Exploratory Research Design: Secondary Data

Yang akan Dibahas
• Overview. • Perbedaan Data primer dan data sekunder. • Kelebihan dan Kekurangan Data Sekunder. • Kriteria untuk Evaluasi data sekunder. • Klasifikasi data sekunder.

Overview
• Sebelum pengumpulan data primer, peneliti perlu mengumpulkan data sekunder yang relevan terlebih dahulu. • Data sekunder sangat penting terutama untuk penelitian dengan anggaran yang terbatas.

PENGERTIAN DATA PRIMER DAN DATA SEKUNDER • Data primer merupakan data yang dikumpulkan langsung oleh peneliti untuk tujuan penelitian tersebut. • Data sekunder data yang dikumpulkan oleh pihak lain untuk beberapa tujuan. .

Proses Keterlibatannya tinggi Data Sekunder Tidak langsung untuk masalah. Keterlibatannya rendah Biaya Waktu Tinggi Lama Relative murah Singkat .Perbedaan Data Primer dan Sekunder Data Primer Tujuan Langsung untuk masalah.

• Melakukan interpretasi data primer lebih jelas. • Menformulasikan riset desain dengan tepat (mengidentfikasikan variabel kunci). • Mengembangkan pendekatan terhadap masalah. • Menjawab pertanyaan penelitian dan pengujian hipotesis. • Menentukan masalah menjadi lebih tepat.Manfaat Data Sekunder • Mengidentifikasi masalah. .

• Tujuan. – Seringkali tidak akurat. maka: – Seringkali tidak relevan. . metode yang digunakan seringkali tidak tepat dengan situasi sekarang. variabel.Kelemahan Data Sekunder • Karena data sekunder dikumpulkan bukan untuk kepentingan langsung perneliti.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder • Spesifikasi dan Metodologi – Metode Pengumpulan Data – Respon Rate – Sample Teknik – Ukuran Sampel – Analisis Data .

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder • Eror dan Ketepatan – – – – – Menguji tingkat kesalahan Desain Penelitian Sampel Analisis Data Pelaporan Untuk mengukur ketepatan dengan dilakukan dengan membandingkan dengan sumber yang berbeda. .

Sensus data secara periodik akan di update.Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder • Kemutahiran – Jeda waktu antara pengumpulan dan publikasi. – Frekuensi data di update. .

– Frekuensi data di update Sensus data secara periodik akan di update.Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder • Kemutahiran – Jeda waktu antara pengumpulan dan publikasi. .

.Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder • Tujuan – Mengapa data di kumpulkan ? Tujuan pengumpulan data menentukan relevansi data.

Kriteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder • Dasar/Isi Data – Definisi variabel kunci. – Kategori penggunaan. – Unit pengukuran. Tujuan pengumpulan data menentukan relevansi data. .

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder • Kemandirian – Keahlian – Kredibility. Data yang didapatkan semestinya dikonfirmasikan dengan sumbernya. – Reputasi. .

1 KLASIFIKASI DATA SEKUNDER Secondary Data Internal External Ready to Use Requires further processing Published Computerized Materials Databases Syndicated Services . 4.Fig.

• Lebih murah dan mudah didapatkan.Data Sekunder Internal • Data sekunder yang berasal dari dalam perusahaan. • Data Base Marketing – – – – – – – Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan berdasarkan produk line berdasarkan departemen berdasarkn toko tertentu berdasarkan daerah geogarfis kas dan kredit berdasarkan periode waktu berdasarkan jumlah pembelian .

Data Sekunder Internal • Siap untuk digunakan. . • Harus diolah terlebih dahulu.

asosiasi perdagangan. profesional marketing researchs. perusahaan pialang investasi. comersial publisher.Data Sekunder Eksternal • Data sekunder yang berasal dari luar perusahaan seperti dari pemerintah. organisasi non profit. • Sumber data Eksternal – Publish Material – Computer database – Syndicate service . organisasi profesional.

2 A Classification of Published Secondary Sources Published Secondary Data General Business Sources Government Sources Guides Directories Indexes Statistical Data Census Other Data Government Publications . 4.Fig.

Publish Material • General Business Source – Guideline – Directories – Indexes – Statistical Data • Government Source – Census Data – Other Government Publication .

4.Fig.3 A Classification of Computerized Databases Computerized Databases On-Line Internet Off-Line Bibliographic Databases Numeric Databases Full-Text Databases Directory Databases SpecialPurpose Databases .

4.Fig.4 A Classification of Syndicated Services Unit of Measurement Households/ Consumers Institutions .

Computerized Database • Online and Off Line – Bibliographies Data Bases – Numeric Databases – Full Text Databases – Directory Databases – Special Purpose Database .

Uses of Scanner Services e. Advantages & Disadvantages of Dairy Panels iii. Surveys a. Diary Media Panels c. Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV d. Advantages & Disadvantages . Diary Panels a. Uses of Dairy Panels d. Electronic Scanner Services a. General Surveys d. Uses of Surveys e. Psychographics & Lifestyles b. Scanner Diary Panels c.Syndicated Data from Households i. Volume Tracking Data b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Surveys ii. Advertising Evaluation c. Diary Purchase Panels b.

Industry Services a. Uses of Industry Services b. Uses of Audit Data b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Audit Data ii.12) Syndicated Data from Institutions i. Advantages & Disadvantages of Industry Services . Retailers & Wholesalers a.

address. telephone) Sex I.RIP 4. - - Marital status Names of family members Age (including ages of family members) - Income Occupation Number of children present - Home ownership Length of residence Number and make of cars owned .1 Type of Individual/Household Level Data Available from Syndicated Firms Demographic Data Identification (Name.

.II. Psychographic Lifestyle Data - Interest in golf Interest in snow skiing Interest in book reading Interest in running Interest in bicycling Interest in pets Interest in fishing Interest in electronics Interest in cable television There are also firms such as Dun & Bradstreet and American Business Information which collect demographic data on businesses.

4 Contd. Syndicated Services: Consumers Households / Consumers Mail Diary Panels Purchase Surveys Media Electronic scanner services Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV Volume Tracking Data Scanner Diary Panels Psychographic & Lifestyles General Advertising Evaluation .Fig. 4.

Syndicated Services: Institutions Institutions Retailers Wholesalers Industrial firms Audits Direct Inquiries Clipping Services Corporate Reports .Fig. 4.4 Contd.

advertising theme selection and advertising effectiveness Forecasting sales.Table 4. respondent errors information on underlying motives Recorded purchase behavior can be linked to the demographic / psychographic characteristics Type Surveys Disadvantages Uses Diary Households provide Purchase specific information Panels regularly over an extended period of time. selecting media program or air time. maturation Same as diary purchase panel Same as diary purchase panel Market segmentation. respondent asked to record specific behaviors as they occur Diary Media Panels Electronic devices automatically recording behavior. regular intervals obtaining data. market share and trends. advertising. establishing viewer profiles . response bias. establishing consumer profiles.3 Overview of Syndicated Services Characteristics Advantages Surveys conducted at Most flexible way of Interviewer errors. evaluating test markets. and distribution Establishing advertising rates. brand loyalty and switching. supplemented by a diary Lack of representativeness.

new product with Cable TV panel data to limited testing. positioning TV household characteristics Audit Verification of Relatively precise Coverage may be Measurement of services product movement information at the incomplete. ability to link quality of data testing. sample representative. and corporate reports Characteristics Advantages Household Data reflects actual purc hases are purc hases. representative. less expensive electronic scanners in supermarkets Disadvantages Uses . quantity. allocating companies. c lipping projects advertising budget services. analyses . performing may be diffic ult analyzing inventory analysis distribution patterns: tracking of new products Industrial Data banks on Important sourc e of Data are lacking in Determining market Product industrial information on terms of c ontent.3 Contd. Servic es created through particularly useful in defining sales direct inquiries of initial phases of the territories. potential by Syndicated establishments industrial firms. errors modeling. matc hing consumer sales and by examining retail and wholesale of data on market share. in recording effectiveness of inpurc hases. difficult tostore promotions link purchas es to elements of marketing mix other than price Sc anner Sc anner panels of Data reflect actual Data may not be Promotional mix Diary households that purc hases. physic al records or levels competitive activity competitive activity. and quality geographic area. timely recorded through data. Type Sc anner Volume Tracking Data Data may not be Price tracking. copy Panels subscribe to cable control.Table 4.

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