’Technical Data»

Quantifiers, Unit Symbols, Chemical Symbols and Symbols of Elements Calculation of Cubic Volume and Weight/Physical Properties of Materials
IName of Elements and Atomic Symbols
Conventional Usage
Angle, Coefficient Angle, Coefficient Angle, Weight Per Unit Area, Relationship (Uppercase) Small Change, Density, Displacement Small Amount, Distortion Variable Variable Angle, Temperature, Time Radius of Gyration Wavelength, Characteristic Value Friction Coefficient 10-6 (Micro) Frequency Variable Circle Ratio Q(3.14159E), Angle Symbol of Product (Uppercase) Radius, Density Stress, Standard Deviation, Summation (Uppercase) Time constant, Time, Torque Angle, Function, Diameter Angle, Function Angular Velocity:2Qf Ohm:Unit of Electric Resistance (Uppercase)

’Technical Data»

Calculation of Area, Center of Gravity and Geometrical Moment of Inertia
Cross Section
A e I Z=I/e

IGreek Symbols
Uppercase
Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

Lowercase
α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ µ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ, ϕ χ ψ ω

Pronunciation
alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta eta theta iota kappa lambda mu nu xi omicron pi rho sigma tau upsilon phi chi psi omega

h

Remark:Unless otherwise specified, lowercase letters are the norm.

ICharacteristics of Metals
Material Mild steel NAK80 SKD11 SKD61 M2 Tool Steel Carbide V30 Carbide V40 Cast Iron 304 Stainless Steel 440C Stainless Steel Oxygen Free Copper C1020 6/4 Brass C2801 Beryllium Copper C1720 Aluminum A1100 Duralumin 7075 Aluminum Titanium Specific Gravity 7.85 7.8 7.85 7.75 8.2 14.1 13.9 7.3 8.0 7.78 8.9 8.4 8.3 2.7 2.8 4.5
Thermal Expansion Coefficient

YoungV Modulus s {Kgf/mm 2 } 21000 20500 21000 21000 22300 56000 54000 7500~10500 19700 20400 11700 10300 13000 6900 7200 10600

M10-6/A 11.7 12.5 11.7 10.8 10.1 6.0 6.0 9.2~11.8 17.3 10.2 17.6 20.8 17.1 23.6 23.6 8.4

R e

Remark: This table is based on Appendix A (Names and Symbols of Elements) of ISO 31/8-1980 (Amounts and Units of Physical Chemistry and Molecular Physics) and Appendix C (Names and Symbols of Radionuclides) of ISO 31/9-1980 (Amounts and Units of Atomic Physics and Nuclear Physics).

r

3 2

3

r

2 2

= 2.598 r

5 34 r =0.5413 r 4 16

A

Atomic Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Name
Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorous Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Brass Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium

Symbol
H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc R Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb T

Atomic Number
53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103

Name
Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysproium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium

Symbol
I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Cross Section

A

e

I

Z=I/e

h

e

bh

h 2

bh 12

3

bh 6

2

a

Qab

a

Q 3 ba =0.7854 ba 3 4

Q 2 ba =0.7854 ba 2 4

b

b

h

2

h

e1

h 2

h4 12

h3 6

2r

Q 2 r 2

e1 =0.4244 r e2 =0.5756 r

Q 8 4 r 8 9Q =0.1098 r
4

e2

e

Z 1 =0.2587 r Z 2 =0.1908 r

h

r

3 3

h

2

h 2

2

h4 12

0.1179 h =

3

2 3 h 12

h

Q 2 r 4

e1

r b

e1 =0.4244 r e2 =0.5756 r

e

e2

0.055 r

4

Z 1 =0.1296 r Z 2 =0.0956 r

r

3 3

h

e

b b

e

H

h

bh 2

2 h 3

bh 3 36

bh 24

2

b(H-h)

H 2

b 3 3 (H -h ) 12

b 3 3 (H -h ) 6H

e

(2

b+b1 )

b1 2

b

b1 2

h 2

1 3 b+ 2 b1 M h 3 2 b+b 1

6 b +6 bb 1+ b 1 3 h 36(2 b +b 1)

A

a

2

2

6 b2 +6 bb 1+ b 1 2 h 12(3 b+2 b1)

2

h

A -a

e

2

2

A 2

A -a 12

4

4

1 A -a 6 A

4

4

A
a
A -a 2 12 A = 0.1179( A -a A
4 4
)

4

4

e

3 r =0.866 r 4

5 3 8r

A -a

e

2

2

A 2

2

A -a 12

4

4

A

r
d1
5 33 3 r 16 = 0.5413r Q 2 2 ( ) 4 d 2- d 1 d2 2

Q 4 4 ( d -d ) 64 2 1 = Q 4 4 ( R -r ) 4

r

IHow to Calculate the Volume
Solid Turncated Cylinder V= Q d 2 h 4 Volume V Solid Volume V Solid Spherical Segment
2 a 2+b 2 V= Q d 2 4 2

d2
Volume V Solid Spherical Belt
V= 2 Qr 2 h 3

Q d 4- d 1 2 32 d 2 Q R 4 -r 4 = M R 4

4

e

Volume V 1+2 2 4 r 6 =0.6381 r
4

r

d a
2.828 r

d

Oval Ring

b
V= Qh 2 +3b 2 +h 2 ) 6 (3a

h2 h

= Q d 2 h 1+h 2 2 4

b

h

h1

h

e

r

2

0.924 r 2

0.6906r

3

e

a -

2

Qd 4

2

a 2

1 4 3Q 4 a- d 16 12

1 4 3Q 4 a- d 6a 16

a

d
Pyramid
h h V= 3 A= 6 arn A=Area of base r =Radius of inscribed circle a =Length of a side of a regular polygon n =Number of the sides of
a regular polygon

=2.0944r 2 h

a
Barrel
When the circumferance makes a curve equal to the circular arc, V= Qr 2 +d 2 ) 12 (2D When the circumferance makes a curve equal to a parabolic line, (2D V=0.209r 2 Dd+1/4d 2 )

a
2 b 2 a
a 1+ 2 0.0547 a
4

r

Cross Cylinder
, 2 V= Qd (R+R - d ) 3 4

Torus

V=2Q2 Rr 2

, R

e

r

R d
D

=19.739Rr 2 = Q Dd 2 4
2

b

h

0.8284 a

0.1095a

3

e

2

b=

2 b ( h-d )
+

h

D

d

= 0.4142 a

a
Spherical Crown

R

r

b

=2.4674Dd 2
V= Q h D 2 -d 2 ) 4 (

2 b 2

Q 2 d 4

h 2

1 3Q 4 d 12 16 3 3 +b ( h -d )
+b ( h -d )
3

1 3Q 4 d 6 h 16 3 3 +b ( h -d )
+b ( h -d )
3

d

= Qh(3a 2 +h 2 ) 6
a is the radius. 4 V= 3 Qabc In case of a spheroid(b=c)

h

h

d

t

Weight W[g]=Volume[cm3]MSpecific Gravity

e

b

h

Qh 2 V= 3 (3r-h)

r

V= Q r 2 h 3

Qr 2 =

e

Hollow Cylinder

Circular Cone

IHow to Calculate the Weight
Ex.:Mild Steel
FD=16 and L=50mm, the weight is:

Qd 2 4

d 2

=Qth D-t) ( =Qth d+t) (

d r e2 e1
Q r 2 1- 4 e1 =0.2234 r e2 =0.7766 r

Qd 4 Qr 4 = 64 4 =0.0491d 4 4 =0.05 d =0.7854 r 4

Qd 3 Qr 3 = 32 4 =0.0982d 3 =0.1 d 3 =0.7854r 3

d1

d

r

d

b

2 b ( h-d )+ Q 2 2 (d - d ) 4 1

h 2

1 3Q 4 4 ( d -d ) 12 16 1 3 +b ( h -d 31 )
+b ( h-d 1 )
3

1 3Q 4 4 ( d -d ) 6h 16 1 3 3 +b ( h -d 1 )
+b ( h-d 1 )
3

h

a

D
Turncated Pyramid

r
Sphere

=1.0472r 2 h

Ellipsoid

90

V= h(A+a+ Aa) 3 A,a=area of both ends

V= 4 Qr 3 =4.1888r 3 3

B

r

r

Q 2 D MLMSpecific Gravity W= 4 Q = 4 M1.6 2 M5M7.85

0.0075r 4

=0.2146r 2

h

0.0075 r4 e2 =0.00966r 3 =0.01r 3

A:Sectional Area e:Distance of Center of Gravity l:Geometrical Moment of Inertia Z=l/e:Section Modulus

a

c

4 V= 3 Qab 2

d

= Q d 3 =0.5236d 3 6

FD

b

L

=79[g]

1803

1804

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