/120 of 208.

rSwfcsuf/ aoqkH;olpm&if;wGif txufygZ,m;rS (64) OD; wyfe,fwyf&if;rsm;rSm (11)OD; pkpkaygif; (75)OD; jzpfygonf/

92
64

335
171
428
167
1101
353
527
880
602
2583
569
670
5
6
4
2
17
4
14
18
2
37
55
1
12
1
14
1
28
29
43
21
-

'ku©onf
aygif;
pOf &yfuGuf^aus;&Gm(tkyfpk) tdrfajcrlv ysufpD;rItdrfajc tdrfaxmifpk aoqkH;olOD;a& 'Pf&m&ol
aygif;
'kuo
© nfaygif;
aygif;
aygif;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

836
836
4515

56
33
90
35
214
88
104
192
150
556
146
134
56
33
90
35
214
88
104
192
150
556
146
134
172
65
233
92
562
455
612
1067
1224
2853
146
1516
8/
9/

7/

5/
6/

trSwf(1)&yfuGuf
trSwf(2)&yfuGuf
trSwf(3)&yfuGuf
trSwf(4)&yfuGuf
NrdKUay:aygif;
rkdif;vif;ta&SUtkyfpk
rkdif;vif;taemuftkyfpk
rkdif;vif;aygif;
em;a,mif;tkypf k
wmavcsKyf
usuleDjynfolYppf
rkid ;f uk;d tkypf ak emufw;dk
(17)&Gm
pkpkaygif;csKyf

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237

avab;oifha'orsm; jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;ESifU obm0ab;tEå&m,f
a&&SnfumuG,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifUywfoufí AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; oef;a&T\
vrf;ñTefrSmMum;csuf
1/ yxrOD;qk;H taejzifh avab;oifjh ynforl sm;\ vwfwavmvkt
d yfcsuf
rsm;jzpfonfh pm;0wfaea&;? aq;0g;ukoa&;ponfh csucf si;f aqmif&u
G f
ay;&rnfh vkyfief;rsm;ukd pwifaqmif&Guf ay;cJhaMumif;/
2/ u,fq,fa&;vkyif ef;rsm; tawmftoifh jznfq
h nf;ay;Ekid o
f nfh tajc
taewGif 'kw,
d tqift
h aejzifh ysupf ;D oGm;aom aus;&Gmrsm; jyefvnf
wnfaqmufay;a&;? ,m,DvlaetaqmufttkHrsm;wGif a'ocHrsm;
jyefvnfaexkdifa&;? vrf;? wHwm;? qufoG,fa&;vrf;aMumif;rsm;
jyefvnfaumif;rGefa&;? aus;&Gmtkyfpkrsm;tvkduf ,m,Dusef;rma&;
pcef;rsm; zGiv
hf pS af y;a&;? pmoifausmif;rsm;? jyefvnfziG v
hf pS af &;ponfh
jyefvnfxlaxmifa&; vkyfief;rsm;ukd aqmif&Gufay;cJhaMumif;/
3/ wpfqufwnf;rSmyif a'ocHrsm;\ toufarG;0rf;ausmif; vkyif ef;rsm;
jzpfonfh pkdufysKd;a&;? a&vkyfief;ESifh qm;csufvkyfief;rsm; jyefvnf
xlaxmifEkdifatmif v,f,majrjyKjyifrI? uRJ? EGm;ESifh v,fxGefpuf
i,frsm; yHhykd;ay;rI? yJhaxmifavSrsm;? ig;zrf; ykdufrsm; jznfhqnf;ay;rI
vkyfief;rsm;ukd pwifpDrHaqmif&Gufay;vsuf&SdaMumif;/
4/ wwd,tqift
h aejzifh aemifumvrsm;wGif obm0ab;tEÅ&m,fukd
umuG,fEkdifrnfh a&vGwfukef;jrifhrsm;? a&wm;avwm; opfyifrsm;
wnfaqmufpu
dk yf sK;d a&;wkt
Yd jyif aus;&Gmcsi;f quf vrf;rsm;ukd a&vGwf
atmif vrf;tjrifrh sm; jyefvnfwnfaqmuf ay;a&;wku
Yd dk pDraH qmif&u
G f
ay;&efvadk Mumif;/
5/ EkdifiHawmf wnfaqmufa&;ü EkdifiHawmftpkd;&csnf;oufouf aqmif
&Gufír&EkdifaMumif;? EkdifiHawmf wnfaqmuf&mü EkdifiHawmftpkd;&?
wyf r awmf E S i f h jynf o l t if t m;pk (3)&yf nD ñ G w f p G m yl ; aygif ;
wnfaqmufrS atmifjrifEkdifrnfqkdonfh cH,lcsufonf EkdifiHawmf\
rl0g'yifjzpfaMumif;? þrl0g' cH,cl suEf iS t
hf nD wyfrawmfu Ekid if aH wmf\
wm0efukd pwif&,lcJhcsdefrS pwifí EkdifiHawmftpkd;&? wyfrawmfESifh
jynfow
l \
Ydk aygif;pnf;nDñw
G o
f nfph rG ;f tm;jzifh Ekid if aH wmfukd wnfaqmuf
vmcJhjcif;jzpfaMumif;/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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wmavNrdKYe,fcGJ ivsifab; ysufqD;^qkH;½IH;rIpm&if;

3822

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

236

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/121 of 208.

238

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

6/ þpGrf;tm;pk(3)&yf\ nDñGwfonfh tm;rmefpGrf;tm;jzifh rnfonfh
tusyftwnf; tcuftcJudkrqkd &ifqkdifausmfvTm;EkdifcJhonfrSm
,aeYwidk yf ifjzpfaMumif;/ rkew
f idk ;f 'Pf usa&mufc&hJ müvnf; þaygif;
pnf;nDñGwfonfh pGrf;tm;jzifhyif EkdifiHawmfukd jyefvnf xlaxmifae
jcif;jzpfaMumif;? a&SUtzkdYrSmvnf; þrl0g'cH,lcsufESifhyif rdrdEkdifiH rdrd
qufvufwnfaqmufomG ;rnfjzpf&m a&&Snw
f iG v
f nf; atmifjrifrrI sm;
&&SdrSm trSefyifjzpfaMumif;/
7/ ,ck avab;oifha'orsm;ESifh jynfolrsm;twGuf u,fq,fa&;
vkyfief;rsm;tjyif jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;ESifh obm0ab; tEÅ&m,f
a&&SnfumuG,fEkdifa&;vkyfief;rsm;ukd qufvufaqmif&GufoGm;rSm
jzpfaMumif;? a&&Snf obm0ab;tEÅ&m,f umuG,fEkdifa&;twGuf
yifv,fykdif;a'orsm;wGif urf;tajctxda&mufatmif vrf;rsm;
azmufvyk &f if; a&ab;vGwaf tmif wdr;f a&SmifEidk af &;twGuf vrf;rsm;
ukd jrifhrm;pGm wnfaqmufay;&efvkdaMumif;? yifv,fykdif;aus;&Gm
rsm;wGif a&ab;vGwfuif;Ekid o
f nfh uke;f tjrifrh sm;vnf; wnfaqmuf
ay;&efjzpfaMumif;/
8/ jynfolYusef;rma&; apmifha&Smufa&;ESifhywfoufí a'owpfckvkH;
twGuf rdrdpGrf;tm;jzifh rdrdaqmif&GufEkdifatmif Self-Contanied
jzpfatmif aq;½kHrsm;? aq;ay;cef;rsm;ukd tuGufcsvsuf qufpyf
rdatmif tqifjh ri§ w
hf ifay;&efjzpfaMumif;? NrKd UBu;D rsm;wGif ckwif (200)
qH?h ckwif(100)qHh aq;½krH sm; tqifjh ri§ ahf y;Ny;D use;f rma&; apmifah &Smuf
rI uGif;qufrdatmif tcsuftcsmusonfh aus;vufa'orsm;ü
aus;vufaq;ay;cef;rsm; zGifhvSpfay;&efjzpfaMumif;/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

239

wyfrawmfqkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
wyfrawmftp bDtikd af tuqdak ompum;twdik ;f wyfrawmftaMumif;
avhvmrnfqv
kd Qif bDtikd af trSpí avhvm&ygrnf/ bDtikd af t pwifzGJUpnf;
pOfu &JabmfoHk;usdyfjzifh zGJUpnf;cJhonf/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/121 of 208.

&JabmfoHk;usdyf

1/
2/
3/
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5/
6/
7/
8/
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10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/

ocifatmifqef;
ocif½Iarmif
ukdvSarmif
ukad tmifoed ;f
udak &T
udkxGef;&Sdef
ocifvSNrdKif
ocifA*srf;
ocifvSaz
ocifatmifoef;
ukdoef;ñGefY
ukx
d eG ;f a&T
ukw
d ifat;
ocifapmvGif
ukpd ;kd

AdkvfawZ
Adkvfae0if;
AdkvfaZ,s
Adkvf&JxG#f
Adv
k af usmaf Zm
Adkvf&efEdkif
Adkvf&efatmif
Adkvfva&mif
Adkvfvusfm
AdkvfpMum
AdkvfZifa,mf
Adv
k v
f if;,kef
Adkvfbkef;jrifh
Adkvfrif;acgif
Adkvfjrifhatmif

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/122 of 208.

240

16/
17/
18/
19/
20/
21/
22/
23/
24/
25/
26/
27/
28/
29/
30/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

ocifpHjr
Adv
k af wmufxed f
ocifcifarmifOD;
Adkvfwm&m
ocifpHvdIif
Adkvfatmif
ukad rmifarmif
Adv
k Ó
f P
ukdvS
Adkvfrif;a&mif
ocifxGef;cif
AdkvfjrifhaqG
ocifausmfpdef
Adkvfrdk;ndK
ocifaiG
Adv
k af pmatmif
ocifopf
Adv
k af pmaemif
ocifxGef;vGif
AdkvfAv
ocifoef;wif
Adkvfjr'if
ocifat;armif
Adv
k rf ;kd
ocifoef;wif(armfvNrdKif)
Adkvfoef;wif
ocifxGef;tkyf
ocifxGef;tkyf
udak qmif;
Adkvfxdef0if;
&Jabmfo;kH usyd f ppfynmoif,o
l nfah e&mrSm [dik ef efuRe;f ESihf xdik 0f rfuRe;f
jzpfNyD; &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f if ocifxeG ;f tkyrf mS tkycf sKyaf &;ynmudkom oif,lcJh
ygonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

241

vGwv
f yfa&;ESit
hf wl ArmhtrsKd ;om;wyfrawmf[k
jyifqif zGJUpnf;cJhonf/
4/ yDbDtuf (PBF) = rsKd ;cspAf rmhwyfrawmf (Patriotic Burmese Forces)
23-7-1945 &ufaeYwiG f rsKd ;cspAf rmhwyfrawmf[k
jyifqif zGJUpnf;cJhonf/

bDtkdifat ppfaMumif;BuD; (4)aMumif;
bDtikd af twyfrawmfonf *syefjynfwiG f ppfynmoifMum;í *syefEiS t
hf wl
ppfaMumif;av;aMumif;cGJí jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufvmcJhonf/
xkdppfaMumif; trnfrsm;rSm1/ jr0wDppfaMumif;?
2/ zmyGepf pfaMumif;?
3/ xm;0,fppfaMumif; ?
4/ NrdwfppfaMumif;/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
wyfrawmftqifUqifUajymif;vJzGJYpnf;yHk

1/ bDtkdifat (BIA) = ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf (Burma Independence Army) 26-12-41 &ufaeYwi
G f xdik ;f Edik if ?H
AefaumufNrKd U OD;vGe;f az\aetdrw
f iG f zGUJ pnf;cJo
h nf/
2/ bD'Dat (BDA) = ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf (Burma Defence
Army) 27-7-42&ufaeYwi
G f bDtikd af tac: Armh
vGwv
f yfa&; wyfrawmfudkzsufodrf;í ysOf;rem;
NrdKUwGif tiftm; (3000)cefjY zifh BDA ac: Armh
umuG,af &; wyfrawmfukd jyifqifzGJUpnf;cJhonf/
3/ bDtefat (BNA)= ArmhtrsKd ;om;wyfrawmf (Burma National Army)
15-9-43 &ufaeYwiG f *syefwdkYay;onfh a&T&nfpdrf

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/122 of 208.

wyfrawmf\ wkdif;usKd;jynfjyK aqmif&GufcsuftusOf;csKyf

(u) 1941 ckESpf
( c ) 1943 ckEpS f
( * ) 1945 ckESpf
(C) 1946^48
( i ) 1948^50
( p ) 1950^58
(q) 1958^60
( Z ) 1960^62
(ps) 1962^74
(n) 1974^78

bDtdkifatb0jzifh e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;/
bD'aD tb0jzifh zufqpfawmfveS af &;jyifqifjcif;/
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umv/
wyfrawmf&yfwnfcGifhESifh vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI/
jynfwGif;aomif;usef;rI tqdk;½Gm;qHk;umv/
jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rI ESrd ef if;jcif;ESihf jynfyusL;ausmrf &I ef
umuG,fjcif;/
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &wm0efjzifh jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rI jynfy
usL;ausmfrIwdkYudk ESdrfeif;jcif;/
jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rIEiS hf jynfyusL;ausmrf u
I kd ESrd ef if;jcif;/
awmfvSefa&;aumifpDvufxuf jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&;
trsKd ;om;jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&;/
yJc;l ½d;k r? jrpf0uRe;f ay:a'orsm;rS aomif;use;f rI tjrpfjywf
acsrIef;jcif;ESifh jynfajy;rsm;tm; tjrpfjywfacsrIef;jcif;/

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/123 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

242

( # ) 1978^80 {&m0wDjrpftaemufjcrf;ESifh &ckdifa'o Auyrsm;tm;
xd;k ppfqifjcif; 2^80 trdeaYf Munmcsut
f & Nird ;f csr;f a&;
wnfaqmufjcif;/
( X ) 1980^88 jynfwGif;aomif;usef;rIqufvufacsrIef;jcif;? EdkifiHa&;
wm0ef xrf;aqmifjcif;/
( ! ) 1988 ckESpf jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rIx;kd ppfukd [efw
Y m;jcif;? rif;rJph ½du
k f
ESrd ef if;jcif;? Edik if aH wmf\wm0eft&yf&yfukd wm0ef,jl cif;/
( ¡ ) 1988^90 EdkifiHawmf\Nidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJUtjzpf
EdkifiHwm0eft&yf&yfudk wm0ef,ljcif; wpfygwDpepfudk
csKyNf ird ;f apNy;D ? ygwDp'kH rD u
kd a&pDpepfukd azmfaqmifay;jcif;?
w&m;rQwaom a&G;aumufyJG usi;f yay;jcif;? wdik ;f &if;om;
vufeufuikd t
f zGUJ (17)ESihf Nird ;f csr;f a&;&,lum e,fpyfa'o
zGUH NzKd ;a&;aqmif &Gufay;jcif;/
(P) 1995^96 trfwaD ttzGUJ rsm; vufeufcsjcif;? wdik ;f usKd ;jynfjyK vlxk
axmufcHyGJrsm; usif;yjcif;ESifh ½HIUcsyGJrsm; jyKvkyfjcif;/
(w) 1997^
Edik if aH wmfzUHG NzKd ;wd;k wufa&;ESihf EkdifiHawmfzGJUpnf;ykH tajccH
2011
Oya'opfwpf&yf ay:aygufvma&;twGuaf qmif&u
G jf cif;/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

243

wyfrawmf(a&)
pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf

=

24-12-1947

wyfrawmf(a&)aqmifyk'f
avScGufcsnf;usef tvHrvJ? jrefrmhyifv,fwdkYumuG,f

wyfrawmf (av)
pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf

15-12-1947

wyfrawmf(av)aqmifyk'f
pMum0VmodkY wufEdkifzsm;a&muf (Our mission is to fly and fight)

wdkif;ppfXmecsKyfrsm;

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umv ppfwdkif;BuD; (7)wkdif;

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wdkif; (1) rif;vSpnfol
wdkif; (2) ausmfacgifAv
wdkif; (3) &Jausmfol&
wdik ;f (4) vusmf ausmx
f if
wdik ;f (5) aZ,sausmo
f l
wdkif; (6) b,sausmfxif
wdkif; (7) oD&dausmfxif

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

jynf? om,m0wD? tif;pdef
[Hom0wD? rtlyif? zsmyHk
ykodrf? [oFmw? ajrmif;jr
yJcl;? a&Tusif? oxHk
armfvNrdKif? xm;0,f
awmifil? rdw¬Dvm
o&uf? atmifvH? rif;bl;

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ajrmufydkif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyf (jrpfBuD;em;)
ta&SUajrmufydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (vm;½dI;)
Bwd*Ha'owdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (usdKif;wHk)
ta&SUydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (awmifBuD;)
ta&SUawmifwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (armfvNrdKif)
urf;½dk;wef;a'owdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (Nrdwf)
&efukefwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (&efukef)
taemufawmifwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (ykodrf)
taemufydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (trf;)
taemufajrmufwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (rHk&Gm)
tv,fydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (rEÅav;)
aejynfawmfwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (aejynfawmf)
awmifydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (awmifil)

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244

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyfrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/

trSwf(11) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (tif;wdkif)
trSwf(22) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (bm;tH)
trSwf(33) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (ppfudkif;)
trSwf(44) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (usdKufxdk)
trSwf(55) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (uavm)
trSwf(66) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf(tif;r)
trSwf(77) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (yJcl;)
trSwf(88) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (rauG;)
trSwf(99) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (rdw¬Dvm)
trSwf(101) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (yckuúL)

wyfrawmfppfausmif;BuD;rsm;

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245

ppfwuúodkvftaMumif; odaumif;p&m
1/ pwifzGifhvSpfonfhae&m
2/ pwifzGifhvSpfonfh&ufpGJ
3/ ay;tyfaombGUJ rsm;

=
=
=

(*syefacwf) r*Fvm'Hk
(jyifOD;vGif) 1-6-57
B.Sc (D.S.A), B.A (D.S.A),
M.Sc (D.S.A), M.A (D.S.A),
B.CSc. (D.S.A)

4/ wufa&muf&onfu
h mv
5/ arG;aeY
6/ ppfwuúov
kd af qmify'k f

7/ ppfwuúodkvft"d|mef

=
=
=

,cif av;ESp?f 1999 ckEpS rf pS í ok;H ESpf
Mo*kwf (1)&uf
(u) aemifwpfacwf\atmifppfonf
( c ) ol&? opöm? odyÜH
( * ) ppfwuúov
kd o
f nf b,fawmhrS
vufeufrcs
= Munf ; ^a&^avxk t m;rmef j yKí
jynfol tdk;tdrfjynfhpnf;pdrftwGuf
wkdYvufNrJNrJ cdkifckdifwGJpdkY

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
Edik if aH wmfumuG,af &;wuúov
kd f (aejynfawmf)
ppfOD;pD;wuúodkvf (uavm)
wyfrawmf(Munf;)wdu
k cf u
kd af &;ausmif;(Axl;)
wyfrawmf(Munf;)wdu
k cf u
kd af &;ausmif; (bk&ifah emif)
ppfwuúodkvf (jyifOD;vGif)
wyfrawmfaq;wuúodkvf (&efukef? r*Fvm'kH)
wyfrawmfenf;ynmwuúodkvf (jyifOD;vGif)
wyfrawmf(Munf;)Adv
k o
f ifwef;ausmif; (Axl;)
wyfrawmftkyfcsKyfrI tuloifwef;ausmif; (jyifOD;vGif)
wyfrawmfolemjyKESifh aq;bufynmwuúodkvf (&efukef? r*Fvm'kH)

ppfwuúodkvfwGifay;aomqkrsm;

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atmifppfonfqk aiG"m;
avhusiahf &;xl;cReq
f k(,cif)ajcmufv;kH jyL;
pmayxl;cRefqk (0dZÆm)a&T
pmayxl;cRefqk (odyÜH)a&T
pmayxl;cReq
f k (uGeyf sLwm)a&T

wyfrawmfenf;ynmwuúokdvf
pwifwnfaxmifonfh&uf = 1993ckESpf
a<u;aMumfoHaqmifyk'f
tif*sifeD,mpGrf;yum; wyfrawmftm;
Technology for military might.

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

246

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wyfrawmfaq;wuúodkvf
pwifwnfaxmifonfh&uf/

1992ckESpf? Edk0ifbm (19)&uf

ESpftvkdufoifMum;&aom bmom&yfrsm;
yxrESpf
- jref r mpm? t*F v d y f p m? ocsF m ? ½l y aA'?
owåaA'? ½ku©aA'? uGefysLwm
'kwd,ESpf
- cE¨maA'? ZD0"mwkaA'? ZD0ur®aA'
wwd,ESpf
- a&m*gaA'? ydk;rTm;aA'? aq;0g;aA'
aemufqHk;ESpf tydkif;(u) - a&m*gaA'? rIcif;qdkif&maq;ynm? uav;
usef;rma&;ynm? om;zGm; rD;,yfynm
tvkyfoifq&m0ef
- wyfrawmfppfaq;½HBk u;D rsm;wGif wpfEpS w
f w
d d
tvkyfoifq&m0eftjzpf oifMum;vkyfudkif
&onf/
ay;tyfaombGUJ
- M.B.B.S
ay;tyfaomqkrsm;
- atmifppfonfqk? avhusifha&;xl;cRefqk?
pmayxl;cRefqk

ppfom; SOLDIER t"dyÜg,f
S = Smart
O = Obedience
L = Loyality
D = Dutiful
I = Intelligence
E = Efficiency
R = Right

aooyfrI
trdefYemcHwwfrI
opöm&SdrI
wm0efausyGefrI ^ Discipline ppfpnf;urf;&SdrI
todÓPfxufjrufrI
ppfynmt&nftaoG;jynfh0rI
rSefuef&mudkomvkyfaqmifwwfrI ^ Readyness
tNrJtoifh&SdrI

wyfrawmf\ t"duwm0ef
1/ Edik if aH wmfumuG,af &;wm0ef
2/ avhusiahf &;wm0ef
3/ jynfolYtusdK;jyKvkyfief;wm0ef

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
wyfrawmfaq;wyfzGJY\aqmifyk'f
'kdYwm0ef (Our Mission)
usef;rmBuHhcdkif wdkufEdkif&ef (Make Fit to fight)

'dv
Yk rf;pOf (Our motto)
apwem (Sincerity) ? tMuifem (Sympathy) ? ab;uif;pGm (Safety)

wyfrawmf(Munf;)Adkvfoifwef;ausmif;
wyfrawmf(Munf;) Adkvfoifwef;ausmif;udk jyifOD;vGif(arNrdKU)wGif pwif
wnfaxmifco
hJ nf/ 1963ckESpfwGif arSmfbDNrdKUü zGifhvSpfcJhonf/ xkdYaemuf
1991ckESpf Mo*kwfvwGif arSmfbDrS Axl;wyfNrdKUodkY ajymif;a&TUzGifhvSpfcJhonf/

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247

wyfrawmf\ pGrf;&nf (3)&yf

1/ ppfa&;pGrf;&nf
2/ tkyfcsKyfa&;pGrf;&nf
3/ pnf;½H;k a&;pGr;f &nf

wyfrawmf\ tm;(10)yg;
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opömapmifhodrI
trdefYemcHwwfrI
pdwf"mwfcdkifrmrIESifh ZGJowådjynfh0rI
ppfpnf;urf;aumif;rGefrI
avhusifhom;jynfh0rI
wdkuf&nfcdkuf&nfjynfh0rI
usef;rmMuHhckdifrI
tcsif;csif;&Jabmfpdwfxm;&SdrI
pGefYvTwfpGefYpm;rI
oEéd|mefpdwfjzifh &nfrSef;csufNyD;ajrmufatmif aqmif&GufrI

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wyfrawmf\tpOftvmaumif; (12)&yf
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rsdK;cspfwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pnf;urf;aumif;aomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
opöm&Sdaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pnf;vHk;nDñGwfaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pGrf;&nf&Sdaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pGefYvTwfpGefYpm;aomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
wpfOD;csif;udk,fusdK;udk y"merxm;aomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pdwf"mwfjrifhjrwfaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
tcuftcJukd &ifqikd af usmv
f mT ;Edik o
f nfh &JprG ;f owå&d adS omwyfrawmf
jzpfonf/
10/ tyifyef;tqif;&JcHEdkifonfhwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
11/ ZGJ? vHkYv? 0D&d,&Sdonfhwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
12/ 'dw
Yk m0efta&;oH;k yg;udk tNrOJ ;D xdyyf efqifaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

2/ bk&ifhaemifausmfxifaemf&xm\ aemif½dk;wdkufyGJtqdktrdefY
]]ppfwdkY\oabmw&m;onf tiftm;enf;onf? rsm;onf[lí rqdkom
vkyf&nfudkif&nf &JpGrf;owådom t&if;cHjzpfonf}}
3/ 'dkYwm0efta&;oHk;yg;onf &Jabmfwdkif;\ trsdK;om;a&;wm0ef
(u) jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJa&;
( c) wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDñGwfrI rNydKuGJa&;
( * ) tcsKyftjcmtmPm wnfwHhcdkifNrJa&;
4/ wyfwkdif;? &Jabmfwkdif; &Sd&rnfh tajccHt&nftcsif; (5)rsdK;
(u) pdwf"mwf
( c ) pnf;urf;
( * ) opöm
(C) pnf;vH;k rI
( i ) pGrf;&nfoHk;&yfjynfhpHkrI

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
jynfolYwyfrawmfom;wdkh\ opömt"d|mef

igwdkYonf EdkifiHawmfESifh EdkifiHom;wdkY\opömudk apmifhod ½dkaoygrnf/
igwdo
Yk nf usq;kH avNy;D aom wyfrawmfom;wd\
Yk opömudk apmifo
h d ½dak oygrnf/
ightm; txufraS y;tyfaomtrdeEYf iS hf wm0efukd ausyeG pf mG xrf;aqmifygrnf/
ighEdkifiHawmf? ighEdkifiHom;? ighwyfrawmftwGuf ig\toufudk pGefYvTwf&ef
t"d|mefjyKyg\/

wyfrawmfESifUywfoufí rSwfom;zG,f&m tqdktrdefh qdk½dk;pum;rsm;
1/ ]]ighom;rsm;ppfxJ0if&ifav olYudkajymvkdufprf;yguGm? ppfwyfqdkwm
trSefomvdkufemEdkif&if wu,fha,musfm;jrwfjzpfapEdkifwJhw&m;awGudk
oifMum;ay;wJh ausmif;BuD;aygh}}
ppfonfa[mif;wpfOD;\ trSmpum;

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249

5/ wyfrawmfonf trsdK;om;a&;udk b,fawmhrSopömrazmuf
6/ wyfrawmftiftm;&SdrS wkdif;jynftiftm;&Sdrnf/
7/ ]]&Jabmfpdwf[lonf &Jabmftcsif;csif;tay:xm;&Sdaom arwåm
w&m;? oHa,mZOfw&m;? opömapmifhodrIw&m;yifjzpfonf}}
8/ xm;&Sdoifhaom wkdufyGJ0ifpdwf"mwf
(u) BuHhcdkifonfhpdwf"mwf
( c ) pGefYvTwfpGefYpm;onfhpdwf"mwf
( * ) usnw
f pfawmifh vlwpfa,mufuseo
f nftxd wdu
k &f o
J nfph w
d "f mwf
(C) wyfrawmf\ *kPu
f kd toufpeG NYf y;D jri§ w
hf ifvo
kd nfph w
d "f mwf
( i ) tcsif;csif;½dkif;yif;ulnDvdkonfhpdwf"mwf
( p ) &Jabmf&Jbufpdwf"mwf
9/ b,folcGJcGJ 'dkYruGJ? tNrJpnf;vHk;rnf/
10/ wyfrawmf\pdwf"mwf
(u) avScGufcsnf;usef tvHrvJonfhpdwf"mwf
( c ) wHk;wdkufwkduf? usm;udkufudkuf pdwf"mwf
( * ) wyfrawmf\ tpOftvmudk toufay;apmifx
h ed ;f vdo
k nfph w
d "f mwf

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

11/ wyfrawmf\ cHEdkif&nfpHEIef;
(u) ig;rdkifrem;wrf; tajy;wufEdkif&rnf/
( c ) q,frdkifrem;wrf; vrf;avQmufEdkif&rnf/
( * ) wpfaeYrdkifoHk;q,f c&D;ayguf&rnf/
12/ wyfwnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;BuD; (4)&yf
(u) avhusifha&;ESifh wnfaqmuf
( c ) tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh wnfaqmuf
( * ) oufomacsmifcsda&;ESifh wnfaqmuf
(C) pdwf"mwfESifh wnfaqmuf
13/ acgif;aqmifrsm;twGuf tjrif (4)jrif
(u) ppfa&;tjrif
( c ) EdkifiHa&;tjrif
( * ) pD;yGm;a&;tjrif
(C) tkyfcsKyfa&;tjrif
14/ ppfatmifapaomtaMumif;BuD;rsm;
(u) &nf&G,fcsuf wdusckdifNrJjcif;
( c) pdwf"mwfBuHhckdifaumif;rGefjcif;
( * ) tiftm;udk vdktyfoavmuf pkpnf;toHk;jyKjcif;
(C) wdkufppfqifEdkifpGrf;&Sdjcif;
( i ) vG,fulpGmvIyf&Sm;Edkifjcif;
( p ) vHkNcHKrI&Sdjcif;
(q) tidkufzrf;Edkifjcif;
( Z ) owif;pHkpGm&,ljcif;
(ps) ajymif;vG,fjyifvG,f&Sdjcif;
(n) n§Ed idI ;f yl;aygif;aqmif&u
G jf cif;
( # ) tkyfcsKyfaxmufyHhrIaumif;jcif;
( X ) jynfolwpf&yfvHk;\ axmufcHtm;ay;ulnDrI&&Sdjcif;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

251

15/ &JoHk;&J
&J&Jwuf? &J&Jwdkuf? &J&JacsrIef;
16/ NrJoHk;NrJ
(u) tNrJwrf; avhusifh&rnf/
( c ) tNrJwrf; ppfa&;owd&Sd&rnf/
( * ) tNrJwrf; wdkufyGJ0iftoifh&Sd&rnf/

wyfrawmfrS pGrf;&nfowÅdESifUywfoufí csD;jr§ifUaombGJY? wHqdyfrsm;
bGJUrsm;
1/ atmifqef;ol&d,bGJU
2/ oD[ol&bGJU
3/ ol&bGJU

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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wHqdyfrsm;
1/ atmifqef;wHqyd f
2/ oD[AvwHqdyf
3/ ol&Jaumif;rSwfwrf;0ifwHqdyf

atmifqef;ol&d,bGJY &&Sdxm;olrsm;
1/
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AdkvfrSL;at;csdK
AdkvfwdkufcRef;
wyfom; vSaomif;
wyfom; apmjrifh
wyfom; apmb&D
wyfom; pGyfA[m'l;½dkif;

wyfrawmfqkdif&m &mxl;tqifUrsm;
1/
2/
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4/

wyfom;
'kwd,wyfMuyf
wyfMuyf
wyfMuyfBuD;

Private, Infantry man, Rifle man
Lance Corporal
Corporal
Sergeant

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252

5/ wyfcw
JG yfMuyfBu;D
6/ 'kw,
d t&mcHAv
kd f

Company Sergeant Major (C S M)
Regimental Sergeant Major
Warrant Officer I

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9/
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19/

'kwd,Adkvf
Adkvf
AdkvfBuD;
AdkvfrSL;
'kwd,AdkvfrSL;BuD;
Adv
k rf LS ;Bu;D
AdkvfrSL;csKyf
AdkvfcsKyf
'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;
AdkvfcsKyfBuD;
'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;
AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;

253

wyfrawmf(Munf;? a&? av)&mxl;tqifU tac:ta0:rsm;

Company Quarter Master Segeant
Warrant Officer II (WO II)

7/ t&mcHAdkvf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Second Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Captain
Major
Lieutenant Colonel
Colonel
Brigadier General
Major General

pOf

&mxl;tqifh

1/ AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;

a&

Munf;

av

Senior
General

2/ 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;

Vice Senior
General

3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/

AdkvfcsKyfBuD;
'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;
AdkvfcsKyf
AdkvfrSL;csKyf
Adv
k rf LS ;Bu;D
'kwd,AdkvfrSL;BuD;
AdkvfrSL;
AdkvfBuD;
Adkvf
'kwd,Adkvf

General

Admiral

General

Lt-General

Vice Admiral Lt- General

Maj-General Rear Admiral Maj- General
Brig- General Commondore Brig- General
Colonel

Captain

Colonel

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
Lieutenant General
General

Vice Senior General

Senior General, Field Marshal,
Five Star General

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Lt -Colonel

Commander

Major

Lt -Commander Major

Lt -Colonel

Captain

Lieutenant

Captain

Lieutenant

Lieutenant

Lieutenant

Second-

Sub-

Second-

Lieutenant

Lieutenant

Lieutenant

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

254

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

pGrf;&nfowÅdbGJY &&SdcJUonfU jynfolY&JwyfzGJY0ifta&twGuf

jrefrmEkdifiH &JwyfzGJYqkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
pwifzUJG pnf;onfah eY&uf =
jyifqifzGJUpnf;onfhaeY&uf =

1887ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 28&uf
1995ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 1&uf

Police [laom

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

P

=

Politeness

O

=

Obedience

L

=

Loyalty

I

=

Intelligence

C

=

Courage

E

=

Efficiency

pum;\t"dyÜg,f

,Ofaus;odrfarGUjcif;
trdefYemcHwwfjcif;
opöm&Sdjcif;
xkd;xGif;odjrifwwfjcif;
ol&owdåESifhjynfhpkHjcif;
t&nftaoG;awmufajymifjcif;

&yf&mG at;csr;f om,ma&;
w&m;Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;
rl;,pfaq;0g;tEÅ&m,fwm;qD;umuG,af &;
jynfolYtusKd;jyKvkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Gufa&;

jrefrmEdkdifiH&JwyfzGJY vkyfief;wm0efBuD; ajcmuf&yf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

atmifqef;ol&d,bGJU
oD[ol&bGJU
ol&bGJU
&JoD[bGJU
&Jol&bGJU
&JAvbGJU
&Jol&defbGJU
&JausmfpGmbGJU
&JausmfolbGJU

= 1 OD;
= 1 OD;
= 5 OD;
= 32 OD;
= 47 OD;
= 108 OD;
= 23 OD;
= 35 OD;
= 80 OD;

jrefrmEkdifiH&JwyfzGJYtBuD;tuJrsm;

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
jrefrmEdkdifiH&JwyfzGJY &nfrSef;csufwm0ef av;&yf

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jypfrIBudKwifumuG,fa&;
jzpfyGm;aomjypfrIrsm;ukd pkHprf;ppfaq;azmfxkwfw&m;pGJqkda&;
pnf;urf;ao0yfwnfNird af &;
jynfolvlxkvkHNcHKa&;
rl;,pfaq;0g;ESrd ef if;a&;
jynfolYtusKd;jyKvkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Gufa&;

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&JcsKyf
'kwd,&JcsKyf
&JOD;pD;t&m&SdcsKyf
&Ja&;csKyf
&JaxmufcsKyf
&Jwyf&if;rsm; uGyfuJa&;rSL;
wyfzGJUrSL;? rIcif;wyfzGJU
wyfzGJUrSL;? owif;wyfzGJU
wyfzGJUrSL;? &xm;wyfzGJU
wyfzGJUrSL;? pnfyifwyfzGJU
ausmif;tkyfBuD;? &JA[kdavhusifha&;ausmif;
rIcif;wyfzGJUrSL;(txufjrefrmjynf)
rIcif;wyfzGJUrSL;(atmufjrefrmjynf)
jynfe,f^wkdif;a'oBuD; &JrSL;BuD;rsm;

255

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

257

jrefrmEkdifiH&JwyfzGJYokdh 0ifa&muf&ef t&nftcsif;owfrSwfcsufrsm;
omref&Jwyfom;tqifh
1/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHom;(trsKd;om;)/
2/ touf 18ESpfjynfhNyD; 25 ESpfxufrBuD;&/
3/ t&yf 5ay 3vufr? &iftkyf 32vufrESifh ukd,ftav;csdef aygif 100
&Sd&rnf/
4/ ynmt&nftcsif; (tajccHrlvwef;)
5/ jrefrmEkid if &H w
J yfzUJG \ Oya'pnf;urf;rsm;ESit
hf nD trIxrf;aqmif&rnf/
'kwd,&Jtkyftqifh
1/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHom;(trsKd;om;)
2/ touf 18ESpfjynfhNyD; 27 ESpfxufrBuD;&/
3/ t&yf 5ay 3vufr? &iftkyf 32vufrESifh ukd,ftav;csdef aygif 100
&Sd&rnf/
4/ wuúokdvfwpfckckrS tenf;qkH; bGJUwpfck&&SdNyD;oljzpf&rnf/
(uGefysLwmESifh t*FvdyfpmuRrf;usifol OD;pm;ay;rnf/)
5/ jrefrmEkid if &H w
J yfzUJG \ Oya'pnf;urf;rsm;ESit
hf nD trIxrf;aqmif&rnf/

EkdifiHwuma&;&modrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
urÇmhukvor*¾
1/ pwifxlaxmifonfhaeY
2/ vuf&SdtzGJU0ifEkdifiHta&twGuf
3/ XmecsKyf½kH;wnf&Sdonfhae&m

= 24-10-1945
= 192EkdifiH
= e,l;a&mufNrdKU? tar&duef
jynfaxmifpk

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/130 of 208.

ukvor*¾\ &nf&G,fcsuf
1/ wpfurÇmvkH;wGif Nidrf;csrf;a&; xdef;odrf;&ef/
2/ EkdifiHtcsif;csif; &if;ESD;cspfMunfpGm aygif;oif;qufqHrIrsm; wkd;wuf
jzpfyGm;ap&ef/
3/ vlrsm;tm; aexkdifrI tqifhtwef; ykdrkdaumif;rGefapí qif;&Jjcif;?
a&m*gjzpfyGm;jcif;? pmrwwfjcif;wkdYukd urÇmay:rS yaysmufap&ef?
vlyY wf0ef;usif ysupf ;D rIudk &yfwefaY p&efEiS hf vltcsi;f csi;f \ &ykid cf iG Ehf iS hf
vGwv
f yfciG rhf sm;ukd tjyeftvSef ta&;xm; av;pm;a&;twGuf twl
wuG yl;aygif;aqmif&GufMuap&ef/
4/ EkdifiHrsm;tm; xkd&nfrSef;csufrsm; aygufa&mufapzkdY ulnDyHhykd;aom
A[kdXmejzpfap&ef/

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258

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

ukvor*¾\ t"duOD;wnfcsuf av;&yf
1/ tjynfjynfqkdif&m Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vkHNcHKa&;ukd xdef;odrf;xm;&Sd&ef
2/ Ekid if rH sm;tMum; cspMf unf&if;ES;D aom qufqaH &;rsm;ukd vlom;rsm;\
nDrQaomtcGifhta&; &&Sdapa&;ESifh rdrdMur®mrdrd zefwD;EkdifcGifh&Sda&;
tajccHrlrsm;tay: wnfrDSí zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufap&ef
3/ tjynfjynfqidk &f m pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;? ,Ofaus;rIEiS hf vlom;rsm;qkid &f m
tcuftcJ jyóemrsm;ukd ajz&Si;f &müvnf;aumif;? vlt
Y cGit
hf a&;ESihf
tajccH vGwv
f yfciG rhf sm;ukd av;pm;vku
d ef ma&;tm; zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wufap&m
wGifvnf;aumif; twlwuG wGJzufvkyfukdifMu&ef
4/ EkdifiHrsm;taejzifh þyef;wkdifrsm;ukd &&Sda&;twGuf aqmif&Guf&mwGif
nd§EIdif;&m tcsuftcsmXme jzpfap&ef
ukvor*¾\tajccHrl ig;csuf
1/ tzGUJ 0ifEidk if t
H m;vk;H onf tcsKyt
f jcmtmPmykid f wef;wl&nfwEl ikd if rH sm;
jzpfMuonf/
2/ tzGJU0ifEkdifiHtm;vkH;onf y#dnmOfpmwrf;ukd vkdufemMu&rnf/
3/ EkdifiHrsm;onf rdrdwkdY\ uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrsm;ukd Nidrf;csrf;aomenf;jzifh
ajz&Sif;&ef BudK;pm;Mu&rnf/
4/ ukvor*¾onf rnfonhEf idk if \
H jynfwiG ;f a&;ukrd Q 0ifa&mufpu
G zf ufjcif;
rjyKEkdif/
5/ EkdifiHrsm;onf ukvor*¾ukd ulnDaxmufyHh&ef BudK;pm;tm;xkwfoifh
Muonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

259

ukvor*¾ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJUolrsm;
pOf

trnf

EkdifiHom;

1/ x&DAvD

aemfa0

2/ 'uf[r®m;½d;I

qGD'if

3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

wm0ef,o
l nfh
umv

rSwfcsuf

1946-1953 oufwrf;(2)Burd f

1953-1961 av,mOfysufus
aoqH;k
OD;oefY
jrefrm
1961-1972 oufwrf;(2)Burd f
uGw0f g;vf[ikd ;f
MopBw;D ,m; 1972-1982
/
yJ&ufpaf 'auG;vsm; yD½;l
1982-1992
/
blx½dkU-blx½dkU*gvD tD*spf
1992-1999 oufwrf;(1)Burd f
udkzDtmeef
*gem
1999-2006 oufwrf;(2)Burd f
befuDrGef;
awmifu&kd ;D ,m; 1-1-2007
rS ,aeYtxd

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

ukvor*¾t"dutzGJUtpnf;rsm;
1/ taxGaxGnv
D mcH
2/ vkHNcHKa&;aumifpD
3/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlraI &;aumifpD
4/ e,fajrxde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufa&;aumifpD
5/ tjynfjynfqkdif&mw&m;½kH;
6/ twGif;a&;rSL;csKyf½kH;
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/131 of 208.

ukvor*¾½kH;okH; bmompum; ajcmufrsKd;
ukvor*¾tzGJUBuD;\ twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJUESifh tjcm;qufpyfaeaom
tzGUJ tpnf;aygif; (30)wGif wm0efxrf;aqmifaeolaygif; (52200)cef&Y o
dS nf/
ukvor*¾½Hk;oHk;bmompum; (6)rsdK;&Sdonf(1) t*Fvdyf
(2) ½k&Sm;
(3) w½kwf
(4) pydef
(5) jyifopf
(6) tm&AD

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

260

ukvor*¾\ txl;at*sifpDrsm;ESifU ¤if;ESifhqufpyfaeaom at*sifpDrsm;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

261

(2) EdkifiHwum b@ma&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrItzGJU (tdkiftufzfpD)
The International Finance Corporation (IFC)

(Specialized Agencies and other Agencies Related to the UN)

ukvor*¾\ txl;at*sifpDrsm;onf (XmecsKy)f ESihf vkyif ef;oabmt&
qufpyfaeaomfvnf; ud,
k yf ikd t
f zGUJ 0ifEikd if rH sm;? ud,
k yf ikd ½f ;kH tzGUJ rsm;jzifh ud,
k yf ikd f
tkyfcsKyf&aom tzGUJ rsm;jzpfonf/
pm;eyf&du©mESifh pdkufysdK;a&;tzGJU (tufzfattdk)
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)

v,f,m? opfawmESihf ig;zrf;vkyif ef;wdrYk x
S w
k u
f ek rf sm;wd;k wufap&efEiS hf
aus;vufjynfow
l \
Ykd tajctae wd;k wufaumif;rGeaf p&ef &nfp;l Ny;D zGUJ pnf;
xm;jcif;jzpfonf/
½Hk;wnfae&m- a&mrNrdKU? tDwvDEdkifiH/

þtzGUJ onf zGUH NzKd ;qJEikd if rH sm;&Sd yk*v
¾ u
d vkyif ef;ydik ;f wd;k wufa&;udk
ulnDaqmif&Gufay;onf/ EdkifiHwumrS yk*¾vdu&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;
pD;0ifvmap&ef tm;ay;onf/
(3) EdkifiHpkH &if;ESSD;jr§KyfESHrI tmrcHat*sifpD(trftkdif*sDat)
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

þtzGJUonf zGHUNzdK;qJEdkifiHrsm;wGif yk*¾vdu&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;udk
wdk;wufap&ef jr§ifhwifay;onf/ &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;udk EdkifiHydkif
rjyKvkyfa&; tmrcHay;onf/ tpdk;&rsm;udk yk*¾vdu &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrI
qGJaqmifenf;rsm; tBuHay;onf/
(4) Edik if w
H um&if;ES;D jrK§ yEf rHS I tjiif;yGm;rIrsm; ajz&Si;f a&;tzGUJ (tdik pf t
D ufpt
f ikd 'f )D

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

EdkifiHwum tPkjrLpGrf;tifat*sifpD

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

tPkjrLpGr;f tifukd Nird ;f csr;f pGmtoH;k jyKa&;ESihf vHNk cKH a&;wdt
Yk wGuf zGUJ pnf;
xm;jcif;jzpfonf/
½Hk;wnf&m- AD,ifemNrdKU? MopBwD;,m;EdkifiH/

Edik if w
H um jyefvnfxal xmifa&;ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;bPf(tdik b
f t
D m&f')D (urÇmb
h Pf)
International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (IBRD) (World
Bank)

zGUH NzKd ;qJEikd if rH sm;&Sd pD;yGm;a&;zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrpI rD u
H ed ;f rsm;udk aiGacs;iSm;&efEiS hf
enf;ynmtultnDay;&efjzpfonf/ tjcm;trsm;ydik Ef iS hf yk*v
¾ u
d ydik f pDru
H ed ;f rsm;udk
vnf; aiGaMu;axmufyHh&efjzpfonf/ tdkifbDtm&f'DatmufwGif wGJzuf
tzGJUtpnf;av;ck&Sdonf(1) EdkifiHwumzGHUNzdK;a&;tzGJU (tdkif'Dat)
The International Development Association (IDA)

þtzGJUonf urÇmhbPf\ wGJzuftzGJUwpfckjzpfNyD; ydkrdkqif;&J
aom zGUH NzKd ;qJEikd if rH sm;odYk zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufaompDru
H ed ;f rsm;vkyaf qmif&ef
txl; tcGifhta&;rsm;jzifh &efof
yHka208.
iGwnfaxmifay;onf/
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/132

The International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes
(ICSID)

&if;ES;D jrK§ yEf rHS EI iS hf ywfoufNy;D tdr&f iS t
f pd;k &ESihf Edik if jH cm;rS &if;ES;D
jrK§ yEf SHolrsm; tMum;jzpfay:aom tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk aphpyfzsefajz
jcif;ESifh cHktjzpf qHk;jzwfjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfay;onf/ tzGJUig;zGJU½Hk;
wnf&mrSm 0g&Siw
f ef'DpD? tar&duef jynfaxmifpkjzpfonf/

EdkifiHwum NrdKUjyavaMumif;tzGJU (tdkifpDattdk)
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Edik if w
H um NrKd UjyavaMumif; yso
H ef;rItqift
h wef;ESihf pnf;rsO;f Oya'rsm;
jr§ifhwif&efjzpfonf/
½Hk;wnf&m- rGefx&D,,fNrdKU? uae'gEdkifiH/
EdkifiHwum pdkufysdK;a&;zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrI&efyHkaiGtzGJU (tdkiftufzfat'D)
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

zGHUNzdK;qJEdkifiHrsm;&Sd pdkufysdK;a&;ESifh aus;vufpDrHudef;rsm;twGuf &efyHkaiG
pkaqmif;&efjzpfonf/
½Hk;wnf&m- a&mrNrdKU? tDwvDEdkifiH/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

262

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

263

EdkifiHwum tvkyform;tzGJUcsKyf (tdkift,fvftdk)

urÇmhusef;rma&;tzGJU ('AvsLtdyfcsftdk)

International Labour Organization (ILO)

World Health Organization (WHO)

tvkyt
f udik w
f ;kd wufa&;ESihf tvkyo
f rm;\tajctaeESihf vlaerItqifh
twef; aumif;rGefa&;wdkYtwGuf zGJUpnf;onf/
½Hk;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEdkifiH/

urÇmjh ynforl sm;\ use;f rma&;tajctaeudk tjrifq
h ;kH txd jri§ w
hf if&ef
jzpfonf/
½Hk;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEdkifiH
urÇmhÓPypönf;qkdif&mtzGJUtpnf;

ukvor*¾ynma&;? odyÜHESifh ,Ofaus;rItzGJU (,leufpudk)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO)

ynma&;? odyÜHESifh ,Ofaus;rIvkyfief;jzifh EdkifiHtcsif;csif; yl;aygif;
aqmif&u
G af &;udk jri§ w
hf if&efjzpfonf/ ,leufpudo
k nf taemufEikd if rH sm; tay:
tmCmwxm;&Sdonfqdkum 1985ckESpfwGif tar&duef jynfaxmifpkonf
tzGJUrS EkwfxGufcJhonf/
½Hk;wnf&m- yg&DNrdKU? jyifopfEdkifiH/

World Intellectual Property Organization(WIPO)

pmay? pufro
I yd EHÜ iS hf tEkynmvuf&mrsm; rlyikd cf iG u
hf kd Edik if w
H um yl;aygif;
aqmif&GufrIjzifh umuG,f&efjzpfonf/
½Hk;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEdkifiH/
urÇmhrdk;av0otzGJU ('AvsLtrftdk)
World Meterological Organization (WMO)

urÇmrh ;kd av0ovkyif ef;rsm; wk;d wuf&ef ylaygif;aqmif&u
G rf jI zifh umuG,f
&efjzpfonf/
½Hk;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEdkifiH/
urÇmhukefoG,fa&;tzGJU ('AvsLwDtdk)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

ukvor*¾ EdkifiHwumuav;rsm; ta&;ay: &efyHkaiGtzGJU (,leDquf)
United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

zGHUNzdK;qJ EdkifiHrsm;rS rdcifESifhuav;rsm; zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrIudk yHhydk;&efESifh
tultnDrsm;ay;&efjzpfonf/
½Hk;wnf&m- e,l;a,mufNrdKU? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk/
ekdifiHwumaiGaMu;&efykHaiGtzGJU (tkdiftrftufzf)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)

ekdifiHwum aiGaMu;udpörsm; yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef? aiGaMu;wnfNidrfrI
&Sd&efESifh EkdifiHwum ukefoG,frI wkd;csJU&ef jzpfonf/
½kH;wnf&m- 0g&Sifwef'DpD? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
EkdifiHwum aMu;eef;qufoG,fa&;or*¾ (tkdifwD,l)
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

a&'D,kd? aMu;eef;? w,fvDzkef;ESifh tmumoa&'D,kd qufoG,fa&;wkdY
twGuf Ekifd if w
H umpnf;rsO;f Oya'rsm; owfrw
S &f ef? a&'D,Bkd urd Ef eI ;f owfrw
S &f ef
jzpfonf/
½kH;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEkdifiH/

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/133 of 208.

World Trade Organization (WTO)

taumufcGefESifh ukefoG,frIqdkif&m taxGaxGoabmwlpmcsKyf (*wf)
Genaral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)udk tpm;xdk;aomtzGUJ
jzpfonf/ Edik if w
H umukeo
f ,
G af &;udk Bu;D MuyfaomtzGUJ tpnf; Bu;D jzpfonf/
ukeo
f ,
G af &;oabmwlncD suEf iS hf pmcsKyrf sm;udk aqmif&u
G af y;onf/ tzGJU0if
Edik if rH sm;\ ukeo
f ,
G af &;pepfukd ppfaq;onf/ ukeo
f ,
G af &;qdik &f m vkyaf qmif
rIrsm;ESifh pm&if;Z,m;udk apmifhMunfhonf/ ukefoG,fa&; tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk
ajz&Sif;ay;onf/ ½kH;wnf&m- *sDeDAm? qGpfZmvefEkdifiH

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

264

ukvor*¾tzGJY0if urÇmhEkdifiHrsm;
pOf

tzGJU0if

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

(tmz*efepöwef)
Albania (t,fab;eD;,m;)
Algeria (t,f*s;D &D;,m;)
Andorra (tif'dk&m)
Angola (tif*dkvm)

7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/
19/
20/
21/
22/

tzGJU0iftjzpfvufcHonfhaeYpGJ

Afghanistan

Antigua and Barbuda

(tifwD*GmESifhbmbl'g)
Argentina (tm*sifwD;em;)
Armenia (tmar;eD;,m;)
Australia (MopaBw;vs)
Austria (MopBwD;,m;)
Azerbaijan (tZmbdi
k *f se)f
Bahamas (b[m;rm;)
Bahrain (bm&de;f )
Bangladesh (b*Fvm;a'h&Sf)
Barbados (bmbm;'dk;)
Belarus (bDvm½kpf)
Belgium (b,fv*
f s,
D )H
Belize (bDvZ
D )D
Benin (bDeif)
Bhutan (blwef)
Bolivia (bdv
k ;D AD;,m;)

1946? Ekd0ifbm 19
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1962? atmufwkdbm 8
1993? Zlvkdif 28
1976? 'DZifbm 1
1981? Ekd0ifbm 11
1945? Ekd0ifbm 24
1992? rwfv 2
1945? Ekd0ifbm 1
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1992? rwfv 2
1973? pufwifbm 18
1971? pufwifbm 21
1974? pufwifbm 17
1966? 'DZifbm 9
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1945? 'DZifbm 27
1981? pufwifbm 25
1960? pufwifbm 20
1971? pufwifbm 21
1945? Ekd0ifbm 14
1992? arv 22

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
24/
25/
26/
27/
28/
29/
30/
31/
32/
33/
34/
35/
36/
37/
38/
39/

Brazil (b&mZD;vf)

265

Central African Rep

1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1984? pufwifbm 21
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1960? pufwifbm 20
1962? pufwifbm 18
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1960? pufwifbm 20
1945? Ekd0ifbm 9
1975? pufwifbm 16
1960? pufwifbm 20

(A[dktmz&duor®wEdkfifiH)
Chad (cs'f)
Chile (csv
D )D
China (w½kw)f
Colombia (udv
k b
H ,
D m)
Comoros (udkrdk½kdUpf)

1960? pufwifbm 20
1945? atmufwdkbm 24
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1945? Ekd0ifbm 5
1975? Ekd0ifbm 12

Brunei (b½lEi
kd ;f )
Bulgaria (bla*;&D;,m;)
Burkina Faso (bmuDemzmqd)k
Burundi (bl&Gef'D)
Cambodia (uarÇm'D;,m;)
Cameroon (uifr&Ge;f )
Canada (uae'g)
Cape Verde (udwfAm'D)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
Bosnia & Herzegovina

(abmhpeD;,m;ESihf [mZD*;kd AD;em;)
23/ Botswana (abmhqmG em)

1966? atmufwkdbm 17

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Congo, Democratic Rep of (Zaire)

(uGef*dk'Drdku&ufwpfor®wEdkifiH)
40/

Congo, Republic of

41/
42/
43/
44/
45/
46/
47/
48/
49/

Costa Rica (udkpwm&Dum)

1960? pufwifbm 20
1960? pufwifbm 20

(uGef*dkor®wEdkifiH)
Croatia (c½da
k t;&Sm;)
Cuba (usL;bm;)
Cyprus (qdkufy&yf)
Czech Republic (csufor®wEdkifiH)
Denmark ('de;f rwf)
Djbouti (*sDblwD)
Dominica ('dr
k ekd u
D m)
Dominican Republic

('dkrDeDuefor®wEdkfifiH)

1945? Ekd0ifbm 2
1992? ar 22
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1960? pufwifbm 20
1993? Zefe0g&D 19
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1977? pufwifbm 20
1978? 'DZifvm 18
1945? atmufwkdbm 24

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266

50/
51/
52/
53/
54/
55/
56/
57/
58/
59/
60/
61/
62/
63/
64/
65/
66/
67/
68/
69/
70/
71/
72/
73/
74/
75/
76/
77/
78/
79/

Ecuador (tDuGm'dk)

1945? 'DZifbm 21
Egypt (tD*spf)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
El Salvador (t,fqmaA;'d;k )
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Equatorial Guinea (tDauGw;kd &D;,J*e
D )D 1968? Ekd0ifbm 12
Eritrea (tD&pfx&D;,m;)
1993? ar 28
Estonia (tufpw
f ;kd eD;,m;)
1991? pufwifbm 17
Ethiopia (tDo,
D ;kd yD;,m;)
1945? Ekd0ifbm 13
Fiji (zD*s)D
1970? atmufwkdbm 13
Finland (zifvef)
1955? 'DZifbm 14
France (jyifopf)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Gabon (*gbGef)
1960? pufwifbm 20
Gambia (*rfb,
D m)
1965? pufwifbm 21
Georgia (a*sm*
f s,
D m)
1992? Zlvkdif 31
Germany (*smreD)
1973? pufwifbm 18
Ghana (*gem)
1957? rwf 8
Greece (*&d)
1945? atmufwkdbm 25
Grenada (*&Dem'g)
1974? pufwifbm 17
Guatemala (*GgwDrmvm)
1945? Ekd0ifbm 21
Guinea (*De)D
1958? 'DZifbm 12
Guinea-Bissau (*Deb
D pfaqm)
1974? pufwifbm 17
Guyana (*l,mem)
1966? pufwifbm20
Haiti (a[wD)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Honduras ([Gef'l;&yf)
1945? 'DZifbm 17
Hungary ([efa*&D)
1955? 'DZifbm 14
Iceland (tkdufpvef)
1946? Ekd0ifbm 19
India (tdEd´,)
1945? atmufwkdbm 30
Indonesia (tif'kdeD;&Sm;)
1950? pufwifbm 28
Iran (tD&ef)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Iraq (tD&wf)
1945? 'DZifvm 21
Ireland (tkdif,mvef)
1955? 'DZifbm 14

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
80/
81/
82/
83/
84/
85/
86/
87/
88/
89/
90/
91/
92/
93/
94/
95/
96/
97/
98/
99/
100/
101/
102/
103/
104/
105/
106/
107/
108/
109/

Israel (tpöa&;vf)
Italy (tDwvD)
Ivary Coast (tkdifA&DukdYpf)
Jamaica (*sarum)
Japan (*syef)
Jordan (a*smf'ef)
Kazakhstan (umZufpwef)
Kenya (uifnm)
Kiribati (uD&b
D mwD)
Korea, North (ajrmufu&
dk ;D ,m;)
Korea, South(awmifu&
dk ;D ,m;)
Kuwait (ul0w
d )f
Kyrgyzstan (um*spfpwef)

267
1949? ar 11
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1960? 'DZifbm 20
1962? pufwifbm 18
1956? 'DZifbm 18
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1992? rwfv 2
1963? 'DZifbm 16
1999? pufwifbm 14
1991? pufwifbm 17
1991? pufwifvm 17
1963? ar 14
1992? rwf 2
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1991? pufwifbm 17
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1966? atmufwkdbm 17
1945? Ekd0ifbm 2
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1990? pufwifbm 18
1991? pufwifbm 17
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1993? {NyD 8
1960? pufwifbm 20
1964? 'DZifbm 1
1957? pufwifbm 17
1965? pufwifbm 21
1960? pufwifbm 28
1964? 'DZifbm 1
1991? pufwifbm 17

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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Laos (vmtkd)

Latvia (vwfA;D ,m;)

Lebanon (vufbEGef)
Lesotho (vDqkdokd)

Liberia (vku
d af b;&D;,m;)
Libya (vpfAsm;)
Liechtenstein (vDcsifpwdef;)
L ithuania (vpfoa
l &;eD;,m;)
Luxembourg (vlZif;bwf)
Macedonia (rufqD'kd;eD;,m;)
Madagascar (r'*gpum;)
Malawi (rmvm0D)

(rav;&Sm;)
Maldives (armfvf'kduf)
Mali (rmvD)
Malta (armfvw
f m)
Marshall Islands (rm&S,fuRef;pk)
Malaysia

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268

110/
111/
112/
113/
114/
115/
116/
117/
118/
119/
120/
121/
122/
123/
124/
125/
126/
127/
128/
129/
130/
131/
132/
133/
134/
135/
136/
137/
138/
139/

Mauritania (armf&a
D w;eD;,m;)

1961? atmufwkdbm 27
Mauritius (arm&pfoQ)
1968? {NyD24
Mexico (rufqu
D )dk
1945? Ekd0ifbm 7
Micronesia (rkdifc½kdeD;&Sm;)
1991? pufwifbm 17
Moldova (armf'kdAm)
1992? rwf 2
Monaco (rkdemukd)
1993? ar 28
Mongolia (rGef*kdvD;,m;)
1961? atmufwkdbm 27
Montenegro (rGefwDeD*½kd;)
2006? ZGef 28
Morocco (armf½kdukd)
1956? Ekd0ifbm 12
Mozambique (rkZ
d rf;bpf)
1975? pufwifbm 16
Myanmar (jrefrm)
1948? {NyD 19
Namibia (erD;bD;,m;)
1990? {NyD 23
Nauru (aemf½;l )
1999? pufwifbm 14
Nepal (eDayg)
1955? 'DZifbm 14
Netherlands (e,fomvef)
1945? 'DZifbm 10
New Zealand (e,l;ZDvef)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Nicaragua (eDum&m*Gm)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Niger (Eki
d *f sm)
1960? pufwifbm 20
Nigeria (Eki
d *f s;D &D;,m;)
1960? atmufwkdbm 7
Norway (aemfa0)
1945? Ekd0ifbm 27
Oman (tkr
d ef)
1971? atmufwkdbm 7
Pakistan (ygupöwef)
1947? pufwifbm 30
Palau (yavm)
1994? 'DZifbm 15
Panama (yem;rm;)
1945? Ekd0ifbm 13
Papua New Guinea (ygyl0g;e,l;*DeD) 1975? atmufwkdbm 10
Paraguay (yg&ma*G;)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Peru (yD½;l )
1945? atmufwkdbm 31
Philippines (zdvpfykdif)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Poland (ykdvef)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Portugal (ay:wl*D)
1955? 'DZifbm 14

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
140/
141/
142/
143/
144/

Qatar (umwm)
Romania (½ka
d r;eD;,m;)
Russia (½k&Sm;)
Rwanda (&0rf'g)
Saint Kitts and Nevis

(pdefYupfESifheDApf)
145/ Saint Lucia (pdev
Yf pl ,
D m)
146/ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(pdeAYf if;qifEh iS hf *&Dem'if;)
147/ Samoa (qrk;d 0g;)
148/ San Marino (qefrm&DEkd)
149/ Sao Tome and Principe
(aqmfwkdrDESifh y&ifpDyD)
150/ Saudi Arabia (aqmf't
D ma&;bD;,m;)
151/ Senegal (qDeD*Jvf)
152/ Serbia (qm;bD;,m;)
153/ Seychelles (aq;&Sv
f )f
154/ Sierra Leone (qD,m&mvD,Gef)
155/ Singapore (pifumyl)
156/ Slovakia (qvkAd ufu;D ,m;)
157/ Slovenia (qvkad A;eD;,m;)
158/ Solomon Islands (aqmfvrGefuRef;pk)
159/ Somalia (qkrd m;vD;,m;)
160/ South Africa (awmiftmz&du)
161/ Spain (pydef)
162/ Sri Lanka (oD&v
d uFm)
163/ Sudan (ql'ef)
164/ Suriname (ql&eD rf)
165/ Swaziland (qGmZDvef)
166/ Sweden (qGD'if)

269
1971? pufwifbm 21
1955? 'DZifvm 14
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1962? pufwifbm 18
1983? pufwifbm 23
1979? pufwifbm 18
1980? pufwifbm 16
1976? 'DZifbm 15
1992? rwf 2
1975? pufwifbm 16

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1960? pufwifbm 28
2000? Ekd0ifbm 1
1976? pufwifbm 21
1961? pufwifbm 27
1965? pufwifbm 21
1993? Zefe0g&D 19
1992? ar 22
1978? pufwifbm 19
1960? pufwifbm 20
1945? Ekd0ifbm 7
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1956? Ekd0ifbm 12
1975? 'DZifbm 4
1968? pufwifbm 24
1946? Ekd0ifbm 19

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

270

167/
168/
169/
170/
171/
172/
173/
174/
175/
176/
177/
178/
179/
180/
181/
182/

Switzerland (qGpZ
f mvef)

(qD;&D;,m;)
Tajikistan (wm*spfupöwef)
Tanzania (wefZef;eD;,m;)
Thailand (xki
d ;f )
Timor-Leste (wDarmvdp)f
Togo (wkd*kd)
Tonga (wGef*g)
Syria

Trinidad and Tobago

(x&De'D ufEiS w
hf b
dk m;*k;d )
Tunisia (wle;D &Sm;)
Turkey (wl&uD)
Turkmenistan (wyfrifepöwef)
Tuvalu (wlAJvl;)
Uganda (,l*ef'g)
Ukraine (,lu&de;f )

2002? pufwifbm 10
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1992? rwf 2
1961? 'DZifbm 14
1946? 'DZifbm 16
2002? pufwifbm 27
1960? pufwifbm 20
1999? pufwifbm 14
1962? pufwifbm 18
1956? Ekd0ifbm 12
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1992? rwf 2
2000? pufwifbm 5
1962? atmufwkdbm 25
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1971? 'DZifbm 9

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

271

urÇmhEkdifiHrsm;taMumif; odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
tmz*efepöwefEkdifiH
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

ubl;vf
32358000
or®w [mrpfumZkdif;
or®w [mrpfumZkdif;

t,fvfab;eD;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
t,fvf*sD;&D;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

wD&meD
3194972
or®w bmrmwkdyD
0efBuD;csKyf qmvDbm&pf&Sf

=
=
=
=

t,fv*f s;D ,m;pf
36300000
or®w tAÁ'JvfvmZpf blwDzDum
0efBuD;csKyf tmrufatmf&m[D,m

tif*kdvm
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

vltef'g
19618000
or®w *sKdaq;tuf'l&m'kda'ghpf qefwkdYpf
or®w *sKdaq;tuf'l&m'kda'ghpf qefwkdYpf

tm*sifwD;em;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
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AsLEkdat&Dpf
40117096
or®w c&pöwD;em; zmeef'uf 'Dum;em;
or®w c&pöwD;em; zmeef'uf 'Dum;em;

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
United Arab Emirates

(tm&yfapmfbmG ;rsm;jynfaxmifp)k
183/ United Kingdom (NAdwdef)
184/ United States
(tar&duefjynfaxmifpk)
185/ Uruguay (O½ka*G;)
186/ Uzbekistan (OZbufupöwef)
187/ Vanuatu (Amaemwl)
188/ Venezuela (AifeZD v
JG m;)
189/ Vietnam (AD,uferf)
190/ Yemen (,Drif)
191/ Zambia (Zrfb,
D m)
192/ Zimbabwe (ZifbmabG)

1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1945?
1992?
1981?
1945?
1977?
1947?
1964?
1980?

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/137 of 208.

'DZifbm 18
rwf 2
pufwifbm 15
Ekd0ifbm 15
pufwifbm 20
pufwifbm 30
'DZifbm 1
Mo*kwf 25

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

272

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

MopaMw;vs
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

uifbm&m
22778025
'kwd,ajrmuf tJvDZbufbk&ifrBuD;
0efBuD;csKyf *sLvD,m*Dvmh'f

MopBwD;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

AD,ifem
8419776
or®w [def;Zfzpf&Sm
0efBuD;csKyf 0gemaz;ref

b,fvf*sD,rf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
blwef
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

273

=
=
=
=

b&yfqJvf
10839905
'kwd,ajrmuf tJvb
f wfb&k if
0efBuD;csKyf &AfpfvufwmrD

=
=
=
=

oifzsL;
708265
bk&iff*sD*rD cgqmepf*sdKif;0rfcRwf
0efBuD;csKyf *sifrDwifav;

=
=
=
=

vmyufZf
10426154
or®w tDbdkrdka&;
or®w tDbdkrdka&;

bm&def;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

remrm
1234571
bk&if[mrufbiftpfqm tJvfcgvDzm
0efBuD;csKyfcgvDbif qlreftJvfcgvDzm

bdkvDAD;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

b*Fvm;a'h&Sf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

'gum
142319000
or®w ZDvm&mref
0efBuD;csKyf &Sdwf[mqDem

b&mZD;vf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

b&mZD;vD;,m;
190755799
or®w',frma&mhqyfzf
or®w',frma&mhqyfzf

bDvm½kpf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

rihfpf
9468000
or®wtvufZE´mvlum&Seu
f kd
0efBuD;csKyf rDac;vf&mpDudkApfcsf

b½lEdkif;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

bef'gqD&D bD*g0ef
422700
qlvfwef[mhqe,f abmhuD;&m;
qlvfwef[mhqe,f abmhuD;&m;

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

274

uarÇm'D;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
uae'g
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
csDvD
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
w½kwf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
udkvHbD,m
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

275

zEGrf;yif
14805000
bk&if Edk½dk'GrfqD[mrdkeD
0efBuD;csKyf qrf'uf[Gefqif

usL;bm;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

[mAm;em;
11241161
or®w a&mvfuufpx½dk
or®w a&mvfuufpx½dk

atmhwm0g
34482779
'kwd,ajrmuf tJvDZbufbk&ifrBuD;
0efBuD;csKyf pwDzif[myg

'def;rwf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

udak ya[*if
5579204
'kwd,ajrmuf rm*&uf bk&ifrBuD;
0efBuD;csKyf vmhpfavmfuD&yfpfrlqrf

qefwD,m*dk
17248450
or®w qDbwfpwdef;ykdifeD&m
or®w qDbwfpwdef;ykdifeD&m

tD*spf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

udkif½dk
81729000

ayusi;f
1339724852
or®w [lusiaf wmif;
0efBuD;csKyf 0rfMum;aygif

tDoD,dk;yD;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

t'pftbmbm
82101998
or®w *grm0l'D*sDatm*spf
0efBuD;csKyf rDvufZDem0D

bdk*dkwm
46272000
or®w *sLtefrefnL&,fqefwdkYpf
or®w *sLtefrefnL&,fqefwdkYpf

zifvef
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
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[,fqifu;D
5396292
or®w wm*sm[mvdek if
0efBuD;csKyf *smuDuwfwmeif

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
=
=
=
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=
=
=
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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/140 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

276

jyifopf
1/ NrdKUawmf
=
2/ vlO;D a&
=
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
=
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ =

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

277

yg&D
65027000
or®w eDudkvyfqmudkZD
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tD&ef
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
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wD[D&ef
75875000
w&m;olBuD;csKyf tvDcgrDeD;
or®w rmrGwftmruf'DeD*suf

=
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b*¾'uf
32105000
or®w *smvm wmvmbmeD
0efBuD;csKyf EsL&DtJvf rmvDuD;

*smreD
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H Bu;D tuJ
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=
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bmvif
81729000
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tD&wf
1/ NrdKUawmf
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H Bu;D tuJ
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*&d
1/
2/
3/
4/

NrdKUawmf
vlO;D a&
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atoif
10839905
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0efBuD;csKyf vl;uufpfygywf'Darmhpf

tpöa&;vf
1/ NrdKUawmf
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3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
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a*s½q
k vif
7798600
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0efBuD;csKyf bif*srifaewef,m[k

tdE´d,
1/ NrdKUawmf
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H Bu;D tuJ
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e,l;a'vD
1210193422
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tDwvD
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a&mr
60705991
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tif'dkeD;&Sm;
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H Bu;D tuJ
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*smumwm
237641326
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or®w qlpDvkdbefbef;,l'dk,dkEdk

*syef
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=
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wdkusdK
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

282

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/145 of 208.

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pD;yGm;a&;? usef;rma&;? ynma&;? ,Ofaus;rI? odyÜHESifh enf;ynm? tcGef
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vnf; yl;aygif;csrSwfMu&efjzpfonf/ 2001ckESpftxd tzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;rSm
tifwD*GmESifh bmbl'g? b[m;rm;? bmab'dk? bvdZf? 'dkrDeDum? *&ifae'g?
*dkif,mem? a[wD(,m,D)? *sarum? rGefqm&uf? pdefYupfESifh eD;Apf? pdefYvl&Sm?
pdefYAif;qifhESifh *&ifem'if;? ql&Derf? x&DeD'ufESifh wdkbm*dkwkdYjzpfMuonf/
XmecsKyf- *l,memEdkifiH? a*smhawmif;NrdKU/
vGwfvyfaom "eo[m,tzGJU (pDtkdiftufpf)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

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MopaMw;vs? bm[mrm;? bmab'dk? bvdZf? uae'g? *&if;ae'g? *sarum?
e,l;ZDvef? ygyl0ge,l;*De?D pdeu
Yf pfEiS hf eD;Apf? pdev
Yf &l mS ? pdeAYf if;qifEh iS hf *&ifem'if?
aqmfvrf eG u
f Re;f pkEiS hf wlAmvlwYdk jzpfMuonf/ tjcm;(37)Edik if rH mS ,if;wdu
Yk ,
kd yf ikd f
Edik if t
H Bu;D tuJrsm;&SMd uonf/ 4if;wdrYk mS b*Fvm;a'h&Sf? abmhqGmem? b½lEdkif;?
uifr&Gef;? qkdufy&yf? 'dkrDeDum? zD*sD? *rfbD,m? *gem? *dkif,mem? tdE´d,?
uifnm? uD&DbmwD? vDqdkodk? rmv0D? rav;&Sm;? armfv'dkuf? armfvwm?
arm&pf&?S rkZd rfbpf? erD;bD;,m;? aemf½;l ? ygupöwef? qrd0k g? aq&S?J qD&mvDueG ?f
pifumyl? awmiftmz&du? oD&dvuFm? qGmZDvef? wefZefeD;,m;? wGef*g?
x&D'ufEiS hf wdb
k m*d?k ,l*E¨m? AefEmG wl;? Zrfb,
D mESihf ZifbmabG? Edik *f s;D &D;,m;wdYk
jzpfMuonf/ "eo[m,tzGJUonf 0efBuD;csKyfrsm;? b@ma&;0efBuD;rsm;
tpnf;ta0;ESifh twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJUrSwqifh qufoG,faqG;aEG;Muonf/
XmecsKyf- NAdwdefEdkifiH? vef'efNrdKU/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk NydKuGJoGm;csdefwGif 1991ckESpf? 'DZifbmvü
pwifwnfaxmifcJhonfh vGwfvyfaom EdkifiHrsm;\ r[mrdwftzGJUjzpfonf/
2001ckEpS f tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm ,cif qkAd ,
D ufjynfaxmifpt
k zGUJ 0if (15)Edik if t
H euf
(12)Edik if H jzpfMuonfh tmar;eD;,m;? tZmbkdif*sef? bDvm½kpf? a*smf*sD,m?
umZufpwef? wm*spfpwef? rdk'dkAm? ½k&Sm;? wm*spfupöwef? um*spfpwef?
wmareDpwef? ,lu&def;ESifh OZbufupöwefwkdY jzpfMuonf/ Edik if t
H Bu;D
tuJrsm;aumifp?D tpd;k &tzGUJ tBu;D tuJrsm;aumifpD paom yl;aygif;tzGUJ rsm;u
rl0g'csrSwfonf/
XmecsKyf- bDvm½kpfEkdifiH? rifhpfNrdKU/

"eo[m,tzGUJ (The Commonwealth)
"eo[m,tzGUJ udk rlvu NAw
d o
d Q"eo[m,Edik if rH sm;tzGUJ [k ac:onf/
aemufwiG f "eo[m,Ekid if rH sm;tzGUJ [k ac:onf/ wpfcsed u
f NAw
d o
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onf "eo[m,tzGJU\ tBuD;tuJjzpfonf/
"eo[m,tzGJUwGif vGwfvyfaomEdkifiH(53)EdkifiHyg&Sdonf/ 2001ckESpf
wGif ,lEdkufwufuif;'rf;ESifh tjcm;(15)EdkifiHonf tjrJwrf; tzGJU0ifrsm;
jzpfMuNyD; NAdwdoQxD;eef;&Sifudk EdkifiHtBuD;tuJtjzpf todtrSwfjyKMuum
4if;\udk,fpm; bk&ifcHcsKyfxm;&Sdonf/ 4if;wdkYrSm tifwD*GmESifh bmbl'g?

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Oa&my vGwfvyfpGmukefoG,fa&;tzGJU (tufzfwm)

European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

vGwfvyfpGmukefoG,fa&; wdk;csJUjr§ifhwif&ef &nfpl;NyD; 1960 jynfhESpf
arvwGif zGUJ pnf;onf/ 1960jynfEh pS ?f ar 3 wGif tzGUJ 0ifEikd if rH sm;tMum;
taumufceG Ef iS hf Oa&myor*¾EiS hf vGwv
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f ,
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onf/ 1992ckEpS w
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k wGi;f &Sd
Edik if t
H csi;f csi;f wpfcw
k nf;aomaps;uGuf xlaxmif&ef oabmwlnMD uonf/
(ukeyf pön;f rsm;? 0efaqmifrrI sm;? t&if;tES;D rsm;ESihf tvkyo
f rm;rsm; vGwv
f yfpmG
pD;qif;Edik o
f nf/) 2001ckEpS t
f xd tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm tdu
k pf vef? vufcsipf wde;f ?
aemfa0ESifh qGpfZmvefwkdYjzpfMuonf/ ,cif tufzfwmtzGJU0if tawmf
rsm;rsm;onf ,cktcg ukvor*¾tzGJU0ifrsm; jzpfukefMuonf/
XmecsKyf- qGpfZmvefEkdifiH? *sDeDAmNrdKU/

Oa&myor*¾ (tD;,l) bHkaps; European Union (EU)
1994txd Oa&mytzGUJ [European Community (EC)][k od&cdS MhJ uaom
þtzGUJ onf bHt
k zGUJ 0ifrsm;yg&Sad om tzGUJ tpnf;oH;k ckukd pkaygif; ac:a0:aom
trnfjzpfonf/ ,if;tzGUJ tpnf; oH;k ckrmS Oa&mypD;yGm;a&; tzGJU(bHkaps;tzGJU)
[European Community (Common Market)]? Oa&my ausmufr;D aoG;ESio
hf rH Pd

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

tzGJU [European Coal and Steel Community]Oa&mytPkjrL pGrf;tiftzGJU
(,la&wGe)f [European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)]wdYk jzpfonf/
2001ckEpS t
f xd wif;jynft
h zGUJ 0if(15)Edik if rH mS MopBw;D ,m;? b,fv*f s,
D ?H
'de;f rwf? zifvef? jyifopf? *smreD? *&d? tdik ,
f mvef? tDwvD? vlZifbwf?
e,fomvef? ay:wl*D? pydef? qGD'if? ,lEdkufwufuif;'rf;wkdYjzpfMuonf/
2004ckESpf? arv 1&ufaeYwGif qkdufy&yfpf? csufor®wEkdifiH? tufpwkd;
eD;,m;? [efa*&D? vwfAD;,m;? vpfola&;eD;,m;? armfvfwm? ykdvef?
qvkdAufuD;,m;ESifh qvkdaA;eD;,m;wkdY tzGJU0ifEkdifiH jzpfvmMuonf/
tzGJU0ifrsm;onf 4if;wdkY\pD;yGm;a&;udk pk½Hk;aygif;pnf;&ef? vlrIa&;
zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrIrsm;udk aygif;pnf;vkyfaqmif&ef? tzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;udk EdkifiHa&;
or*¾BuD;tjzpf xlaxmif&ef &nfrSef;Muonf/ 1992'DZifbm 31rS tpjyKí
ukefypönf;rsm;? 0efaqmifrIrsm;? tvkyform;rsm;ESifh urÇmvSnfhc&D;onfrsm;
Oa&myor*¾twGif; pD;qif;oGm;vmjcif;udk uefYowfrIrsm; vHk;0rjyKvkyf&ef
oabmwlcJhMuonf/ v,f,mpdkufysdK;a&;? ig;zrf;vkyfief;ESifh EsLuvD;,m;
okawoevkyfief;wkdYwGifvnf; wlnDaomrl0g'rsm; xm;&SdMuonf/
tzGUJ 0ifEikd if aH cgif;aqmifrsm;onf 1991 'DZifbmvwGif e,fomvefEikd if H
rufpfx&pfNrdKUüawGUqHkum EdkifiHpD;yGm;a&; yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrIrsm;twGuf
oabmwlpmcsKyu
f kd vufrw
S af &;xdk;Muonf/
rufpfx&pfoabmwlnDcsufrsm;rSmOa&mytzGJUtwGif;&Sd tcsdKUaomEdkifiHrsm;wGif 1993ckESpfrSpí bHkaiG
aMu;pepf(,l½dkaiG)xm;&Sd&efyg0ifa&; ryg0ifa&;twGuf NAdwdefESifh 'def;rwf
EdkifiHwdkYudk a&G;cs,fcGifhay;&ef/
- bHkEdkifiHjcm;a&;0g'xm;&Sd&ef/
- bHkumuG,fa&;rl0g'twGuf tajccHtcsufrsm; csrSwf&ef/
- vlrIa&;rl0g'rsm;wGif t"duEdI;aqmfay;oGm;&ef/
(þpDrHudef;wGif NAdwdefEdkifiHryg)
- tzGUJ twGi;f &Sd qif;&JaomEdik if rH sm;udk tultnDrsm;wd;k ay;oGm;&ef/
- trwf(567)OD; yg0ifaom Oa&myygvDrefudk vkyyf ikd cf iG rhf sm; tenf;i,f
wdk;jr§ifhay;oGm;&ef/
xkdpOfu tzGJU0if (12)EdkifiHpvHk;u twnfjyKNyD;aemuf rufpfx&pf

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293

pmcsKyfonf 1993ckESpf? Edk0ifbmv 1&ufaeYrSpí touf0ifonf/
1998 ZGefvwGif Oa&myA[dkbPfudk xlaxmifonf/ 1999 ZGef 1wGif
Oa&myor*¾ (15)EdkifiHteuf (11)EdkifiHonf ,l½dkaiGaMu;udk tcsdKUudpö
rsm;twGuf pwiftoH;k jyKMuonf/ ,if;(11)Edik if rH mS MopBw;D ,m;? b,fv*f s,
D ?H
zifvef? jyifopf? *smreD? tku
d pf vef? tDwvD? vlZif;bwf? e,fomvef? ay:wl*D
ESifh pydefjzpfonf/
1999 atmufwkdbm(15-16)wGif zifvefEdkifiH urfyD,mNrdKUü Oa&my
or*¾ txl;tpnf;ta0;udk usif;ycJhonf/ xdktpnf;ta0;rS tcsuf
(10)csuyf gaom vkyif ef;pOfukd csrw
S cf o
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Edik if w
H pfc\
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jypfrIusL;vGefol[k oHo,&Sdolrsm;udk w&m;½Hk;vkyfxHk; vkyfenf;rsm;jzifh
rMuefYMumapbJ oufqkdif&mEdkifiHodkY vTJajymif;ay;a&;? cdv
k cIH iG ahf wmif;cHol
'kuo
© nf[al oma0g[m&tay: t"dygÜ ,fziG q
hf ckd suf wlnDa&;wdYkyg0ifonf/
xdktpnf;ta0;rSyif Oa&myor*¾odkY 0ifcGifhawmif;cHaomEdkifiHrsm;\
ta&twGufudkESpfqwdk;í vufcH&efoabmwlnDMuonf/
XmecsKyf - bJvf*sD,HEkdifiH? b&yfqJvfNrdKU/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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&SpfEdkifiHtkyfpk (*sDtdwf)
Group of Eight (G-8)

1985ckESpf? pufwifbm 22wGif wnfaxmifonf/ pufrIxGef;um;NyD;
'Drdkua&pDxdyfoD;ckESpfEdkifiH (uae'g? jyifopf? *smreD? tDwvD? *syef? NAdwdef?
tar&duefjynfaxmifpk)ESifh (aemufydkif;wGif) ½k&Sm;EdkifiHwdkYonf urÇmhpD;yGm;
a&;ESifh tjcm;udpörsm;udk umvtydkif;tjcm;tavsmuf awGUqHkaqG;aEG;
Muonf/ 1998ckEpS f arvwGiu
f si;f yaomtpnf;ta0;u *st
D w
d f (G-8)odYk
trnfajymif;onf/ tcsdKUudpö&yfrsm;wGif txl;ojzifh urÇmhpD;yGm;a&;ESifh
ywfoufonfrsm;wGif rlvckESpfEikd if o
H nf ½k&mS ;ryg0ifbJ pnf;a0;Edkifonf/
EdkifiHwum&mZ0wfrIESdrfeif;a&;&JtzGJU (tifwmydk)
International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)

EdkifiHtoD;oD;&Sd rwljcm;em;Muaom Oya'abmifrsm;twGif;rSaeí
&Jbufqdkif&mvkyfief;rsm;udk tcsif;csif; twwfEdkifqHk; tjyeftvSef ulnD

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294

aqmif&u
G o
f mG ;Mu&ef tifwmydt
k zGUJ udk 1956ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 13wGif wnfaxmif
cJhonf/ 2006ckESpfwGif tzGJU0ifEkdifiHaygif; (186)EdkifiH&SdvmcJhonf/
tm&yftzGJUcsKyf
League of Arab States (Arab League)

tzGUJ csKyo
f nf pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;? Edik if aH &;ESihf ppfa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf
rIrsm;udk wk;d jri§ &hf ef 1945ckEpS ?f rwfv 22&ufaeYwiG f pwifxal xmifco
hJ nf/
tm&yfEikd if rH sm;twGi;f jzpfymG ;aom tjiif;yGm;rI rsm;udk aphpyfajz&Si;f ay;onf/
EdkifiHwumaphpyfn§dEIdif;rIrsm;wGif tm&yf Edik if rH sm;ud,
k pf m;aqmif&u
G o
f nf/
2005ckEpS f tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm t,fv*f s;D &D;,m;? bm&de;f ? aumfr½kd ?kd *sb
D w
l ?D tD*sp?f
a*smf'ef? ul0dwf? vufbEGef? vpfAsm;? armf&Daw;eD;,m;? armf½dkudk? tdkref?
ygvufpwdkif;? (tzGJUcsKyfu ygvufpwkdif;ukd vGwfvyfaom EdkifiHtjzpf
owfrw
S o
f nf/) umwm? aqmf'Dtma&;AD;,m;? qdrk mvD,m? ql'ef? qD;&D;,m;?
wle;D &Sm;? tm&yfapmfbmG ;rsm; EdkifiHESifh ,DrifwkdYjzpfMuonf/
XmecsKyf- tD*spfEkdifiH? udkif½dkNrdKU/

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295

aewd;k zGUJ pnf;yHw
k iG f aumifpw
D pfc?k umuG,af &;pDru
H ed ;f aumfrwD? ppfa&;
aumfrwD? (XmecsKyf? Oa&myXmecsKyf? twåvEÅdwfXmecsKyf)? EsLuvD;,m;
pDrHudef;tzGJU? uae'g? tar&duefa'o pDrHudef;tzGJUwdkY yg0ifonf/ jyifopf
EdkifiHonf ppfa&; XmecsKyfzGJUpnf;rIrS 1996wGif EIwfxGufoGm;onf/
1990jynfv
h eG f apmapmydik ;f ESprf sm;wGif qdAk ,
D ufjynfaxmifpNk yKd uo
JG mG ;Ny;D
ppfat;wdkufyGJ NyD;qHk;oGm;aomtcg aewdk;tzGJUonf jyKjyifajymif;vJrIrsm;
aqmif&u
G o
f nft
h aejzifh Edik if aH &;vIy&f mS ;rIrsm;ay:wGif ydrk t
kd m½Hpk u
kd Nf y;D a'o
qdik &f m jyóemrsm;wGif aqmif&u
G Ef ikd &f eftwGuf vsijf refpmG wyfjzefEY ikd af om
vQyfwpfjyufwyfzGJUrsm; zGJUpnf;onf/
1990 jynfhESpfrsm;tv,fydkif;wGif ½k&Sm;ESifh ,cifqdkAD,ufEdkifiHa[mif;
rsm;yg0ifaom (27)Edik if o
H nf aewd;k ESihf yl;aygif;Ny;D Nird ;f csr;f a&; yl;aygif;tzGUJ
qdo
k nfukd zGUJ pnf;onf/ (1993ckEpS f 'DZifbmwGif pmcsKyf rlMurf;a&;qGo
J nf)
,if;tzGUJ onf ppfa&;yl;aygif;avhusijhf cif;? Nird ;f csr;f a&;xde;f odr;f rIvyk if ef;ESihf
owif;tcsuftvufrsm; vJvS,frI jyKvkyfMuonf/
aewdk;tzGJUudk wdk;csJUonfhtaejzifh ,cifta&SUtkyfpk0ifEdkifiHrsm;udk
wif;jynfhtzGJU0ifrsm;tjzpf vufcHonf/ 1993ckESpf? rwfv 12wGif ,cif
0gaqmpmcsKyftzGJU0ifoHk;EdkifiHjzpfaom [efa*&D? ydkvefESifh csufor®wEdkifiH
wdo
Yk nf tzGUJ 0ifrsm;jzpfvmMuonf/ XmecsKy-f bJv*f s,
D EH idk if ?H b&yfqv
J Nf rKd U/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

ajrmuftwåvEÅdwfpmcsKyftzGJU (aewdk;)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

aewd;k tzGUJ csKyu
f kd 1949ckEpS f {NyD 4wGif vufrw
S af &;xd;k Ny;D 1949 Mo*kwf
24wGif pwiftouf0ifonf/ tzGJU0ifEkdifiHrsm;rSm bJvf*sD,rf? uae'g?
bla*;&D;,m;? csufor®wEkdifiH? 'def;rwf? tufpwkd;eD;,m;? jyifopf? *smreD?
*&d? [efa*&D? tku
d pf vef? tDwvD? vwfA;D ,m;? vpfoal &;eD;,m;? vlZpfbwf?
e,fomvef? aemfa0? ykdvef? ay:wl*D? ½kdar;eD;,m;? qvkdbufuD;,m;?
qvkdaA;eD;,m;? pydef? wl&uD? NAdwdefESifh tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwkdY
jzpfMuonf/
tzGUJ 0ifrsm;onf tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk Nird ;f csr;f aomenf;vrf;jzifh ajz&Si;f &ef?
vufeufjzifhwkdufcdkufvmonfudk ckcHwGef;vSef&ef? wpfEikd if cH si;f ESihf tzGUJ 0if
tm;vH;k \ pkaygif;pGr;f aqmifru
I kd wd;k jri§ &hf ef? tzGUJ 0if Edik if w
H pfEidk if Htm; wku
d cf u
kd f
vmonfukd tzGUJ 0ifEikd if rH sm;tm;vH;k tm; wku
d cf u
kd o
f nf[k rSw,
f &l ef? wpfzufrS
wkdufcdkufvmonfudk ckcHwGef;vSef&eftwGuf ukvor*¾ y#dnmOf pmwrf;?
pmydk'f (51)t& vdktyfovdk ta&;,laqmif&Guf&efwkdYudk oabmwlonf/
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tmz&duor*¾
African Union (AU)

tmz&du nDñw
G af &;tzGUJ (Organization of African Unity)ac: tdak t,l
udk 1963ckEpS ?f ar 25wGif tmz&du (32)Edik if jH zifh pwif zGUJ pnf;í 2002ckEpS ?f
ZlvkdifvwGif zsufodrf;um tmz&duor*¾ (at,l) trnfjzifh jyefvnf
zGJUpnf;cJhonf/
tar&duefEdkifiHrsm;tzGJU (tdkattufpf)
Organization of American States (OAS)

tdak ttufpu
f kd 1948ckEpS ?f {Nyv
D 30wGif udv
k b
H ,
D mEdik if H bd*k w
kd mNrKd UwGif
zGJUpnf;wnfaxmifonf/ tzGJUwGif tNrJwrf;aumifpDwpfck? tar&duef
EdkifiHrsm;qdkif&m pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlrIa&;aumifpD? ynma&;? ,Ofaus;rIESifh

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296

odyaHÜ &;&maumifp?D w&m;a&;aumfrwDwpfcEk iS hf vlt
Y cGit
hf a&;qdik &f maumfr&Sif
wpfckwdkYyg&Sdonf/ tNrJwrf;aumifpDonf ta&;ay:vHkNcHKa&;udpörsm;udk
aqmif&GufEdkif&ef EdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;udk ac:,lEdkifonf/
taxGaxGnDvmcHudk ESpfpOfusif;yonf/
2005ckEpS t
f xd tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm tifw*D mG ESihf bmbl'g? tm*siw
f ;D em;?
b[m;rm;? bmab'dk? bvdZf? bdkvD;AD;,m;? b&mZD;? 'dkrDeDum? 'dkrDeDuef
or®wEdik if ?H tDauGa'g? t,fvq
f maAa'g? *&ifae'g? *GmwDrmvm? *dik ,
f mem?
a[wD? [Gef'l&yf? *sarum? rufqDudk? eDum&m*Gm? yem;rm;? yg&ma*G;? yD½l;?
pdefYupfESifh eDApf? pdefYvl&Sm? pdefYAif;qifhESifh *&if;em'if;? ql&Derf? x&DeD'ufESifh
wkdbm;*kd? uae'g? csDvD? ukdvHbD,m? ukdpwm&Dum? usL;bm;? tar&duef
jynfaxmifp?k O½ka*G;ESihf AifeZD v
JG m;Ekid if w
H jYdk zpfMuonf/ 1962wGif usL;bm;udk
tzGJUvIyf&Sm;rIrS z,f&Sm;onf/
XmecsKyf- tar&duefjynfaxmifpk? 0g&Sifwef'DpD/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

297

a&eHo;kH pGaJ om pufrEI ikd if rH sm; qufqaH &;wGif tzGUJ 0ifrsm;\ ukeo
f ,
G af &;ESihf
zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrI tusKd ;udk a&SU½Ionf/ 2005ckEpS x
f d tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm t,fv*f s;D
&D;,m;? *gbGef? tif'dkeD;&Sm;? tD&ef? tD&wf? ul0dwf? vpfAsm;? Edik *f s;D &D;,m;?
umwm? aqmf't
D ma&AD;,m;? tm&yfapmfbmG ;rsm;EdkifiHESifh AifeDZGJvm;EkdifiH
wkdYjzpfMuonf/ XmecsKyf- MopBwD;,m;EkdifiH? AD,ifemNrdKU/
Oa&myvHkNcHKa&;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;tzGJU (tdktufpfpDtD;)
Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

1972ckESpf Oa&myvHkNcHKa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrI nDvmcH
wGifzGJUpnf;onf/ vuf&Sdtrnfudk 1995 Zefe0g&D 1wGif twnfjyKonf/
aewdk;pmcsKyfESifh 0gaqmpmcsKyftzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;jzifh zGJUpnf;xm;onf/ tzGJU\
&nf&,
G cf surf mS ta&SUtaemuf qufqaH &; wd;k jri§ &hf eftwGuf rusL;ausmaf &;?
vlt
Y cGit
hf a&;? pD;yGm;a&;? odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm? ,Ofaus;rIzvS,af &;ESihf ywf0ef;usif
xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufa&;wdkYwGif yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifoGm;Mu&efjzpfonf/
2005ckESpftxd tzGJU0ifEkdifiHaygif; (55)EkdifiH&Sdonf/
XmecsKyf- MopBwD;,m;EkdifiH? AD,ifemNrdKU/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

pD;yGm;a&; yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrIESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;tzGJU (tdktD;pD'D)

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

tzGUJ 0ifEikd if rH sm;\ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlraI &;wd;k wufzUHG NzKd ;rIrsm;udk aqmif&u
G f
&efEiS hf zGUH NzKd ;Ny;D Edik if rH sm;\ud,
k pf m; vufwn
JG ñ
D w
G rf EI iS hf vHaYI qmf tm;ay;rI
rsm;jyKvkyf&ef 1961ckESpfwGif wnfaxmifonf/ tzGJUonf pD;yGm;a&;ESifh
ywf0ef;usiaf &;&mtcsut
f vufrsm;udk pkaqmif; jzefYcsday;onf/
2005ckEpS x
f d tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm MopaMw;vs? MopBw;D ,m;? bJv*f s,
D ?H uae'g?
csuo
f r®wEdkifiH? 'def;rwf? zifvef? jyifopf? *smreD? *&d? [efa*&D? tdkifpvef?
tdik ,
f mvef? tDwvD? *syef? vlZif;bwf? rufqu
D ?kd e,fomvef? e,l;ZDvef?
aemfa0? ydkvef? ay:wl*D? qvkdAufuD;,m;? awmifudk&D;,m;? pydef? qGD'if?
qGZfZmvef? wl&uD? NAdwdefESifh tar&duefjynfaxmifpk wkdYjzpfMuonf/
XmecsKyf- jyifopfEkdifiH? yg&DNrdKU/
a&eHa&mif; EdkifiHrsm;tzGJU (tdkyuf)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

1960jynfhESpf? pufwifbm 14wGif zGJUpnf;onf/ a&eHxkwfvkyfrIudk
uefYowfNyD; a&eHaps;EIef;udkowfrSwfonf/ tzGJUonf tzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;ESifh
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/150 of 208.

bif;pwuftzGUJ (BIMSTEC)
b*Fvm;a'h&Sf? tdE´d,? jrefrm? oD&dvuFmESifh xdkif;EdkifiHpD;yGm;a&; yl;aygif;
aqmif&u
G rf t
I zGUJ ukd 1997ckEpS f ZGev
f (6)&ufaeYwiG f pwifzUJ G pnf;onf/ 1997ckEpS ?f
Bo*kwv
f 25&ufrpS í jrefrmEdik if o
H nf tzGUJ 0iftjzpf yg0ifco
hJ nf/ tmqD,H
uJhodkY ta&;ygaomtzGJUtpnf; wpfckjzpfonf/ ,cktcg b*Fvm;a'h&Sf?
blwef? tdE,
d´ ? jrefrm? eDayg? oD&v
d uFmESihf xdik ;f wdyYk g0ifonf/ 31.7.2004
&ufaeYwiG f xdik ;f Edik if H befaumufNrKd Uü usif;yonfh xdyfoD;tpnf;ta0;rS
tzGJU\ tac:ta0: bif;pwufukd u@pHek nf;ynmESihf pD;yGm;a&;yl;aygif;
aqmif&GufrIqdkif&m b*Fvm;yifv,fatmf OD;aqmifOD;&GufjyKrItpDtpOf
BIMSTEC= Bay of Bengal initiative for Multi Sectoral Technical and
Economic Cooporation [k ajymif;vJac:a0:&ef oabmwlnc
D MhJ uonf/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

298

jrefrmEkdifiHESifU oHwrefqufoG,fxm;aom EkdifiHrsm;
(1947 ckESpfrS 2010 jynfUESpftxd)
pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
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18/
19/
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24/
25/
26/
27/
28/
29/

EkdifiH
oHwrefqufoG,fonfhaeY&uf
NAdwdefEkdifiH
7-7-1947
ygupöwef
1-8-1947
tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
19-9-1947
tdE´d,
4-1-1948
½k&Sm;jynfaxmifpk
18-2-1948
jyifopf
28-2-1948
xkid ;f
24-8-1948
e,fomvef
1948
oD&dvuFm
7-6-1949
tif'edk ;D &Sm;
27-12-1949
w½kwfjynfolYor®wEkdifiH
9-6-1950
,l*q
dk vm;AD;,m;
29-12-1950
tDwvDD
1950
MopBw;D ,m;
9-7-1953
tpöa&;
13-7-1953
MopaMw;vs
1-8-1953
tD*spf
8-8-1953
b,fvf*sD,H
1953
*smrPD
9-4-1954
zifvef
22-7-1954
*syef
1-12-1954
ykdvef
11-11-1955
'dfef;rwf
1955
uarÇm'D;,m;
1955
csufjynfolYor®wEkdifiH
3-1-1956
pvkdbufuD;,m;jynfolYor®wEkdifiH 3-1-1956
[efa*&D
5-3-1956
½kad r;eD;,m;
15-3-1956
bla*;&D;,m;
16-5-1956

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
30/
31/
32/
33/
34/
35/
36/
37/
38/
39/
40/
41/
42/
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44/
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47/
48/
49/
50/
51/
52/
53/
54/
55/
56/
57/
58/
59/
60/
62/
62/

tD&wf
zdvpfykdif
rGe*f ;dk vD,m;
tmz*efepöwef
qGD'if
aemfa0
vmtkd'Drkdu&ufwpfor®wEkdifiH
qGpfZmvef
rav;&Sm;
*&d
uae'g
wl&uD
e,l;ZDvef
eDayg
pifumyl
pydef
tD&ef
t,fv
f *f s;D &D;,m;
armfv'f u
dk f
Ekid *f s;D &D;,m;
b*Fvm;a'h&fS
qD;&D;,m;
tm*siw
f ;D em;
awmifu&dk ;D ,m;
AD,uferf
ruúqDukd
armf&pfaw;eD;,m;
usL;bm;
ay:wl*D
t,fvaf b;eD;,m;
aumhpwm&Dum
armf½u
dk dk
arm&pfaw;eD;,yfpf

299
23-7-1956
30-7-1956
28-9-1956
8-11-1956
1956
1956
1956
1957
1-3-1958
20-3-1958
9-8-1958
2-9-1958
15-11-1958
3-3-1960
12-8-1966
11-3-1967
8-8-1968
15-11-1968
15-1-1970
24-1-1970
21-3-1972
15-6-1972
28-2-1975
19-5-1975
28-5-1975
1-1-1976
5-10-1976
12-10-1976
14-11-1976
15-12-1976
8-3-1977
31-7-1978
30-12-1978

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/152 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

300

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64/
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66/
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69/
70/
72/
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89/
90/
91/
92/
93/
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95/

csDvD
yem;rm;
b&mZD;vf
qkdufy&yfpf
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ukv
d b
H ,
D m
yD½l;
AifeDZGJvm;
ygyl0ge,l;*DeD
b½lEkdif;
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awmiftmz&du
uifnm
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tZmbkdifusef
a*smf*sD,m
wmuDrifepöwef
c½kad t;&Sm;
bDvm½kpf
umZufpwef
wm*sDupöwef
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um*spfpwef
OZbufupöwef
O½ka*G;
rufq'D ;dk eD;,m;
tkdif,mvef
ql'ef
aqmf't
D ma&AD;,m;
umwm
ta&SUwDarm
qm;AD;,m;rGew
f eD *D ½d;k

22-4-1982
15-7-1982
1-9-1982
15-7-1982
28-1-1987
28-11-1988
28-8-1989
20-11-1990
24-7-1991
21-9-1993
13-1-1995
20-4-1995
26-9-1997
16-12-1998
19-1-1999
3-8-1999
16-8-1999
26-8-1999
3-9-1999
22-9-1999
23-9-1999
29-9-1999
6-12-1999
9-11-2000
8-2-2001
22-2-2001
9-7-2003
10-2-2004
20-5-2004
25-8-2004
26-9-2005
22-9-2006
27-11-2006

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
96/
97/
98/
99/
100/
101/
102/
103/
104/
105/
106/

qvkad b;eD;,m;
'Dyt
D m&fau(ajrmufu&dk ;D ,m;)
tef'kd&mEkdifiH
ZifbmabG
bm&de;f
zD*sD
tkdref
*rfbD,m
abmhpfeD;,m;ESifh [mZD*dkAD;em;
rmvm0D
blwef

301
18-12-2006
11-2-2009
11-2-2009
27-8-2009
10-11-2009
10-5-2010
14-12-2010
13-1-2011
25-8-2011
30-1-2012
1-2-2012

ukvor*¾\ axmifpkESpf&nfrSef;csuf
Millennium Development Goals

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/152 of 208.

1/ tvGeftrif;qif;&JrIESifh iwfrGwfrIwkdYukd z,f&Sm;&ef
End Poverty and Hunger

2/ urÇmt
h ajccHynma&;tqifo
h aYdk &muf&adS pa&;
Universal Education

3/ usm;^rtcGit
fh a&;wef;wlnrD QrEI iS hf trsK;d orD;rsm;vkyyf idk cf iG w
hf ;dk jrifah pa&;
Gender Equality

4/ uav;oli,faoqk;H EIe;f avsmch sa&;
Child Health

5/ uk,
d 0f efaqmifrcd ifrsm;\use;f rma&;wk;d wufapa&;
Maternal Health
6/ HIV / AIDS a&m*g? iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh tjcm;a&m*grsm;wkdufzsuf&ef
Combat HIV / AIDS

7/ obm0ywf0ef;usifwnfwHhrI&&Sdapa&;
Environmental sustainability

8/ zGUH NzKd ;rItwGuf wpfurÇmvk;H qkid &f m yl;aygif;aqmif&u
G rf I wnfaqmuf&ef
Global Partnership

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302

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jrefrmoH½kH;? tzGJY ½kH;? aumifppf0efcsKyf½kH; zGifUvSpfxm;&Sdaom EkdifiHrsm;
tm&S? tmz&du
1/ w½kwfjynfolYor®wEkdifiH? ayusif;NrdKU (rGef*kd;vD,m;EkdifiH yl;wGJ
wm0ef,lonf/
2/ *syefEkdifiH? wkdusKdNrdKU
3/ awmifukd&D;,m;EkdifiH? qkd;vfNrdKU
4/ tdE´d,EkdifiH? e,l;a'vDNrdKU(tD&efEkdifiH yl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
5/ ygupöwefEkdifiH? tpövrfrmbwfNrdKU
6/ oD&v
d uFmEkid if ?H ukv
d b
H Ndk rKd U(armfv'f u
dk Ef idk if H yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)
7/ eDaygEkdifiH? cwårE´LNrdKU
8/ b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiH? 'gumNrdKU
9/ AD,uferfEkdifiH? [EGdKif;NrdKU
10/ uarÇm'D;,m;EdkifiH? zEGrf;yifNrdKU
11/ vmtkdEkdifiH? AD,ifusef;NrdKU
12/ xkdif;EkdifiH? befaumufNrdKU
13/ rav;&Sm;EkdifiH? uGmvmvrfylNrdKU
14/ pifumylEkdifiH? pifumylNrdKU
15/ tif'kdeD;&Sm;EkdifiH? *smumwmNrdKU
16/ b½lEkdif;EkdifiH? bef'gq&DbD*g0efNrdKU
17/ zdvpfykdifEkdifiH? reDvmNrdKU
18/ MopaMw;vsEkdifiH? uifbm&mNrdKU(e,l;ZDvefEkdifiH yl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
19/ tpöa&;EkdifiH? wJvftAD;NrdKU
20/ tD*spEf idk if ?H ukid ½f Ndk rKd U(wl&uD? tD&wf? t,fv*f s;D &D;,m;? armf½u
dk dk Ekid if rH sm;
yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)
21/ awmiftmz&duEkid if ?H y&Dw;dk &D;,m;NrKd U(Ekid *f s;D &D;,m;? armf&pf&yS f Ekid if rH sm;
yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Oa&my
1/ jyif o pf E k d i f i H ? yg&D N rd K U(qG p f Z mvef ? pyd e f ? tD ; ,l ? e,f o mvef ?
b,fvf*sD,efEkdifiHrsm; yl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
2/ *smreDEkdifiH? bmvifNrdKU(MopBwD;,m;EkdifiH yl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
3/ ½k&mS ;Ekid if ?H armfpukNd rKd U(bDvm½kp?f ,lu&de;f Ekid if rH sm; yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)
4/ NAdwdefEkdifiH? vef'efNrdKU(qGD'if? aemfa0? 'def;rwf? tkdif,mvef EkdifiHrsm;
yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)
5/ tDwvDEkdifiH a&mrNrdKU(*&d? ay:wl*DEkdifiHrsm;ukdyl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
6/ qm;AD;,m;ESifh rGefwDeD*½dk;? bJvf*&dwfNrdKU(½dkar;eD;,m;EkdifiH yl;wGJ
wm0ef,o
l nf)
tar&du
1/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpk 0g&SifwefNrdKU
2/ uae'gEkdifiH? atmfwm0gNrdKU
3/ b&mZD;EdkifiH? b&mZD;vD;,m;NrdKU(csDvD? tm*sifwD;em;EkdifiHrsm; yl;wGJ
wm0ef,o
l nf)

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304

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jrefrmEkdifiH? EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'
EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHtaejzifh &nfrSef;csufrsm; atmifjrifaygufajrmufap&ef
twGuf jynfwiG ;f ? jynfyqdik &f m rl0g'rsm; csrw
S t
f aumiftxnfazmf aqmif
&Gu&f ygonf/ odaYk omf jynfyrl0g'rsm; csrw
S t
f aumiftxnfazmf aqmif&u
G f
&mwGif tjcm;Edik if rH sm;ESihf qufpyfr&I adS ejcif;aMumifh rl0g'rsm; csrw
S &f mwGif
txl;yifta&;BuD;ygonf/ xdkodkY jynfyqdkif&mrl0g'rsm; csrSwftaumif
txnfazmfjcif;udk Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'[k ac:qdak vh&MdS uygonf/
EdkifiHwpfEdkfifiH\ EdkifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'udk avhvmvdkygu tqdkygEdkifiH\
EdkifiHjcm;a&;qdkif&m tajccHOD;wnfcsuf(odkYr[kwf) tajccHr[mAsL[mudk
OD;pGmavhvmoifhonf/ EdkifiHrsm;taejzifh 4if;wdkY\ EdkfifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'udk
csrw
S &f mwGif atmufyg OD;wnfcsuw
f pf&yf&yftay:wGif tajccH csrw
S af vh
&Sad Mumif; avhvmawGU&S&d ygonf(u) oD;oefY wpfO;D wnf; &yfwnfa&;
( c ) bufrvdu
k af &;
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H csi;f csi;f bufvu
dk yf ;l aygif;a&;
wdkY jzpfonf/
jrefrmEdik if t
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f yfa&; &&Scd sed rf pS í vGwv
f yfí bufrvdu
k f
aom Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'udk csrw
S u
f sio
hf ;Hk cJyh gonf/ xdu
k o
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k í
l uGjJ ym;aecsed w
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f yfaom Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'udk usio
hf ;Hk vdjk cif;
aMumifv
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( c ) vGwv
f yfa&;&&S&d ef BuKd ;yrf;&jcif;\ wefz;kd ESihf vGwv
f yfaom Edik if jH cm;
a&;rl0g'udk wpfxyfwnf;xm;vdak omaMumifv
h nf;aumif;?
( * ) jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rI'Pfukd cHpm;od&NdS y;D ta&SUtkypf Ek iS hf taemuf
tkypf k tm;NyKd irf MI um; ppfajrjyifjzpfvmEdik jf cif;udk a&Smif&mS ;vdak om
aMumifv
h nf;aumif;?

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

305

(C) jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; jyefvnfOD;armhvmapa&;
aqmif&u
G &f mwGif tkypf Ek pS pf \
k aESmifBuKd ;rJh tultnDrsm;udo
k m
vufcv
H akd omaMumifv
h nf;aumif;?
( i ) vlO;D a&rsm;í 0g'jcif; rwlno
D nfh w½kwEf iS hf tdE,
d´ Edik if MH um;wGif
&Sad eí bufrvdu
k v
f ak d omaMumifv
h nf;aumif;? vGwv
f yfí bufrvdu
k f
aom Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'udk csrw
S u
f sio
hf ;Hk cJjh cif; jzpfygonf/
jrefrmEdik if o
H nf 1971 ckEpS rf pS í vGwv
f yfí bufrvdu
k af om Edik if jH cm;
a&;rl0g'rS vGwv
f yfí wufMuaG om Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'odYk ajymif;vJusio
hf ;Hk cJh
ygonf/ urÇmhNidrf;csrf;a&;? urÇmhppfqefYusifa&;? e,fcsJUpepfESifh udkvdkeDpepf
qefYusifa&;? EdkifiHwumESifh cspfMunf&if;ESD;pGm qufqHa&;wdkYwGif Edk;Mum;
wufMupG mG yl;aygif;yg0ifaqmif&u
G cf yhJ gonf/
Nidrf;csrf;pGm twl,SOfwGJaexdkifa&;rl(5)csuf

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(The Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence)

Nidrf;csrf;pGm twl,SOfwGJ aexdkifa&; rl(5)csufonf jreffrmEdkifiH\
Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'\ tajccHa&aomufjrpfjzpfonf/ tqdyk grl0g'onf 1954
ckESpfwGif jrefrm? w½kwfESifh tdE´d,EdkifiHacgif;aqmifrsm;u csrSwfcJhMujcif;
jzpfonf/ 28-6-1954 &ufaeYwGif e,l;a'vDNrdKUü w½kwfESifhtdE´d,
acgif;aqmifrsm;onfvnf;aumif;? 29-6-1954 &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKUü
jrefrmESihf w½kwaf cgif;aqmifrsm;onfvnf;aumif; atmufygrlBu;D (5)csuu
f kd
oabmwl vufrw
S af &;xd;k cJMh uonf(u) wpfEikd if \
H e,fajrwnfwrhH EI iS hf tcsKyt
f csmtmPm ydik q
f ikd rf u
I kd
wpfEikd if u
H av;pm;&ef?
Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and
sovereignty

(c) wpfEdkifiHESifh wpfEdkifiH usL;ausmfwdkufcdkufrIrjyK&ef?
To abide by mutual non-aggression

(*) wpfEdkifiHESifhwpfEdkifiH jynfwGif;a&;udpörsm;wGif 0ifa&mufpGufzuf
jcif;rjyK&ef?
Non-interference in each other’s internal affairs

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

307

(C) wpfEdkifiHESifh wpfEdkifiH wef;wl&nfwl&Sd&efESifh ESpfOD;ESpfzuf tusdK;
jzpfxGef;&ef?
Respect for mutual equality and to work for mutual benefit

(i) Nird ;f csr;f pGm twl,OS w
f JG aexdik &f ef wdjYk zpfygonf/
Peaceful co-existence

jrefrmEdik if o
H nf txufyg Nird ;f csr;f pGm twl,OS w
f JG aexdik af &; tajccH
rlBuD;(5)csufudk udkifpGJvsuf ukvor*¾ tajccHrlrsm;? &nfrSef;csufrsm;ESifh
tnD atmufygtwdik ;f aqmuf&u
G cf yhJ gonf(u) ukvor*¾\ vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;wGif rdrd\ tajccHrlESifhtnD Edk;Mum;
wuf<upGm yg0ifvyI &f mS ;jcif;?
( c ) vufeufzsuo
f rd ;f a&;udk tpOftm;ay;axmufcjH cif;?
( * ) vufeuftNyKd it
f qdik f xkwv
f yk af &mif;csru
I kd qefu
Y siu
f efu
Y u
G jf cif;?
(C) trsKd ;om;vGwaf jrmufa&; wdu
k yf rJG sm;udk tm;ay;axmufcjH cif;?
( i ) e,fcsUJ 0g'Drsm;\ usL;ausmpf u
G zf ufrrI sm;udk qefu
Y siu
f efu
Y u
G jf cif;?
( p ) udv
k ekd pD epf zsuo
f rd ;f a&;udk tm;ay;axmufcjH cif;?
(q) udv
k ekd 0D g' tom;ta&mifcjJG cm;rIEiS hf vlrsKd ;cGjJ cm;rIpepfrsm;udk qefu
Y sif
uefYuGufjcif;?
( Z ) urÇmNh ird ;f csr;f a&;twGuf aqmif&u
G cf surf sm;udk tm;ay;axmufcjH cif;?
(ps) e,fcsUJ usL;ausmaf &; ppfyrJG sm;udk qefu
Y siu
f efu
Y u
G jf cif;
wdYk aqmif&u
G cf yhJ gonf/

bmoma&;qkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
b'´urÇmwGif yGifhawmfrlaom bk&m;ig;ql
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

uukoefjrwfpGmbk&m;
aumPm*kjH rwfpmG bk&m;
uóyjrwfpGmbk&m;
a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;
aemifyGifhawmfrlrnfh t&darawå,sjrwfpGmbk&m;

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
omoemawmfoHk;&yf

1/ y&d,wåd omoem
2/ y#dywåd omoem
3/ y#da0' omoem

= yd#uwfpmayoifMum;jcif;
= w&m;awmfESifhtnDusifhjcif;
= xkd;xGif;íodjcif;

&wemoHk;yg;
1/ bk&m;

2/ w&m;

3/ oHCm

a*gwrAk'¨jrwfpGmbk&m;ESifU ywfoufí odoifUaomtcsufrsm;
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ zcrnf;awmftrnf
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ r,fawmftrnf
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ arG;zGm;&mZmwd
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ i,femrnf
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ Muif,mawmf
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=
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oka'¨g"e
r,fawmfrm,m
uydÜv0wf
od'¨w¬rif;om;
,aomf"&m

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308

jrwfpmG bk&m;\ om;awmf
=
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ zGm;zufawmfckepfa,muf =

&m[kvm
armifp?H cEdu
¨ jrif;? umVK'g&D
trwf? a&Ttkd;BuD; av;vkH;?
nDawmftmeE´m? ,aomf"&m?
aAm"danmifyif

oHa0Zed, av;Xme
1/
2/
3/
4/

jrwfpGmbk&m;zGm;jrifonfht&yf
bk&m;tjzpfa&mufawmfral omae&m
"r®pMumw&m;OD;a[mawmfral omae&m
y&dedAÁmefjyKaomae&m

=
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vkrÁeDO,smOf
Ak'¨*g,m
rd*'g0kefawm
ukodem½Hk

owÅXme ckepfyg;
1/
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6/
7/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

309

7/ ow¬ma'0rEkómeH = ewfvlwkdY\q&mjzpfaom*kPf/
8/ Aka'¨g
= opömav;yg;udo
k ad wmfral om*kP/f
9/ b*0g
= bke;f awmfajcmufyg;ESijhf ynfph akH wmfral om*kP/f

w&m;*kPfawmf ajcmufyg;
1/ oGmu©mawm
2/
3/
4/

= w&m;awmf\ tptv,ftqH;k aumif;aom
*kP/f
oE´|d ad um
= csD;rGrf;tyfaom r*fynmjzifh udavomudk
atmifwwfaom*kP/f
tumvdaum
= tcgrvifh aumif;usKd ;csr;f omay;wwfaom
*kP/f
{[dyódaum
= vmvSnfh½IvSnfh[lí tpD&ifudkcHxdkufaom
*kP/f
Moyae,sad um
= pdwfESifhrcGmbJaqmifjcif;iSmxdkufaom*kPf/
ypöwaHå 0'dwaAÁm0dñ[
l d = ynm&Sw
d pYkd w
d üf odtyfcpH m;tyfaom*kP/f

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

atmifjrifawmfral omaAm"dyif\ ta&SUajrmufwpfvu
H mG a&Tyv’i|f me
aAm"dyif\ ajrmufbuf 10 vHuGm|me tedrdot&yf
aAm"dyifESifh tedrdotMum; ESpfvHuGm|me &wempBuø
aAm"dyif\ taemufajrmuf 15 vHuGm&wemC&a&Ttdrf
aAm"dyif\ ta&SU 32 vHuGm tZygvqdwfausmif;anmifyif
aAm"dyif\ ta&SUawmif 15 vHumG rkpvdEm´ tdik 0f ,f e*g;yg;jyif;atmuf|me
aAm"dyif\ awmifbuf 11 vHuGm vif;vGef;yift&yf

5/
6/

oHCmh*kPfawmf ukd;yg;

1/ oky#Ü yd aEém
2/ OZkyÜ#dyaEém

bk&m;*kPfawmf ukd;yg;
1/ t&[H
2/ or®morÁKa'¨g
3/ 0dZÆmp&PorÜaEém
4/ ok*awm
5/ avmu0d'l
6/ tEkwaå &m yk&o
d
"r®om&xd

= ylaZmftxl;cH,lawmf rlxdkufaom*kPf/
= tvHk;pHkaomw&m;taygif;udkodjrifawmfrl
aom *kPf/
= 0dZÆmoHk;yg;? 0dZÆm&Spfyg;? p&Pw&m; 15yg;
wdkYESifh jynfhpHkawmfrlaom*kPf/
= aumif;aompum;udo
k mqdak wmfral om*kP/f
= avmuoH;k yg;udk odawmfrt
l yfaom*kP/f
= r,Ofaus;aom vlewfjA[®mowå0gwdkYudk
,Ofaus;atmifq;kH raom*kP/f

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3/ Ó,yÜ#yd aEém
4/ omrdpyd #Ü yd aEém
5/ tm[kaea,sm
6/ yg[kaea,sm
7/ 'u©ad ea,sm

= odum© usi0hf wfwu
Ykd kd aumif;pGmusiahf wmfral om
*kP/f
= odu©musifh0wfwdkYudk ajzmifhrwfpGmusifhaom
*kP/f
= edAÁmef\tusdK;iSm usifhawmfrlaom*kPf/
= t½dktaojyKxdkufatmif odu©mwdkYudk½dkao
xdu
k af om*kP/f
= ta0;rSaqmifí oDv0EÅwt
Ykd m; vSLtyfaom
ypön;f udk cH,lawmfrlxdkufaom*kPf/
= cspcf ifEpS v
f t
kd yfaom{nfo
h nfwt
Ykd zdYk pD&ifxm;
aomjrwfaomtvSLudck aH wmfrx
l u
kd af om*kP/f
= wrvGefavmuudk,HkMunfíay;tyfaom
jrwfaomtvSLudk cHawmfrlxdkufaom*kPf/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

310

8/ tOÆvDu&PDa,sm
9/ tEkwå&HyknacwåH

= aumif;rIut
kd vd&k o
dS w
l Ykd vuftyk cf sí
D &Scd ;kd jcif;iSm
xdu
k af wmfral om*kP/f
= aumif;rIwnf;[laom rsKd ;aphw\
Ykd pdu
k yf sKd ;&m
v,fajraumif;ozG,jf zpfaom*kP/f

tESpo
f ;kH yg;
1/ 'ge

2/ oDv

3/ bm0em

ypönf;av;yg;
1/ qGrf;

2/ aq;

3/ ouFef;

qDrD;uyfvSLjcif;tusdK;ESpfyg;
1/ yuwdrsufpdMunfvifjcif;
2/ ÓPf(rsufpd)Munfvifjcif;

311

3/ umarokrdpämpm&m a0&rPd odu©my'H orm'd,mrd
umr*kPfvdkufpm;jcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
4/ rkom0g'g a0&rPd odu©my'H orm'd,mrd
rkom;pum;ajymqdkjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
5/ ok&mar&, rZÆyrm'|mem a0&rPdodu©my'H orm'd,mrd
ao&nf? ao&ufaomufpm;jcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/

&Spfyg;oDv
1/ ygPmwdygwm a0&rPdodu©my'H orm'd,mrd
olYtoufowfjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
2/ t'dEém'gem a0&rPdodu©my'H orm'd,mrd
olrsm;ypönf;cdk;,ljcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
3/ tjA[®p&d,m a0&rPdodu©my'H orm'd,mrd
tdrfoludkjyKaomtrIrS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
4/ rkom0g'g a0&rPdodu©my'H orm'd,mrd
rkom;pum;ajymqdkjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
5/ ok&mar&, rZÆyrm'|mem a0&rPdodu©my'H orm'd,mrd
ao&nf ao&ufaomufjcif;rS a&SmifMunfyg\/
6/ 0dumvabmZem a0&rPdodu©my'H orm'd,mrd
aeYvGJnpmpm;jcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
7/ epö *Dw 0g'dw 0doku 'óe rmvm*E¨ 0davye "m&P r@e
0dbloeXmem a0&rPdodu©my'H orm'd,mrd
ujcif;? ckefjcif;? oDcsif;qdkjcif;? yef;yefjcif;? eHYomvdrf;jcif;wdkYrS
a&SmifMuOfyg\/
8/ Opömo,e r[mo,em a0&rPdodu©my'H orm'd,mrd
jrifhaomae&m jrwfaomae&mwdkYü aexdkifjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
qGrf;tusdK; ig;yg;

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

4/ ausmif;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

tm,k
0PÖ
okc
Av
y&dbme

=
=
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=
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touf&Snfjcif;
tqif;vSjcif;
csrf;omBuD;jcif;
cGeftm;BuD;jcif;
ÓPfynmBu;D jcif;

yef;vSL&onfh tusdK;oHk;yg;
1/ ½kyf&nfvSyonf/
2/ cE¨mudk,foefY&Sif;pifMu,fonf/
3/ cHwGif;teHY arT;Munfaponf/

ig;yg;oDv
1/ ygPmwdygwm a0&rPd? odu©my'H orm'd,mrd
olYtoufowfjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
2/ t'dEém'gem a0&rPd? odu©my'H orm'd,mrd
olrsm;ypönf;cdk;,ljcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

312

oDv&Sdol &EdkifaomtusdK; ig;yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

pnf;pdrfOpöm&&SdEkdifonf/
*kPo
f wif;ausmMf um;Edik o
f nf/
wifhwifhw,fw,faeEdkifonf/
rawGra0bJao&rnf/
aoNy;D aemuf aumif;aomb0a&mufEidk o
f nf/

w&m;emjcif;\tusdK; ig;yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

rMum;zl;aom xHk;enf;yHkpH w&m;aumif;wdkYudk Mum;&jcif;/
Mum;zl;aom w&m;aumif;udk tzefwvJvJ rSwfrdatmif em&jcif;/
,HkrSm;oHo,udk azsmufEdkifjcif;/
t,l0g'udk ajzmifhrwfpGm ,lEdkifjcif;/
o'¨g,HkMunfaompdwf wdk;yGm;apjcif;/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

313

4/ rawGra0ao&jcif;/
5/ ok*wdb0odkYvm;&jcif;/

tyg,af v;yg;
1/ i&J
3/ Nydwåm

2/ wd&pämef
4/ tol&um,f

uyfoHk;yg;
1/ 'kAÇdu©EÅ&uyf
2/ owåEÅ&uyf
3/ a&m*EÅ&uyf

=
=
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iwfrGwfab;aMumifh ysufpD;aomuyf
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a&m*gab;aMumifh ysufpD;aomuyf

&yfjypf &Spfyg;

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
arwÅmtusdK; 11 yg;

1/ csrf;ompGmtdyf&onf/
2/ csrf;ompGmEdk;&onf/
3/ raumif;aomtdyfrufrjrif/
4/ vlewfcspfoem;onf/
5/ ab;vGwaf tmifewfwaYkd pmifronf/
6/ rD;ravmifEdkif/
7/ "m;vufeufrxdEdkif/
8/ tqdyfESifhraoEdkif/
9/ raumif;aompdwaf ysmufonf/
10/ rsufESmtqif;vSonf/
11/ rawGa0bJaoí jA[®mjynfodkYa&mufonf/

1/ i&J
2/ wd& pämef

=
=

3/ Nyw
d må
4/ tonaZm

=

5/ ypöEÅa&m

=

6/ rdpäm'dXd
7/ 0duvd`E´d,

=
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8/ Ak'¨okanm wda[wkaum =

&efolrsKd; ig;yg;

onf;cHjcif;tusdK; ig;rsKd;
1/ vltrsm;cspfjcif;/
2/ &efNidrf;jcif;/
3/ tjypfenf;jcif;/

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csrf;omrItvsOf;r&Sdaomt&yf/
edAÁmefESifhzDvm rkd;ukdausmay;aom
owå0g/
ukd,fvuft*Fg rrQwaomowå0g?
cE¨mukd,fwpfyg;om&Sdí toufemrf
r&Sdaom jA[®mbkH/
&wemokH;yg; rod? r&Sdaom awmcsKH
tkHjcm;t&yf/
rSm;aomt,l&Sdaom vlrsKd;pk/
opömav;yg;w&m;ukd emMum;&aomf
vnf; qGHUt em;yif;í w&m;rodol/
todtvdrm® ESijhf ynfph aHk omfvnf; bk&m;
yGifhaomumvESifhvGJí vljzpf&jcif;/

1/ a&
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2/ rD;
4/ olc;dk

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

0dywÅdw&m; av;yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/

oDv0dywdå
'd|d0dywdå
tmpm&0dywdå
tmZD00dywdå

=
=
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o&P*Hkysuf&aomtaMumif; ESpfyg;

oDvysufjcif;
t,lysufjcif;
tusifhysufjcif;
toufarG;rIysufjcif;

1/ rdpäm'd|dt,ludkajymif;,ljcif;
2/ aoqH;k jcif;

uHokH;yg;

Asoew&m; ig;yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

ÓwdAsoe
abm*Asoe
a&m*Asoe
oDvAsoe
'd|dAsoe

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315

aqGrsKd;ÓwdwkdY aoausysufpD;jcif;
&mxl;*kPo
f rd f pnf;pdrOf pömavsmusysupf ;D jcif;
tema&m*g ESdyfpufysufpD;jcif;
tusifhoDvysufpD;jcif;
t,l0g' vGJrSm;ysufpD;jcif;

1/ um,uH
2/ 0pDuH
3/ raemuH

=
=
=

udk,fjzifhjyKjcif;
EIwfjzifhjyKjcif;
pdwfjzifhjyKjcif;

tm½Hk ajcmufyg; umr*kPfw&m;rsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

½lyg½kH
o'´g½Hk
*E¨m½Hk
&om½Hk
azm|AÁm½Hk
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=
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tqif;tm½kH
toHtm½kH
teHYtm½kH
t&omtm½kH
tawGUtm½kH
w&m;oabmtm½kH

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
udavom oHk;yg;

1/ avmb

2/ a'go

3/ arm[

umv okH;yg;

yd#uwfoHk;yHk

1/ twdwf = vGefcJhaomumv
2/ ypöKyÜef = vuf&Sdumv
3/ tem*wf = aemifumv

1/ okwåef
2/ 0denf;
3/ tbd"r®m

t*wdw&m; av;yg;
1/ qE´

2/ a'go

3/ b,m

apwemoHk;wef
4/ arm[

rsufarSmufpnf;pdrfysufpD;aMumif;w&m; okH;yg;
1/ £w¬d"kwå
2/ ok&m"kwå
3/ tu©"kwå

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rdef;rvdkufpm;jcif;
aoaomufMuL;jcif;
avmif;upm;jcif;

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1/ ykAÁ
2/ rkOö
3/ y&

=
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BudKwifapwem
jyKqJapwem
jyKNyD;apwem

avmuygvw&m;okH;yg;
1/ vGwv
f yfjcif;

2/ nDrQjcif;/

3/ w&m;rQwjcif;

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

316

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

avmuoHk;yg;
1/ owåavmu
2/ ocFg&avmu
3/ Moumoavmu

cE¨m ig;yg;

= vlowå0grsm;\avmu
= jzpfysufjyKjyifavmu
= &S&d o
dS rQvo
l wå0gtm;vH;k &Sad omavmu

1/ ½lyu©E¨m
3/ ocFg&u©E¨m
5/ 0dnmPu©Em¨

jA[®pdk&fw&m;av;yg;
1/ arwåm
3/ rk'dwm

2/
4/

317

2/ a0'emu©E¨m
4/ onmu©E¨m

opöm av;yg;
u½kPm
Oayu©m

1/ 'ku©opöm
3/ eda&m"opöm

apwD av;rsKd;

orÜwÅdw&m; av;yg;
1/ umvorÜwåd
2/ *wdorÜwåd

= acwftcgaumif;ESifh BuHKawGU&jcif;/
= vlb
Y 0ewfb0uJo
h Ykd aumif;aom*wdEiS hf BuKH awGU
&jcif;/
3/ Oy"dorÜwåd
= ajcvuft*FgnDnmjynhfpHkjcif;? ½kyf&nf
½lyumwifhw,fjcif;/
4/ ya,m*orÜwåd
= um,uH? 0pDuH? raemuH oHk;yg;jzLpif
aumif;rGefjcif;
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leiwaythar.blogspot.com
orÜ'gw&m;av;yg; (rsufarSmufBuD;yGm;aMumif;w&m;av;yg;)

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1/ ab'Oyg,f
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

318

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

319

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8-6-1956

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20-4-1994

8-6-1994

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6-12-1996

5-3-1997

4/ pwkw¦tBudrf

6-11-2011

24-12-2011

taxGaxGodrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
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leiwaythar.blogspot.com
om;orD;usifh0wf

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

320

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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aMu;
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jrefrmhyef;(10)rsKd;twwfynm

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

arwåmpdwfouf? aqmif&Gufcspfcif? cifrifEIwfcsdK? vdkvQifzdwfxm;?
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jreffrmEkdifiHrS ta&SYawmiftm&S pmayqk&&Sdolrsm;
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321

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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urf;om,murf;ajc(&ckdifjynfe,f)
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uEÅm&0wD
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u,m;jynfe,f
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323

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urÇmhukvor*¾aeY
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urÇmah &o,HZmwaeY
urÇmhoufBuD;&G,ftdkrsm;aeY
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H umpmwwfajrmufa&;aeY tjynfjynfqid k &f m roefprG ;f olrsm;aeY tjynfjynfqidk &f m rl;,pfaq;0g; tvGo
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wdu
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tjynfjynfqikd &f m or0g,raeY
tjynfjynfqidk &f m trsKd ;orD;rsm;aeY tjynfjynfqdkif&m 'Drdkua&pDaeY -

(atmufwkdbmv 24 &uf)
({Nyv
D 7 &uf)
(arv 8 &uf)
('DZifbmv 1 &uf)
(atmufwdkbmv 9 &uf)
(atmufwdkbmv 16 &uf)
(atmufwdkbmv 5 &uf)
(arv 31 &uf)
(ZGefv 5 &uf)
(Mo*kwfv? yxrywf)
(atmufwkdbmv 11 &uf)
(rwfv 22 &uf)
(atmufwdkbm 1 &uf)
(Zlvdkifv 7 &uf)
(pufwifbmv 16 &uf)
(pufwifbmv 8 &uf)
('DZifbmv 3 &uf)
(ZGefv 26 &ufaeY)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
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(Zlvikd v
f yxrywf paeaeY)
(rwfv 8 &uf)
(pufwifbmv 15 &uf)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

324

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

&wemykH w,fvDykdh

ESpfywfvnfqkdif&m txdrf;trSwf &wktac:ta0:rsm;
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1 ESpfajrmuf
2 ESpfajrmuf
3 ESpfajrmuf
4 ESpfajrmuf
5 ESpfajrmuf
6 ESpfajrmuf
7 ESpfajrmuf
8 ESpfajrmuf
9 ESpfajrmuf
10 ESpfajrmuf
11 ESpfajrmuf
12 ESpfajrmuf
13 ESpfajrmuf
14 ESpfajrmuf
15 ESpfajrmuf
20 ESpfajrmuf
25 ESpfajrmuf
30 ESpfajrmuf
35 ESpfajrmuf
40 ESpfajrmuf
45 ESpfajrmuf
50 ESpfajrmuf
55 ESpfajrmuf
60 ESpfajrmuf
75 ESpfajrmuf
90 ESpfajrmuf

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puúL&wk
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'kwd,pdef&wk
e0&wf&wk

325

1/ wnfae&m
2/
3/
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5/

-

rEÅav;wkdif;? jyifOD;vGifNrdKUe,f?
rEÅav;jyifOD;vGif um;vrf; rkdifwkdif trSwf 27
&nf&G,fcsuf
- tqifhjrifhacwfrDtkdifwDypönf;rsm;? uGefysLwm
ypönf;rsm;ESifh qufoG,fa&;qkdif&mypönf;rsm;
xkwfvkyf&ef
pDrHudef;{&d,m - {u 1000
yifr w,fvDykdYtaqmufttkHzGifhvSpf&uf - 30-6-2006
&wemykHw,fvDykdYzGifhvSpf&uf
- 16-12-2007

jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd jynfe,faehrsm;ESifh jynfe,foauFwrsm;
1/
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6/
7/

ucsifjynfe,faeY
u,m;jynfe,faeY
u&ifjynfe,faeY
csi;f jynfe,faeY
rGefjynfe,faeY
&ckdifjynfe,faeY
&Srf;jynfe,faeY

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Zefe0g&Dv (18) &uf? raemwkdif/
Zefe0g&Dv (15) &uf? udEé&D udEé&m/
Ekd0ifbmv (7) &uf? zm;pnf/
azazmf0g&Dv (18) &uf? atmufcsi;f iSu/f
rwfv (9) &uf? [oFmiSuf/
'DZifbmv (15) &uf? a0omvD'*Fg;/
azazmf0g&Dv (7) &uf? &Srf;tkd;pnf/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

326

aepMum0VmtaMumif;
ae/ aeonf teEÅpMu0VmBuD;twGif; wnf&Sdaeaom Mu,frsm;teuf
wpfvHk;jzpfonf/ aeudk urÇmtygt0if N*dKvfBuD;udk;vHk;u (aemufydkif;wGif
yvlwkdtm; N*dKvftjzpfrS y,fzsufcJhonf) rdrdwdkY\ ywfvrf;aMumif;rsm;rS
vSnyhf wfaeouJo
h Ykd aeonfvnf; e*g;aiGUwef; Mu,fpkBuD;\tv,fudk A[dk
jyKí vnfywfaeonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

327

oH;k rsKd ;jzifah &GUvsm;aeonf(1) rdrd0if½dk;ay:wGif vnfywfaejcif;?
(2) aeudk rdrd\ywfvrf;aMumif;jzifh vnfywfaejcif;?
(3) teEÅpMu0Vm e*g;aiGUwef;Mu,fpBk u;D twGi;f aepMu0VmrS aeESiw
hf uG
tjcm;N*dKvfrsm;ESifhtwl jzwfoef;a&GUvsm;aejcif;wdkYjzpfonf/
urÇm\oufwrf;
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ae\oufwrf;
- ESpfaygif; 4ç600ç000ç000 ESpf/

urÇm\tylcsdef
- ysrf;rQurÇmhrsufESmjyiftylcsdefrSm 14 'D*&DpifwD*&dwfjzpfonf/

aeESifhurÇmtuGmta0;
- teD;qHk;tcsdefwGif 147ç100ç000 uDvdkrDwma0;onf/
- ta0;qHk;tcsdefwGif 152ç100ç000 uDvdkrDwma0;onf/

urÇm\ rdrd0if½dk;ay:wGifvnfywfrI
- 23 em&D? 56 rdepf? 4.09 puúefYvQif wpfywfEIef;/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

ae\tylcsdef
- ae\rsufESmjyifwGif 5ç500 'D*&DpifwD*&dwf
- ae\twGif;bufwGif 15ç000ç000 'D*&DpifwD*&dwf
ae\¤if;0if½dk;ay:wGifvnfywfEIef;
- wpfvvQif wpfywf/
ae\tcsif;
- 1ç392ç000 uDvdkrDwm (urÇm\ 109q eD;yg;cefY)

urÇmtaMumif;
aeudk vSnyhf wfaeaomN*Kd vrf sm;teuf rmusL&DEiS hf AD;eyfpNf *Kd vrf sm;Ny;D vQif
urÇmonf aeESifhwwd,teD;qHk;jzpfonf/ aepMu0VmtwGif;&Sd N*dKvfrsm;
teuf yOörtBuD;qHk;vnf;jzpfonf/ urÇmhrsufESmjyif\ &mckdifEIef;70rSm
a&jyifrsm;jzpfNy;D &mcdik Ef eI ;f 30rSm uke;f ajrjzpfonf/ urÇmBu;D onf a&GUvsm;rI
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/165 of 208.

urÇm\tcsif;
- 12713.54 uDvdkrDwm

vtaMumif;
vonf aepMu0VmtwGif; urÇm\teD;qHk;aom wpfckwnf;jzpfonfh
t&efvjzpfonf/ vonf udk,fydkiftvif;a&mifr&SdbJ urÇmudk 27 &uf?
7em&D ESifh 43 rdepfwGif wpfywfEIef;jzifh vSnfhywfaeonf/
v\oufwrf;
- 4ç600ç000ç000 (4.6 bDvD,H)ESpfaygif;
v\tcsif;
- 3476 uDvdkrDwm
urÇmESifh vtuGmta0;
- teD;qHk;tcsdefwGif tuGmta0; 356ç399 uDvdkrDwm
- ta0;qHk;tcsdefwGif tuGmta0; 406ç699 uDvdkrDwm

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328

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

urÇmhwdkufBuD;rsm;
tm&Swdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 44009000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urÇmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 29.9 &mckdifEIef;
&mcdkifEIef;
3/ yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyiftxuf
= {0&ufawmif? eDaygEkdifiH
tjrifq
h ;kH ae&m
(yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf
8848rDwm)
4/ yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyifatmuf = yifv,faourf;ajc?tpöa&;vfEidk if H
tedrq
hf ;kH ae&m
ESiahf *sm'f efEidk if ?H (yifv,fa&rsuEf mS
jyifatmuf 399 rDwm)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

329

3/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf = rufuifavawmif?
tjrihfqHk;ae&m
tvmpumjynfe,f? tar&duef
jynfaxmifpk? yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyif
txuf 6194 rDwm (20320 ay)
4/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = 'ufoaf wmifMum;?
tedrq
hf ;kH ae&m
umvDz;kd eD;,m;jynfe,f? tar&duef
jynfaxmifp?k yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyif
atmuf 86 rDwm (282 ay)
awmiftar&duwdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 17832000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urÇmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 12.0 &mckdifEIef;
&mckdifEIef;
3/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf = tmuGeu
f m*Ggawmif?
tjrifhqHk;ae&m
tm*sifwD;em;EkdifiH
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf
6959 rDwm (22834 ay)
4/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = Am;'ufuRe;f qG,?f
tedrfhqHk;ae&m
tm*sifwD;em;EkdifiH
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf
40 rDwm (131 ay)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

tmz&duwdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 30251000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urÇmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 20.6 &mckdifEIef;
&mcdkifEIef;
3/ yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyiftxuf
= uDvrD ef*sm½dak wmif? wefZefe;D ,m;
tjrifhqkH;ae&m
EkdifiH? (yifv,fa&rsufESmjyif
txuf 5895rDwm)
4/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = tufq,fa&uef? *sDblwDEkdifiH
tedrfhqkH;ae&m
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf
155 rDwm (515 ay)
ajrmuftar&duwdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 24237000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urÇmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 14.8 &mckdifEIef;
&mckdifEIef;

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tEÅmwduwdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 14000000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urÇmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 10.5 &mckdifEIef;
&mckdifEIef;
3/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf = ADqifwqpf?
tjrifhqHk;ae&m
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf
514 rDwm
4/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifESifhtnDjzpf
tedrq
hf ;kH ae&m
ygonf/

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330

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

331

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/167 of 208.

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/168 of 208.

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/169 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/169 of 208.

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/170 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

336

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/170 of 208.

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/171 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com
vlOD;a&tusJqHk; (10)EdkifiH

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/171 of 208.

1 pwk&ef;rdkifwiG f
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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/172 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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341

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

2011 ckESpftwGif; tm&SEkdifiHrsm; Facebook okH;pGJrItrsm;qkH; (10) EkdifiH

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587713 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
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443065 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
229957 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
225800 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
220548 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
183964 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/172 of 208.

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/173 of 208.

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/173 of 208.

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/174 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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=
=
=
=

1106000
4700000
tar&duefa':vm 2.3 bDvsH
3500 pD;
8 pif;
63 pif;
590 pif;

=

&Sd

=
=
=
=
=

1027000
20000000
tar&duefa':vm 32.1 bDvsH
22831 pD;
71 pif;? 1 pif;

=
=

53 pif;
3252 pif;

=

&Sd

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
awmifudk&D;,m;
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;
ygupöwef
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;
tD&ef
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;

345

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

687000
4500000
tar&duefa':vm 23.7 bDvsH
2330 pD;
43 pif;
20 pif;
518 pif;

=

r&Sd

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

619000
302000
tar&duefa':vm 4.1 bDvsH
2461 pD;
6 pif;
8 pif;
352 pif;

=

&Sd

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

545000
350000
tar&duefa':vm 6.6 bDvsH
1613 pD;
5 pif;
3 pif;
26 pif;

=

r&Sd

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

½k&Sm;
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBuD;rsm;ESifh
av,mOfwifoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/174 of 208.

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/175 of 208.

346

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wl&uD
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm; = 5149000
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
= 3787000
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
= tar&duefa':vm 8.1 bDvsH
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
= 4205 pD;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
= 26 pif;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
= 12 pif;
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
= 445 pif;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm; = r&Sd
AD,uferf
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm; = 4556000
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
= 5000000
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
= tar&duefa':vm 3.4 bDvsH
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
= 1315 pD;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
= 11 pif;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
= 2 pif;
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
= 221 pif;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm; = r&Sd
*smreD
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm; = 2457000
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
= 1618000
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
= tar&duefa':vm 38.8 bDvsH
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
= 2035 pD;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
= 16 pif;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
= 13 pif;
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
= 295 pif;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm; = ofr&S208.
d
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/175

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
jyifopf
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBuD;rsm;ESifh
av,mOfwifoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;
*syef
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
NAdwdef
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBuD;rsm;ESifh
av,mOfwifoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;

347

=
=
=
=
=

2549000
217000
tar&duefa':vm 49.3 bDvsH
926 pD;
35 pif;? 2 pif;

=
=

10 pif;
307 pif;

=

&Sd

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2404000
418000
tar&duefa':vm 41.1 bDvsH
980 pD;
53 pD;
16 pif;
280 pif;

=
=
=
=
=

191000
199300
tar&duefa':vm 60.5 bDvsH
386 pD;
28 pif;? 3 pif;

=
=

15 pif;
278 pif;

=

&Sd

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/176 of 208.

348

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

acwfopftkdvHypftm;upm;yGJrsm;
aEG&moDtm;upm;NydKifyGJrsm;
pOf ckESpf
EkdifiH
1/ 1896
*&d
2/ 1900
jyifopf
3/ 1904
tar&duef
4/ 1908
t*Fvef
5/ 1912
qGD'if
6/ 1916
rusif;yjzpfyg/
7/ 1920
bJvf*sD,H
8/ 1924
jyifopf
9/ 1928
e,fomvef
10/ 1932
tar&duef
11/ 1936
*smreD
12/ 1940-44 rusif;yjzpfyg/
13/ 1948
t*Fvef
14/ 1952
zifvef
15/ 1956
MopaMw;vs
16/ 1960
tDwvD
17/ 1964
*syef
18/ 1968
rufqu
D kd
19/ 1972
taemuf*smreD
20/ 1976
uae'g
21/ 1980
qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk
22/ 1984
tar&duef
23/ 1988
awmifu&kd ;D ,m;
24/ 1992
pydef
25/ 1996
tar&duef

NrdKU
atoif
yg&D
pdefYvl;0pf
vef'ef
pawmh[rk ;f
tef;0yf
yg&D
trfpwm'rf
avmhpftdef*svdpf
bmvif

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
MopaMw;vs
*&d
w½kwf

349

26/
27/
28/

2000
2004
2008

qpf'eD
atoif
ayusif;

pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/
19/
20/
21/
22/

aqmif;&moDtm;upm;NydKifyGJrsm;
ckESpf
EkdifiH
NrdKU
1824
jyifopf
csmrdkepf
1928
qGpfZmvef
pdefYrkd&Zf
1932
tar&duef
vdwfyvmppf
1936
*smreD
*g;zpf&Sf- ygwifumcsif
1940-44 rusif;yjzpfyg/
1948
qGpfZmvef
pdefYrdk&Zf
1952
aemfa0
atmfpvdk
1956
tDwvD
aumfwDem'DtrfyufZdk
1960
tar&duef
paumAJv;D
1964
MopBwD;,m;
tif;pfb&yf
1968
jyifopf
*&ifEdkb,f
1972
*syef
qufydk½dk
1976
MopBwD;,m;
tif;pfb&yf
1980
tar&duef
vdwfyvmppf
1984
,l*q
kd vm;AD;,m;
qm&ma,Adk
1988
tar&duef
umvf*g&D
1992
jyifopf
tJvb
f wfAv
D ;f
1996
aemfa0
[Dv[
D rf;rm;
2000
*syef
em*gEdk
2004
tar&duef
aqmhvw
d pf ;D wD;
2008
tDwvD
wdk&DEdk
2010
uae'g
AifulAm

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/176 of 208.

vef'ef
[,fqifu;D
rJvfbkef;
a&mr
wdkusdK
rufqu
D pkd ;D wD;
jrL;epf
rGefx&D,Jvf
armfpudk
avmhpftdef*svdpf
qdk;vf
bmpDvdkem
twåvEÅm

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/177 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

350

urÇmhtjrifUqHk;taqmufttkH 10 ck
wkdifay 101arQmfpif
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

wkdifayNrdKU? w½kwf(wkdifay)
2004 ckESpf
1667 ay
101 xyf

yDx½dkeyfarQmfpif-1
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

uGmvmvrfyl? rav;&Sm;EdkifiH
1998 ckESpf
1483 ay (452rDwm)
88 xyf

yDx½dkeyfarQmfpif-2
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

uGmvmvrfyl? rav;&Sm;EdkifiH
1996 ckESpf
1483 ay (452 rDwm)
88 xyf

qD;,m;arQmfpif-1
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

csDum*dk? tar&duef
1974 ckESpf
1451 ay (442 rDwm)
110 xyf

usif;armftaqmufttkH
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

&Sef[dkif;? w½kwfjynf
1999 ckESpf
1381 ay (421 rDwm)
88 xyf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

351

wl;tifwmae&Sife,fb@ma&;pifwm
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
= a[mifaumif? w½kwfjynf
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
= 2003 ckESpf
3/ tjrifh
= 1362 ay (421 rDwm)
4/ txyfaygif;
= 88 xyf
pudkif;pifx&,fyvmZm
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

*GrfZl;? w½kwfjynf
1996 ckESpf
1283 ay (391 rDwm)
80 xyf

qGef[if;&ifjyif
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

&Sefusef;? w½kwfjynf
1996ckESpf
1260 ay (384 rDwm)
69 xyf

tifyg,mpwdwf
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

e,l;a,muf? tar&duef
1991ckESpf
1250 ay (381 rDwm)
102 xyf

pifx&,fyvmZm
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

a[mifaumif? w½kwfjynf
1992ckESpf
1227 ay (374 rDwm)
78 xyf

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/177 of 208.

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/178 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

352

tvsm;? tus,ft0ef;? xkxnfESifU tav;csdef,lepfrsm;
tvsm;twkdif;twm,lepfrsm;
NAdwdoQpepf
12 vufr
3 ay
22 ukduf
10 oHBudK;
8 zmvkH
1760 uku
d f
5280 ay

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

rufx&pfpepf
10 rDvDrDwm
10 pifwDrDwm
10 'ufpDrDwm
10 rDwm
10 'ufumrDwm
10 [ufwkdrDwm
100 pifwDrDwm
1000 rDwm

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1 ay
1 ukduf
1 oHBudK;
1 zmvkH
1 rkdif
1 rkdif
1 rkdif

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
1
1
1
1
1

'ufpDrDwm
rDwm
'ufum
[ufwkdrDwm
uDvkdrDwm

=
=
=
=
=

353

3.937 vufr
39.37 vufr
393.7 vufr
328.0833 ay
0.62137 rkdif

tus,ft0ef;,lepfrsm;
NAdwdoQpepf
144 pwk&ef;vufr
9 pwk&ef;ay
4840 pwk&ef;ukduf
640 {u

=
=
=
=

1 pwk&ef;ay
1 pwk&ef;ukduf
1 {u
1 pwk&ef;rkdif

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

qufpyfrI
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

vufr
ay
ukduf
zmvkH
rkdif
rDvDrDwm
pifwDrDwm

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1 pifwDrDwm
1 'ufpDrDwm
1 rDwm
1 'ufumrDwm
1 [ufwkdrDwm
1 uDvkdrDwm
1 rDwm
1 uDvkdrDwm

2.54 pifwDrDwm
30.48 pifwDrDwm
0.9144 rDwm
201.168 rDwm
1.609 uDvkdrDwm
0.03937 vufr
0.3937 vufr

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/178 of 208.

rufx&pfpepf
100 pwk&ef;rDvDrDwm =
100 pwk&ef;pifwDrDwm =
100 pwk&ef;'ufpDrDwm =
100 pwk&ef;rDwm
=
100 pwk&ef;'ufumrDwm =
100 pwk&ef;[ufwkdrDwm =
qufpyfrI
1
1
1
1
1

pwk&ef;vufr
pwk&ef;ay
pwk&ef;ukduf
{u
pwk&ef;rkdif

=
=
=
=
=
=

1 pwk&ef;pifwDrDwm
1 pwk&ef;'ufpDrDwm
1 pwk&ef;rDwm
1 pwk&ef;'ufumrDwm
1 pwk&ef;[ufwkdrDwm
1 pwk&ef; uDvkdrDwm

6.4516 pwk&ef;pifwDrDwm
0.0929 pwk&ef;rDwm
0.8361 pwk&ef;rDwm
0.4047 [ufwm
258.9988 [ufwm
2.59 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/179 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

354

xkxnfwkdif;wmrI ,lepfrsm;
=
=

1 ukAay
1 ukAukduf

=
=
=
=
=

1
1
1
1
1

qufpyfrI
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

16.387 ukApifwDrDwm
0.0283 ukArDwm
0.7646 ukArDwm
0.061 ukAvufr
0.0353 ukAay
1.308 ukAukduf
1308 ukAukduf
1ç308ç000 ukAukduf

ukApifwDrDwm
ukA'ufpDrDwm
ukArDwm
ukA'ufumrDwm
ukA[ufwkdrDwm

a&S;½kd;NAdwdoQaygifcsdefpepf
1 aygif
= 16 atmifp
1 pwkH
= 14 aygif
1 wef
= 2240 aygif
rufx&pfpepf
1 pifwD*&rf = 10 rDvD*&rf
1 'ufpD*&rf = 10 pifwD*&rf
1 *&rf
= 10 'ufpD*&rf
1 'ufum*&rf = 10 *&rf
1 [ufwkd*&rf = 10 'ufum*&rf
1 uDvkd*&rf = 10 [ufwkd*&rf
1 rufx&pfwef = 1000 uDvkd*&rf
(tar&duefo;Hk )
qufpyfrI
1 aygif
= 453.5934 *&rf = 0.4536 uDvkd*&rf
1 wef
= 1.12 rufx&pfwef (tar&duefokH;)
1 uDvkd*&rf = 2.2046 aygif
1 rufx&pfwef = 2204.62 aygif

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
0ifqHhrIyrmP,lepfrsm;
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

rDvDvDwm
pifwDvDwm =
'ufpDvDwm =
vDwm
=
'ufumvDwm =
[ufwkdvDwm =
uDvkdvDwm =

10 rDvDvDwm
10 pifwDvDwm
10 'ufpDvDwm
10 vDwm
10 'ufumvDwm
10 [ufwkdvDwm

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/179 of 208.

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

355

tav;csdefpepf,lepfrsm;

NAdwdoQpepf
1728 ukAvufr
27 ukAay
,lepfpepf
1000 ukArDvDrDwm
1000 ukApifwDrDwm
1000 ukA'ufpDrDwm
1000 ukArDwm
1000 ukA'ufumrDwm
ukAvufr
ukAay
ukAukduf
ukApifwDrDwm
ukA'ufpDrDwm
ukArDwm
ukA'ufumrDwm
ukA[ufwkdrDwm

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

0.061 ukAvufr
0.6103 ukAvufr
6.1025 ukAvufr
61.025 ukAvufr
610.25 ukAvufr
6102.55 ukAvufr
35.316 ukAay
264.158 *gvH

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/180 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

356

rSwfom;zG,f&maqmifyk'frsm;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

357

12/ jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJ&ef 'kdY&nfoef pDrHtm;xkwf 'kdYtvkyf/
To prevent disintegration of the union is our aim, so shall we strive.

1/ wyfrawmfonf trsKd;om;a&;ukd b,fawmhrS opömrazmuf/
The Tatmadaw shall never betray national interests.

2/ wyfrawmftiftm;&SdrS wkdif;jynftiftm;&Sdrnf/
Only when the tatmadaw is strong will the nation be strong.

3/ jynhftiftm;onf jynfwGif;rSmom&Sdonf/
The strength of the nation lies only within.

4/ e,fcsJUvufyg;aptvkdr&Sd/
Don't with minion of Colonialism.

5/ wkid ;f &if;om;tcsi;f csi;f av;pm;yg/ cspcf ifyg/ wef;wl&nfwl qufqyH g/

13/ pnf;urf;&SdrS wkd;wufrnf/
Only when there is discipline will there be progress.

14/ b,folcGJcGJ 'kdYruGJ tNrJpnf;vkH;rnf/
No matter who tries to divide us we will always united.

15/ Ekid if aH wmfzGJUpnf;ykt
H ajccHOya'ay:aygufa&;onf jynfaxmifpo
k m;
tm;vkH;\ y"meusaom wm0efjzpfonf/
Emergence of the State Constitution is the duty of all citizens of
Myanmar Naing-Ngan.

16/ pnf;vk;H jcif;onftiftm;/
Unity is strength.

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
Keep up respect, fraternity and equality among nationalities.

6/ oifhaMumifh jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJygapESifh/

Don't let the Union disintegrate because of you.

7/ wnfNidrfrIonf y"me/
Tranquality is primary.

17/ vGwfvyfa&;ukd umuG,fyg/

Safeguard National independence.

18/ wyfrawmfNzdKcGJrnfhtBuH 'kdYvufrcH/

We reject any scheme to break up the Tatmadaw.

19/ rif;rJhp½kdufjzifh 'Drkdua&pDr&Ekdif
Anarchy begets anarchy, not democracy.

8/ vGwfvyfrIonf xm0&/
Independence is for perpetuity.

9/ 'Drkdua&pD\qefYusifbufonf rif;rJhp½kduf/
The opposite of democracy is anarchy.

10/ ajray:ajratmuf tzsuform;tvkdr&Sd/
Don't with all destructive elements above ground and under
ground.

11/ w&m;Oya'pkd;rkd;rS jynfolYb0 at;csrf;&/
With Law prevailing people's life will be at peace.

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20/ wyfrawmfNzdKcGJol 'kdY&efol/
Anyone who tries to break up the Tatmadaw is our enenmy.

21/ jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwfonf rSefuefaom rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwfjzpfonf/
Only Union Spirit is the true patriotism.

22/ qlylrIjzifh 'Drkdua&pDr&Ekdif/
Riots beget riots, not democracy.

23/ wnfNidrfat;csrf;rS wkdif;jynfzGHUNzdK;wkd;wufrnf/
Only with stability and peace will the nation develop.

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

358

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

bGJY'D*&Drsm;
1. M.B.B.S

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

(q&m0efbGJU)
2. B.D.S

Bachelor of Dental Surgery

(oGm;bufqidk &f mq&m0efbUJG )
3. B.V.S

t*Fvdyf-jrefrm pum;yHkrsm;
1.

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

2.

A little is better than none.

vdktyfonfhtcgwGif ulnDay;olonf rdwfaqGppfjzpfonf/
vHk;0r&Sdonfxuf tenf;i,f&Sdonfu awmfao;onf/
3.

(wd& pämefaq;ukq&m0efbUJG )
4. B.Ag
Bachelor of Agriculture (pku
d yf sK;d a&;ynmbGUJ )
5. B.Sc
Bachelor of Science (odyÜHbGJU)
6. B. E
Bachelor of Engineering (tif*sifeD,mbGJU)
7. B.Arch
Bachelor of Architecture (AdokumbGJU)
8. B.Tech
Bachelor of Technology (enf;ynmbGJU)
9. B.Eco
Bachelor of Economic (pD;yGm;a&;ynmbGUJ )
10. B.Com
Bachelor of Commerce (0gPdZb
Æ UJG )
11. B.A
Bachelor of Arts (0dZÆmbGJU)
12. L.L.B
Bachelor of Laws (Oya'bGJU)
13. B. Ed
Bachelor of Education (ynma&;bGJU)
14. M.A
Master of Art (r[m0dZÆmbGJU)
15. M.Sc
Master of Science (r[modyÜHbGJU)
16. Ph.D
Doctor of Philosophy (a'gufwmbGJU)
17. B.N.Sc
Bachelor of Nursing Science (olemjyKodyÜHbGJU)
18. B.C.Sc
Bachelor of Computer Science (uGefysLwmodyÜHbGJU)
19. B.Act
Bachelor of Accounting (pm&if;ukdifynmbGJU)
20. B.Pharm Bachelor of Pharmacy (aq;0g;uRr;f usiy
f nmbGUJ )
21. M.Act
Master of Accounting (pm&if;ukdifynmr[mbGJU)
22. M.E
Master of Engineering (tif*sifeD,mr[mbGJU)
21. M.Com
Master of Commerce
(r[m0gPdZb
Æ UJG )
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/181
of 208.

All is fair in love and war.

tcspfESifhppfwGif rw&m;rIr&Sd/

Bachelor of Veterinary Science
4.

All is not gold that glitters.

5.

A stitch in time saves nine.

0g0gjrifwkdif; a&TrxifESifh/
ysuftpOf jyifcP/
6.

Care killed the cat.

aomuaMumifh aMumifao/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
7.

Don't cry for the moon.

rrDwJhyef; rvSrf;ESifh/

8.

Don't trouble until trouble, troubles you.

'ku©rjzpfcif 'ku©cHNyD; 'ku©taMumif;rawG;ESifh/

9.

Empty vessels make the most sound.

rjynfhonfhtdk; abmifbifcwfonf/
10. Fortune favours the brave.

aMumufvQif vmbfvGJ? &JvQif rif;jzpf/
11. God helps those who help themselves.

rdrdudk,fom udk;uG,f&m/
12. Good wine needs no brush.

ypönf;aumif;vQif trTef;wifp&mrvdk/
13. Haste makes waste.

tvsifvdk tvGJjzpf/
14. He who sleeps catches no fish.

tdyfaeol ig;r&/
15. History repeats itself.

orkdif;wpfausmh jyefvnfonf/
16. Honesty is the best policy.

½dk;om;rIonf taumif;qHk;jzpfonf/

359

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

360

17. Honour to whom honour is due.

xkdufonfholudk *kPfjyKyg/
18. Ideas move the world.

tawG;tac:rsm;onf urÇmBuD;udkajymif;vJaponf/
19. Idleness is the rust of soul.

roHk;wJh"m; oHacs;wuf/
20. No one is above the law.

w&m;Oya'onf rsufESmrvdkuf/
21. Kill not the goose that lays the golden egg.

a&TO Oay;aomief;udk rowf&/
22. Knowledge is power.

todynmonf pGrf;tm;/
23. Life is full of ups and downs.

b0onf twuftusrsm;ESifhjynfhESufaeonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
34. No man is perfect.

avmuwGifNyD;jynfhpkHol[lír&Sd/
35. No pain, no gain.

temrcH? tomrpH/
36. Nothing venture nothing have.

rpGefYpm;bJ bmrSrjzpf/
37. One good turn deserves another.

olYudkulrS olYtultnD&onf/
38. Patience is virtue.

pdwf&Snfjcif;onf r*Fvmwpfyg;jzpfonf/
39. Pity is align to love.

cspfjcif;tp oem;jcif;u/
40. Poverty is no sin.

qif;&Jjcif;onf tjypfr[kwfyg/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

24. Love is blind.

tcspfwGif rsufpdr&Sd/

25. Make hay while the sun shines.

vomwkef; Adkif;iif/

26. Man is the architect of his own destiny.

vlonf rdrdb0\ t&Sifocifjzpfonf/
27. Marry haste, and repent at leisure.

rqifrjcif tdrfaxmifus aESmif;rSaemifw&/
28. Man proposes, God disposes.

vlYtvdk ewfrvdkufEdkif/
29. Necessity is the mother of invention.

vdkvQifBuHq enf;vrf;&/
30. Necessity has no law.

avmbeJYawGU w&m;arh/
31. Never do things by halves.

tvkyfvkyfvQif wpf0ufwpfysuf rvkyfygESifh/
32. Never too late to mend.

ynmvkd tdkonfr&Sd/
33. Never too old to learn.

ynmvdk tdkonfr&Sd/

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41. Practice makes perfect.

avhusifhay;rS jynfh0onf/

42. Prevention is better than cure.

BudKwifumuG,fjcif;onf ukojcif;xufydkaumif;onf/

43. Rome was not built in a day.

a&mrNrdKUBuD;udk wpf&ufwnf;ESifh wnfaqmufxm;jcif;r[kwf/
44. Slow and steady wins the race.

jznf;jznf;ESifh rSefrSefaqmif&GufvQif yef;wkdifa&mufrnf/
45. The darkest hour is before the dawn.

a&mifeDrvmrDtcsdefonf tarSmifqHk;umvjzpfonf/
46. The ripest fruit first falls.

trSnfhqHk;opfoD; t&ifqHk;a<uonf/
47. Time and tide wait for no man.

tcsdefESifh'Da&onf vludkrapmifh/
48. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

q&mrsm; om;ao/
49. Truth is mighty and shall prevail.

trSefw&m;u aemufqHk;wGiftEdkif&&Sdonf/
50. We eat that we may live.

igwdkYonf touf&Sifoefjcif;twGuf pm;aomufMuonf/

361

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

362

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

51. Where there is a will, there is a way.

363

tpkd;&r[kwfaom toif;tzGJYrsm;ESifh Ouú|rsm;

vkdvQifBuHq enf;vrf;&/
52. Where there is love, there is jealousy.

cspfvQif o0efwdkonf/

pOf

toif;tzGJUtrnf

Ouú|trnfESifh pwifwm0ef
xrf;aqmifonfh&ufpGJ

53. Writing is better than speech.

EIwfwpf&m pmwpfvHk;/

1/ jrefrmEkdifiH MuufajceDtoif;

54. Youth is full of pleasure. Age is full of care.

vli,fb0onf aysmf&TifrItjynfh? vlBuD;b0onf aomuESifhtjynfh/
55. Youth is wholly experimental.

vli,fb0onf vHk;0prf;oyfjcif;yifjzpfonf/
56. Ignorance is worse than poverty.

r&Sdwmxuf rodwmcufw,f/
57. There is no success without effort.

rBudK;pm;bJeJYawmh atmifjrifrIr&Ekdifbl;/

2/ jrefrmEkid if H pmayESiphf me,fZif;
tzGJU
3/ jrefrmEkdifiH ½kyf&Siftpnf;t½kH;

= ygarmu© a'gufwmomvSa&T
(29-10-2006 rS ,aeYtxd)
=
=

-

4/ jrefrmEkdifiH *Dwtpnf;t½k;H

= OD;armifarmifvwf
(2-11-2005 rS ,aeYtxd)
5/ jrefrmEkdifiH ½dk;&myef;ynm&Sifrsm; = OD;aomif;[ef
tpnf;t½kH;
(18-7-1992 rS ,aeYtxd)
6/ jrefrmEkdifiH obifynm&Sifrsm;
= OD;pdefrm'if
tpnf;t½kH;
(2-2-2007 rS ,aeYtxd)
7/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH
= OD;0if;atmif
ukefonfrsm;ESifhpufrIvufrI
(1-5-2011 rS ,aeYtxd)
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;toif;csKyf
8/ jrefrmEkdifiH 0dZÆmESifhodyÜHynm&Sif = OD;oef;OD;
tzGJU
(16-8-1999 rS ,aeYtxd)
9/ jrefrmEkdifiH [kdw,fqkdif&m
= OD;&ef0if;
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;toif;
(24-3-2012 rS ,aeYtxd)
10/ jrefrmEkdifiH ykpGefvkyfief;&Sifrsm; = OD;pd;k xGe;f
toif;
(11-12-2010 rS ,aeYtxd)
11/ jrefrmEkdifiH yifv,fig;zrf;vkyfief; = OD;armifarmifp;dk
&Sifrsm;toif;
(29-4-2006 rS ,aeYtxd)
12/ jrefrmEkdifiH opfvkyfief;&Sifrsm;
= OD;pdefvGif
toif;
(16-2-2007 rS ,aeYtxd)

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

58. The moral lessons lie in the books.

tvdr®mpmrSm&dS/

59. There is no time like present.

ypöKyÜefESifhwlaom tcsdefonfr&Sd/

60. Nothing is difficult to a willing man.

qE´BuD;&if BuHorQNyD;r,f/
61. Learning cannot be stolen.

ynma&Ttkd; vlrckd;/
62. Do as I say, don't as I do.

igajymovkdvkyf? igvkyfovkd rvkyfeJY/
63. Books and freinds should be few but good.

pmtkyef rYJ w
d af qGudk enf;enf;bJ xm;oifw
h ,f/ 'gayr,fh aumif;&r,f/
64. The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance.

wpfcw
k nf;aomaumif;rIqw
dk m todynm&Sjd cif;jzpfNy;D ? raumif;rIqw
dk m
trSefukd rodjcif;jzpfw,f/
65. Experience is the best teacher.

tawGUtBuHKqkdwm taumif;qkH;q&m/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

364

13/ jrefrmEkdifiH ig;vkyfief;tzGUJ csKyf

= 0PÖausmx
f ifO;D aX;jrifh
(1-12-1998 rS ,aeYtxd)
= OD;rdk;jrifhausmf
(19-12-2010 rS ,aeYtxd)

14/ jrefrmEkdifiH a&xGufypönf;
xkwfvkyfolrsm;ESifhykdYukef
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;toif;
15/ jrefrmEkdifiH aq;ESifhaq;ypönf;
=
ukefonfrsm;ESifhvkyfief;&Sifrsm;
toif;
16/ jrefrmEkdifiH qefpyg;ukefonfrsm; =
toif;
17/ jrefrmEkdifiH uGefysLwm
=
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;toif;
18/ jrefrmEkdifiH ykHESdyfESifhxw
k af 0ol
=
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;toif;
19/ jrefrmEkdifiH uGefysLwmynm&Sifrsm; =
toif;
20/ jrefrmEkdifiH yifv,ful;oabFmom; =
toif;
21/ jrefrmEkdifiH rl;,pfaq;0g;
=
qefYusifa&; toif;A[kd
22/ jrefrmEkdifiHoGm;bufqkdif&m
=
q&m0efrsm;toif;
23/ jrefrmEkdifiH q&m0eftoif;
=

a'gufwm OD;0if;pnfol
(2-12-2007 rS ,aeYtxd)

OD;atmifoef;OD;
(5-4-2007 rS ,aeYtxd)
OD;rif;aZ,smvIdif
(1-8-2010 rS ,aeYtxd)
a'gufwmwifxeG ;f OD;
(23-1- 2010 rS ,aeYtxd)
OD;&J&ifh0if;
(5-6-2010 rS ,aeYtxd)
uyÜwdefrif;pdef
(12-3-2004 rS ,aeYtxd)
OD;pHodef;
(24-10-2004 rS ,aeYtxd)
ygarmu©a'gufwmode;f xG#f
(24-2-2008 rS ,aeYtxd)
ygarmu© a'gufwmausmfjrifhEkdif
(18-1-2006 rS ,aeYtxd)
= OD;armifÓPf
(3-5-2007 rS ,aeYtxd)
= OD;oef;vGif
(1-11-2004 rS ,aeYtxd)
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(20-11-2006 rS ,aeYtxd)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

365

NGO tzGt
JY pnf;rsm;

jrefrmEkdifiH rdcifESifUuav;apmifUa&Smufa&;toif;
pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf
1/
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&nf&G,fcsuf
2/
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tqift
h wef; jrifrh m;vmapa&;twGuf apmifah &SmufraI y;&efEiS hf jrefrmEkid if H
vlrItzGJUtpnf;rsm;ukd yHhykd;ulnD&ef/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

24/ jrefrmEkdifiH wkdif;&if;aq;q&m
toif;
25/ jrefrmEkdifiHig;arG;jrLa&;vkyfief;
toif;
26/ jrefrmEkdifiH a&csKdig;zrf;vkyfief;
vkyfukdifolrsm;toif;

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/184 of 208.

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rsm;wGif toif;cGJrsm; zGJUpnf;NyD;jzpfonf/
toif;om;tjzpf avQmufxm;jcif;^ &yfpJjcif;
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366

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

367

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/185 of 208.

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/186 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

368

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toif;om;rsm;tjzpf zGJUpnf;aqmif&Gufygonf(u) em,utzGJU
(c) tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

( * ) ppfrIxrf;a[mif;tzJGUu ay;tyfaom wm0efESifh0wå&m;
rsm;udk xrf;aqmif&ef uwdjyKol?
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( i ) wnfqOJ ya'wpf&yf&yft& rw&m;toif;tjzpf aMunmjcif;
cH&onf(h odrYk [kw)f Ekid if aH wmftm; vufeufuikd q
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(q) e,fbufqikd &f mwGif tusiphf m&dwaå Mumifh jypf'Pfusc&H jcif;
r[kwfol?
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G &f efzek ;f eHygwfrmS 067-30791 jzpfonf/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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zGUJ pnf;xm;onf (u) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftpdk;&\ EdkifiHawmfta&;?
pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIa&;&mrsm;udk "mwfyykH nmjzifh
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nDñGwfa&;udk jr§ifhwif&ef?
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rsm;udk &SmazGazmfxw
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tqifrh D &SmazGazmfxkwf Buq
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oejyKívnf;aumif;? jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f jyefyY mG ;ap&eftwGuf
aqmif&u
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tuljyKjcif;? ulnjD cif;jzifh "mwfyykH nmjyefyY mG ;a&;udk aqmif
&Guf&ef/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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av;rsKd;cGJjcm;xm;onf/ toif;om;tjzpfavQmufxm;vdkygu atmufyg
t&nftcsi;f ESifh jynfhpHk&ygrnf (u) touf (18) ESpfjynfhNyD;olrsm;?
( c ) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH wdkif;&if;om;rsm;?
( * ) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHom;tjzpf cH,lNyD;olrsm;?
(C) "mwfyHkynmudk pdwf0ifpm;í avhvmvdkuf pm;vdkolrsm;?
( i ) toif;0ifavQmufvTmwGif jrefrmEdkifiH"mwfyHktoif;\
&moufyeftoif;om; (2)OD;\axmufccH sujf zifh avQmufxm;
Edkifonf?
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tpnf;ta0;rS pOf;pm;um 0ifciG jhf yKaMumif; qH;k jzwfí? toif;
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hf pS x
f m;Ny;D qufo,
G &f efzek ;f rSm 01-373167jzpfonf/

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374

jrefrmEkdifiH rl;,pfaq;0g; qefhusifa&;toif;
pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf
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2/
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Y siaf &;toif;\ &nf&,
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twkdif;jzpfonf (u) jrefrmEdkifiHwGif usa&mufvsuf&Sdaom rl;,pfaq;pGJa&m*g
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H m;usqif;rIa&m*g
vsijf refpmG ul;puf vsu&f &dS m bufaygif;pHrk S 0dik ;f 0ef;yg0ifí
xda&mufpGm wm;qD;umuG,fESdrfeif;Edkif&efESifh aESmifhaES;
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qefYusifa&;toif;rsm;rSm (u) wdkif;tqifh (4) oif;?
( c ) jynfe,ftqifh (3) oif;?
( * ) c½dkiftqifh (7) oif;?
(C) NrdKUe,ftqifh (64) oif;/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

toif;0iftjzpf avQmufxm;jcif;
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tcsufrsm; vdktyfygonf (u) vlrIa&;pdwfyg0ifpm;ol?
( c ) EdkifiHa&;ygwD0iftjzpfrS uif;&Sif;ol?
( * ) pdwfrEHSYolESifh omoemh0efxrf;r[kwfol?
(C) rl;,pfaq;0g;yaysmufa&;vkyif ef;rsm];udk todpw
d "f mwfjzifh
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xrf;aqmifEikd o
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01-502892? 502893 wdkY jzpfonf/

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jrefrmEkdifiH ½dk;&myef;ynm&Sifrsm; tpnf;t½Hk;
pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf
1/
18-7-1992
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2/
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atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf (u) acwfrí
D zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufaom Edik if aH wmf wnfaqmuf&mwGif
wpfwyfwpftm;jzifh yg0ifaqmif&Guf&ef?
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hf ifa&;
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hf nD wd;k wuf zGUH NzKd ;Ny;D
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k f xde;f odr;f Ny;D ½d;k &m
,Ofaus;rI tarGtESpf yef;(10)rsK;d ynmrsm;udk rsK;d qufopf
rsm;odkY vufqifhurf;&ef/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

7

( * ) ½d;k &myef;ynm 10 rsK;d tvdu
k f yef;ynm wpfcck u
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wpfckjzifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyKoljzpf&ygrnf?
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( i ) EdkifiHa&;ygwDwpfck\ tzJGU0ifrjzpf&?
(trsK;d om;Edik if aH &;udrk qdv
k ykd g)
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(q) tpnf;t½Hk;\ pnf;urf;csufrsm;udk vdkufem&ygrnf/
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( ps) NrdKUe,fjzpfap? c½dkifjzpfap? wdkif;jzpfap? A[dk jzpfap? tpnf;
t½Hk;Ouú|\axmufcHrI &&Sdol jzpf&ygrnf/
wnfae&m

leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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jrefrmEkdifiH ½kyf&Siftpnf;t½Hk;

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379

jrefrmEkdifiH obifynm&Sifrsm;tpnf;t½Hk;

pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf
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pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf
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f pnf;t½H;k \ &nf&,
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ausmufuyfysufpD;jcif;
owdvpfarhajrmí toufqHk;½HI;jcif;
a&m*gydk; 0ifa&mufvG,fjcif;
temusuf&ef rvG,fuljcif;

ukojcif;
- tjrpfjywfatmifukoEdkifaomaq; r&Sad o;yg?
- q&m0efñeT Mf um;onft
h wdik ;f wpfoufv;kH pepfwusuo
k &ef?
- tpm;taomufqifjcifjcif;tjyif qD;csdK aoG;csdKcsaq;aomuf&ef
odkYr[kwf tifqlvifaq;xdk;jcif;jzifh ukornf jzpfonf/

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a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
- qD;csKd aoG;csKd jzpfygu qD;rsm;rsm;oGm;jcif;?
- ntcg rMumcPqD;oGm; jcif;?
- a&iwfjcif;? ajcvufxHkusOfjcif;? ydefvmjcif;? armyef;vG,fjcif;?
- rMumcPtemaygufNyD; temusuf&ef aES;jcif;?
- qD;wGif yk&GufqdwftHkwwfjcif;?
- qD;oGm;onfht*FgteD;w0dkufwGif ,m;,Hwwfjcif;/
aemufqufwGJa&m*grsm;
- rsufpdrIefjcif;? rsufpduG,fjcif;
- ajcvufykyfjcif;
- ESvHk;<uufom;ykyfjcif;
- <uufwufjcif;

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umuG,fjcif;
atmufyga0'emwku
Yd kd cHpm;&onft
h cg q&m0efxjH yoNy;D qD;csKd aoG;csKd
&Sd? r&Sd ppfaq;rIudkcH,loifhonf- qD;tvGeo
f mG ;jcif;
- tjcm;taMumif;wpfpHkwpf&mr&SdbJ ydefvmjcif;
- taMumif;rJah rmyef;aejcif;
- temjzpfonfhtcg tvG,fwulrusufjcif;

uifqma&m*g
jzpfyGm;&onfhtaMumif;&if;rsm;
- rsdK;½dk;ADZ
- "mwfa&mifjcnfxdawGUrI
- aq;vdyaf omufjcif;
- t&ufaomufjcif;
- uGr;f pm;jcif;

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

392

-

tpm;tpmqd;k aq;rsm;
rdItqdyfrsm;
Adkif;&yfpfydk;rsm;
bufw;D &D;,m;yd;k rsm;
aq;0g;rsm;
toufBuD;&ifhrI
cE¨mudk,f\ ckcHtm;pepfajymif;vJrI

a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
- tonf;uifqmjzpfonfhtcg 0rf;Adkuf nmbuf txufyikd ;f eH½;kd pGe;f
ae&mü wif;jcif;? emusijf cif;wdjYk zpfNy;D tusw
d af y:vmjcif;?
- tpm;taomufysufjcif;? EkH;csnfhjcif;? ydefvmjcif;?
- tpmtdru
f ifqm? tlrBu;D uifqm ponft
h pmtdrv
f rf;aMumif;uifqmwdYk
wGif aoG;tefjcif;? aoG;0rf;oGm;jcif;?
- 0rf;AdkuftwGif;a&pkNyD; a&zsOf;pGJjcif;?
- 0rf;ysuf 0rf;avQmjcif;?
- rD;,yfaoG;qif;rsm;jcif;? odrYk [kwf rD;,yfaoG;qif;csed rf [kwb
f J aoG;qif;jcif;?
- rD;,yfaoG;qHk;NyD;rS aoG;jyefqif;jcif;?
- tom;0gjcif;?
- zsm;jcif;?
- aoG;tm;enf;NyD; jzLzyfjzLa&mfjzpfjcif;?
- &ifbwfatmifhjcif;? touf½SLusyfjcif;/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

393

umuG,fjcif;
- tyltpyf? aq;vdyf? t&ufwdkYudk a&SmifMuOfjcif;?
- qk;d aq;yg&Sad omtpm;taomufrsm;udk a&SmifMuOfjcif;?
- rdIwufaomtpm;taomufrsm;udk a&SmifMuOfjcif;?
- "mwfa&mifjcnf? "mwkypön;f rsm;ESihf xdawGUvkyu
f ikd &f olwo
Ykd nf tum
tuG,frsm;0wfqifí pepfwusvkyfudkifjcif;?
- uifqmodkYajymif;vJapwwfonfha&m*grsm;tm; ukojcif;?
- a[mfrkef;aq;rsm; rvdktyfbJoHk;pGJjcif;udk a&SmifMuOfjcif;?
- cE¨mudk,fwGif tusdwftzkrsm;ay:jcif;&Sd? r&Sd *½kjyKprf;oyfjcif;?
- a&m*gudk apmpD;pGmod&Sdjcif;jzifh a&m*gysHUESHYrIESifh touftEÅ&m,fudk
wm;qD;umuG,fEdkif&ef ukorIjyKEdkifrnfjzpfí oHo,jzpfygu aq;½Hk?
aq;cef;odjYk yojcif;?
- yJypd yf? c&rf;csOo
f ;D ? MuufoeG jf zL paom ADwmrift;D ygonfh tpm;tpmrsm;
pm;jcif;/

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ukojcif;
- aq;0g;jzifhukojcif;
- cGJpdwfukojcif;
- "mwfa&mifjcnfjzifhukojcif;
- a[mfrkef;jzifhukojcif;
- ADZjyKjyifay;jcif;
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/198 of 208.

av;bufema&m*g

a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
- av;bufema&m*gjzpfygu zsm;vmrnf/
- tqpftjrpfwpfae&m&mwGiu
f u
kd &f mrS tjcm;wpfae&modaYk &TUNy;D udu
k o
f nf/
- tqpftjrpfa&mif? ycH;k qpfem&mrS wHawmifqpf? wHawmifqpfrS vufaumuf
0wfoYkd a&TUajymif;Ny;D udu
k o
f nf/ rsuEf mS ESihf cE¨mud,
k af y:wGif teDuu
G rf sm;
ay:wwfonf/
- wHawmifqpf? vufaumuf0wf ponfh tqpfww
Ykd iG f tzktoD;rsm;jzpfNy;D
,if;wdkYonf emusifjcif;r&Sdacs/
- ajcvufrsm;tNidrfraebJ vIyf&Sm;aewwfonf/
- ESv;kH udx
k cd u
kd Ef ikd Nf y;D ESv;kH ckejf refí cE¨mud,
k af zma&mifvmwwfonf/
- armyef;jcif;? &ifwek jf cif;wdjYk zpfEikd o
f nf/ ESv;kH tqd&Yk iS u
f sO;f jcif;? odrYk [kwf
us,fjcif;jzpfEdkifonf/

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394

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

ukojcif;
- tqpftjrpfuu
kd jf cif;twGuf oufomapaom tudu
k t
f cJaysmufaq;jzifh
uko&onf/
- tufpfy&ifudk trsm;qHk;ay;onf/
- a&m*gyd;k aoap&ef yifeifpvifaq;aomufjcif;? odrYk [kwf xd;k jcif;jzifh uko
ay;onf/
- tem;,l&efvnf; vdktyfonf/
umuG,fjcif;
- av;bufema&m*g&S?d r&Sd od&ef ASO titre udk wkid ;f Munf&h rnf/ aoG;ppfMunf&h rnf/
- ASO titre jrifhwufaevQif av;zufema&m*g[k owfrSwfEdkifonf/
- a&m*gxyfrjH zpfymG ;rIr&Sad p&ef yifeifpvifaq;jym;udk wpfaeYEpS Bf urd ?f eHeuf
wpfBudrf? naewpfBudrf aeYpOfaomuf&rnf/
- odrYk [kwyf gu yifeifpvifx;dk aq; (Benzathine Penicillin)udk vpOf wpfBurd f
xd;k ay;&rnf/
- yifeifpvifaomufjcif;? odrYk [kwf aq;xd;k jcif;jzifh ig;ESpfMum qufvuf
ukorIcH,l&ef vdktyfonf/
- vlemtaejzifh aq;aomufjcif;? odrYk [kwf aq;xd;k jcif;udk rysuu
f u
G o
f ifah cs/
- vdt
k yfygu touf 30 ESpftxd ukorIcH,l&rnf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
ukojcif;
- a&rsm;rsm;aomufyg/
- *vl;udkYpf? oHy&m&nfwdkYudk aomufyg/
- ysdKUtefrIr&Sdygu qDudkpm;Edkifonf/
- tyltpyfrsm;udka&Smifyg/
- tom;tvGe0f gaeygu tom;? Ed?Yk MuufOwdu
Yk rkd pm;&/
- q&m0efuñTefMum;ygu tonf;tm;aq;udkaomufyg/
- tjynfht0tem;,lyg/

umuG,fjcif;
- a&udkusdKcsufíaomufjcif;?
- ,ifem;pmudka&SmifMuOfjcif;?
- tpm;taomufrsm;udk ,ifrem;ap&ef zHk;tkyfxm;jcif;?
- tpm;taomufrsm;udk usef;rma&;ESifhnDñGwfpGm udkifwG,fcsufjyKwf
a&mif;csjcif;?
- tpmrpm;rDEiS hf tdro
f mrStqif;wGif vufuq
kd yfjymESihf aq;jcif; tonf;
a&miftom;0gvlemxHrS a&m*grul;ap&ef vlemtoH;k jyKonfh yef;uef
cGufa,muf? rsufESmokwfy0g ponfwkdYudk oD;oefYxm;jcif;?
- ,ifvHktdrfom aqmufvkyfoHk;pGJjcif;?
- aoG;oGif;jcif;rS rul;ap&ef oGif;rnfhaoG;tm;ppfjcif;?
- rl;,pfaq;udk taMumxJxdk;xnfh&mrS rul;ap&ef rl;,pfaq;oHk;pGJrIudk
a&SmifMuOfjcif;?
- umuG,af q;xd;k jcif;?
- aq;xdk;tyf? aq;xdk;>yefwdkYrS rul;puf&ef wpfcgoHk;ypönf;rsm;oHk;jcif;?
odkYr[kwf ,if;wkdYudk rdepf 20 MumjyKwfjcif;?
- wpfEpS t
f wGi;f tonf;a&mifa&miftom;0ga&m*gjzpfz;l ygu aoG;oGi;f
vSL'gef;rIrjyKjcif;?
- arG;uif;puav;udk arG;NyD; 12 em&DtwGif; B ydk;umuG,faq;xdk;jcif;?

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
tonf;a&mif tom;0ga&m*g

a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
- A yd;k aMumifjh zpfygu yd;k 0ifNy;D ESpyf wfraS jcmufywftMumwGif a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
jyavh&o
dS nf/
- B yd;k aMumifjh zpfygu yd;k 0ifNy;D wpfvrS ajcmufvMumrSom a&m*gvu©Pm
jyonf/
- vlemonf zsm;Ny;D ud,
k v
f ufuu
kd cf rJ nf/ EH;k acGaeNy;D ysKd Utefwwfonf/ cHwiG ;f
ysufjcif;? 0rf;avsmjcif;wdkYjzpfEdkifonf/
- qD;0g&mrS rsufvHk; 0gjcif;? tom;0gjcif;wdjYk zpfonf/
- tonf;Bu;D aeNy;D vuf,mbuf&ifb
atmufydkif;wGifemonf/
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/199
ofwf208.

395

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396

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

tonf;ajcmufa&m*g
a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
- &ifñGefYatmifhjcif;? tefjcif;?
- tom;0gjcif;? armjcif;? cHwGif;ysufjcif;?
- 0rf;AdkufwGif a&zsOf;pGJjcif;?
- ESmacgif;aoG;,djk cif;? aoG;tefjcif;? aoG;0rf;oGm;jcif;?
- trsKd ;om;rsm;wGif Edt
Yk pkH x
l u
G v
f mjcif;? a0S;aph odro
f mG ;jcif;?
- trsdK;orD;rsm;wGif &moDaoG;xdefjcif;?
- vlemtm; prf;oyfonft
h cg tonf;ESihf o&uf&u
G af c:abvH;k (Spleen)
Bu;D jcif;?
- vufz0g; ta&jym;eDvmjcif;?
- vufacsmif;xdyfrsm; wif;ykwfyHk zkvHk;vmjcif;?
- rsuEf mS ESihf cE¨mud,
k t
f xufyikd ;f wGif yifu
h u
l u
G yf akH oG;rQirf sm; jzpfay:vmjcif;?

397

ckcHtm;usqif;rI ul;pufa&m*g
attdkif'Dtufpf
attdkif'Dtufpf (AIDS)\ trnftjynfhtpHkrSm Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome jzpfonf/ ckct
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tdycf st
f ikd Af AGD ikd ;f &yfpyf ;kd onf vlcY E¨mud,
k t
f wGi;f odaYk &muf&NdS y;D cE¨mud,
k \
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pepfuzkd suq
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D ufp[
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ul;pufjcif;
attdik 'f t
D ufpaf &m*gonf tdycf st
f ikd Af yGD ;kd &So
d El iS hf vdiq
f ufq&H mrS ul;puf
onf/ vdiftaysmftyg;vdkufpm;jcif;onf a&m*gul;pufapaom t"du
taMumif;&if;jzpfonf/ tdycf st
f ikd Af yGD ;kd &So
d rl w
S pfqifh ZeD;? odrYk [kwf cifyGef;odkY
ul;pufjzpfyGm;onf/ jynfhwefqmrsm;? taysmftazmfrsm;onf a&m*gjyefYyGm;
apEdkifolrsm;jzpfonf/
ydk;&SdoloHk;NyD;onfh roefY&Sif;aomaq;xdk;tyf? aq;xdk;>yefwdkYudk rQa0
oHk;pGJ&mrSwpfqifh ul;pufEdkifonf/ aq;rifaMumifxkd;jcif;? em;azmufjcif;?
qHyifn§yfjcif;? vufonf;n§yfjcif;wdkYjyKvkyfonfhtcg roefY&Sif;aom
ud&d,maMumifh a&m*gul;pufapEdkifaomtEÅ&m,f&Sdonf/ rl;,pfaq;udk
aoG;aMumxJxdk;olwdkYonf roefY&Sif;aomaq;xdk;tyfESifh>yefwdkYudk twl
oHk;jcif;aMumifh a&m*gul;pufysHUESHYonf/
vufqEJG w
I q
f ufjcif;? erf;½Iyjf cif;? acsmif;qd;k jcif;? twlpm;aomufjcif;?
a&ul;jcif;? twlaexkid jf cif;? twlupm;jcif;? twlausmif;wufjcif;wdYk aMumifh
attdkif'Dtufpfa&m*grul;pufEkdifacs/

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ukojcif;
- t&ufaomufjcif;aMumifh tonf;ajcmufa&m*gjzpfygu t&ufaomufjcif;udk
jzwf&rnf/
- cGpJ w
d u
f o
k jcif;udk aoG;tefjcif;&yfwef&Y ef vdt
k yfonft
h cgjyKvyk af y;onf/
- tpmrsdK>yefESifh tpmtdrfwdkYwGif abmvHk;jzifh aoG;,dkjcif;udkwm;qD;jcif;?
aoG;jyefaMumxJodkY aq;xdk;jcif;? vrf;aMumif;vTJ cGJpdwfukojcif; ponfh
enf;rsm;jzifh cGJpdwfukoonf/
umuG,fjcif;
- t&ufonf tonf;udx
k cd u
kd yf supf ;D apojzifh t&ufaomufjcif;udak &Smif
MuOf&rnf/
- tonf;a&miftom;0g bD rjzpf&efumuG,fjcif;onf tonf;ajcmuf
a&m*gumuG,jf cif;[kqEkd ikd o
f nf/ tonf;a&miftom;0g bD umuG,&f ef
rl;,pfaq;taMumxJx;kd jcif;? roef&Y iS ;f aomaq;xd;k tyfEiS hf >yefoHk;jcif;?
ydk;yg&SdaomaoG;oGif;jcif;wdkYudk a&SmifMuOf&rnf/
http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/200 of 208.

a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
- cE¨mud,
k t
f av;csed f 10 &mckid Ef eI ;f xuf ydí
k avsmu
h sjcif;? wpfvxufyí
kd
0rf;qufwu
kd o
f mG ;jcif;?
- wpfvxuf ydkí tzsm;qufwdkufwufjcif;wdkYjzpfMuonf/
- wpfvxufydkí acsmif;qdk;jcif;?
- tusdwfrsm; wpfudk,fvHk;tESHYtjym;xGufjcif;?

http://leiwaythar.blogspot.com/201 of 208.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

398

-

cE¨mudk,ftESHYtjym; a&,kefrMumcP xGufjcif;?
yg;pyftwGif;wGif rSu©½krsm;xGufjcif;?
cE¨mudk,ftESHYtjym; ta&jym;,m;,Ha&mif&rf;jcif;wdkYjzpfonf/

ukojcif;
attdkif'Dtufpfa&m*guko&ef aq;0g;rsm;(Anti-Retrovinal)udk a&m*g
vu©Pmjyjcif;? odkYr[kwf CD4 ac:aoG;jzLOta&twGuf aoG;xJwGif 200
ESifh 200 atmufavsmhrSom aomuf&onf/ ,cktcg Zidovudine (AZT),
Didanosine(DDL), Zalcitabine(DDC), Ritonavir(RTV) ponfh aq;0g;
rsm;udk toHk;jyKNyD; a&m*gwdk;vmaom t&Sdefudk aES;apaomtmedoifom
&So
d nf/ a&m*goufom&efom pGr;f aqmifEikd Nf y;D vH;k 0aysmufuif;&efrwwfEidk af cs/
aq;\aemufqufwq
JG ;kd usKd ;rsm;vnf;&So
d nf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
-

399

acsmif;qd;k jcif;onf &ufowåywf 3 ywfxufyí
dk Mum&SnfEdkifonf/
udk,ftav;csdefavsmhNyD; wjznf;jznf;ydefcsHK;vmEdkifonf/
&ufowåywf 3 ywfxufydkí Mum&SnfpGmacsmif;qdk;jcif;? acsmif;qd;k onfh
tcg ovdyx
f u
G jf cif;ESihf wjznf;jznf;ydecf sKH ;vmjcif;wdkY jzpfyGm;ygu wDbD
oHo,vlem[k owfrSwfEdkifonf/

wdkuf½dkufMunfh½I tcsdefwdkuk
,cifu wDbDuko&mü 1 ESpfrS 1 ESpfcGJtxd Mum&SnfpGmaq;xdk;
aq;aomufNyD;uko&onf/ ,cktcg wDbDudk wdkuf½dkufMunfh½I tcsdefwdk
ukx;kH (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course)(D.O.T.S) enf;AsL[mjzifh
xda&mufpGmukoay;vsuf&Sdonf/
wDbu
D kd tcsed w
f u
kd x
k ;kH jzifh 6 vrS 8 vtxd pepfwusuo
k ygu a&m*g
aysmufuif;EdkifNyDjzpfonf/

leiwaythar.blogspot.com
wDbDa&m*g

ul;pufjcif;
wDbDonf rsdK;½dk;vdkufNyD;rjzpfyGm;acs/ wDbDydk;ygaomavudk ½SL½dIufrd
jcif;rSwpfqifh ul;pufjzpfyGm;onf/ wDbDvlem ESmacsjcif;? acsmif;qdk;jcif;?
wHawG;axG;jcif;? us,af vmifpmG oDcsi;f qdjk cif;wdrYk w
S pfqifh wDbyD ;kd avxJodkY
a&mufNyD; ul;pufonf/
wDbDvlemrS twlaerdom;pkESifh rdwfaqGrsm;odkY a&m*gul;pufEdkifonf/
txl;ojzifh vlpv
k al 0;&Sad omae&mwGif ul;pufjyefyY mG ;vG,o
f nf/ wDbDvlem
wpfO;D onf tjcm;vl 10 OD;rS 15 OD;txd wDbaD &m*gudk ul;pufapEdik o
f nf/
a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
- zsm;Ny;D acsmif;qd;k rnf/
- acsmif;qdk;onfh tcg ovdyfxGufNyD; aoG;vnf;ygEdkifonf/
- &ifbwfESifh ausmatmifhwwfonf/
- cHwiG ;f ysujf cif;? armyef;vG,jf cif;? nydik ;f ü acR;xGujf cif;wdjYk zpfEikd o
f nf/
- wDbaD Mumifzh sm;ygu tzsm;waiGUaiGUwufwwfonf/
- naeydik ;f wGif tzsm;wufEikd o
f nf/

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umuG,fjcif;
- wDbaD &m*gumuG,&f ef uav;touf wpfvcGt
J &G,üf bDp*D s?D umuG,af q;
xdk;ay;jcif;jzifh umuG,fEdkifonf/
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Yk kd xd;k ESw
H u
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auR;onfhtcg bDpD*sD aq;udkyg wpfygwnf;xdk;Edkifonf/
- wDbv
D el mESihf twlaerdom;pkonf vlemwdt
Yk aejzifh acsmif;qk;d ? ESmacsonfh
tcg ESmacgif;ESifh yg;pyfudk vufudkify0gESifhvHkatmiftkyfNyD; acsmif;qkd;
&rnfjzpfonf/

iSufzsm;a&m*g
iSufzsm;a&m*gydk;
iSufzsm;a&m*gjzpfapaomydk;rSm yvwfpfrdk'D,rf(Plasmodium)ac:
uyfyg;yd;k jzpfonf/ iSuzf sm;a&m*gyd;k 4 rsKd ;&So
d nf/ ,if;wdrYk mS yvwfpf rd'k ,
D rf
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yvwfprf 'kd ,
D rf Adik ;f Aufp(f Plasmodium Vivax) wdjYk zpfMuonf/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
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a'oodaYk &mufonfah eYü pwifaomuf&rnf/ ,if;a'oü&Sad epOf tywfpOf
aomufomG ;&rnf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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ig;wpfrsdK;rsdK;xnfhjcif;?

aoG;vGefwkyfauG;a&m*g
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atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf- zsm;&mrS tzsm;usNyD; ajczsm;vufzsm;at;pufjcif;
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- 0rf;trnf;oGm;jcif;

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umuG,fjcif;
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hf yd jf cif;? yd;k owfaq;pdrx
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jcif;?
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cE¨mud,
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402

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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uav;tm; tdrfwGifxm;Edkifygonf/ aoG;vefYygurl aq;½HkodkY wufa&muf
uko&rnf/ odrYk o
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k o
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ponfh tzsm;usaq;wdu
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vdktyfonf/
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a&rwif&ef &Sif;vif;ypf&rnf/
- usef;rma&;XmerS aq;rIwfjcif;udk vlemtdrfESifh ywf0ef;usif udkuf
100 wGifvkyfaqmif&m aq;rIwftzGJUvma&mufygu tdrftwGif;rS
z,fay;jcif;? rIwNf y;D wpfem&DMumonftxd wHcg;rsm;udk ydwx
f m;jcif;?
tpm;tpmrsm;udk zHk;tkyfxm;jcif;wdkYjzifh ulnD&rnf/
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- aoG;vefaY omvu©Pm&Syd gu aq;½Ho
k Ykd tjrefq;kH ydaYk qmifí ukorI
cH,l&rnf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

403

MuufiSufwkyfauG;a&m*g
a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
Muuf? bJ? ief;? iHk;? cdkESifh awmiSufrsm;wGif MuufiSufwkyfauG;a&m*g
jzpfyGm;avh&Sdonf/ MuufiSufrsm;wGifa&m*gjzpfvQif ½kwfw&ufaoqHk;rI
rsm;vmonf/ OMuufwdYkwGif OEIef;usqif;vmonf/
Muufrsm;onf ukyí
f tpmpm;EIe;f usum a&aomufEeI ;f rsm;Ny;D 0rf;oGm;
onf/ touf½LS cufjcif;? rsu&f nfEiS hf ESm&nfusjcif;? OD;acgif;ESihf rsufESm
azma&mifjcif;wdkYudkvnf; awGU&onf/
MuuftarmufEiS hf yg;ysO;f a&mifí jymESr;f vmEdik o
f nf/ ajcaxmufEiS hf
ajcqpfwdkYwGif aoG;,dkpD;rIjzpfNyD; teDpufrsm;xGufonf/ aoEIef;jrifhrm;í
NcHvHk;uRwf Muufrsm;aoqHk;onftxdjzpfEkdifonf/

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ul;pufjcif;
a&m*gjzpfonfh Muufiu
S w
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Ykd rpif? ESm&nfww
Ykd iG f yd;k rsm;yg&SNd y;D ,if;wdrYk S
wpfqifh ul;pufonf/ udk,fxJodkY ydk;0ifNyD; 3 &ufrS 7 &uftMumwGif a&m*g
vu©Pmrsm;ay:aygufonf/
vlwGiful;pufjcif;
MuufiSufrsm;ESifhxdawGUrI&Sdaom vlwdkYwGif a&m*gul;pufrIjzpfygu
tjyif;zsm;jcif;? acsmif;qdk;jcif;? touf½SLr0jcif;? touf½SLusyfjcif;wdkYudk
cHpm;&onf/
MuufiSufrsm;wGif umuG,fjcif;
- aps;rsm;? arG;jrLa&;NcHrsm;&Sd MuufiSufrsm;udk awm½dkif;MuufiSufrsm;?
aqmif;cdkiSufrsm;ESifh xdawGUrIr&Sdap&efxm;jcif;/
- tjcm;arG;jrLa&;NcHrS MuufiSufrsm;udk wifoGif;arG;jrLrI rjyKjcif;/
- MuufNcHwGif;odkY {nfhonf? olpdrf;? uav;i,frsm; r0ifapjcif;/
- rnfolrqdk MuufNcHtwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufygu owfrSwfxm;onfh zdeyf?
0wfpHk? acgif;pnf;? ESmacgif;pnf;? vuftdwfwdkY 0wfqifjcif;/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

MuufNcHtwGif;odkY jyifyrSydk;rsm; r0ifa&mufap&ef xHk;? ydk;owfaq;
rsm;udkoHk;í yHkrSefoefY&Sif;jcif;/
MuufNcHvkyfom;rsm; MuufbJaps;'dkifodkY oGm;a&mufrIrjyKap&efESifh
oGm;yguvnf; t0wf? zdeyfví
J yd;k rTm;oefpY ifNy;D rS Ncw
H iG ;f od0Yk ifa&muf
jcif;/

owdjyK&ef
Muuf? bJ OESit
hf om; pm;oH;k olrsm;onf atmufygtcsurf sm;udk owdjyK
oifhygonf- MuufO? bJOudk tjcm;pm;p&m? [if;csupf &mrsm;ESit
hf wl rxm;oifyh g/
- aps;rS0,fvmonfh Muufom;udk aocsmpGmaq;aMum&efvt
kd yfonf/
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f nfh pOf;wDw;kH ESihf "m;udak q;aMumoefpY if&efvt
kd yfonf/
- MuufO? bJO? iHk;OwdkY\tcGHay:ESifh txJwGifyg MuufiSufwkyfauG;
a&m*gyd;k &SEd ikd o
f jzifh udik w
f ,
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kd yfjymjzifph ifMu,fatmif
aq;yg/
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f \
Ykd tom;ESihf Orsm;udk twGi;f ydik ;f txd aocsmatmif
csujf yKwo
f ifo
h nf/ MuufOtESpu
f kd usuaf tmifaMumf&efvt
kd yfonf/
- MuufiSufwkyfauG;a&m*g jzpfyGm;csdefESifh Muuf? bJ tom;ESifh Orsm;
ra&mif;cs&ef wm;jrpfxm;csed w
f iG f 0,f,pl m;aomufjcif;rjyKoifyh g/
a&mif;cs&ef jyefvnfciG jhf yKro
S m Muuf? bJ tom;ESihf Owdu
Yk kd jyefpm;
oifhonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

405

urÇmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*g
urÇmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*g
&moDtvku
d w
f yk af uG;? Muufwyk af uG;? 0ufwyk af uG; ponfjzifh wkyaf uG;
a&m*gtrsKd;rsKd; &Sdygonf/ ,ckjzpfay:aeaom urÇmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*gonf
,cifwkyfauG;a&m*grsm;ESifhrwlbJ a&m*gtopftqef;wpfck jzpfygonf/
ajrmuftar&du 0ufwkyfauG;? ajrmuftar&du MuufiSufwkyfauG;? &moD
vlwkyfauG;ESifh tm&S- Oa&my 0ufwyk af uG;wkYd aygif;pyfxm;aom New Influenza A (H1N1) Adi
k ;f &yfpyf ;dk topfjzpfygonf/ vlrSvlokdY vsifjrefpGm ul;puf
vsuf&Sdygonf/ vltrsm;okdY ul;pufNyD; EkdifiHwumokdY ul;pufysHUESHYrI jzpfyGm;
aeojzifh urÇmhusef;rma&;tzGJUu urÇmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*g (Human Influenza Pandemic) tqift
h jzpf 2009 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 11&ufaeYwiG f aMunmcJyh gonf/

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ul;pufykH

urÇmv
h w
l yk af uG;a&m*gonf touf½LS vrf;aMumif;rSwpfqifh ul;pufyg
onf/ vlem acsmif;qk;d jcif;? ESmacsjcif;jzifh wku
d ½f u
dk af omfvnf;aumif;? a&m*g
jzpfol\ cRJ? ovdyf? cE¨mukd,ft&nf? tokH;taqmifypönf;rsm;ukd ukdifwG,f
xdawGUjcif;rSaomfvnf;aumif; ul;pufEkdifygonf/
a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;
(u) a,bk,stm;jzifh &moDwyk af uG;a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;ESihf qifwNl y;D atmufyg
vu©Pmrsm;&Sw
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- wpfcgwpf&w
H iG f ysKUd tefjcif;ESi0hf rf;oGm;jcif; ponfwYdk jzpfwwfygonf/

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

( c ) a&m*gjyif;xefvmvQif atmufygvu©Pmrsm;ukd awGU&SdEkdifygonf- tzsm;BuD;vGef;jcif; (tylcsdef 38.C txuf&Sdjcif;)
- acsmif;tvGefqkd;jcif;? armjcif;
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xko
d jYdk zpfvQif use;f rma&;apmifah &SmufrI tjrefq;Hk cH,o
l ifyh gonf/

trsm;ESifhqkdifaom ae&mrsm;wGif vkdufemoifhonfhtcsufrsm;

umuG,f&ef vlwpfOD;csif; vkdufemoifhonfhtcsufrsm;

-

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wpfukd,fa&oefY&Sif;rIukd *½kjyKaqmif&Gufjcif;/
ESmacs? acsmif;qkd;vQif vufukdifyk0gjzifh zkH;tkyfjcif;/
vufukd qyfjymjzifh pifMu,fpGm aq;aMumjcif;/
aumif;pGm tdyfpuftem;,ljcif;/
tm[m&jynfh0onfh tpm;tpmrsm; pm;okH;jcif;/
ukd,fvufvIyf&Sm;rI rSefrSefjyKvkyfjcif;/
avaumif;avoefY &&Sdatmif aqmif&Gufaexkdifjcif;/
vlxx
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t&uf vGeu
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a&m*gjzpfymG ;olrsm;ESihf oHo,&So
d rl sm;rS ajcmufaytuGmwGif aexkid jf cif;/
a&m*grul;pufap&ef ESmacgif;ESifhyg;pyfukd vkHatmifzkH;tkyfonfh yg;pyf
ESmacgif;pnf; (Surgical Mask)ukd tokH;jyKjcif;/
a&m*g&Sdol\ aetdrfESifh aq;½kHrsm;okdY rvkdtyfbJ oGm;a&mufjcif;rS
a&SmifMuOfjcif;/
rdrw
d iG f a&m*gvu©Pmrsm;&So
d nf[k ,lqygu eD;pyf&m use;f rma&;XmeokYd
tjrefqkH; owif;ay;ykdY tultnDawmif;cHjcif;rsm; jyKvkyf&ygrnf/

-

407

taqmufttkrH sm; av0if avxGuf aumif;rGeaf &;twGuf aqmif&u
G jf cif;/
ywf0ef;usifoefY&Sif;a&;ukd *½kkjyKaqmif&Gufjcif;/
trIdufESifh tnpftaMu;rsm; pepfwuspGefYypfjcif;/
vltok;H taqmifypön;f rsm;? avSum;? "mwfavSum;? eH&rH sm;ESihf ½k;H wGi;f
y&dabm*rsm;ukd wpfaeYESpfBudrfrS okH;Budrf ykd;oefYpifjcif;/
pmoifausmif;? vkyfief;cGif? [kdw,f? vlrIa&;&dyfomESifh a*[mrsm;wGif
aexkid af qmif&u
G o
f rl sm;tm;vk;H \ use;f rma&;ukd apmifMh uyfMunf½h jI cif;/
wpfOD;OD;wGif wkyfauG;a&m*gjzpfyGm;onf[k oHo,&Sdygu usef;rma&;
XmeESifh tjrefqkH; qufoG,faqmif&Gufjcif;/

urÇmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*gjzpfaeol vkdufem&rnfhtcsufrsm;

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-

rdrd rdom;pktwGif; wkyfauG;jzpfyGm;ol&Sdygu tdrfwGifjyKpk&rnfhtcsufrsm;
-

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vlemtaejzifh yg;pyfESmacgif;pnf; wyfqifxm;&rnf/
rdrdtdrfwGif aexkdif&rnf/
½kH;? ausmif;? vkyfief;cGifrsm;ESifh c&D;oGm;vmjcif;ukd a&SmifMuOf&rnf/
ESmacs? acsmif;qk;d vQif wpfoQL;(okrYd [kw)f vufuidk yf 0k g tok;H jyK&rnf? vufudk
qyfjymjzifh pepfwus aq;&rnf/
tm[m&jzpfaom tpm;tpmrsm; pm;&efEiS hf t&nfrsm;rsm; aomuf&rnf/
avaumif;avoefY &&Sdatmif aqmif&Gufaexkdif&rnf/
usef;rma&;XmeESifh qufoG,faqmif&Guf&rnf/

vlemtwGuf oD;oefaY exkid &f ef ae&m&Syd gu av0ifavxGuf aumif;aom
ae&mwGif xm;&rnf/
zsm;emoltm; teD;uyfapmifha&Smufolonf (zsm;emolESifh ajcmufay
twGi;f ) yg;pyfEmS acgif;pnf;ESihf vuftw
d rf sm; 0wfqif&rnf? jzpfEidk yf gu
yvyfpwpf &ifumcg;pnf;(Apron)ukdvnf; tokH;jyKEkdifygonf/
vlemtokH;taqmifypönf;rsm;? tokH;jyKNyD;aom yg;pyfESmacgif;pnf;ESifh
vuftdwfrsm; ponfwkdYukd okn'or5 &mckdifEIef; available chlorine

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

&&Sdap&ef Bleaching powder [if;pm;ZGef; ESpfZGef;ukd a&wpfvDwmjzifh
azsmfpyfí rdepf 30 pdrfxm;&rnf? r&SdvQif a&aEG;jzifh jyKwfavsmf&rnf/
vlemjyKpkNyD;wkdif; vufukd qyfjymjzifh aocsmpGm aq;aMum&rnf?
jzpfEkdifvQif t&ufjyef(Alcohol rub) tokH;jyKEkdifygonf/
vlemESifh teD;uyfjyKpkolrsm;\ usef;rma&;tajctaeukd usef;rma&;
XmeokdY owif;ykdYjcif;? qufoG,faqmif&Gufjcif;wkdYukd vkyfaqmif&rnf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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4/ Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf How To Live As A Good Buddhist
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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leiwaythar.blogspot.com

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