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Kinetics of particles
Kinetics of particles
• It is the study of the relations existing between the forces acting on body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. • It is the study of the relation between unbalanced forces and the resulting motion.
• Newton ’s first law and third law are sufficient for studying bodies at rest (statics) or bodies in motion with no acceleration.
• When a body accelerates ( change in velocity magnitude or direction) Newton ’s second law is required to relate the motion of the body to the forces acting on it.
Force, mass and acceleration
• Newton ’s Second Law: If the resultant force acting on a particle is not zero the particle will have an acceleration proportional to the magnitude of resultant and in the direction of the resultant.
• The motion
acceleration is found in Newton's second law of verification entirely experimental.
• Consider a particle subjected to constant forces
F1 F2 F = = ... = = const a1 a2 a
• We conclude that the constant is a measure of some property of the particle that does not change.
This property is the inertia of the particle which is its resistance to rate of change of velocity. The mass m is used as a quantitative measure of inertia, and therefore the experimental relation becomes, F=ma This relation provides a complete formulation of Newton's second law; it expresses not only that the magnitude F and a are proportional but also that the vector F and a have the same direction.
Equation of motion and solution of problems
• When a particle of mass m acted upon by several forces. The Newton’s second law can be expressed by the equation
• kinematics, i.e • •
To determine the acceleration we must use the analysis used in
Rectilinear motion Curvilinear motion
• If we choose the x-direction, as the direction of the rectilinear motion of a particle of mass m, the acceleration in the y and z direction will be zero, i.e
∑F ∑F ∑F
= ma x =0 =0
∑F ∑F ∑F
= ma x = ma y = maZ
• Where the acceleration and resultant force are given by a = axi + a y j + az k a= ax + a y + az
2 2 2
∑F = F i + F j + F k ∑ F = (∑ F ) + (∑ F )
x y z 2 x y
+ (∑ Fz ) 2
• In applying Newton's second law, we shall make use of the three coordinate descriptions of acceleration in curvilinear motion.
= ma x = ma y
Where a x = x and a y = y
Normal and tangential coordinate
= man = mat
an = ρ β
, at = v
∑F ∑ Fθ
= mar = maθ
ar = r − r θ
an = r θ + 2 r θ
• Block A has a mass of 30kg and block B has a mass of 15kg. The coefficient of friction between all plane surfaces of contact are µ s = 0.15 and µ k = 0.10. Knowing that Ѳ=300 and that the magnitude of the force P applied to block A is 250N, determine a) The acceleration of block A ,and b) The tension in the cord
• A small vehicle enters the top A of the circular path with a horizontal velocity vo and gathers speed as it moves down the path. • Determine an expression for the angle β to the position where the vehicle leaves the path and becomes a projectile. Evaluate your expression for vo=0. Neglect friction and treat the vehicle as a particle
• The slotted arm revolves in the horizontal about the fixed vertical axis through point O. the 2 Kg slider C is drawn towards O at the constant rate of 50mm/s by pulling the cord S. At the instant for which r=225mm, the arm has a counterclockwise angular velocity ω=6rad/s and is slowing down at the rate of 2rad/s2 .for this instant determine the tension T in the cord and the magnitude N of the force exerted on the slider by the sides of the smooth radial slot. Indicate which side, A or B, of the slot contacts the slider. (problem 3/69)
work and kinetic energy
• The method of work and energy directly relates force, mass, velocity, and displacement. • We apply this method:
When intervals of motion are involved where the change in velocity or the corresponding displacement of the particle is required.
• Integration of the forces with respect to the displacement of the particle leads to the equation of work and energy.
Work of Force
dU = F • dr dU = Fds cos α dU = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k • d x i + d y j + d z k
= Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz
U 1→ 2
= ∫ F • dr
A2 A 1 s2
U 1→ 2 = U 1→ 2 =
∫ (F cos α )ds = ∫ F ds
t s1 A 1
∫ (F dx + F
dy + Fz dz )
Work of a constant force in rectilinear motion
U 1→ 2 = (F cos α )∆x
Work of the Force of Gravity
dU = −Wdy U 1→ 2 = − ∫ Wdy = Wy1 − Wy 2
U 1→ 2 = −W ( y 2 − y1 ) = −W∆y
When ∆y is negative (moves down), the work is positive
Work of the Force Exerted by a Spring
F = kx dU = − Fdx = − kxdx U 1→ 2 = − ∫ kxdx =
1 1 2 2 kx1 − kx2 2 2
1 (F1 + F2 )∆x 2 If the spring returning to the undeformed position, then positive energy U 1→ 2 = −
Work of a gravitational Force
F =G Mm r2 Mm dr r2
dU = − Fdr = −G U 1→ 2 = − ∫
GMm GMm GMm − dr = 2 r r2 r1
Kinetic Energy of a Particle
Ft = mat = m Ft ds = mvdv
dv dv ds dv =m = mv ds dt ds dt 1 1 2 2 mv2 − mv1 2 2
∫ Ft ds = m ∫ vdv =
U 1→ 2 = T2 − T1 T1 + U 1→ 2 = T2
Power and Efficiency
• Friction energy dissipated by heat and reduce kinetic energy
dU F • dr power = = = F •v dt dt power output η= power input
U 1→ 2 = − ∫ Wdy = Wy1 − Wy2
U 1→ 2 = (Vg )1 − (Vg ) 2 Vg = Wy
Potential Energy of the body with respect to the force of gravity
When Vg2 >Vg1, potential energy increases, and U is negative
it should be noted that the expression just obtained for the potential energy of a body with respect to gravity is valid only as long as the weight of compared with the radius of the earth.
U 1→ 2 = − ∫
r 1 r2
body can be
assumed to remain constant, i.e, as long as the displacements of the body are small
GMm GMm GMm − dr = r2 r2 r 1
Mm WR 2 =G = r r
R is from the center of the earth
U 1→ 2 = − ∫ kxdx =
1 1 2 2 kx1 − kx2 2 2
U 1→ 2 = (Ve )1 − (Ve ) 2 Ve = 1 kx 2 2
Potential Energy of the body with respect to the elastic force F
Only the initial and final deflection of the spring are needed Deflection of the spring is measured from its undeformed position
Equation of work and energy
U1→2 = ∆T where U1→2 = U1→2 + U1→2 + U1→2
w s of
Where U1→2 =work done by other (non conservative/ path dependant) forces
− ∆Vg − ∆Ve + U1→2 = ∆T
U1→2 = ∆T + ∆Ve + ∆Vg
U1→2 = ∆E
Advantages and disadvantages of work and energy method
• Advantage; 1. No need to calculate values between A1 and A2. Only final stages are counted 2. All scalars so can be added easily 3. Forces that do no work are ignored • Disadvantage; can not determine accelerations, can not determine accelerations and forces that do no work
• For the slider collar shown in the figure, if m=0.5kg, b=0.8m, and h=1.5m, and if the velocity of the collar as it strikes the base B is 4.70m/s after the release of the collar from rest, calculate the work Q of friction. What happens to the energy that is lost?
• The 0.8kg collar slides with negligible friction on the fixed rod in the vertical plane. If the collar starts from rest at A under the action of 8N horizontal force, calculate its velocity v as it hits the stop at B.
• The 6kg cylindrical collar is released from rest in the position shown and drops onto the spring. Calculate the velocity v of the cylinder when the spring has been compressed 50mm.
• The two springs, each of stiffness k=1.2KN/m, are if equal length and un-deformed when θ=0. If the mechanism is released from rest in the position θ=20, determine its angular velocity θ’ when θ=0. the mass m of each sphere is 3kg. Treat the sphere as particles and neglect the masses of the light rods and springs.
Impulse and momentum
• Work and energy is obtained by integrating the equation of F=ma with respect to the displacement of the particle. • Impulse and momentum can be generated by integrating the equation of motion (F=ma) with respect to time.
Linear impulse and momentum
• Consider a particle of a mass m which is subjected to several forces in space.
∑ F = mv =
d (mv) or dt
∑ F = G............(1)
The product of the mass & the velocity is defined as the linear momentum.
G = mv
• Equation (1) states that the resultant of all forces acting on a particle equals its time rate of change of linear momentum. • It is valid as long as the mass m of the particle is not changing with time. • The scalar components of equation (1) are:
= Gx ,
= Gy ,
• The effect of the resultant force
on the linear
momentum of the particle over a finite period of time simply by integrating with respect to time t.
∑ Fdt = dG
∫ ∑ Fdt = G
− G1 = ∆G
• The linear momentum at time t2 is G2=mV2 and the linear momentum at time t1 is G1=mV1. • The product of force and time is called linear impulse.
• The total linear impulse on a mass m equals the corresponding change in linear momentum of m.
G1 + ∫ ∑ Fdt = G2
The impulse integral is a vector
Scalar impulse momentum eqns.
t2 ∫ ∑ Fx dt = (mVx )2 − (mVx )1 t1 t2 ∫ ∑ Fy dt = (mV y )2 − (mV y )1 t1 t2 F dt = (mVz )2 − (mVz )1 ∫ ∑ z t1
Conservation of linear momentum
• If the resultant force on a particle is zero during an interval of time, its linear momentum G remains constant. In this case the linear momentum of a particle is said to be conserved.
∆G = 0 or G1 = G2
Angular impulse and momentum
• The moment of a linear momentum vector mv about the origin O is defined as the angular momentum H o of P & is given by the product relation for moment of vector:-
H 0 = r × mv
• The angular momentum then is a vector perpendicular to the plane A defined by r & v
• The scalar component of angular momentum is:H o = r × mv = m(v z y − v y z )i + m(v x z − v z x) j + m(v y x − v x y )k i Ho = m x vx j y vy k z vz
H x = m(v z y − v y z ), H y = m(v x z − v z x) H z = m(v y x − v x y )
∑ F represents the resultant of all forces acting on the particles
P, the moment Mo about the origin O is the vector cross product.
= r × ∑ F = r × mv
H o = r × mv + r × mv ⇒ v × mv + r × mv ∑ M = H ..............(*)
The moment about the fixed point O of all forces acting on M equals the time rate of change of angular momentum of M about O.
• To obtain the effect of moment ∑ M o on the angular momentum of the particle over a finite period of time;
dt = H o2 − H o1 = ∆H o
where H o2 = r 2 × mv 2 & H o1 = r 1 × mv1
• The product of moment & time is angular impulse the total angular impulse on M about a fixed point O equals the corresponding change in angular momentum of M about O.
H o1 + ∫ ∑ M o dt = H o2
Conservation of angular momentum
• If the resultant moment about a fixed point O of all forces acting on a particle is zero during the interval of time, equation (*) requires that its angular momentum H0 about that point remains constant.
∆H o = 0 or H o1 = H o2
• Refers to the collision b/n two bodies and is characterized by the generation of relatively large contact forces that act over a very short interval of time.
Direct central impact
• Consider the collinear motion of two spheres of masses m1 and m2 travelling with velocities V1 & V2. If V1 is greater than V2, collision occurs with the contact forces directed along the line of centers.
• In as much as the contact forces are equal & opposite during of the impact; the linear remains momentum unchanged.
m1v1 + m2 v2 = m1v1 '+ m2 v2 '
• For given masses & initial conditions, the momentum equation contains two unknowns, v1’ & v2’, an additional relationship is required. • The relationship must reflect the capacity of the contacting bodies to recover from the impact & can be expressed by the ratio e of the magnitude of the restoration impulse to the magnitude of the deformation impulse. This ratio is called the coefficient of restitution.
• Fr – contact force during restoration period • Fd – contact force during deformation period
∫ F dt
r d t
∫ F dt ∫ F dt
r d t t
m1 [− v1 '−(− vo )] vo − v1 ' ............... for particle 1 = m1 [− vo − (− v1 )] v1 − vo
∫ F dt
m2 [v2 '−(vo )] v2 '−vo ..................... for particle 2 = m2 [vo − (v2 )] vo − v2
• According to classical theory of impact, the value e=1 means that the capacity of the two particles to recover equal their tendency to deform. • The value e=0, on the other hand describes inelastic or plastic impact where the particles cling together after collision & the loss of energy is a maximum.
b) Oblique central impact
• Here the initial and final velocities are not parallel. • The spherical particles of mass m1 & m2 have initial velocities v1 & v2 in the same plane & approach each other on a collision course. • The direction of the velocity vector are measured from the direction tangent to the contacting surfaces.
(v1 )n = −v1 sin θ1 , (v1 )t = v1 cos θ1 , (v2 )n = −v2 sin θ 2 , (v2 )t = v2 cos θ 2 ,
There will be four unknown namely, (v1’)n, (v1’)t, (v2’)n, & (v2’)t 1) Momentum of the system is conserved in the n-direction, 2) & 3) The momentum for each particle is conserved in the tdirection since there is no impulse on either particle in the tdirection
m1 (v1 ) t = m1 (v1 ' ) t m2 (v2 ) t = m2 (v2 ' ) t
3) the coefficient of restitution, the velocity component in the n- direction,
(v2 ')n − (v1 ')n e= (v1 )n − (v2 )n
• The 4kg cart, at rest at t=0, is acted on by a horizontal force that varies with time t as shown. Neglect friction and determine the velocity of the cart at t=1Sec and t=3Sec
• The loaded mine skip has a mass of 3Mg. The hoisting drum produces a tension T in the cable according to the time schedule shown. If the skip is at rest againest A a when the drum is activated, determine the speed v of the skip when t=6Sec. Friction loss may be neglected.
• a particle with a mass of 4kg has a position vector in meters given by r = 3t 2 i − 2t j − 3t k ,where t is the time in seconds. For t=3sec, determine the magnitude of the angular momentum of the particle and the magnitude of the moment of all forces on the particle, both about the origins of the coordinates.
• A particle of mass m moves with negligible friction on a horizontal surface and is connected to a light spring fastened at O. At position A the particle has the velocity VA=4m/s. Determine the velocity VB of the particle as it passes position B.
• The assembly of two 5Kg spheres is rotating freely about the vertical axis at 40rev/min with θ=900. if the force F necessary to maintain the given position is increased to raise the base collar and reduce θ to 600, determine the new angular velocity ω. Also determine the work U done by F in changing the configuration of the system. Assume that the mass of the arms and the collars is negligible.
• The magnitude and direction of the velocities of two identical frictionless balls defore strike each other are as shown in the figure. Assume e=0.90,
A) determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity of each ball after impact. B) calculate the percentage loss of energy due to the impact.
• Sphere A has a mass of 23Kg and a radius of 75mm while sphere B has a mass of 4Kg and a radius of 50mm. If the spheres are travelling initially along the parallel paths with the speeds shown, determine the velocities of the spheres immediately after impact. Specify the angles θA and θB with respect to the x-axis made by the rebound velocity vectors. The coefficient of restitution is 0.4 and friction is neglected.
• The 2Kg sphere is projected horizontally with velocity of 10m/s against the 10kg carriage that is backed up by the spring with a stiffness of 1600N/m. The carriage is initially at rest with the spring uncompressed. If the coefficient of restitution is 0.6, calculate the rebound velocity v’, the rebound angle, and the maximum travel δ of the carriage after impact.
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