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MSC.Software: Whitepaper - Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers
Rubber White Paper
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PREFACE
MSC.Software Corporation, the worldwide leader in rubber analysis, would like to share some of our experiences
and expertise in analyzing elastomers with you.
This White Paper introduces you to the nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) of rubber-like polymers generally
grouped under the name “elastomers”. You may have a nonlinear rubber problem—and not even know it...
The Paper is primarily intended for two types of readers:
ENGINEERING MANAGERS who are involved in manufacturing of elastomeric components, but do not currently
possess nonlinear FEA tools, or who may have an educational/professional background other than mechanical
engineering.
DESIGN ENGINEERS who are perhaps familiar with linear, or even nonlinear, FEA concepts but would like to know
more about analyzing elastomers.
It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic principles in strength of materials theory.
The contents of this White Paper are intentionally organized for the convenience of these two kinds of readers.
For an “Engineering Manager”, topics of interest include, an Executive Summary to obtain an overview of the
subject, the Case Studies to see some real-world rubber FEA applications, and any other industry specific topics.
The “Design Engineer”, on the other hand, can examine the significant features on analysis of elastomers (which
constitute the bulk of the Paper). The Appendices describe the physics and mechanical properties of rubber, proper
modeling of incompressibility in rubber FEA, and most importantly, testing methods for determination of material
properties. Simulation issues and useful hints are found throughout the text and in the Case Studies.
Rubber FEA is an extensive subject, which involves rubber chemistry, manufacturing processes, material
characterization, finite element theory, and the latest advances in computational mechanics. A selected list of
Suggestions for Further Reading is included. These references cite some of the most recent research on FEA of
elastomers and demonstrate practical applications. They are categorized by subject for readers convenience.
On the Cover
The cover shows a deformed configuration of a washing machine seal with fringe plots of deformation magnitude.
You can observe the wrinkling the seal undergoes due to excessive deformation.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
2. Material Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
2-1. Time-Independent Nonlinear Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2-2. Viscoelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
2-3. Composites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
2-4. Hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
2-5. Other Polymeric Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
3. Determination of Material Parameters from Test Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
4. Damage and Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
5. Dynamics, Vibrations, and Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
6. Contact Analysis Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
7. Solution Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
8. Adaptive Remeshing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
9. Current Trends and Future Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
10. User Conveniences and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
11. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Case Studies
A. O-Ring Under Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
B. Car Tire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
C. Constant-Velocity Rubber Boot Compression and Bending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
D. Rubber Mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
E. Car Door Seal: Automated Multibody Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
F. Downhole Oil Packer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Appendices
A. Physics of Rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
B. Mechanics of Rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
C. Material Testing Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
D. Answers to Commonly Asked Questions in Rubber Product Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Suggestions for Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
About MSC.Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
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1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This white paper discusses the salient
features regarding the mechanics and
finite element analysis (FEA) of
elastomers. Although, the main focus
of the paper is on elastomers (or
rubber-like materials) and foams, many
of these concepts are also applicable
to the FEA of glass, plastics, and
biomaterials. Therefore, this White
Paper should be of value not only to the
rubber and tire industries, but also to
those involved in the following:
•Glass, plastics, ceramic, and solid
propellant industries
•Biomechanics and the medical/
dental professions—implantable
surgery devices, prosthesis,
orthopedics, orthodontics, dental
implants, artificial limbs, artificial
organs, wheelchairs and beds,
monitoring equipment
•Highway safety and flight safety—
seat belt design, impact analysis,
seat and padding design, passenger
protection
•Packaging industry
•Sports and consumer industries—
helmet design, shoe design, athletic
protection gear, sports equipment
safety.
Elastomers are used extensively in
many industries because of their wide
availability and low cost. They are also
used because of their excellent
damping and energy absorption
characteristics, flexibility, resiliency,
long service life, ability to seal against
moisture, heat, and pressure, non-toxic
properties, moldability, and variable
stiffness.
Rubber is a very unique material. During processing and shaping, it behaves mostly like a highly viscous fluid. After
its polymer chains have been crosslinked by vulcanization (or by curing), rubber can undergo large reversible elastic
deformations. Unless damage occurs, it will return to its original shape after removal of the load.
Shock Mount
O-ring
Car Door Seal
Rubber Boot
Oil Packer
Car Tire
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Proper analysis of rubber components requires special material modeling and
nonlinear finite element analysis tools that are quite different than those used
for metallic parts. The unique properties of rubber are such that:
1. It can undergo large deformations under load, sustaining strains of up to
500 percent in engineering applications.
2. Its load-extension behavior is markedly nonlinear.
3. Because it is viscoelastic, it exhibits significant damping properties. Its
behavior is time- and temperature-dependent, making it similar to glass
and plastics in this respect.
4. It is nearly incompressible. This means its volume does not change
appreciably with stress. It cannot be compressed significantly under
hydrostatic load.
For certain foam rubber materials, the assumption of near incompressibility is
relaxed, since large volume change can be achieved by the application of
relatively moderate stresses.
The nonlinear FEA program, Marc possesses specially-formulated elements,
material and friction models, and automated contact analysis procedures to
model elastomers. Capabilities and uniqueness of Marc in analyzing large,
industry-scale problems are highlighted throughout this white paper.
Efficient and realistic analysis for design of elastomeric products relies on
several important concepts outlined below:
1. Nonlinear material behavior—compressible or incompressible material
models, time and temperature effects, presence of anisotropy due to
fillers or fibers, hysteresis due to cyclic loading and manifestation of
instabilities.
2. Determination of Material Parameters from Test Data—perhaps the single
most troublesome step for most engineers in analyzing elastomers, that is, how to “curve fit” test data and
derive parameters necessary to characterize a material.
3. Failure—causes and analysis of failure resulting due to material damage and degradation, cracking, and
debonding.
4. Dynamics—shock and vibration isolation concerns, damping, harmonic analysis of viscoelastic materials,
time versus frequency domain viscoelastic analysis, and implicit versus explicit direct time integration
methods.
5. Modern automated contact analysis techniques—friction effects, and the use of “contact bodies” to handle
boundary conditions at an interface. Automated solution strategies—issues related to model preparation,
nonlinear analysis, parallelization, and ease-of-use of the simulation software.
6. Automated Remeshing - for effective solution of problems involving distorted meshes which can lead to
premature termination of analysis.
MSC.Software Corporation offers a well-balanced combination of sophisticated analysis code integrated
seamlessly with easy-to-use Graphical User Interface (GUI) Mentat and Patran, for the simulation of elastomeric
products. This makes Marc uniquely suitable for the simulation of complex physics of rubber, foam, glass, plastics,
and biomaterials. The following sections briefly explains the ‘insides’ of a nonlinear FEA code (and its differences
from a linear FEA program) along with the accompanying GUI capabilities.
Y
X NODE 1
2
3
ELEMENT
1956: Triangular Element
1970s: Gap Elements
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The Finite Element Method
The finite element method is a computer-aided engineering technique for obtaining approximate numerical solutions
to boundary value problems which predict the response of physical systems subjected to external loads. It is based
on the principle of virtual work. One approximation method is the so-called weighted residuals method, the most
popular example of which is the Galerkin method (see any of the finite element texts listed in the Suggestions for
Further Reading section at the back). A structure is idealized as many small, discrete pieces called finite elements,
which are connected at nodes. In finite element analysis, thousands of simultaneous equations are typically solved
using computers. In structural analysis, the unknowns are the nodal degrees of freedom, like displacements,
rotations, or the hydrostatic pressure.
History of Nonlinear and Rubber FEA
A National Research Council report on computational mechanics research needs in the 1990s [Oden, 1991]
emphasized the “materials” field as a national critical technology for the United States, and that areas such as
damage, crack initiation and propagation, nonlinear analysis, and coupled field problems still require extensive
research.
Before embarking on the issues related to the material behavior, it is interesting to review how the finite element
method has matured in the past sixty years—paying special attention to recent improvements in nonlinear FEA
techniques for handling rubber contact problems:
1943 Applied mathematician Courant used triangular elements to solve a torsion problem.
1947 Prager and Synge used triangular elements to solve a 2-D elasticity problem using the “hypercircle
method”.
1954-55 Argyris published work on energy methods in structural analysis (creating the “Force Method” of FEA).
1956 Classical paper on the “Displacement (Stiffness) Method” of FEA by Turner, Clough, Martin, and Topp
(using triangles).
1960 Clough first coined the term “Finite Element Method.”
1965 Herrmann developed first “mixed method” solution for incompressible and nearly incompressible
isotropic materials.
1968 Taylor, Pister, and Herrmann extended Herrmann's work to orthotropic materials. S.W. Key extended
it to anisotropy [1969].
1971 First release of the Marc program by Marc Analysis Research Corporation, MARC. It was the world's
first commercial, nonlinear general-purpose FEA code.
1970s-todayMost FEA codes claiming ability to analyze contact problems use “gap” or “interface” elements. (The
user needs to know a priori where to specify these interface elements—not an easy task!)
1974 MARC introduced Mooney-Rivlin model and special Herrmann elements to analyze incompressible
behavior.
1979 Special viscoelastic models for harmonic analysis to model damping behavior introduced by MARC.
Generalized Maxwell model added shortly thereafter.
1985 • Oden and Martins published comprehensive treatise on modeling and computational issues for
dynamic friction phenomena.
• MARC pioneered use of rigid or deformable contact bodies in an automated solution procedure to
solve 2-D variable contact problems—typically found in metal forming and rubber applications. Also,
first introduction of large-strain viscoelastic capabilities for rubber materials by MARC.
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1988 • Oden and Kikuchi published monograph on contact problems in elasticity—treating this class of
problems as variational inequalities.
• MARC extended automated contact FEA capability to 3-D problems.
1990 Martins, Oden, and Simoes published exhaustive study on static and kinetic friction (concentrating on
metal contact).
1991 MARC introduced Ogden rubber model and rubber damage model.
1994 MARC introduced Rubber Foam model.
MARC introduced Adaptive Meshing Capability.
1995 MARC and Axel Products, Inc. to create “Experimental Elastomer Analysis” course
1997 MARC introduced Narayanswamy model for Glass Relaxation behavior.
1998 MARC introduced fully parallel software based on domain decomposition.
1999 MARC was acquired by MSC.Software
2000 Marc introduced the following:
• Boyce-Arruda and Gent rubber models
• Special lower-order triangular and tetrahedral elements to handle incompressible materials
• Global adaptive remeshing for rubber and metallic materials.
• Coupled structural-acoustic model for harmonic analysis.
2003 Marc introduced the following:
• Steady state tire rolling
• Cavity pressure calculation
• Insert option for tire chords
• Global adaptive meshing in 3-D
• The J-integral (Lorenzi option) now supports large strains, both in the total and the updated Lagrange
formulation. This makes it possible to calculate the J-integral for rubber applications.
• Strain energy is correctly output for rubber models in total Lagrangian analysis.
2005 Marc introduced the following:
• Global adaptive meshing allows general boundary conditions in 3-D
• New unified rubber model with improved volumetric behavior
• Coupling with CFD using MPCCI
• Global adaptive remeshing enhanced in two-dimensional analyses such that distributed loads and
nodal boundary conditions are reapplied to the model after remeshing occurs.
• A framework, based on the updated Lagrangian formulation, has been set up for hyperelastic
material models. Within the framework, users can easily define their own generalized strain energy
function models through a UELASTOMER user subroutine.
• A new friction model, bilinear, is introduced which is more accurate than the model using the velocity-
based smoothing function, arc tangent, and less expensive and more general than the stick-slip
model.
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2007 Marc introduced the following:
• Virtual Crack Closure Technique with remeshing to see crack growth during the loading.
• Cohesive zone method (CZM) for delamination
• Connector elements for assembly modeling
• Steady state tire rolling
• Puck and Hashin failure criteria
• Crack propagation in 2-D using global adaptive remeshing
• Simplified nonlinear elastic material models
• Solid shell element which can be used with elastomeric materials
• Nonlinear cyclic symmetry
• Rubber example using volumetric strain energy function
2008 Marc introduced the following:
• Simple material mixture model
• Moment carrying glued contact
• Hilbert-Hughes-Taylor Dynamic procedure
• Interface elements added automatically on crack opening with adaptive meshing
2010 Marc introduced the following:
• Incorporated generalized 5th order Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model
• Parallel solver technology to utilize multi-core processors
• Segment to segment contact
• On-demand video training for the Mar103 Experimental Elastomer Analysis course where you can
see and hear how eight of the experiments in Appendix C are conducted. Understand by involving
yourself in the corresponding workshop problems to touch and feel the curve fitting of hyperelastic
constants. Learn how to distinguish a good hyperelastic curve fit from a poor one. Click here for a
four minute video summary.
The benefits of performing nonlinear FEA of elastomeric products are essentially the same as those for linear FEA.
FEA should be an integral part of the design process, preferably from the CAD. The advantages of this enhanced
design process include: improved performance and quality of the finished product; faster time to market; optimal
use of materials; weight savings; verification of structural integrity before prototyping; and overall reduction of
development and production costs. Furthermore, a good predictive capability can help to reduce the scrap rate in
manufacturing stage; that is, “green” stage to the finally “molded” state, thereby ensuring a competitive edge.
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2 MATERIAL BEHAVIOR
This section discusses the issues central to the description of material modeling of elastomers. Any material
behavior must be determined experimentally, and the wide variety of rubber compounds make this experimental
determination even more important. A brief overview of the concepts of nonlinearity and the stress-strain
descriptions suitable for nonlinear analysis is presented first. The features of time-independent and dependent
material behavior, anisotropy, hysteresis, and other polymeric materials are detailed next. In the final note, other
polymeric materials which share common material characteristics with elastomers are reviewed. The most
important concept to recognize about rubber is that its deformation is not directly proportional to the applied load,
in other words, it exhibits a 'nonlinear' behavior.
Linear Elastic Behavior (Hooke’s Law)
“As the extension, so the force” [Hooke 1660] suggested a simple linear
relation exists between force (stress) and deflection (strain). For a steel
spring under small strain, this means that the force is the product of the
stiffness and the deflection or, the deflection can be obtained by dividing
the force by the spring stiffness. This relation is valid as long as the spring
remains linear elastic, and the deflections are such that they do not cause
the spring to yield or break. Apply twice the load, obtain twice the
deflection. For a linear spring, the typical force-displacement (or stress-
strain) plot is thus a straight line, where the stiffness represents the slope.
While we may think Hooke’s Law is simple, let’s examine how to measure
Young’s modulus. What test should we use: tension, torsion, bending,
wave speed? Performing these four tests shall yield four different values
of Young’s modulus for the same material, since the material knows
nothing about Hooke’s Law or these simple formulas. We must be careful
in what we seek, how it is measured, and how what we measure is used
in analysis. Changing the material from steel to rubber, the force-
displacement curve is no longer linear; stress is never proportional to
strain.
Hyperelastic (Neo-Hookean Law)
It is very instructive to view the stress-strain behavior for rubber. Here
a tensile test is preformed on a synthetic rubber called EPDM
(Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) cycled to 10%, 20%, 50% and
100% strain with each cycle repeated twice. The stress-strain
behavior of rubber is very different from Hooke’s Law in four basic
areas. First, as the rubber is deformed into a larger strain territory for
the first time, it is very stiff, but upon recycling in this same strain
territory, the rubber softens dramatically. This phenomenon is often
referred to as the Mullins’ effect. In most applications this one time
very stiff event is usually discarded where it is assumed in these
applications repetitive behavior will dominate. Nonlinear elasticity has
several stress and strain measures (Appendix B), however, it is most
common to measure elastomeric experimental data using engineering stress and engineering strain measures,
whereby the engineering stress is the current force is divided by the original area, and the engineering strain is the
change in length divided by the original length. All test data presented and discussed herein will use engineering
stress and engineering strain measures.
How is Young’s Modulus, E, Measured?
4.) Wave Speed
A
P ΔL ,
L
E
P A /
ΔL ( ) L /
-------------------- =
1.) Tension
2.) Torsion
T φ ,
J E 2 1 υ + ( )
Tc J /
φ
------------- = ( )
3.) Bending
P δ ,
E
PL
3
3δI
--------- - = I
E v
2
ρ
ρ
= ( ( (
Are all four E measured the same?
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Eng. Strain [1]
Eng. Stress [MPa]
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Secondly, there is always a viscoelastic effect present in rubber
leading to a stable hysteresis loop when cycled over the same strain
range. Hyperelastic models seek to find a simple equilibrium curve,
not a hysteresis loop because viscoelastic effects may be included
as we shall see later. Also discarded with the “one time” stiffness
event is the shifting of the data to go through the origin, a requirement
for hyperelastic materials; this will cause an apparent change in gage
length and original cross sectional area. This shift ignores irreversible
damage in the material when first stretched.
The third area of difference between hyperelastic laws and Hooke’s
law, is the enormous difference between tension and compression of
hyperelastic materials. Hooke’s law always assumes that stress is
proportional to strain, whereas this is never observed for elastomeric
materials, hence Hooke’s law is inadequate for rubber. The
incompressibility of rubber with its ratio of bulk to shear modulus over
1,000 times larger than steel, causes the larger stress magnitudes in
compression as compared to tension for the same strain magnitude.
The final difference between hyperelastic laws (there are many) and
Hooke’s law is the sensitivity of the hyperelastic constants to
deformation states. As Treloar [1975] points out, any comprehensive
treatment of rubber behavior should address these different strain
states. For example, uniaxial, biaxial and planar shear are show here
with their corresponding stress-strain responses. As the hyperelastic
laws become more sophisticated with more constants to be
determined experimentally, data from these three modes becomes
more important to prevent spurious analytical behavior not observed
experimentally. If you only have one mode, say tension, stick to the
Neo-Hookean (one constant Mooney), Gent or Arruda-Boyce
hyperelastic material models to be safe.
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Eng. Strain [1]
Eng. Stress [MPa]
Equilibrium Curve
Shift Data
Original Data
-0.4 -0.2
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
20
Hyperelastic (Yeoh)
Hookean
Eng. Strain [1]
Eng. Stress [MPa]
-0.4 -0.2
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
5
planar shear
biaxial
uniaxial
Eng. Stress [MPa]
Eng. Strain [1]
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2.1 Time-independent Nonlinear Elasticity
This section discusses aspects of nonlinear elasticity: namely, strain energy density functions and incompressibility
constraint. The strain energy density is usually represented as a product of two functions, one that depends on
strain (or stretch ratio), another that depends on time. This section is referring to only that function of the product
that depends on strain.
Stretch Ratio
Strain is the intensity of deformation. If we pull a slender rubber rod along its length, the stretch ratio, , (or stretch)
is defined as the ratio of the deformed gauge length divided by the initial gauge length , namely,
, where is the engineering strain. Generally, if we
apply an in-plane, biaxial load to a piece of rubber, we can define three principal stretch ratios in the three respective
principal directions. In large deformation analysis of nonlinear materials (such as elastomers), the stretch ratios are
a convenient measure of deformation and are used to define strain invariants, for , which are used in
many strain energy functions.
Strain Energy Density Functions
Elastomeric material models are characterized by different forms of their strain energy (density) functions. Such a
material is also called hyperelastic. Implicit in the use of these functions (usually denoted by ) is the assumption
that the material is isotropic and elastic. If we take the derivative of with respect to strain, we obtain the stress,
the intensity of force. The commonly available strain energy functions have been represented either in terms of the
strain invariants which are functions of the stretch ratios or directly in terms of the stretch ratios themselves. The
three strain invariants can be expressed as: , , . In case of
perfectly incompressible material, . In Marc, the strain energy function is composed of a deviatoric (shear)
and dilitational (volumetric) component as: , where the dilitational part, , is of most concern
for elastomers, whereas the dilitation component is of most concern for foams. We shall discuss the deviatoric
component first.
From statistical mechanics and thermodynamics principals, the simplest model of rubber elasticity is the Neo-
Hookean model represented by a strain energy density of: .
This model exhibits a single modulus ( ), and gives a good correlation with the experimental data up to
40% strain in uniaxial tension and up to 90% strains in simple shear. Let’s now suppose our uniaxial rod above is
stretched so where is an arbitrary stretch along the rods length. Furthermore if our rod is incompressible,
then so that . Assuming a Neo-Hookean material, the rod would have a strain energy
density function of:
,
and the stress becomes: .
ì
L L
0
ì L L
0
L
0
L L
0
– + ( ) L
0
1 L L
0
– ( ) L
0
+ 1 e + = = = = e
I
j
j 1 3 , =
W
W
I
1
ì
1
2
ì
2
2
ì
3
2
+ + = I
2
ì
1
2
ì
2
2
ì
2
2
ì
3
2
ì
3
2
ì
1
2
+ + = I
3
ì
1
2
ì
2
2
ì
3
2
=
I
3
1 =
W
tot al
W W
dili tati on
+ = W
W C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) =
2C
10
G =
ì
1
ì = ì
ì
2
ì
3
1 ì = = ì
1
2
ì
2
2
ì
3
2
1 =
W C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) C
10
ì
1
2
ì
2
2
ì
3
2
3 – + + ( ) C
10
ì
2
2
ì
--- 3 – +
\ .
| |
= = =
o
ì c
cW
2C
10
ì
1
ì
2
----- –
\ .
| |
G 1 c
1
1 c + ( )
2
------------------- – +
\ .
| |
= = =
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Plotting stress versus strain for our Neo-Hookean rod along side
a Hookean rod (whose Poisson’s ratio is 0.5, so Young’s modulus
becomes ), has the linear Hookean behavior tangent at the
origin to the Neo-Hookean curve. Notice how much compression
differs from tension for Neo-Hookean behavior.
The earliest phenomenological theory of nonlinear elasticity was
proposed by Mooney as: .
Although, it shows a good agreement with tensile test data up to
100% strains, it has been found inadequate in describing the
compression mode of deformation. Moreover, the Mooney-Rivlin
model fails to account for the hardening of the material at large
strains.
Tschoegl's investigations [Tschoegl, 1971] underscored the fact
that the retention of higher order terms in the generalized Mooney-Rivlin polynomial function of strain energy led to
a better agreement with test data for both unfilled as well as filled rubbers. The models along these lines
incorporated in Marc are:
Three term Mooney-Rivlin:
Signiorini:
Third Order Invariant:
Third Order Deformation (or James-Green-Simpson):
This family of polynomial strain energy functions has been generalized to a complete 5th order, namely:
.
All the models listed above account for non-constant shear modulus. However, caution needs to be exercised on
inclusion of higher order terms to fit the data, since this may result in unstable energy functions yielding nonphysical
results outside the range of the experimental data. Please see Appendix B for issues regarding material stability.
The Yeoh model differs from the above higher order models in that it depends on the first strain invariant only:
This model is more versatile than the others since it has been demonstrated to fit various modes of deformation
using the data obtained from a uniaxial tension test only for certain rubber compounds. This leads to reduced
requirements on material testing. However, caution needs to be exercised when applying this model for
deformations involving low strains [Yeoh, 1995]. The Arruda-Boyce model claims to ameliorate this defect and is
unique since the standard tensile test data provides sufficient accuracy for multiple modes of deformation at all
strain levels.
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
-0.8 -0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8
-0.8 -0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
Eng. Stress/G
Eng. Strain
Hookean
Neo-Hookean
3G
W C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) C
01
I
2
3 – ( ) + =
W C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) C
01
I
2
3 – ( ) C
11
I
1
3 – ( ) I
2
3 – ( ) + + =
W C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) C
01
I
2
3 – ( ) C
20
I
1
3 – ( )
2
+ + =
W C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) C
01
I
2
3 – ( ) C
11
I
1
3 – ( ) I
2
3 – ( ) C
20
I
1
3 – ( )
2
+ + + =
W C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) C
01
I
2
3 – ( ) C
11
I
1
3 – ( ) I
2
3 – ( ) C
20
I
1
3 – ( )
2
C
30
I
1
3 – ( )
3
+ + + + =
W C
ij
I
1
3 – ( )
i
I
2
3 – ( )
j
j 1 =
5
¿
i 1 =
5
¿
=
W C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) C
20
I
1
3 – ( )
2
C
30
I
1
3 – ( )
3
+ + =
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In the Arruda-Boyce and Gent strain energy models, the underlying molecular structure of elastomer is represented
to simulate the non-Gaussian behavior of individual chains in the network thus representing the physics of network
deformation, as such they are called micro-mechanical models.
The Arruda-Boyce model is described as:
where is the chain density,
is the Boltzmann constant, is the temperature and is the number of statistical links of length 1 in the chain
between chemical crosslinks.
The constitutive relation from Gent can be represented as: where is the small-strain tensile
modulus, , and is the maximum value of that the molecular network can attain.
Ogden proposed the energy function as separable functions of principal stretches, which is implemented in Marc
in its generalized form as: where , is the Jacobian measuring dilatancy, defined
as the determinant of deformation gradient (Appendix B). The Neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, and Varga material
models can be recovered as special cases from the Ogden model. The model gives a good correlation with test
data in simple tension up to 700%. The model accommodates non-constant shear modulus and slightly
compressible material behavior. Also, for or , the material softens or stiffens respectively with increasing
strain. The Ogden model has become quite popular; it has been successfully applied to the analysis of O-rings,
seals and other industrial products. Other strain energy functions include Klesner-Segel, Hart-Smith, Gent-Thomas,
and Valanis-Landel for modeling the nonlinear elastic response.
While the above classical representations of the strain energy function indicate no volumetric changes occur, three
different models have been incorporated facilitating different levels of compressibility. The simplest is to introduce a
constant bulk modulus such that, . The second form is to introduce a fifth order volumetric
strain energy function . Finally, for materials going through large volumetric
deformations, several models have been suggested; for example, Blatz-Ko's, Penn's, and Storaker's. Marc has
adopted the foam model for compressible materials with the following representation:
, where , , and are material constants, and the second
term represents volumetric change. This model [Hill-1978, Storakers-1986] with provides good
correspondence with data in uniaxial and equibiaxial tension. The Blatz-Ko model [Blatz and Ko, 1968] proposed
for polymers and compressible foam-like materials is a subcase of above model with .
Editor’s Comment: Many hyperelastic models have been proposed since Ronald Rivlin began with the Neo-
Hookean model in 1948, some of these models proclaim needing only one test, usually tension. If that model only
has one modulus, that one test claim is most likely correct. However, should that hyperelastic model require several
moduli, politely ignore the claim and test other deformation modes. What single test can simultaneously determine
both Young’s modulus and the shear modulus for a Hookean material? - None. Be skeptical of such claims
particularly for the phenomenological hyperelastic models.
W nkO
1
2
--- I
1
3 – ( )
1
20N
---------- I
1
2
9 – ( )
11
1050N
2
------------------ I
1
3
27 – ( )
19
7000N
3
------------------ I
1
4
81 – ( )
519
673750N
4
------------------------ I
1
5
243 – ( ) | + + + + = n
k O N
W
EI
m

6
------------
I
m
I
1
*

I
m
---------------- log = E
I
1
*
I
1
3 – = I
m
I
1
*
W
µ
n
o
n
------J
o
n

3
---------
ì
1
a
n
ì
2
a
n
ì +
3
a
n
3 – +
\ .
| |
n 1 =
N
¿
= J
F
o 2 < 2 >
W
dil it ation
4.5 J 1 – ( )
2
=
W
dil it ation
D
n
J 1 – ( )
2n
n 1 =
5
¿
=
W
tot al
µ
n
o
n
------ ì
1
a
n
ì
2
a
n
ì +
3
a
n
3 – +
\ .
| |
µ
n
|
n
------ I J
|
n
– ( )
n 1 =
N
¿
+
n 1 =
N
¿
= o
n
µ
n
|
n
n 2 =
n 2 =
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Incompressible Behavior
Exact (or total) incompressibility literally means the material exhibits zero volumetric change (isochoric) under
hydrostatic pressure. The pressure in the material is not related to the strain in the material; it is an indeterminate
quantity as far as the stress-strain relationship is concerned. Poisson's ratio is exactly one-half, while the bulk
modulus is infinite. Mathematically, the incompressibility of the material can be represented by: ,
,
and , where is the deformation gradient (Appendix B).
Incompressibility was first considered in FEA by [Herrmann, 1965]. Analytical difficulties arise when it is combined
with nonlinearities such as large displacements, large strains, and contact. “Near incompressibility” means that
Poisson's ratio is not exactly one-half; for example, 0.49+. Perfect incompressibility is an idealization to make
modeling more amenable for obtaining closed form solutions. In the real world, natural as well as filled rubbers are
slightly compressible, thereby, facilitating development of algorithms with greater numerical stability. Special
formulation for lower-order triangular and tetrahedral elements satisfying the LBB condition (Appendix B) or simply
the Babuska-Brezzi stability condition effectively handles analysis of incompressible materials [Liu, Choudhry,
Wertheimer, 1997]. These elements exist in Marc and show a very close correlation of results when compared to
their quadrilateral or hexahedral counterparts.
In addition to rubber problems, the engineer may also
encounter aspects of incompressibility in metal
plasticity and fluid mechanics (Stokes flow) problems.
Appendix B provides more details about the FEA of
incompressible materials, and gives an overview of
analytical approaches.
I
3
1 = ì
1
ì
2
ì
3
1 =
det F 1 = F
Volumetric Compression
Slope = 3K @ e = 0
P/A
o
P/A
o
~ 3K(ΔV/V
o
)
ΔV/V
o
Simple Compression
Slope = 3G @ e = 0
P/A
o
ΔL/L
o
P/A
o
~ 3G(ΔL/L
o
)
K >>> G for Rubber
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CASE STUDY A O-RING UNDER COMPRESSION
Most people had probably never heard of an “O-ring”—until the failure of an O-ring was blamed for the Challenger
disaster in January, 1986. In the subsequent televised failure investigation, we witnessed (the late) Professor
Richard Feynman of California Institute of Technology dipping a small O-ring into a glass of ice water to dramatize
its change in properties with temperature.
This study demonstrates only one of the complexities involved in analyzing 2-D rubber contact, where an
axisymmetric model of an O-ring seal is first compressed by three rigid surfaces, then loaded uniformly with a
distributed pressure. The O-ring has an inner radius of 10 cm and an outer radius of 13.5 cm, and is bounded by
three contact surfaces. During the first 20 increments, the top surface moves down in the radial direction of a total
distance of 0.2 cm, compressing the O-ring. During the subsequent 50 increments, a total pressure load of 2 MPa
is applied in the Z-direction, compressing the O-ring against the opposite contact surface. The deformed shapes,
equivalent Cauchy stress contours and the final contact force distribution are shown below. The Ogden material
parameters are assigned values of:
MPa, MPa, MPa, , , and (see Section 2).
At the end of increment 70, the originally circular
cross-section of the O-ring has filled the
rectangular region on the right while remaining
circular on the left (where the pressure loading is
applied).
This type of elastomeric analysis may encounter
instability problems because of the large
compressive stresses; the solution algorithm in
the FEA code must be able to pinpoint such
difficulties during the analysis and follow
alternative paths. Otherwise, the FEA code may
give incorrect results!
The O-ring is also analyzed using a 2-term
Mooney-Rivlin model. It is found that the CPU and
memory usage are about the same per iteration
as for the 3-term Ogden model.
Notes: For this type of rubber contact analysis,
the nonlinear FEA code must be able to handle
“deformable-to-rigid” contact, the
incompressibility of the material, friction, mesh
distortions (especially at the two corners), and
potential instability problems as the analysis
progresses. The important point to note about this example is that the applied pressure is many times larger than
the shear stiffness ( ). Although the analysis is 2-D, the solution of this rubber problem is not trivial.
µ
1
0.63 = µ
2
0.0012 = µ
3
0.01 = a
1
1.3 = a
2
5.0 = a
3
2.0 =
Axisymmetric O-ring Inc 20: Compress
Inc 70: Pressurize Inc 70: Contact Forces
~10µ
1
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2.2 Viscoelasticity
This section introduces the concept of viscoelasticity and mentions some important mechanisms through which
temperature and fillers influence rubber behavior. Rubber exhibits a rate-dependent behavior and can be modeled
as a viscoelastic material, with its properties depending on both temperature and time. When unloaded, it eventually
returns to the original, undeformed state. When subjected to a constant stress, it creeps. When given a prescribed
strain, the stress decreases with time; this phenomenon is called stress relaxation. Hysteresis refers to the different
stress-strain relationship during unloading (as compared to the loading process) in such materials when the material
is subjected to cyclic loading (see Section 2.4). Collectively, these features of hysteresis, creep, and relaxation—all
dependent upon temperature—are often called features of “viscoelasticity” [See the texts by Fung-1965,
Christensen-1982, and Ferry-1970.]
Linear Viscoelasticity
Linear viscoelasticity refers to a theory which
follows the linear superposition principle,
where the relaxation rate is proportional to the
instantaneous stress. Experimental data
shows that “classical” linear viscoelasticity
(applicable to a few percent strain) represents
the behavior of many materials at small strains.
In this case, the instantaneous stress is also
proportional to the strain. Details of the
material test data fitting, to determine input
data required for viscoelastic analysis (such as
calculating the necessary Prony series
coefficients for a relaxation curve), are
discussed in Section 3.
Mechanical models are often used to discuss
the viscoelastic behavior of materials. The first
is the Maxwell model, which consists of a
spring and a viscous dashpot (damper) in
series. The sudden application of a load
induces an immediate deflection of the elastic
spring, which is followed by “creep” of the
dashpot. On the other hand, a sudden
deformation produces an immediate reaction
by the spring, which is followed by stress
relaxation according to an exponential law.
The second is the Kelvin (also called Voigt or
Kelvin-Voigt) model, which consists of a spring
and dashpot in parallel. A sudden application
of force produces no immediate deflection,
because the dashpot (arranged in parallel with the spring) will not move instantaneously. Instead, a deformation
builds up gradually, while the spring assumes an increasing share of the load. The dashpot displacement relaxes
exponentially. A third model is the standard linear solid, which is a combination of two springs and a dashpot as
shown. Its behavior is a combination of the Maxwell and Kelvin models. Creep functions and relaxation functions
for these three models are also shown [Fung, 1981]. The Marc program features a more comprehensive mechanical
model called the Generalized Maxwell model, which is an exponential or Prony series representation of the stress
relaxation function. This model contains, as special cases, the Maxwell, Kelvin, and standard linear solid models.
Creep Funtions
Relaxaton Funtions
σ σ
D
E
F
O
R
-
M
A
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
TIME
F
O
R
C
E
TIME
D
E
F
O
R
-
M
A
T
I
O
N
Maxwell Model
σ σ
D
E
F
O
R
-
M
A
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
TIME
F
O
R
C
E
TIME
D
E
F
O
R
-
M
A
T
I
O
N
t
0
0
t
0
ηδ (t-t )
Kelvin (Voigt) Model
σ σ
D
E
F
O
R
-
M
A
T
I
O
N
F
O
R
C
E
TIME
F
O
R
C
E
TIME
D
E
F
O
R
-
M
A
T
I
O
N
Standard Linear Solid
From Fung [1981], by permission
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Nonlinear Viscoelasticity
Nonlinear viscoelastic behavior may result when the strain is large. A finite strain viscoelastic model may be derived
by generalizing linear viscoelasticity in the sense that the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress is substituted for engineering
stress, and Green-Lagrange strain is used instead of engineering strain. The viscoelasticity can be isotropic or
anisotropic. In practice, modified forms of the Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, and other polynomial strain energy functions
are implemented in nonlinear FEA codes. The finite strain viscoelastic model with damage [Simo, 1987] has been
implemented in Marc.
Temperature Effects
Temperature effects are extremely important in the analysis of elastomers, and affect all aspects of rubber behavior,
including viscoelasticity, hysteresis, and damage. Temperature has three effects: (1) temperature change causes
thermal strains, which must be combined with mechanical strains, (2) material moduli have different values at
different temperatures, (3) heat flow may occur. A modern nonlinear FEA code such as Marc accounts for heat flow
and offers the capability to conduct coupled thermo-mechanical analysis. In other words, the analyst uses the same
finite element model for both the thermal and stress analyses, and both thermal and force equilibrium are satisfied
in each increment before the nonlinear analysis proceeds to the next increment.
Material constants associated with the strain rate independent mechanical response, such as Mooney-Rivlin,
Ogden and rubber foam constants, vary with temperature, as do the coefficient of thermal expansion, Poisson's
ratio, thermal conductivity, etc. The time-dependent phenomena of creep and relaxation also depend on
temperature. The viscoelastic analysis is thus temperature-dependent. In contact problems, friction produces heat,
which would be included in the analysis. Another important consideration is the heat generation of rubber
components in dynamic applications, since after each deformation cycle some fraction of the elastic energy is
dissipated as heat due to viscoelasticity. (Dynamic applications are discussed in Section 5.)
A large class of materials exhibit a particular type of viscoelastic behavior which
is classified as thermo-rheologically simple (TRS). TRS materials are plastics or
glass which exhibit in their stress relaxation function a logarithmic translational
property change with a shift in temperature (as shown in the figure). This shift in
time t as a function of temperature T is described by the so-called “shift
function”. An example of such a shift function is the Williams-Landel-Ferry shift.
The WLF-shift function depends on the glass transition temperature of the
polymer [Williams et. al., 1955]. (The Marc code allows TRS-materials for both
linear and large strain viscoelasticity.) Another well-known shift function is the
BKZ-shift [Bernstein, Kearsley, and Zapa, 1963]. Note that with TRS materials,
the relaxation function is independent of the temperature at very small times—which implies that the instantaneous
properties are not temperature dependent.
For glass-like materials, a multi-parameter viscoelastic model incorporating the memory-effect and nonlinear
structured relaxation behavior [Narayanaswamy, 1970] has been implemented in Marc. The model also predicts the
evolution of physical properties of glass subjected to complex, arbitrary time-temperature histories. This includes
the nonlinear volumetric swelling that is observed during typical glass forming operations.
log t
T
1
T
2
T
3
R
E
L
A
X
A
T
I
O
N
F
U
N
C
T
I
O
N

G
(
t
)
Thermo-rheologically Simple
Behavior in Polymers
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2.3 Composites
Rubber composites can be classified as particulate, laminated, or fibrous depending on their construction. It is well
known, that such composites usually exhibit highly anisotropic response due to directionality in material properties.
The most commonly available particulate composites are filled elastomers
where the carbon black particles are dispersed in a network of polymeric
chains. Fillers are added to rubber products such as car tires and shock
mounts to enhance their stiffness and toughness properties. Common fillers
include carbon black and silica where the carbon particles range in size from
a few hundred to thousands of angstroms. They influence the dynamic and
damping behavior of rubber in a very complex and nonproportional manner.
The unique behavior of carbon black-filled elastomers results due to a rigid,
particulate phase and the interaction of the elastomer chains with this phase
[Bauer and Crossland, 1990]. Unlike unfilled rubbers, the relaxation rate (in
filled rubbers) is not proportional to the stress, and one may need a general
nonlinear finite-strain time-dependent theory. Current research on the
characterization of filled rubber shows promising results [Yeoh, 1990]. Yeoh
derived a third-order strain energy density function which does not depend
on the second strain invariant; features a shear modulus that can change
with deformation; and can represent both tension and compression
behavior equally well. Unfortunately, among the existing strain energy functions, both the polynomial as well as
Ogden models are unable to capture the sharp decrease in shear modulus for filled rubbers at small strains.
On the computational side, a numerically efficient phenomenological model has been developed to analyze carbon
black-filled rubber which accounts for the Mullins’ effect [Govindjee and Simo, 1992]. This damage model has been
extended to include the Ogden strain energy function; results agree well with experimental data for cyclic tension
tests with quasi-static loading rates. Marc offers a damage model capability in conjunction with the large strain
viscoelastic model for all strain energy functions. This makes it an extremely useful tool to simulate the energy
dissipation or hysteresis in filled rubbers.
Laminated composites occur in rubber/steel plate bearings
used for seismic base isolation of buildings and bridges
where horizontal flexibility coupled with vertical rigidity is
desired (right - shear strain contours). Another area of
application is composite sheet metal forming where a layer of
rubber may be sandwiched between two metal sheets for
desired stiffness and damping characteristics.
Computationally, this problem is handled by Marc using a
nonlinear elasticity model within a total or updated
Lagrangian framework for the rubber while resorting to large
deformation plasticity within an updated Lagrangian framework for the metallic sheets. Laminated structures can
be modeled using the lower- or higher-order continuum composite elements in Marc. The standard failure criterion
for composite materials can be used in analysis with brittle materials.
An important class of composites arises due to the presence of textile or steel cords in the rubber matrix [Clark,
1981]. Applications of such composites can be found in tires, air springs, shock isolators, and hoses. Such
composites pose a challenge, both from a manufacturing perspective, where adhesion of the fibers to the rubber
matrix can occur, as well as from a numerical point of view in which numerical ill-conditioning can occur due to
stiffness differential between rubber and cords. Such cord reinforced rubber composites can be modeled using the
membrane or continuum rebar elements [Liu, Choudhry, and Wertheimer, 1997].
0 1.0 1.5 0.5
1.0
1.5
2.5
3.0
σ
2.0
(I
1
–3)
(MPa)
(λ–λ
-2
)
COMPRESSION
TENSION
Yeoh Model: Tensile and
Compressive Data Replotted
Versus
From Yeoh [1990]
I
1
3 – ( )
Laminated Rubber/Steel Shock Isolation Bearing
in Shear From Billings and Shepherd [1992]
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Typical cord-rubber composites have a fiber to matrix modulus ratio of 10
4
- 10
6
: 1. This gives rise to an internal
constraint of near-inextensibility of cords which is analogous to the near-incompressibility of rubber. Such
composites have a volume fraction of cords less than a typical stiff fiber composite (used in aerospace applications).
This is primarily to provide added flexibility to the system and to prevent frictional sliding between the cords in large
deformation situations. Adding further complications is the fact that the cords themselves are composed of twisted
filaments. This rise to a bimodular system dependent on the tension or compression due to microbuckling of the
fibers. Material modeling of such composites has traditionally been carried out by smearing or averaging out
material properties over the domain of the composite structure. [Walter-Patel, 1979] have shown good correlation
of the experimental data with Halpin-Tsai, Gough-Tangorra, and Akasaka-Hirano equations to derive equivalent
mechanical properties for cord-rubber composites.
Marc offers several options to model the large strain behavior of cord-rubber composites. The most popular ones
include modeling the composite plies as anisotropic membranes sandwiched between continuum or brick elements
representing the rubber. If the composite structure is thin, anisotropic layered shell elements provide a viable option.
Likewise, the rebar element, designed originally for concrete reinforced with steel rods and then extended for cord-
rubber composites has recently gained popularity due to its computational economy.
On a final note, although the phenomenological theories of elastomers are quite satisfactory in the gross design of
structures, they cannot be expected to accurately model microscopic effects such as debonding, cracks, and free-
edge effects.
Table 1
Modulus Ratio Comparisons for Rigid and Flexible Composites
Filamentary
composite
system
Reinforcement
modulus,
(GPa)
Matrix
modulus,
(GPa)
Longitudinal ply
modulus,
(GPa)
Transverse ply
modulus,
(GPa)
Modulus ratio, Anisotropy,
Glass-epoxy 75.0 3.4000 50.0 18.000 22.0 2.8
Graphite-epoxy 250.0 3.4000 200.0 5.200 74.0 38.0
Nylon-rubber 3.5 0.0055 1.1 0.014 640.0 79.0
Rayon-rubber 5.1 0.0055 1.7 0.014 930.0 120.0
Steel-rubber 83.0 0.0140 18.0 0.021 5,900.0 860.0
and are calculated at volume fractions typical of use for the different composites.
E
c
E
r
E
1
E
2
E
c
E
r
E
1
E
2

E
1
E
2
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CASE STUDY B CAR TIRE
Analyzing the interaction of an automobile tire with the road is one of
the most challenging problems in computational mechanics today. It
is a very complex 3-D contact analysis, involving a complicated
shape (tire cross section), composite materials (comprised of
polyester or steel cords, steel wire beads, and rubber—leading to
anisotropic behavior), uncertain loading conditions (mounting loads,
inflation pressure, car weight, side impact, hitting a curb,
temperature effects for a car cruising, etc.), and large deformations.
Friction, dynamic, and fatigue effects are also important. All leading
tire manufacturers use nonlinear FEA to help design safer and better
tires...but none has, as of yet, abandoned full-scale testing. Finite
element analysis allows them to minimize the number of prototypes
required by eliminating designs which are not structurally correct or
optimal.
The tire (right) is modeled using rubber continuum elements, a
collection of 15 different isotropic and orthotropic materials. The
metal wheel is modeled with continuum elements. The road is
assumed to be rigid. The complete load history consists of: mounting
the tire on the rim; internal pressurization up to 1.5 bar; applying the
axial car load; and rolling down the road. The deformed tire shape is
shown, and the contours are of the displacement magnitude as the
tire begins rolling to the left. A good tire model is, by definition, very
complex and typically consists of hundreds of thousands of 3-D
elements.
Notes: In addition to the complexities of tire analysis mentioned here,
car and tire manufacturers also need to worry about: occasional
“buckling” of the bead region; tire wear for different tread designs;
noise transmitted to the passenger cabin; ride comfort; tire puncture
by a nail or glass; and traction effects due to rain, snow, and ice.
Passenger safety, manufacturability at reasonable cost, and tire life
are the most important design objectives.
Displacement Contours
Orientations
Contact Bodies and Mesh
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2.4 Hysteresis
Under cyclic loading, rubber dissipates energy—due to
hysteresis effects. The steady-state response is quite different
from the initial response. Filled rubber undergoes so-called
stress-induced softening (sometimes referred to as damage), a
phenomenon caused by a breakdown of crosslinks and a
progressive detachment of rubber molecules from the surfaces
of reinforcing fillers. Although rubber will stiffen under load in
certain situations, here we will only discuss the more common
case of rubber softening. A typical one-cycle force-extension
plot for rubber in biaxial tension is shown on the right.
The five primary, underlying mechanisms responsible for
hysteresis of rubber are:
1. Internal Friction
The internal friction is primarily a result of rearrangement of the molecular structure under applied load and
subsequent sliding of chains, past each other. The phenomenon of internal friction or internal viscosity is
highly temperature dependent and its temperature dependence may be described by the concept of flow
viscosity. The flow viscosity, , decreases as temperature increases and at temperature , it is
related to its value at the glass transition temperature, , typically given by the Williams-Landel-Ferry
equation:
An increase in temperature results in increased chain mobility, thereby, leading to decreased viscosity and
reduced hysteresis. Presence of particulate filler, for example, carbon black, leads to decreased
segmental mobility and hence increased viscosity and increased hysteresis.
2. Strain-induced Crystallization
Large extension and retraction of elastomeric material gives rise to formation and melting of crystallized
regions. Such a strain-induced crystallization produces hysteresis effects. During the retraction phase, the
stress relaxation rate usually exceeds the rate at which the molecular chains disorient leading to an
extended period of crystallization. In this regard, an unfilled natural rubber exhibits more hysteresis than its
unfilled synthetic counterpart as shown in the figure.
3. Stress Softening
Modification and reformation of rubber network structures in the
initial loading stages can show a lower stiffness and changes in
damping characteristics. This strain-induced stress softening in
carbon black-filled rubbers is called the Mullins’ effect [Mullins-
1969; Simo-1987; Govindjee and Simo, 1992] although, such a
phenomenon has been observed in unfilled rubbers also. It
manifests itself as history-dependent stiffness. The uniaxial stress-
strain curve remains insensitive at strains above the previous
achieved maximum, but experiences a substantial softening below
this maximum strain. The larger the previously attained maximum,
the larger the subsequent loss of stiffness. In a cyclic test, the
material is loaded in tension to a strain state labeled “1” along path
Fracture Behavior of Polymers
q
v
T T
g
>
T
g
q
v
T ( )
q
v
T
g
( )
----------------- log
C
1
T T
g
– ( ) –
C
2
T T
g
– +
------------------------------ =
Cyclic Tension Test Demonstrating
Mullins’ Effect
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“a”. If the material is again loaded, the stress-strain curve now follows path “b” to point “1” and not path
“a”. If additional loading is applied, path “a” is followed to a point labeled “2”. Upon unloading, path “c” is
followed, thereby resulting in an even greater loss of stiffness in the material. Features contributing to the
stress-softening behavior include the modification and reformation of rubber network structures involve
chemical effects, microstructural damage, multi-chain damage, and microvoid formation. These
mechanisms are considerably enhanced by strain amplification caused by rigid particles in filled rubbers.
4. Structural Breakdown
In a filled rubber with carbon black filler particles, the carbon black particles tend to form a loose
reticulated structure because of their surface activity or mutual interactions. They are also interlaced by
the network of rubber chain molecules which are crosslinked during vulcanization. The breakdown of
these aggregates, and of the matrix/filler interfacial bonds due to loading, gives rise to hysteresis.
5. Domain Deformation
Viscoelastic stress analysis of two-phase systems [Radok and Tai, 1962] has shown that dispersed
inclusions or domains in a viscoelastic medium contribute to an increase in the energy loss even when the
domains are themselves perfectly elastic in nature. In some instances, however, the domains are
themselves capable of exhibiting energy dissipating mechanism. Certain elastomers also contain domains
of dispersed hard inelastic inclusions. Such rubbers exhibit an inelastic deformation leading to permanent
set due to shear yielding and typically show very high levels of hysteresis.
Finally an example of hysteresis due to
large-strain viscoelasticity is
demonstrated here for three rubber
samples with identical static behavior
but different time-dependent behavior
[Konter et al., 1991]. A series of identical
load histories with constant time steps
are applied: first, loading in 10 steps of
0.1 second; next, unloading of 10 steps
of 0.1 second; then, loading another 10
steps of 0.1 second, etc. Calculations show very different behavior for the three samples. Case X exhibits
a “short term response” behavior—with a high stiffness. Case Y shows a “transition” type of behavior, with
an initial increase in displacement followed by a cycle around a “permanent set”. (This permanent set is
caused by rubber network modification and reformation, which is primarily developed during the initial
loading.) Case Z exhibits a typical “long term response” behavior—with a lower stiffness.
Hysteresis Effects in Rubber
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2.5 OTHER POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Many of the concepts used to analyze rubber behavior are also applicable
to glass, plastics, foams, solid propellants, and biomaterials [Harper, 1982].
These include: large deformations, strain energy density functions, near
incompressibility, and viscoelastic effects. Here, we'll briefly note some
important considerations in the modeling and design/analysis of these
materials.
BIOMATERIALS include human tissues and polymeric materials used in
modern medical/dental implants and devices (for example, cardiac
pacemaker seals, filled dental composite resins). Plastics and other
synthetic polymeric materials are viscoelastic. Human tissues may also be
treated as viscoelastic materials; these include blood vessels, heart
muscles, articular cartilage, mucus, saliva, etc. [Fung, 1981]. They creep and
relax. Many of the concepts introduced in this White Paper are also
applicable to biomechanics studies. These include, for instance: curve-fitting
of test data to determine material parameters for FEA, viscoelastic modeling,
response of a viscoelastic body to harmonic excitation, large deformations,
hysteresis and softening; and so forth. The figure shows typical room-
temperature stress-strain curves in loading and unloading for four species.
Notice that, in all four cases, softening occurs and the unloading behavior is
different from the loading behavior (as in the case of rubber).
FOAMS, often made of polyurethane, are soft and spongy. Techniques now
exist for making three-dimensional cellular solids out of polymers, metals, ceramics, and even glasses. Man-made
foams, manufactured on a large scale, are used for absorbing the energy of impacts (in packaging and crash
protection) and in lightweight structures (in the cores of sandwich panels, for instance). Unlike rubber, foam products
are highly compressible, and are porous with a large portion of the volume being air. Elastomeric foams are fully
elastic (resilient), metal foams may have plastic yield, and ceramic foams are brittle and crushable. Resilient foams
are used for car seats, mattresses, shipping insulation materials, and other applications which undergo repeated
loading where light weight and high compliance is desirable. Some foams (for example, rigid polymer foams) show
plastic yielding in compression but are brittle in tension
Crushable foams are used widely in shock-isolation structures and
components. These are sometimes analyzed by “foam plasticity”
models. In compression, volumetric deformations are related to cell
wall buckling processes. It is assumed that the resulting deformation is
not recoverable instantaneously and the process can be idealized as
elastic-plastic. In tension, these cell walls break easily, and the resulting
tensile strength of the foam is much smaller than the compressive
strength. Strain rate sensitivity is also significant for such foams.
GLASS is brittle, isotropic, and viscoelastic. Crack initiation and
propagation are important concerns (even though most glass products
are not ordinarily used as load-carrying members). Like concrete and
plastics, glass creeps with time.
The proper FEA of glass products must pay attention to several
important characteristics of glass when considering various forming
processes and environmental conditions. (1) Glass exhibits an abrupt
transition from its fluid to its glassy state—known as the glass transition
Typical Stress/Strain Curves in
Loading and Unloading for
Four Species
From Fung [1981], by permission
Blatz Ko Model for Foams
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temperature. (2) Transient residual stresses are developed during manufacturing, thus requiring a time-dependent
analysis. (3) For safety reasons, many common glass products (such as car windshields and show doors) are
tempered: in which the glass is intentionally heated, then cooled in a controlled manner to develop a thin surface
layer under compressive stress, in order to resist crack propagation and tension-induced cracking. (4) For optical
applications such as lenses and mirrors, the curvature of the surface and its birefringence are of crucial importance.
Here, the critical design parameter is deflection, not stress. (5) In hostile environments, such as those faced by solar
heliostats in deserts, the adhesive bond cementing the mirror to its substrate is highly susceptible to deterioration
by ultraviolet radiation, intense heat, moisture, etc.—usually leading to a change of the mirror's intended curvature
or flatness after continued exposure. (6) Many glass products in their service life experience a combination of
thermal and mechanical loads, thus requiring a coupled thermo-mechanical analysis as part of the design
procedure.
PLASTICS behave similarly to rubber in some aspects, but differently in others. For instance, plastics and rubber
exhibit no real linear region in their stress-strain behavior except at very small strains. Load duration and temperature
greatly influence the behavior of both. Like elastomers, plastics are viscoelastic materials. Both are dependent on
strain rate. Although, while the elastomers typically undergo large deformations even at room temperature, plastics
usually do not.
Additional complications arise in the characterization of plastics. Two generic
types of plastics exist: thermosets and thermoplastics. Thermosets (such as
phenolics) are formed by chemical reaction at high temperatures. When
reheated, they resist degradation up to very high temperatures with minimal
changes in properties. However, at extremely elevated temperatures, this type
of plastic will char and decompose. At this point, the thermal and mechanical
properties degrade dramatically. Phenolic materials are often used in thermal
protection systems. Thermoplastics, when heated, will soften and then melt.
The metamorphosis is more continuous. The relative variation in properties is
more significant for thermoplastics than thermosets for temperatures below
the point at which the latter decomposes. Thermoplastics generally exhibit a
broad “glass transition” range over which the material behaves in a
viscoelastic manner. This behavior is contrasted with thermosets that exhibit
an abrupt transition. Some plastics (such as certain polyethylenes) deform inelastically and may be analyzed with
standard metal plasticity models (for example, Drucker-Prager model). One important distinction from a modeling
standpoint is that plastics, unlike most metals, behave differently in tension and compression. In this respect,
plastics are similar to rubber and composite materials.
The proper FEA of plastic products requires the analyst to be aware of certain important characteristics of plastics.
(1) The plastic forming process (for example, injection molding) results in a deformed shape with residual stresses.
Coupled thermal-mechanical analysis is necessary, and automated contact analysis becomes very important.
Properties are dependent upon temperature and time. (2) “Non-equilibrium” rapid heating and cooling effects are
also important. In this respect, plastics are similar to glass. For most plastics, the bulk modulus and coefficient of
thermal expansion are known to be sensitive to pressure. (3) Before actual cracking, a phenomenon called crazing
often occurs. This is associated with localized regions where polymer chains have become excessively stretched
due to high local stress concentrations. Rupture is most often initiated there. Crazing is associated with a region of
altered density which is detrimental to the desired optical or aesthetic qualities of plastic products such as
transparent utensils and containers. (4) Birefringence is important, as for glass. (5) Plastics are also susceptible to
damage due to hostile environments, such as ultraviolet radiation and steam. Plastic products used in sterilization
and autoclave applications often fail due to steam effects. They exhibit significant reduction in ductility with
continued exposure to steam. (6) In some cases, linear FEA may be satisfactory when designing plastic materials
under low-level loading and low strains. However, for those problems involving large deformations, buckling/
postbuckling, contact/impact, high loading, or where residual stresses are to be determined, nonlinear FEA is a
must.
Snap Fit of Plastic Part
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CASE STUDY C CONSTANT-VELOCITY RUBBER BOOT COMPRESSION AND
BENDING
Rubber boots are used in many industries to protect flexible connections
between two bodies. The boot itself should have enough stiffness to retain its
shape; on the other hand, it must not have too much stiffness so as to interfere
with the flexible connection. In the automotive industry, “constant-velocity”
joints on drive shafts are usually sealed with rubber boots in order to keep dirt
and moisture out. These rubber boots are designed to accommodate the
maximum possible swing angles at the joint, and to compensate for changes in
the shaft length. Proper design dictates that during bending and axial
movements, the individual bellows of the boot must not come into contact with
each other, because the resultant wear would produce failure of the rubber.
Such undesirable contact would mean abrasion during rotation of the shaft,
leading to premature failure of the joint. Local buckling can also occur in one of
the bellows.
The FEA of rubber boots presents many interesting features: (1) large
displacements; (2) large strains; (3) incompressible material behavior; (4)
susceptibility to local buckling; and (5) varying boundary conditions caused by
the 3-D contact between various parts of the boot. Proper design should also
consider bellows shape optimization, fatigue life, maintainability and
replaceability, and cost.
This example (panels a-d) shows the analysis of the axial compression and
bending of a rubber boot. The boot is clamped on one side to a rigid surface,
and on the other side to a translating and rotating shaft. Axial compression is
first applied (panel b), followed by bending (panels c-d). The Cauchy stress
contours on the deformed shapes are shown for the axial compression and
rotation of the shaft. Once in place, the shaft rotates and the boot must rotate
about the axis of the shaft in the tilted position.
Notes: One leading U. S. rubber boot manufacturer has applied such 3-D
contact analysis techniques to evaluate and optimize new boot designs (one
design has a longitudinal seam to facilitate installation). Improved fatigue life was
the design goal, and nonlinear FEA was successfully used to minimize time and
cost—and come up with a boot design which achieved an acceptable product
life cycle. The analysis was correlated with test results, and showed that a
modified design with a seam attained a similar fatigue life as the original design
(without a seam). The new design with a seam substantially reduced the
installation costs. Note that “do-it-yourself” kits using this split boot design are
now available to replace worn-out boots.
a
b
c
d
Cauchy Stress Contours
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3 DETERMINATION OF MATERIAL PARAMETERS FROM TEST DATA
Successful modeling and design of rubber components hinges on the selection of an appropriate strain energy
function, and accurate determination of material constants in the function. Appendix C describes the tests required
to characterize the mechanical response of a polymeric material. Marc offers the capability to evaluate the material
constants for nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic materials in its graphical user interface, Mentat.
Rubber Elasticity
For time-independent nonlinear elasticity, the fitting procedure may be carried out for polynomial representations of
incompressible materials, the generalized Ogden model for slightly compressible materials, and the Foam model for
compressible materials. Six different types of experiments are supported: uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression,
equibiaxial, planar shear, simple shear, and volumetric tests. The significance of (non-equivalent) multiple tests for
material modeling cannot be overemphasized. In general, a combination of uniaxial tension/compression and
simple shear is required in the very least. Data from equibiaxial tension or planar shear may also be needed
depending on the deformation modes of the structure. Volumetric data must be included for materials undergoing
large compressible deformations, for example, foams. Also, the curve fitting in Mentat allows a combined input of
more than one test to obtain the appropriate material constants.
After selecting appropriate test data for the
application and adjusting the data to
become comply with hyperelastic
assumptions (see Appendix C), typical
behavior of many elastomeric materials
have stress-strain curves as shown here.
This particular data set came from a silicone
rubber where each of the three strain states
or deformation modes (biaxial, planar shear,
and tension) have decreasing stresses for
the same strain level.
Mentat computes the constants of any of
the ten hyperelastic strain energy functions
using all the adjusted data from any of the
one to six different types of experiments
mentioned above simultaneously. Once the
constants of the selected hyperelastic
material are determined, Mentat will plot
both the data and curve fit together, including any modes not tested to facilitate selecting the best curve fit. Other
than a rubber band, or balloon, most rubber applications experience mixed deformation modes, and a good fit must
take more than one deformation mode into consideration as we shall see.
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Planar Shear
Biaxial
Tension
Engineering Strain
Engineering Stress [MPa]
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The importance of performing multiple
mode tests is to assure that hyperelastic
model predicts the correct behavior of
other modes. The curve-fitting in Mentat
shows how other (non-measured) modes
would behave. The example here shows
how what appears to be a great tension fit
for a 2-term Ogden material greatly
overpredicts the biaxial and planar
response. More sophisticated hyperelastic
materials seeking more constants require
more modes to be tested.
From a mathematical point of view,
determining the material constants for an
incompressible material is relatively easy,
since they follow from the least squares
method in a straight forward fashion.
However, the material constants may turn
out to be negative and therefore physically
not meaningful. The phenomenon is a
numerical serendipity and not a
fundamental material behavior. In this
case, a constrained optimization process
can be invoked, based on sequential linear
programming [Press, Tenkolsky,
Vetterling, and Flannery, 1992] in order to
obtain non-negative constants. Forcing
positive constants for the “poor” 2
constant Ogden fit here, improves its
behavior, but still biaxial and planar modes
are too stiff. Of course, you really don’t
know unless you test the other modes.
Automated facilities are available to help
the user determine these material
parameters from test data. The curve-
fitting program is interactive and consists
of four steps: (1) data entry—where the user inputs experimental data; (2) evaluation—where the program
mathematically fits the data; (3) plotting/display—where the user sees graphical verification of the results and is able
to observe the behavior beyond the test range; and (4) write—where the program automatically creates a data set
and the necessary coefficients for the strain energy density function of choice. Typical curve-fitting results are
shown.
For the generalized Ogden as well as the Foam model (principle stretch-based models), the material constants
follow from a set of nonlinear equations and the data is fitted based on the Downhill-Simpson algorithm.
(x.1) 0 8.711
2.62
uniaxial/experiment
uniaxial/ogden
0
biaxial/ogden planar_shear/ogden
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Strain
Moduli Exponents
6.51E-05 16.594
-0.678 -4.610
Two TermOgden
(x.1)
0 8.711
0
2.62
planar_shear/neo_hookean
Neo Hookean Fit: C10 = 0.583281 MPa
uniaxial/experiment
biaxial/neo_hookean
uniaxial/neo_hookean
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Strain
A Poor Fit - Non Measured Modes Too Stiff!
A Good Fit - One Modulus One Mode
Using Only Tension Data
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Example 1: Determining Mooney-rivlin Constants
The figure on the right shows typical Mooney plots for various
vulcanized rubbers in simple extension. The fitted lines are
straight, with constant slope , and intercepts , which
typically vary according to the degree of vulcanization or
crosslinking.
Example 2: Determining Ogden Constants
The figure on the right shows how a 3-term Ogden model
compares with Treloar's data [Treloar, 1975] in simple tension,
simple shear, and biaxial tension. The Ogden constants in this
case were determined to be [for details, see Ogden, 1972]:
MPa, MPa, MPa
, ,
For this example, it is clear that the 3-term Ogden model gives the
best fit. Practically, more than a 3-term Ogden model is rarely
used.
G
F
E
D
C
A
B
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
1/λ
S
T
R
E
S
S
Example 1: Determination of
Mooney-Rivlin
Constants for Vulcanized
Rubber in Simple Tension
C
01
C
10
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
20
40
60
STRETCH λ
N
O
R
M
A
L
I
Z
E
D

S
T
R
E
S
S
7
PURE
SHEAR
SIMPLE
TENSION
EQUIBIAXIAL
TENSION
Example 2: Correlation of 3-Term
Ogden Model with Treloar’s
Data in Simple Tension,
simple Shear, and Equibiaxial
Tension From Ogden [1972]
µ
1
0.63 = µ
2
0.0012 = µ
3
0.01 =
o
1
1.3 = o
2
5.0 = o
3
2.0 =
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Example 3: Determining Rubber Foam Constants
The figure on the right shows how a 3-term rubber
foam model fits a rubber foam in uniaxial
compression. The coefficients were determined to
be:
MPa, MPa
MPa
, ,
, ,
Viscoelasticity
The data representing a time-dependent or
viscoelastic response of materials can be
approximated by a Prony series, based on a
relaxation or creep test. If the deformation is large,
a relaxation test is more accurate. If the data is obtained from a creep test, a Prony series inversion must be
performed before using it as an input to Marc. For a linear viscoelastic material, either the shear and bulk moduli,
or the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio may be expressed in terms of a Prony series. For large strain
viscoelasticity, the elastic strain energy or the stress is expressed in terms of Prony series. Mentat attempts to fit
the entered data based on a procedure described in [Daubisse, 1986].
Example 4: Determining Viscoelastic Constants
The figure on the right shows a typical stress-time
plot for a large strain viscoelastic material in
relaxation test. The Prony coefficients are obtained
from fitting the relaxation test data.
Example 3: Curve Fit to Foam Data
0.0000
-1.0011
-2.0021
-3.0032
-4.0043
-5.0053
-6.0064
-7.0074
-8.0085
-9.0096
ENGINEERING STRAIN
-0.7508 -0.6674 -0.5840 -0.5005 -0.4171 -0.3337 -0.2503 -0.1660 0.0000 -0.0834

E
N
G
I
N
E
E
R
I
N
G

S
T
R
E
S
S
µ
1
1.11765 = µ
2
1.11983 =
µ
3
0.125023x10
4 –
=
o
1
7.83173 = o
2
0.715832 = o
3
7.00243 =
|
1
5.41755 – = |
2
5.41648 – = |
3
6.85885 – =
Example 4: Curve Fit to Viscoelastic Relaxation Data
3.0339
3.0180
3.0021
2.9863
2.9704
2.9545
2.9386
2.9228
2.9069
2.8910
TIME
0.0 900.0 1800.0 2700.0 3600.0 4500.0 5400.0 6300.0 8100.0 7200.0

E
N
G
I
N
E
E
R
I
N
G

S
T
R
E
S
S
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4 DAMAGE AND FAILURE
The most important and perhaps the most difficult aspect of design
analysis is failure prediction. Failure in rubber can occur because of flaws
introduced during the manufacturing processes (for example, compound
mixing, extrusion, molding, or vulcanization, etc.) or fatigue caused by
service loads and/or material degradation due to environmental/
mechanical/thermal conditions. Along these lines, [Simo, 1987]
developed a damage model incorporated in a large-strain viscoelasticity
framework to simulate the stiffness loss and energy dissipation in
polymers. This model is currently implemented in Marc. Damage and
Mullins’ effect in filled polymers was simulated by Govindjee and Simo,
using a fully micromechanical damage [1991] and continuum
micromechanical damage [1992] models.
Recently, researchers have calculated tearing energy to simulate crack
growth in an elastomeric material using the popular fracture mechanics
concept of J-integral [Cheng and Becker, 1992]. Using the virtual crack
extension method [Pidaparti, Yang, and Soedel, 1992] predicted the
critical loads for crack growth. Also, the initiation and the initiation
direction was found in good agreement with the experimental data for
filled Styrene Butadiene Rubber. In a study of the fracture of bonded
rubber blocks under compression, [Gent, Chang, and Leung, 1993] found
that: (1) Under static compression, two modes of fracture are possible—
circumferential tearing at or near the bonded edges, and splitting open of
the free surface; and, (2) under cyclic compression, the most likely fracture
mode of the rubber is by crack propagation, breaking away the bulged
volume.
For cord-reinforced composites, besides damage and fracture of the
rubber matrix, the critical modes of failure are ply separation, debonding
between layers of dissimilar materials, fiber pull-out due to lack of
adhesion and microbuckling of cords. Besides mechanical loading,
thermal and viscoelastic effects play a critical role in failure of cord-rubber
composites. Frictional heating at cord-rubber interface and internal heat
buildup due to hysteresis in rubber cause the temperature of the material
to rise. Due to low thermal conductivity of rubber, the temperatures can
rise to a very high value causing adhesion failures and microcracking in the
rubber matrix. No good models exists currently in open literature to
simulate the above failures.
F
Tearing Near the Bonded Edges
From Gent et. al. [1992]
Splitting Open of the Free Surface
From Gent et. al. [1992]
Two Possible Fracture Modes Under
Static Compression
F
CIRCUMFERENTIAL
CRACK
RIGID PLATES
RIGID PLATES
Fatigue Failure of Bonded
Elastomer Block
From Gent et. al.]1992]
F(t)
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5 DYNAMICS, VIBRATIONS, AND ACOUSTICS
A widespread use of rubber is for shock/vibration isolation and noise suppression in transportation vehicles,
machinery, and buildings. These common rubber components include: snubbers, load bearing pads, engine
mounts, bearings, bushings, air springs, bumpers, and so forth. Recent seismic isolation applications have seen
increased usage of laminated rubber bearings for the foundation designs of buildings, highway and bridge
structures (especially in the United States and Japan). These applications take advantage of well-known
characteristics of rubber: energy absorption and damping, flexibility, resilience, long service life, and moldability.
A dynamic analysis is required whenever inertial effects are important, for example, high speed rolling of tires or
sudden loss of contact in a snap-through buckling analysis. When inertial effects are unimportant, such as for
engine mounts and building bearings, performing a dynamic analysis is unnecessary. When the viscous effects are
important for such cases, a quasi-static analysis is performed to obtain the overall deformation which is followed
by a harmonic analysis to obtain frequencies and mode shapes.
Damping
The nature of damping is complex and is still poorly understood. Common damping models include:
Proportional (Rayleigh) Damping—assumes that damping may be decomposed as
a linear combination of the stiffness and mass matrices.
Coulomb Damping—or dry friction, comes from the motion of a body on a dry
surface (for example, on the areas of support).
Viscous Damping—occurs when a viscous fluid hinders the motion of the body.
The damping forces are proportional to velocity in the equations of motion.
Joint Damping—results from internal friction within the material or at connections
between elements of a structural system.
N = N + N* exp(iωt)
T = T + T* exp(iωt)
0
0
T
N
N
O
R
M
A
L

F
O
R
C
E

N



(
N
E
W
T
O
N
)
1 0.9 0.8
0 0.02 0.04
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
EXACT
FINITE ELEMENT
SOLUTION
0
l c
o o
2
l c
o o ,
c = 0
o
l = 0.785
o
Finite Element Solution: Axial
Force vs. Stretch Ratio
Steady State
Vibrations in
a Strategically
Stretched
and Twisted
Viscoelastic
Cylinder
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Internal friction in the elastomer accounts for the damping nature of
elastomeric parts. Because of the viscoelastic behavior of rubber, damping
is dependent on frequency of the excitation. The presence of damping
forces progressively reduces the amplitude of vibration, and ultimately
stops the motion when all energy initially stored in the system is dissipated.
Although it also exists in metals, damping is especially important in the
design of rubber components. In the Maxwell and Kelvin models discussed
in Section 2.2, damping is represented by the dashpot and is usually
assumed to be a linear function of the velocity in the equations of motion.
The treatment of damping in dynamics problems may be found in any book
on vibrations or structural dynamics.
Modal Extraction
A popular, accurate and efficient modal (eigenvalue) extraction method for
small to medium size problems in FEA codes is the Lanczos method. For
full vehicle models, the automatic component modes synthesis or
automated multilevel substructuring are effective for models with millions of
degrees of freedom, when thousands of modes are extracted. For the case of proportional damping, real modes
give useful information (the natural frequencies). In the case of nonproportional damping, complex modes result.
Natural frequencies are dependent upon pre-stress and material properties; both of these would require nonlinear
analysis. This factor is important in the design of isolation mounts for buildings.
Small-amplitude Vibrations In Viscoelastic Solids: Use Of “phi-functions” and Time vs. Frequency Domain Analysis
In the analysis of an engine mount, it is often important to model small-amplitude vibrations superimposed upon a
large initial deformation. The problem of small-amplitude vibrations of sinusoidally-excited deformed viscoelastic
solids was studied by [Morman and Nagtegaal, 1983] using the so-called method of Phi-functions. The method was
applied to improve the design of carbon black-filled butyl rubber body mounts and carbon black filled natural rubber
suspension bushings in several car designs. The material was assumed to be isotropic, isothermal, incompressible,
and behaving according to a “fading memory” finite-deformation linear viscoelasticity theory.
This method is available in the Marc code and uses the third-order invariant form of the James-Green-Simpson
strain energy function. Morman and Nagtegaal's FEA results using Marc for the steady-state vibrations of a
stretched and twisted viscoelastic cylinder which is subjected to a large initial deformation can be seen to agree
well with observed results. The finite element model is a 30° wedge.
The same type of dynamic analysis of a viscoelastic body subjected to harmonic excitation may also be applied to
many materials, including biomaterials such as human tissues [Fung, 1981].
Finite Element Solution:
Torque vs. Twist
From Morman and Nagtegaal [1983]
c
T
O
R
Q
U
E
,

T



(
N
E
W
T
O
N
-
M
E
T
E
R
)
0.1 0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0
EXACT
FINITE ELEMENT
SOLUTION

0
o
(RAD)
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Time vs. Frequency Domain Viscoelastic Analysis—In viscoelastic
problems, both time and frequency domains are used. In time domain
analysis, experimental data is required over the time domain of interest
and a Prony series is usually used to represent the data. In frequency
domain analysis, Laplace transform techniques and harmonic excitation
are commonly used. The storage modulus and loss modulus are
dependent upon frequency (and amplitude for filled rubbers), and one
needs to be aware of the in-phase and out-of-phase concepts
[Christensen, 1982]. In linear viscoelastic problems with harmonic
loading, the behavior can be characterized in the frequency domain in
terms of the storage and loss moduli as shown in the figure. Notice that
in viscoelastic materials (assuming harmonic loading), the storage
modulus typically increases with frequency, but the loss modulus first
increases with frequency and then decreases to zero. As the frequency
increases, the state of the rubber changes from an elastomer to a glass,
with the maximum in the loss modulus signaling the transition to the glassy state. In unfilled rubbers, the storage
and loss moduli are dependent on the frequency, but the former is largely independent on the strain amplitude. In
filled rubbers, the storage modulus depends significantly on the strain amplitude.
Direct Time Integration Methods
In transient nonlinear dynamics, both implicit and explicit direct integration methods are available for solving the
equations of motion. Explicit methods include Central difference while the implicit schemes include Newmark-beta,
Wilson-theta, Hilber-Hughes-Taylor, and Houbolt methods. The choice of whether to use an implicit or explicit
method is very subtle and depends on: the nature of the dynamic problem and the material; the type of finite
elements making up the model; and the magnitude of the speed of sound in the material.
Implicit Methods—In an implicit method, the nonlinear matrix equations of motion are solved at each time step to
advance the solution. Treatment of boundary nonlinearities must occur within a time step. Large time steps may be
used in implicit, dynamic analysis. Popular implicit methods (offered in several FEA codes) include: the Newmark-
beta method, single-step and multi-step Houbolt, Hilbert-Hughes-Taylor, and the generalized Alpha method. These
methods have different behavior in terms of stability, accuracy and damping. For oscillatory behavior, the time step
should be a fraction of the period. For many problems, the adaptive time stepping procedure can be used
advantageously.
As for the use of dynamic methods in viscoelastic analysis, no additional damping should be introduced because
viscoelastic effects are already included in the material properties.
Explicit Method—In this method, the solution is advanced without forming a stiffness matrix, which makes the
coding much simpler, reduces storage requirements, and improves computational efficiency. Explicit methods are
conditionally stable for undamped linear systems. For a given time step, an explicit operator requires fewer
computations per time step than an implicit one.
Explicit methods possess some known disadvantages, and it is important for users to bear in mind that a definite
stability limit exists, which means that sometimes extremely small time steps may be required—resulting in higher
computer costs. In nearly incompressible problems, the speed of sound in the material approaches infinity, and
hence an extremely small time step is required. A common solution to overcome these numerical difficulties using
explicit methods is to conjure up a scaled mass matrix—which is very often assumed to be diagonal. Finally, if
Lagrange multipliers are included in the analysis, special formulations are required because they do not have any
associated mass.
Frequency-Dependent Storage
and Loss Moduli
STORAGE MODULUS
LOSS MODULUS
MODULUS (E)
FREQUENCY ( )
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Coupled Acoustic-structural Analysis
Coupled acoustic-structural analysis is of great
interest to the automobile industry. Typical application
areas would include—determination of sound
transmission in an enclosed deformable structural
cavity; for example, interior noise level in a car
compartment. A typical case is modeling the
deformation of an automobile door seal by the glass
window in order to analyze the static deformation
(Case Study E) and conduct acoustic harmonic
analysis. The eigenfrequencies, mode shapes, and
pressure amplitude in the compartment thus
calculated can be used to design better door seals. A
coupled acoustic-structural analysis capability also
exists in Marc.
In a coupled acoustic-structural analysis (see figure),
both the acoustic medium and the structure are
modeled. In this way, the effect of the acoustic
medium on the dynamic response of the structure and
of the structure on the dynamic response of the
acoustic medium can be taken into account. Such a
coupled analysis is especially important when the
natural frequencies of the acoustic medium and the
structure are in the same range. Since the interface
between the acoustic medium and the structure is
determined automatically by Marc based on the
CONTACT option, setting up the finite element model
is relatively easy since the meshes do not need to be
identical at the interface. The ADAPT GLOBAL option
may be used to remesh the acoustic regions when large deformations occur in the cavity walls.
This functionality is suited for modeling of coupled structural acoustics where the acoustic medium is undergoing
small pressure vibrations. It is applicable to ‘interior problems’ (for example, deformable cavity) and can simulate a
steady state harmonic response. Modeling of ‘exterior problems’ like acoustic radiation and scattering is not
considered. Read more about this problem in Volume E: Demonstration Problems, Chapter 8, Problem 63 where the
UPHI user subroutine captures the magnitude and frequency dependent damping of a rate dependent or
viscoelastic material.
Coupled Structural - Acoustic Analysis
60 70 80 90
0
20
40
60
80
S
o
u
n
d

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

M
a
g
n
i
t
i
d
e

N
o
d
e

1
6
8
Frequency (Hz)
Stress Free Membrane
Pre-stressed Membrane
Air Air
Membrane
Excitation Node 168
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CASE STUDY D RUBBER MOUNT
Rubber is widely used in engine mounts and suspension bushings for shock/
vibration isolation and noise reduction purposes. It possesses significant
damping properties which are very useful in such applications. Damping can
generate heat during cyclic loading. When a piece of rubber is stretched a
few times, a certain amount of stress softening occurs—which reduces its
stiffness and alters its damping characteristics. Fillers in the rubber also
influence the damping behavior. Rubber is viscoelastic and is usually
analyzed using quasi-static methods (See more detailed discussions on
rubber viscoelasticity in Section 4 and Section 5.) The usual design goal is to
prolong a component’s service life, implying that an optimized design should
have as low stress levels as possible. Sometimes, a rubber shock mount is
designed to buckle (in order to absorb a large amount of energy), followed
by eventual stiffening.
This bushing example assumes a Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function. As
with the other case studies, the analysis is static. Automated contact analysis
is used, where the top rigid surface moves downwards, causing the rubber
to contact itself. Mesh distortion is usually a problem in such analyses. The
figures show the deformed geometry and equivalent Cauchy stress
distributions after various increments (panels a and b). The FEA code must
be able to handle such variable contact automatically. This analysis was
performed both with and without adaptive meshing. One may observe that
in using local adaptive meshing techniques, additional elements are automatically located in regions of stress
concentrations and high stress gradients (panel c). This improves the accuracy of the solution.
Notes: In order for the stress analysis to be rigorous and complete, the engineer may need to take into account
several real-life phenomena ignored in this example: material damage; viscoelastic behavior—to account for creep
and relaxation effects; actual service environments—which typically include combined axial, radial, and torsional
loadings, and very often, a metallic sleeve around the rubber insert; bushing preload (if any); dynamic (inertial)
effects; and fracture and tearing effects.
a
b
Equivalent Cauchy Stresses:
c
Equivalent Cauchy Stresses:
Using Local Adaptive Meshing
Criteria Used:
1.) Strain Level
2.) Nodes in Contact
3.) Nodes in Box (red)
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6 CONTACT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Rubber products always seem to involve “contact” versus “no-contact” conditions—for instance, rubber gaskets
and the contact of a car tire with the road. To see applications of Marc to analyze typical 2-D rubber contact
problems, see Case Studies A, D, and E. For 3-D examples, look at Case Studies B, C, and F.
Contact as a Nonlinear Constraint Problem
Contact, by nature, is a nonlinear boundary value problem. During contact, both the forces transmitted across the
surface and the area of contact change. Because rubber is flexible, this change in the contact area is both significant
and difficult to model using earlier methodologies (such as gap elements). The contact stress is transmitted in the
normal direction. If friction is present, shear stress is also transmitted.
Mathematically, the contact problem occurs as a constrained optimization problem where contact conditions occur
as inequalities described as Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Among the approaches within the finite element framework
that have been used to model the frictional contact and impose the nonpenetration constraint (to prohibit the
overlap of contact bodies), the most popular ones include: Penalty Methods [Peric and Owen, 1992], Langrange
Multiplier [Chaudhary and Bathe, 1986], Augmented Lagrangian [Laursen and Simo, 1993], Perturbed Lagrangian
[Simo, Wriggers, and Taylor, 1985], Hybrid Methods [Wunderlich, 1981], Gap Elements, Interface Elements, direct
application of contact forces, and Solver Constraints.
One important point to recognize is that the use of interface elements of any kind requires the user to know a priori
where contact will occur. Since rubber is flexible, guessing the location of the contact area is very difficult, thereby
resulting in incorrect loads being transmitted across the surfaces. An improper choice of penalty parameter in the
penalty methods can lead to either penetration (low penalty number) or numerical ill-conditioning (high penalty
number). The Langrange multiplier method leads to high solution cost due to extra variables for contact pressure,
in addition to the possible numerical ill-conditioning. In this regard, Marc bypasses the above objectives by the
solver constraint method to solve the general 2-D/3-D multibody contact. This method allows an accurate modeling
of contact without the problems associated with other methods.
Both deformable-to-rigid and deformable-to-deformable contact situations are allowed in Marc. The user needs
only to identify bodies which are potential candidates for contact during the analysis. Self-contact, common in
rubber problems, is also permitted. The bodies can be either rigid or deformable, and the algorithm tracks variable
contact conditions automatically. Besides modeling the rigid bodies as analytical, Marc also allows the analytical
treatment of deformable bodies. This improves the accuracy of the solution by representing the geometry better
than the discrete finite elements. This is important for concentric shafts or rolling simulation. The user no longer
needs to worry about the location and open/close status checks of “gap elements,” or about “master-slave”
relationships. Also, coupled thermo-mechanical contact problems (for example, rolling, casting, extrusion, car tire)
and dynamic contact problems can be handled.
Friction
Friction is a complex phenomenon. Martins and Oden have published two comprehensive studies on the physics
of static and kinetic friction, and computational models [Martins and Oden, 1985, 1990]. Surface imperfections,
stick-slip motions, material softening due to heat in the contact area, time- and rate-dependence of the coefficient
of static friction, and the oscillatory and unstable nature of sliding should all be considered when performing
sophisticated rubber contact analysis. Use of a carefully measured friction coefficient will also help to achieve
success. Experience has shown that the proper simulation of friction is extremely important for the success in
rubber contact analyses.
When friction is present, bodies in contact develop frictional shear stresses at the interface. As for the value of the
coefficient of friction, “steel-to-steel” contact results in a significantly lower coefficient than “rubber-to-steel” or
“rubber-to-rubber” contact. Experiments have confirmed that the various components contributing to friction force
in rubber are:
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is caused by surface adhesion kinetics and bulk mechanical properties. is due to partial
irreversibility (damping loss) during the deformation of rubber.

represents the existence of a layer of either
absorbed or liquid species between rubber and contact surface. is due to the fact that some solid surfaces
(due to roughness characteristics) tear off particles from rubber. This phenomenon is also responsible for the wear.
In many rubber applications, however, the design objective is to increase the friction and, hence, the traction (for
example, transmission belt, car tire).
Marc offers two friction models: Coulomb friction and shear friction. Coulomb friction is where the friction force
depends upon the normal force, whereas shear friction is where the friction force depends upon the shear strength
of the material. Coulomb friction suits elastomeric contact, where as shear friction is more appropriate for metal
forming. In addition, a user subroutine is available in Marc, permitting the user to constantly monitor the interface
conditions and modify the friction effect if necessary. In this way, friction can be made to vary arbitrarily—as a
function of location, pressure, temperature, amount of sliding, and other variables. In order to reduce numerical
instabilities in the transition between sticking and slipping, a regularization procedure is applied. Sometimes, the
physics of deformation dictates modeling the regions of sticking fairly accurately (for example, driver pulley
transferring torque through the belt to a driven pulley). For such cases, a stick-slip, bilinear, or arc tangent friction
model based on Coulomb friction is also available. Because friction generates heat, a coupled thermo-mechanical
analysis is often required in rubber contact problems.
Rigid bodies that participate in contact
always have generalized force and moment
components resolved to their center; these
components of force, moment, and center
position may be plotted over the load history.
Consider a rigid pin inserted into and
extracted from an axisymmetric rubber seal.
Here we seek the force necessary to insert
and extract the pin with and without the
effects of friction. This particular problem
described in the Marc User’s Guide in Chapter
2.10, demonstrates this visualization of
friction forces; more importantly it illustrates
how a small amount of friction can
dramatically affect insertion and extraction
forces in rubber components. If you have
ever tried to install and remove a rubber hose
from a steel housing, or a steel pin from a
rubber housing you may have experienced
that insertion is usually easier than extraction.
For instance, here friction along with the
incompressibility of rubber conspire to make
the extraction force magnitude of 135 N
much larger than the 90 N necessary to insert the pin. Imagine if the fingers of the seal were backward facing, the
extraction force would be even larger. The frictionless case (blue curve) conserves energy, whereas a significant
amount of energy (2.5 J some 10x larger than energy to compress the seal) is lost for the friction case (red curve).
The energy lost by the work done by friction generally dissipates in the form of heat.
F
friction
F
adhesive
F
deformation
F
viscous
F
tearing
+ + + =
F
adhesive
F
deformation
F
viscous
F
tearing
1.0 2.0
-150
-120
-90
-60
-30
0
30
60
90
120
Force, F [N]
Displacement, u [cm]
Insert
Extract
μ = 0.23
μ = 0
Rigid Pin
Axisymmetric
Seal
C
L
Pin Insertion and Extraction Forces with and without Friction
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Visualization of relevant contact
variables, such as normal and friction
forces, are available in Mentat. Here
rotational motion is transferred using
an elastomeric belt between two
pulleys. Panel a shows the belt and
pulley assembly where the right
pulley is stretched placing the belt
into tension (Component 11 of
Cauchy stress of 0.842 MPa in panel
b). The drive pulley begins to rotate
transferring torque to the driven
pulley via friction until the belt rotates
to 180
o
(panel c). Friction can be
visualized by the ratio of the force in
the top and bottom portions of the
pulley. The ratio of these two forces
will yield the coefficient of friction
between the belt and pulley as shown
(panel c). Furthermore, the
components of contact and friction forces are added in a user subroutine and displayed in panel d. The tangent of
the angle between the contact force vector and the normal of the surface also yields the coefficient of friction, 0.51
(panel d).
Automatic Boundary Condition Handling for 3-D Contact Problems
“Real-world” contact problems between
rigid and/or deformable bodies are three-
dimensional in nature. To solve such
contact problems, one must define bodies
and their boundary surfaces. In Marc, the
definition of bodies is the key concept in
automatically analyzing 3-D contact. For
rigid bodies, one can define the following
surfaces: 4-point patch, ruled surface,
plane, tabulated cylinder, surfaces of
revolution, Bezier surfaces and NURBS.
These surfaces can be converted into
NURBS which have the advantage of
continuity of the normal vector along the surface and the flexibility to model complex surfaces with a single
mathematical description. Such a description of contact bodies is an essential requirement for robustness of
solution algorithm. Virtually all common surface entities as defined by the latest IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange
Standard) are included. Two examples of curved surfaces that can be used to define the shape of contact bodies
are the ruled surface and the Bezier surface, as shown in the figures here.
Deformable bodies are defined by the elements of which they are made. Once all the boundary nodes for a
deformable body are determined by Marc, four-point patches are automatically created and are constantly updated
with the body deformation. Contact is determined between a node and all body profiles—deformable or rigid. A
body may fold upon itself, but the contact will still be automatically detected; this prevents self-penetration.
a b
driven drive
c d
27
o
σ
b
11 1.33 MPa =
σ
t
11 0.270 MPa =
ln 0.51 = = μ
1
π
---
σ
b
11
σ
t
11
---------- [ ]
θ tan μ =
27
o
tan 0.51 =
Cauchy Stress (11 component) Contours
Ruled Surface Bezier Surface
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CASE STUDY E CAR DOOR SEAL: AUTOMATIC MULTIBODY CONTACT
Automotive body seals are necessary due to the presence of openings in
the car body such as passenger doors, windows, engine and trunk lids,
and sunroofs. The requirements of static seals, such as those around
windshields, are important but relatively simple. On the other hand,
dynamic seals, such as door and window seals, are complex in function.
They must not only maximize the seal between fixed and movable
components, but must also compensate for the manufacturing tolerances
of various body parts.
Material requirements for automotive seals include: resilience, weather
resistance (including ultraviolet radiation effects), bonding strength, tear
and abrasion resistance, surface finish, and strain resistance. Mechanical
requirements include: sealing of components against water, air, dust, and
noise; ease of installation; and closing/cycling effort.
Historically, the design and prototyping of automotive seals have relied on
experience, empirical data, and “trial and error”. Today, however, most
leading seal manufacturers use nonlinear FEA to optimize their seal
designs early in the design cycle.
A typical car door seal (panel a) is subjected to three loading conditions:
(1) install seal onto door frame
(2) door closure
(3) window closure
The rubber is assumed to be isotropic, with a Mooney-Rivlin strain energy
density function. Panel b shows the deformed geometry and the
equivalent Cauchy stress (see Appendix B) distribution when the door
frame moves downward. The window and door approach the seal
simultaneously. Panel c shows the effects of door closure and panel d
shows both door and window in their final position.
Notes: In this type of analysis, sliding contact and potential contact of the
body with itself are important. This example illustrates how a modern
nonlinear FEA code can easily handle difficulties with complex boundary
conditions. An automated solution procedure which keeps track of the
multibody movements and variable contact conditions is crucial for
success here. Such an analysis helps the designer to understand and
improve the seal behavior by providing information about stresses, strains,
reaction forces, and deformation histories. It also tells the designer where the rubber material is best used—leading
to an optimum design of the car door seal for its expected dynamic loading histories.
a
door frame
door
window
b
c
d
Equivalent Cauchy Stress Contours
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7 SOLUTION STRATEGIES
The core of a typical design process encompasses three phases: preprocessing of
data, solution, and postprocessing. In the preprocessing phase, besides the data
required in a typical linear analysis, a user must specify certain nonlinear analysis
controls (analysis procedures, “contact” control parameters, convergence controls,
etc.) and additional material properties (for example, Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden
coefficients) required for a nonlinear rubber analysis.
In the solution phase, the key difference between nonlinear and linear FEA is that the
solver performs the analysis in load steps (called increments). Within each increment,
for implicit analysis the program seeks a solution by iteration until equilibrium is
achieved, before proceeding on to the next increment. A modern nonlinear FEA code
like Marc helps the user achieve success by first querying for acceptable tolerances in
force, displacement strain energy, or other parameters. Then, it automatically
increases or decreases the step size in order to achieve a converged solution using a
minimum number of increments. Lack of convergence can take place due to input
errors, improper modeling of physical phenomenon, or real physical instabilities.
Therefore, the objective of a successful nonlinear analysis is to obtain an accurate,
converged solution at the least cost.
Adaptive solution strategies run into three classes, the first is a procedure where if
convergence is not achieved the time step is reduced, such that convergence is
achieved. The applied excitation will be scaled down, or re-evaluated if the boundary condition is a function of a
table. The second procedure is similar to the first, but additionally artificial damping is added to the solution. This is
an effective process when rubber components are present. The third method is the use of arc-length or continuation
methods (Chrisfield, Riks, Ramm, etc.), that effectively use mathematical methods to get a sense of the direction of
the solution. These methods are often very successful when there is effectively one source of the external load
present.
On the computational front, several key features distinguish Marc from other existing nonlinear FEA codes. Features
on the materials side include, a very robust singularity-free implementation for case of equal stretches of the Ogden
model, and special treatment for extremely large compressive stresses generated during deformation. Fast, efficient
elements incorporating special treatment for incompressibility and hourglassing modes, and solution schemes
which are able to analyze buckling and post-buckling regime.
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For ease-of-use and computational savings, Marc
allows a data transfer capability from axisymmetric
to 3-D analysis. In many cases, the component
has an initially axisymmetric geometry and is
initially axisymmetrically loaded (axial motion) and,
hence, is truly axisymmetric. The second stage of
the problem invokes asymmetric loading (radial
motion) and needs to be fully three-dimensional.
This function transfers the results from the
nonlinear axisymmetric model to the 3-D analysis.
Large savings in computational cost can be
expected. This feature can be used with lower- and
higher-order displacement and Herrmann
elements in static, dynamic, and heat transfer
analysis. This feature can be used with both rubber
elasticity and metal plasticity.
The role of graphics (pre- and postprocessing)
capabilities cannot be underestimated. Rapid developments in the nonlinear finite element technology has brought
the modeling of full scale industry problems within reach. Hence, it is not uncommon for the model preparation
stage to be more time consuming than the actual analysis itself. The interactive graphics program, Mentat, is tightly
coupled with the analysis program, Marc. Analysis with Marc can also be done via Patran. Besides a wide array of
geometry modeling features, both Mentat and Patran offer a variety of mesh-generation capability in 2-D and 3-D.
Augmenting the array of visualization techniques are the animation and movie capabilities in Mentat. In addition,
interfaces to other commercial CAD systems allow designers to access the nonlinear capabilities of Marc while
operating in their familiar environment.
C
L
AXI-T
O
-
3
D
3-D Radial Motion Axisymmetric Axial Motion
Data Transfer from Axisymmetric to 3-D Analysis
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8 ADAPTIVE REMESHING
In the analysis of metal or rubber, the materials may be deformed from some initial (maybe simple) shape to a final,
very often, complex shape. During the process, the deformation can be so large that the mesh used to model the
materials may become highly distorted, and the analysis cannot go any further without using some special
techniques. Global adaptive remeshing in Marc is a useful feature to overcome these difficulties.
When the mesh becomes too distorted because of the large deformation to continue the analysis, the analysis is
stopped. A new mesh is created based on the deformed shape of the contact body. A data mapping is performed
to transfer necessary data from the old, deformed mesh to the new mesh. The contact conditions are redefined,
and the analysis continues.
Now the above steps are done automatically (see figure). Based on the different remeshing criteria you specified,
the program determines when the remeshing is required. Remeshing can be carried out for one or more contact
bodies at any increment. Different bodies can use different remeshing criteria.
Besides global adaptive remeshing, Marc also offers an h-method based adaptive mesh refinement capability called
local adaptive remeshing (an automated process in which mesh is repetitively enriched until the error criterion is
satisfied) for both linear as well as nonlinear analysis. Several error criteria are available to the user for subdividing
the mesh adaptively. This is demonstrated in Case Study D.
A successful rubber analysis requires: a state-of-the-art nonlinear FEA code with automated contact analysis
capabilities; availability of the necessary test data and friction coefficients; an experienced user; careful evaluation
and application of the analysis results; and good pre- and postprocessing software which is closely coupled to the
solver.
Here the automatic remeshing of a
rubber seal demonstrates what is
called global adaptive remeshing.
The original rectangular rubber seal
only uses one element to begin
(panel a). As the material is pushed
into the horizontal channel (panels b
- f) the automatic global adaptive
meshing option automatically
generates new meshes as many
times as needed (38 remeshes
here) until the seal fills the horizontal
channel. Find out more about this
model in Chapter 3.28 of the Marc
User’s Guide or you may run this
problem from the RUN A DEMO
PROBLEM menu on the HELP menu
of Mentat; it is called RUBBER
REZONING. Although this illustrative
problem is two dimensional, global
adaptive remeshing can also be
done in three dimensions.
a.) Inc 0: 1 element b.) Inc 1: 260 elements c.) Inc 25: 329 elements
d.) Inc 50: 358 elements e.) Inc 75: 378 elements f.) Inc 100: 402 elements
Global Adaptive Remeshing of a Rubber Seal
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CASE STUDY F DOWNHOLE OIL PACKER
Downhole packers seal off the region between casing and production
tubing helping prevent flow of corrosive fluids upstream. Because of
their location underground, they are subjected to harsh environmental
conditions and high temperatures and pressures, making physical
testing difficult and expensive. Simulation provides a superior
alternative both in terms of cost advantage and testing safety. However,
simulation of these products presents a challenge as their designs
incorporate multiple nonlinearities: material, large deformations and
strains, contact between multiple components and self-contact, and
friction, to name a few.
In this case study, model of a fictitious packer assembly is analyzed
demonstrating the benefits of automatic remeshing. The simplified
packer design shown here contains packing elements, loaded and
fixed cones, left and right v-rings and the casing walls. While packers
are three dimensional, many are very nearly axisymmetric and may be
simulated using an axisymmetric finite element model as shown here.
The packing element is an elastomer, the v-rings are made of steel and
the cones and casing are assumed to be rigid.
The packer is compressed by the loads on the cone until it reaches
100% of its setting and fills the volume between the inner and outer
walls. During this process, all the components of the packer assembly
experience contact, including self-contact of the packer elements.
Because of the high pressures on the packer, the original finite element
mesh becomes too distorted; automatic global adaptive meshing is
activated in this analysis whereby new meshes are automatically
generated as many times as needed. Use of this advanced capability of
Marc leads to a successful completion of the analysis, which would
otherwise have been a very challenging problem to solve.
Once the packer seats, the maximum stress and strain in the packer
may be examined to determine possible failure locations. Total
equivalent strain contours are shown here for 25%, 50%, and 100% of
the compression set. Subsequently, a system pressure is applied to the
packer (left end at red arrow) to analyze packer performance at
operating pressures. In this case, a pressure subroutine assures that
the pressure loading will advance only along the downstream direction
as the packer separates from the outer casing. As the packer continues
to deform, automatic remeshing facilitates quality mesh enabling
superior convergence and accuracy. For larger pressures, more
volumetric compression of the rubber packer occurs, as shown in
increased blue and green colored regions in the total equivalent strain
contours. At operating pressure, about 50% of the packer separates
from the outer casing; subsequent studies can determine if the seal
continues to operate within tolerances under material relaxation and
creep.
Marc capabilities used: Elastomer material properties, Rigid-
deformable contact, deformable-deformable contact, Self-contact,
User subroutine for customized pressure loads, Automatic global
remeshing. Click Input files to download: oil_packer.mfd, oil_packer.f
Packing Element Casing ID
Cone Fixed Cone Load
V Ring V Ring Casing OD
100%
50%
25%
Compress to Set
25%
50%
100%
Pressurize Packer
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Linear FEA Nonlinear FEA
Data Preparation Preprocessing (same as for linear FEA)
• FE model (nodes,
elements)
• material properties Nonlinear analysis
• loads controls required
• boundary conditions Material data to
represent nonlinear
behavior required, e.g.:
• material constants for strain energy
functions
Output
• displacement • thermal strains
• strains Postprocessing • creep strains
• stresses • plastic strains
• strain energy density • Cauchy stresses
• failure criteria
Results Evaluation
• deformed geometry • contact forces distribution
• strain distributions • strain rates
• stress distributions • history plots
• temperature distributions • derived variables
Cord Orientations
SOLUTION
INCREMENTAL
LOOP
•update
configuration
•update contact
conditions
ITERATION
LOOP
GLOBAL ADAPTIVE
REMESHING
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9 CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
Nonlinear FEA of elastomers has come a long way in the past twenty five years. Previous difficulties in the 1970-
1985 period with handling complex contact boundary conditions have now been solved, recently, significant
progress also has been made in 2-D and 3-D automated adaptive meshing, and these automated procedures are
now being used in the design/analysis of rubber components. Areas which still require further research and
development include:
•Global and local adaptive meshing for nonlinear FEA (especially for 3-D problems)
•Coupling of design optimization methods with nonlinear FEA
•Methods for dealing with crack or void initiation and propagation in elastomers
•Improved modeling of friction effects
•Material instabilities–for example., surface folds and wrinkling
•Viscoelastic effects in filled rubbers
•Improved plastics and other polymer models (to model large elastic as well as inelastic deformations)
•Coupled processes involving interaction between mechanical, chemical, thermal, and electrical phenomena.
Sometimes rubber seals have closed air
pockets, or in the case of air springs the
closed cavity is actively pressurized.
Here the crush force increases
dramatically and the deformed shape of
the tube changes as well when the cavity
of air is closed. The compression of the
air inside the closed cavity of the tube
plays an important role in the analysis.
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25 0.30 0.35
0.40
0
5
10
15
20
Force, F
Displacement, u
F, u
F, u
F, u
F, u
Tube Crush: Open and Closed Air Cavity
Open Air Cavity
Closed Air Cavity
Elastomeric Tube Crush
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10 USER CONVENIENCES AND SERVICES
MSC.Software offers an array of tools and services to help the customer design their products efficiently:
Material Characterization. Very often, obtaining the correct material parameters for analysis from test data is the
major obstacle to a successful simulation. In such cases, Marc can refer the customer to materials testing firms
which specialize in this type of testing (the same firm can also be used for testing the structural integrity of the
finished elastomeric product). The required tests to characterize a material are given in Appendix C (Courtesy: Akron
Rubber Development Lab and Axel Products, Inc.). In addition, a curve fitting procedure is required to determine
the coefficients of the selected model. Details of the curve fitting program in Mentat, used along with Marc, are
described in Section 3.
Training. Attendees Performing Analysis Using MSC.Software
MSC.Software offers training with a wide variety of workshops, including MAR 103 “Experimental Elastomer
Analysis”. This is a hands-on workshop covering material testing, material modeling and finite element analysis of
elastomers. Instructors from MSC.Software and Axel Products, Inc. present an integrated testing and analysis
workshop featuring the experimental facilities of Axel Products, Inc. and the MSC.Software Corporation. Attendees
perform elastomer experiments using laboratory instruments to create data appropriate for use in building elastomer
material models in FEA. Material models are then developed and examined on workstations running the Marc
software. Click here for a 4 minute video summary.
Customer Support. Recognizing the complex nature of FEA of elastomers, MSC.Software Corporation offers prompt
and professional customer support. For rubber FEA, the user should expect help from a knowledgeable support
person or, in some complicated cases, the particular developer who created that part of the analysis capability. The
availability of competent support is often crucial to success in nonlinear FEA.
Consulting. Most nonlinear FEA software developers, such as MSC.Software Corporation also offer consulting
services to assist an organization in performing rubber FEA. This service is especially valuable for a company that
either does not possess an FEA capability or their in-house engineers do not have nonlinear analysis expertise. The
scope of such consulting work usually includes the development of a model(s), analyzing the rubber problem,
writing a final report, and sometimes, an oral presentation of the key results.
Documentation. In addition to the reference documentation; MSC.Software Corporation also offers tutorial
documentation. The latter allows new users to try a rubber analysis similar to their own, and become familiar with
the recommended procedure before venturing into a difficult rubber contact problem using a large 3-D model.
MAR 103 Experimental Elastomer Analysis Training Class in Action
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Error Checks And Warning Messages. FEA programs all contain built-in input error checks. In rubber FEA, the
program checks for items such as: the completeness of input coefficients for a certain strain energy density
function, contact body definition correctness, consistency of the nonlinear analysis controls (tolerances, step size,
etc.), friction definition, whether a user subroutine is used and if the required data for that subroutine is completely
defined, etc. To help detect potential instability problems, the code also issues warnings to the user during the
analysis about possible snap-through, negative eigenvalues, non-positive definiteness, etc.
User Subroutines. These are a must in nonlinear FEA that involve complex geometric, material, and boundary
nonlinearities (such as in rubber and metal forming problems). They allow the user to define arbitrary variations of
material properties, loads, and boundary conditions as a function of time, space, and temperature or some other
state variable. User subroutines give the flexibility to users to tailor the nonlinear analysis specifically to their exact
problem requirements. The coding and accuracy verification of user subroutines is best left to the experienced user.
In rubber FEA, user subroutines can be used, for instance, to define the dependence of friction coefficient or some
other material property on time, temperature, or location. More importantly, they can be also used to define a new
material model.
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11 CONCLUSION
In the final analysis, the FEA of elastomeric or viscoelastic structures is a nontrivial undertaking. This White Paper
has presented a lot of information about what one should know about analyzing rubber. But, where does one go
from here? By that, we mean what types of questions should be asked when selecting a code for rubber FEA?
•Does the FEA code contain the proper material models? Which is the proper model?
•Are there suitable finite elements for incompressible analysis?
•Does the code have modern automated contact analysis capabilities?
•Does the code offer the best choice of elements, material models, solution algorithms, and convergence
criteria for your situation?
•Does the code developer have an extensive track record in analyzing applications similar to yours? If so, the
developer should possess examples and verification problems similar to your application.
All these questions relate to the quality of the nonlinear FEA code and the support. After the code has been selected,
the user should bear in mind that there are other additional considerations which help to ensure success. These are
“tricks of the trade” that come with experience in analyzing rubber parts. For instance, some important
considerations about model definition include: mesh refinement, specification of the incremental load schedule, and
tolerance selection in the convergence criterion used. These subtleties very often mean the difference between
success and failure.
Modeling of real world rubber parts is often complicated by a lack of good material data, boundary conditions, and
knowledge of the actual field service conditions. Finally, a professional engineering judgment must be applied to
interpret the numerical simulation results.
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APPENDIX A PHYSICS OF RUBBER
Early applications of a material which came to be known as natural rubber (NR) with
, cis-polyisoprene, as a basic monomer unit involved a product derived from the
Hevea Brazieliensis tree. Other varieties of NR came from balta, guayule, and gutta-
percha. The superior heat dissipation properties under cyclic loading, resilience,
electrical insulation, high tensile strength, and wear resistance make NR an attractive
choice over the synthetics in many applications even today. Some common uses of
NR can be found in golf-ball covers, cable insulation, tires, etc.
However, the desire to improve certain properties like resistance to environmental
factors such as ozone degradation and ultraviolet rays, aging, and protection against
industrial oils, led to the discovery of synthetic rubber. The advent of World War II saw
an increased interest and necessity of the development of synthetic rubber
compounds. Commonly known synthetic rubbers are Neoprene, Isoprene, Styrene-
Butadiene, Butyl, Nitril, Acrylic, Butadiene, and Urethanes. The basis of modern
synthetic rubbers lies in synthesis of macromolecules by way of step-growth or chain-
growth polymerization.
Rubber products are manufactured via a vulcanization process. In an unvulcanized
(green) state, rubber does not have the desired tensile strength, is sticky and deforms
permanently under large deformations. Rubber is vulcanized at high temperatures
with addition of sulfur, accelerators, and curatives under application of pressure. The
sulfur and carbon atoms, together with metal ions and organic radicals, form the
crosslinks between polymer chains. This crosslink network determines the physical
properties and is controlled by vulcanization time and temperature. Mechanically, the
process manifests itself by an increase of retractile force and a possession of
“rubbery” properties such as increased elasticity.
After prolonged exposure to the sun, rubber parts become discolored, brittle, and exhibit crazing and stress cracks.
To inhibit these ultraviolet radiation effects, rubber manufacturers typically use “stabilizers” (for example, carbon
black, an excellent absorber) and “masks” (for example, urethane-based paint). These are used, for instance, in
exterior rubber gaskets and seals for cars. In the United States, federal regulations require that exposed rubber
components must withstand exposure to ultraviolet radiation for approximately five years. The most damaging
effect is due to ozone, which causes exposed rubber to become brittle. To simulate these effects and to improve
the design of rubber parts, manufacturers subject specimens to xenon (or carbon) arcs, where the specimen is
typically stretched 20% at certain prescribed temperatures.
Fillers play an extremely important role in the manufacturing of rubber to impart
the desired properties. On one hand, several properties of unfilled rubbers such
as hardness, abrasion resistance, tensile, tear strength [Mark, Erman, and
Eirich, 1994] and a possible redistribution of rubber network stresses can be
enhanced by use of carbon black and silica. On the other hand, the viscoelastic
response and hysteresis losses are greatly enhanced by fillers (since the material
properties depend on the strain history). There is, nevertheless, a correlation
between the above two characterizations of carbon black. It is hypothesized
that carbon black particles act as stress concentrators and originators of microscopic flaws which precede a gross
macroscopic tearing. However, stress relaxation and creep reduce the stress concentration at the crack tip. The
increased stresses at the particles produce molecular orientation or alignment; thereby, blunting the crack tip and
diverting the tear from a rapid fracture. Other fillers like wax, paraffin, and mineral oil are added to increase the heat
dissipation capability.
n
CH
2
CH
2
H
3
C H
C C
Typical Polymer Molecules
cis-polyisoprene
C
5
H
8
Carbon Black Filled Rubber
From Govindjee and Simo [1991]
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The distinctive features of rubber elasticity have a thermodynamical basis:
Thus, at equilibrium, the force ( ) exerted on stretching a rubber strip equals the rate of change of internal energy
( ) and entropy ( ) with length ( ) for a given temperature ( ). It has been concluded from experiments that rubber
elasticity manifests itself in the second term of the above equation, except at low elongations (<10%) at which the
thermal expansion masks the entropy effect resulting in thermoelastic inversion or at very large elongations, at which
molecular chain orientation and strain-induced crystallization occurs.
Rubber is composed of long chain of molecules, oriented randomly due to thermal agitation of their segments.
Breakdown of chains, due to straining, results in damage and stiffness reduction of the elastomer. Entangled chains
have significant impact on the viscoelastic properties such as creep and stress relaxation and melt viscosity.
The following table shows how some mechanical properties of rubber compare with other materials:
Material
Young's
Modulus (MPa)
Bulk Modulus
(MPa)
Shear
Modulus
(MPa)
Poisson's
Ratio
Rubber (typical range) 0.76-7.60 3,000-3,5000 0.35-1.38 ~0.50
Lightly Vulcanized Rubber 1.40
Mild Steel 207,348 158,967 79,483 0.29-0.3
Aluminum Alloys 69,116 67,733 23,499 0.31
Glass 55,292 36,631 22,117 0.25
Concrete 27,646 0.18
Oak 10,021
Human Bone (along osteones) 10,021
Polyurethane Foam 3.11 2.
Plastics:
Polyethylene 138-380 89-255 55.-152 0.25
Phenolic Laminate 8,501 0.25
Polycarbonate 2,384 0.35
Cast Acrylic 3,110 0.35
Cellulose Acetate 1,520
Vinylchloride Acetate 3,179
F
oE
oL
------
\ .
| |
T
T
oS
oL
------
\ .
| |
T
– =
F
E S L T
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APPENDIX B MECHANICS OF RUBBER
Stress and Strain Measures
In large deformation analysis of elastomers, two equivalent methods may be used to
describe material behavior, the total Lagrange or the updated Lagrange procedure.
When using the total Lagrange, the original configuration is the material reference
frame, whereas updated Lagrange, the current deformed configuration is the
material reference frame. In such cases, most nonlinear FEA codes such as Marc use
a strain measure called the Green-Lagrange strain, [Fung, 1965], which for uniaxial
behavior is defined as:
and a corresponding “work conjugate” stress called the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress, ; . Although
the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress is useful for the mathematical material model, it has little physical significance and is
difficult to use for the interpretation of results. Therefore, the engineer resorts to either the Cauchy (true) stress, ;
with energetically conjugate strain measure the logarithmic (true) strain, ; or one can utilize
the familiar engineering (Biot) stress, ; with energetically conjugate strain measure being engineering
strain, . As an alternative one can use the updated Lagrange formulation, where stress and strain
measures are with respect to the current deformed configuration. Then the Cauchy stress and logarithmic strain are
naturally used. It should be noted that the Green Lagrange strain is often expressed with respect to the deformation
gradient, where and refer to the deformed and original coordinates of the body. Marc provides all
of these strain and stress measures to the analyst. It is important to note that at small strains, the differences
between various measures of stresses and strains are negligible.
Numerical Treatment of Incompressibility
This part explains the principles underlying the behavior and numerical treatment of incompressible materials. (For
more details, see any of the finite element textbooks—for example, [Hughes, 1987]—listed in the Suggestions for
Further Reading.) Incompressibility is one of the most troublesome areas in the finite element analysis of elastomers.
Modern computational mechanics practice in the analysis of incompressible materials is to suppress the volumetric
component of the strain field by appropriately selected variational principles.
Incompressible Elasticity
A simple way to understand why incompressibility results in numerical problems is to examine the familiar elasticity
relationship: . For nearly incompressible materials, Poisson's ratio v approaches 0.5,
and the bulk modulus becomes large relative to the shear modulus. In the limit, when the material is completely
incompressible (v = 0.5), all hydrostatic deformation is precluded. In this limiting case, it is, therefore, not possible
to determine the complete state of stress from strain only. This indeterminacy difficulty applies not only to isotropic
materials, but also to orthotropic and anisotropic materials.
E
E 1 2 ì
2
1 – ( ) =
S
2
S
2
P A L
0
L ( )
2
=
o
o P A = c c L L
0
( ) ln =
S
1
S
1
P A
0
=
e AL L
0
=
F cx cX = x X
Bulk modulus (K)
Shear modulus (G)
---------------------------------------------
2 1 v + ( )
3 1 2v – ( )
----------------------- =
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Most rubbery and polymeric materials are not completely incompressible. Typical values of Poisson's ratio are in the
range of 0.49 to 0.49999. It is important to note that the use of these values in finite element codes that have not
been tailored for incompressibility analysis will lead to very serious numerical errors, caused by the ill-conditioning
resulting from the division by a value which is nearly zero. More importantly, “mesh locking” may occur when using
conventional displacement based formulations. Filled elastomers, however, often have Poisson's ratios of
approximately 0.49 and may be considered “nearly incompressible”. Whenever the material is nearly or completely
incompressible, special finite element formulations must be used to obtain reliable results, as explained in the
following subsections.
Mesh Locking and Constraint Counting
Whether a particular finite element code is suitable for analyzing incompressible problems depends on the type of
element used and its formulation. For instance, standard lower-order quadrilateral isoparametric elements found in
many FEA codes exhibit extremely poor performance in analyzing incompressible or nearly incompressible
problems and exhibit a pathological behavior called mesh locking. “Mesh locking” refers to the inability of an element
to perform accurately in an incompressible analysis regardless how refined the mesh is, due to an over-constrained
condition and insufficient active degrees of freedom. Specifically, if a standard element is distorted into an hourglass
mode, it will lock as the bulk modulus becomes infinite. Note that the element locks despite the fact that its area
has remained constant, resulting in the prediction of too small of a displacement and too large of a stress. Hence,
the locking is a peculiarity of the finite element discretization, and special techniques have been used to improve
the behavior of the elements. Some effective analytical approaches to overcome mesh locking are discussed in the
next subsection.
To check whether an element will lock, a method called constraint counting has proven
to be quite effective [Nagtegaal, Parks, and Rice, 1974]. The constraint ratio r is defined
as the ratio of the active degrees of freedom to the number of constraints. Optimal
constraint ratios are r = 2 for two-dimensional problems, and r = 3 for three-
dimensional problems. A tendency to lock occurs if r is less than these values. While
constraint ratios are a helpful engineering tool, they do not ensure convergence. A
mathematically rigorous approach instead makes use of the so-called Babuska-Brezzi
stability condition [Hughes, 1987]. Before embarking on an incompressible analysis,
therefore, the user must exercise extreme care and fully understand the limitations of
the elements to be used.
Overview of Analytical Approaches
Modern analytical techniques used in treating incompressibility effects in
finite element codes are based on the Hellinger-Reissner and Hu-Washizu
variational principles [Zienkiewicz and Taylor, 1989]. Well-known applications
of these principles include assumed strain methods, such as: the mixed
method of [Herrmann, 1965]; the constant dilatation method of [Nagtegaal,
Parks, and Rice, 1974]; the related B-bar methods of [Hughes, 1980] and
[Simo, Taylor, and Pister, 1985]; the Hu-Washizu methods of [Simo and
Taylor, 1991]; the mixed assumed strain methods used with incompatible
modes by [Simo and Rifai, 1990]; and selective-reduced integration
methods. Another class of approaches is the so-called assumed stress
methods, which are used by researchers such as T.H.H. Pian and S.N. Atluri
and their co-workers.
2-D Hourglassing Mode
3-D Hourglassing “Eggcrate” Mode
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Mixed methods usually have the stresses, strains, dilatancy, or a combination of variables as unknowns. The earliest
mixed method is the so-called Herrmann formulation. A modified form of the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle
is used to derive the stiffness equations. A pressure variable (energetically conjugate to the volumetric strain) is
introduced in the form of a Lagrange multiplier. Herrmann's approach has been used since the mid-1960s and
1970s in FEA codes such as Marc, TEXGAP, and various in-house codes developed by leading solid rocket
propellant manufacturers.
The constant dilatation method of [Nagtegaal et al., 1974] decouples the dilatational (volumetric) and distortional
(isochoric) deformations and interpolates them independently. Appropriately chosen functions will preclude mesh
locking. The B-bar method of Hughes is a generalization of this method for linearized kinematics. Selective-reduced
integration under integrates the volumetric terms. However, all these methods can be shown to be equivalent under
certain conditions [Malkus and Hughes, 1978].
Stability
Instabilities that arise in the FEA of elastomers can be either “physical” or
“numerical”. Physical instabilities include buckling of a structure. Possible onset of
buckling may be characterized by a limit point when the rubber structure can snap-
through from one equilibrium configuration to another, or a bifurcation point which
is characterized as an intersection of two equilibrium paths. Other types of
instabilities would include necking of a sheet; or sudden folds or wrinkles which
occur due to high compressive stresses near a surface. Marc has extensive post
buckling capability to analyze rubber-to-rubber contact beyond the initial stage of
folding. These instabilities which result in a sudden change in stiffness pose a severe
test of a code's solution algorithm.
[Padovan et al., 1991] have studied the occurrence of physical instabilities associated with surface wrinkles and
local bifurcations in seals and gaskets. Typical mesh densification results are shown for those elements bordering
the folds. In studying surface instabilities of oil well valve rubber packings, Padovan has found that strains will reach
400 to 450 percent and that low cycle fatigue becomes important. With valve closure, a hierarchy of folds appears:
single folds, folds of folds, and multiple foldings. In those cases where folds occur near a rigid or very stiff boundary,
refining the model would not help to achieve a converged solution!
Cord-rubber composites present yet another example of instability that may arise due to treatment of internal
constraints, that is, near inextensibility of the fibers. In fact, buckling and warping of surfaces of a reinforced material
may result from the loading, which if applied to unconstrained material, would cause no instability at all [Beatty,
1990]. Inflatable cord-reinforced rubber products present an example of structure whose stability limits are
governed by air pressure and construction parameters in addition to the material properties.
Numerical instabilities include: instabilities in the mathematical description of the material law, and instabilities in the
numerical enforcement of the incompressibility constraint. The material model must satisfy certain restrictions on its
elastic moduli [Rivlin, 1980] to produce physically acceptable modes of deformation. In short, the material must
satisfy the Drucker Stability criterion that the change of energy in a closed cycle is non-negative. For isotropic,
incompressible materials, the Drucker Stability criterion is expressed as: .
Surface Instability
do
ij
j
¿
i
¿
dc
i j
0 >
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For elastic materials without energy dissipation, the above criterion reduces
to an equality. Marc material parameter evaluation solves a constrained
optimization problem to assure the stability of energy functions. [Tabaddor,
1987] has shown the existence of multiple solutions with more than one
stable solutions in pure, homogeneous modes of deformation using
perturbation method. These instabilities do not usually occur in the actual
structure and are often the result of the mathematical abstraction of the real
material. The numerical algorithms in Marc enable the user to avoid these
instabilities.
Mesh Densification During Folding
From Padovan et. al. [1991]
Wrinkling of Seal
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APPENDIX C MATERIAL TESTING METHODS
The testing described herein is to define and to satisfy the input
requirements of hyperelastic material models that exist in nonlinear finite
element software like Marc. Although the experiments are performed
separately and the strain states are different, data from all of the individual
experiments is used as a set. This means that the specimens used for
each of the experiments must be of the same material. This may seem
obvious but if the specimens are specially molded to accommodate the
differing instrument clamps for different experiments, it is possible that
you may be inconsistently testing the material. Remember to cut
specimens from the same material as the application.
The testing of elastomers for the purpose of defining material models is
often mis-understood. There are several standards for the testing of
elastomers in tension. However, the experimental requirements for
analysis are somewhat different than most standardized test methods.
The appropriate experiments are not yet clearly defined by national or
international standards organizations. This difficulty derives from the
complex mathematical models that are required to define the nonlinear
and the nearly incompressible attributes of elastomers.The development
of experimental data is so intimately tied to elastomeric material model
development that MSC joined with the physical testing laboratory Axel
Products, Inc. to create a workshop called “Experimental Elastomer
Analysis” (MAR 103).
Cut Specimens From Same Material
150mm x 150mm x 2mm Sheet
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
Specimen Cutouts
Testing Machine
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Physical Measurements
Basic physical measurements discussed here are limited to force, length,
temperature and time. Force is usually measured by a load cell. The load
cell actually measures changes in resistance of strain gages placed in a
bridge on a metal shape that deforms slightly as the specimen is loaded.
The change of resistance is calibrated to report force. The load cell can
be seen at the top of the specimen in the right top figure. The output from
the load cell enters the data acquisition system in the computer along
with the initial specimen area. The recorded force is divided by the initial
specimen area automatically by the data acquisition system. Length or
position is best measured by a non-contacting device such as a video
extensometer as show in the middle right figure. The video extensometer
senses differences in color between two marks on the specimen. The
length between these two marks is continuously recorded by the data
acquisition system. Another non-contacting technique is the use of a
laser extensometer. The laser sends out a planar light which is reflected
back from reflector tags attached to the specimen as shown in the
bottom right figure. At the start of the test, the initial gage length is
entered into the data acquisition system, and as the test progresses the
change in gage length is recorded by the data acquisition system. Time
is recorded by the data acquisition system that synchronizes the force
and length measurements. The data recorded can be output in ascii files
that contain the engineering stress, engineering strain and time that are
later used for the hyperelastic material model fitting.
In the following tests, the material, temperature, strain range, strain rates,
and preconditioning should be determined by the application to be
modeled.
Video Extensometer Readings
Laser Extensometer with Tags
on Specimen
Video Extensometer
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
Dramatic Change in Properties with Temperature
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Uniaxial Tension Test
a. Deformation state:
,

b. Stress state:
,
Simple tension experiments are very popular for elastomers. The most
significant requirement is that in order to achieve a state of pure tensile
strain, the specimen be much longer in the direction of stretching than in
the width and thickness dimensions. The objective is to create an
experiment where there is no lateral constraint to specimen thinning. One
can perform finite element analysis on the specimen geometry to
determine the specimen length to width ratio. The results of this analysis
will show that the specimen needs to be at least 10 times longer than the
width or thickness. Since the experiment is not intended to fail the
specimen, there is no need to use a dumbbell shaped specimen that is
commonly used to prevent specimen failure in the clamps. There is also
not an absolute specimen size requirement. The length in this case refers
to the specimen length between the instrument clamps. Specimen clamps
create an indeterminate state of stress and strain in the region surrounding
the clamp in the process of gripping. Therefore, the specimen straining, L/
L
0
, must be measured on the specimen, but away from the clamp, where
a pure tension strain state is occurring. A noncontacting strain measuring
device such as a video extensometer or laser extensometer is required to
achieve this. The load, P, is measured by a load cell. Calipers can be used
to measure the instantaneous area, A, normal to the load. If this area is not
measured, the material is assumed to be incompressible, V=V
0
.
1
2
3
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Eng. Stress [MPa]
Eng. Strain [1]
Tensile Machine
Tensile Specimen
Specimen Response
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
ì
2
ì L L
0
= = ì
1
ì
3
A A
0
= =
o
2
o P A
0
= = o
1
o
3
0 = =
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Uniaxial Compression Test (Simple Compression)
a. Specimen size: 25.3 mm diameter x 17.8 mm thickness
b. Deformation state:
,

c. Stress state:
,
Uniform states of strain are desired and this is especially difficult to
achieve experimentally in compression. There are two basic reasons
that make the compression test difficult. For the compression button
depicted the first difficulty is making the button so that it becomes
thick enough to measure the gage length. This may require a molded
specimen, rather than extruded or poured sheet. Hence the wrong
material may be tested. Secondly, because there is friction between
the test specimen and the instrument platens, the specimen is not
completely free to expand laterally during compression. Even very
small friction coefficient levels such as 0.1 between the specimen
and the platen can cause substantial shearing strains that alter the
stress response to straining. Often, the maximum shear strain
exceeds the maximum compression strain! Because the actual
friction is not known, the data cannot be corrected.
Other compression tests include the split Hopkinson pressure bars
designed for soft materials such as polymers and elastomers which
measures high strain rate data.
For incompressible or nearly incompressible materials, equal biaxial
extension of a specimen creates a state of strain similar to pure compression. Although the actual experiment is
more complex than the simple compression experiment, a pure state of strain can be achieved which will result in
a more accurate material model. The equal biaxial strain state may be achieved by radial stretching a circular or
square sheet.
1
2
3
Compression Machine
Specimen Sizes
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
ì
2
ì L L
0
= = ì
1
ì
3
A A
0
= =
o
2
o P A
0
= = o
1
o
3
0 = =
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Biaxial Tension Test (Circular)
a. Deformation state:
,
b. Stress state:
,

The equal biaxial strain state may be achieved by radial stretching a
circular disc. The nominal equibiaxial stress contained inside the
specimen inner diameter is calculated as: where: ,
is the original diameter between punched holes, is the sum of
radial forces, and is the original thickness. Since the deformation
state is uniform in the plane of the sheet, the radial components of stress
and strains are constant with the polar and in-plane rectangular
components of stress being the same value. In other words, if a square
or circle are drawn on the specimen, they deform into a larger square or
circle as the specimen is stretched. Once again, a non-contacting strain
measuring device must be used such that strain is measured away from
the clamp edges. Finally if the instantaneous thickness, t, is not
measured, the material is assumed to be incompressible, V=V
0
. For
more details about this test and specimen, see:
http://www.axelproducts.com/downloads/BiaxialExtension.PDF
1
2
3
Biaxial Machine
Biaxial Specimen
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
ì
1
ì
2
ì L L
0
= = = ì
3
t t
0
=
o
1
o
2
o = = o
3
0 =
o P A
0
= A
0
tDt
0
=
D P
t
0
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Biaxial Tension Test (Rectangular)
a. Deformation state:
,
b. Stress state:
,

The equal biaxial strain state may also be achieved by radial stretching
a square sheet. The nominal equibiaxial stress contained inside the
specimen calculated as: where: , and is the
width and height of the specimen, is the average of the forces normal
to the width and height of the specimen, and is the original thickness.
Once again, a non-contacting strain measuring device must be used
such that strain is measured away from the clamp edges. Finally if the
instantaneous thickness, t, is not measured, the material is assumed to
be incompressible, V=V
0
.
1
2
3
Biaxial Machine
Biaxial Specimen
ì
1
ì
2
ì L L
0
= = = ì
3
t t
0
=
o
1
o
2
o = = o
3
0 =
o P A
0
= A
0
Wt
0
= W
P
t
0
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Planar Shear Test
a. Deformation state:
, ,
b. Stress state:
,
,
The planar shear experiment used for analysis is not what most of us
would expect. The experiment appears at first glance to be nothing
more than a very wide tensile test. However, because the material is
nearly incompressible, a state of planar shear exists in the specimen at
a 45 degree angle to the stretching direction. The most significant
aspect of the specimen is that it is much shorter in the direction of
stretching than the width. The objective is to create an experiment
where the specimen is perfectly constrained in the lateral direction such
that all specimen thinning occurs in the thickness direction. This requires
that the specimen be at least 10 times wider than the length in the
stretching direction. This experiment is very sensitive to this ratio. A non-
contacting strain measuring device must be used to measure strain
away from the clamp edges where the pure strain state is occurring (top
right figure). If the instantaneous thickness, t, is not measured, the
material is assumed to be incompressible, V=V
0
. Below illustrates how
analysis can be used to verify experimental assumptions. Modeling the
actual specimen shows that to within 30 parts per million as the
specimen deforms.
1
2
3
Planar Shear Test With Laser
Reflection Tags
Planar Shear Specimen
Laser Extensometer
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
ì
1
1 = ì
2
ì L L
0
= = ì
3
t t
0
=
o
1
0 = o
2
o = o
3
0 =
ì
1
1 =
X, λ
1
Y, λ
2
Z, λ
3
0.99996 0.99997 0.99998 0.99999 1.00000
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
λ
2
λ
1
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Simple Shear Test
a. Deformation state:
b. Stress state:
The dual lap simple shear test is used in the tire industry. As a result of
low shear strains, the end plates do not move in the vertical direction in
this test. The quad lap simple shear test is used by the bearings
industry. Since the material shear requirements are much higher, the end
plates in the quad lap shear test are allowed to move in the vertical
direction due to development of very high normal stresses (in
mechanics, this phenomenon is termed as Poynting Effect). This test
does not allow for the measurement of compressibility and as such this
the volumetric compression test can be performed or the material
assumed to be incompressible.
81)

Dual Lap Shear Test
Quad Lap Shear Test
X
1
X
2
¸ atan
¸ ì
1
ì
--- – =
t V ,
1
2
3
ì
1
ì
2
ì
1
1
¸
2
2
----- ¸ 1
¸
2
4
----- + + + =
ì
2
1
¸
2
2
----- ¸ 1
¸
2
4
----- + – + =
ì
3
1 =
o
12
t V A
o
= =
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Volumetric Test
a. Specimen size: 3 mm diameter x 2 mm thickness. Eight buttons
stacked and lubricated with silicone oil.
b. Deformation state:
, ,
c. Stress state:
A
0
is the cross-sectional area of the plunger and P is the force on the
plunger. Information regarding the bulk modulus can also be obtained by
measuring relative areas in an uniaxial tensile or biaxial test. In this case,
volumetric tests need not be performed. Otherwise this volumetric test
may be performed. Furthermore, if a bulk modulus is not supplied, Marc
will estimate it. For example, when using Mooney-Rivlin forms of the strain
energy density, Marc estimates the bulk modulus as .
Whereas for Ogden models, Marc estimates the bulk modulus as
. Plotting volumetric along side simple compression
expresses rubber’s incompressibility.
For materials where compressibility is very significant, for example, foams,
volumetric tests may be performed by using a pressurized incompressible
fluid such as water and the corresponding deformation and stress states
are:
a. Deformation state: , ,
b. Stress state:
where: , and p is the fluid pressure.
1
2
3
Volumetric Compression Test
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
ì
1
1 = ì
2
1 = ì
3
L L
0
=
o
1
o
2
o
3
P A
0
– = = =
K 10000 C
10
C
01
+ ( ) =
K 2500 µ
n
o
n
n 1 =
N
¿
=
Volumetric Compression
Slope = 3K @ e = 0
P/A
o
P/A
o
~ 3K(ΔV/V
o
)
ΔV/V
o
Simple Compression
Slope = 3G @ e = 0
P/A
o
ΔL/L
o
P/A
o
~ 3G(ΔL/L
o
)
K >>> G for Rubber
ì
1
ì = ì
2
ì = ì
3
ì =
o
1
o
2
o
3
p – = = =
ì V V
0
( )
1 3
=
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Viscoelastic Stress Relaxation Test
When a constant strain is applied to a rubber sample, the force necessary
to maintain that strain is not constant but decreases with time, this
behavior is called stress relaxation. Conversely, when a rubber sample is
subjected to a constant stress, an increase in the deformation takes place
with time, this behavior is called creep. Stress relaxation of a material can
be measured in tension, biaxial tension, compression, or shear.
Fortunately visocelastic behavior not being sensitive to the deformation
mode can be determined by a tensile test being the easiest to perform. A
simple loading experiment where the a specimen is stretched to a set
strain and allowed to relax may be performed to provide sufficient data to
model this behavior. The material data is typically fitted using a Prony or
exponential series expansion. The accuracy with which this may be fitted
is sensitive to the number of decades of time data. This means that the
relaxation data from 0.1 second to 1 second is as valuable to the fit as the
relaxation data from 1 second to 10 seconds and so on. As such, proper
data collection early in the experiment can provide several decades of
time data without running the experiment over several days.
The link below is a discussion of stress relaxation testing and the use of
Arrhenius plots to estimate the useful lifetime of elastomeric components.
http://www.axelproducts.com/downloads/Relax.pdf
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
0.0
0.3
0.6
0.9
1.2
Stress @ 50% Strain
Stress @ 30% Strain
Eng. Stress [MPa]
Time [sec]
Viscoelastic Tensile Test
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
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Friction
Because elastomers are commonly used in sealing applications, friction
plays an important role in the performance of these applications. Friction
is the force that resists the sliding of two surfaces relative to each other.
The friction force is: (1) approximately independent of the area of contact
over a wide limits and (2) is proportional to the normal force between the
two surfaces. These two laws of friction were discovered experimentally
by Leonardo da Vinci in the 13th century, rediscovered in 1699 by G.
Amontons and latter refined by Charles Coulomb in the 16th century.
Coulomb performed many experiments on friction and pointed out the
difference between static and dynamic friction. This type of friction is
referred to as Coulomb friction today. In order to model friction in finite
element analysis, one needs to measure the aforementioned
proportionally factor or coefficient of friction, . The measurement of
is depicted here where a sled with a rubber bottom is pulled along a
glass surface. The normal force is known and the friction force is
measured. Various lubricants are placed between the two surfaces
which greatly influence the friction forces measured.
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

N
o
r
m
a
l

F
o
r
c
e
F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

F
o
r
c
e
Position
Friction Data
Friction Test
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
µ µ
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Adjusting Raw Data
The stress strain response of a typical test are shown at the right as taken
from the laboratory equipment. In its raw form, the data is not ready for
fitting to a hyperelastic material model. It needs to be adjusted.
The raw data is adjusted as shown by isolating a stable upload cycle. In
doing this hysteresis is ignored. This cycle needs to be shifted such that
the curve passes through the origin. Remember hyperelastic models must
be elastic and have their stress vanish to zero when the strain is zero.This
shift changes the apparent gauge length and original cross sectional area.
Letting be the raw data selected and defining
, then the adjusted data
becomes: .
There is nothing special about using the upload curve, the entire stable
hysteresis cycle can be entered for the curve fit once shifted to zero stress
for zero strain. Fitting a single cycle gives an average single equilibrium
curve to represent the hysteresis of that cycle. Also one may enter more
data points in important strain regions than other regions. The curve fit will
give a closer fit were there are more points.
After shifting each mode to pass through the origin, the adjusted data
curves are shown here. Very many elastomeric materials have this basic
shape of the three modes, with uniaxial, planar shear and biaxial having
increasing stress for the same strain, respectively. Typically examining the
shifted curves, one observes that the ratio of equal biaxial to uniaxial stress
is about 2. With the adjusted data, a hyperelastic fit can be generated like
the Arruda-Boyce material shown here.
Acknowledgements
MSC.Software Corporation is greatly indebted for the generous help
provided by the Akron Rubber Development Laboratory, Inc. and Axel
Products, Inc. in the preparation of this section. A more in depth
presentation “Testing Elastomers for Hyperelastic Material Models in Finite
Element Analysis” is available from the Axel Products web site
below.Further information on material testing may be obtained from:
Akron Rubber Development Laboratory, Inc.
www.ardl.com
2887 Gilchrist Road
Akron, Ohio 44305
Tel: (330) 794-6600Fax: (330) 794-6610
Axel Products, Inc.
www.axelproducts.com
2255 S. Industrial Hwy.
Ann Arbor MI 48104
Tel: (734) 994-8308Fax: (734) 994-8309
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Planar Shear
Biaxial
Tension
Engineering Strain
Engineering Stress [MPa]
uniaxial/arruda_boyce uniaxial/experiment
1.529
9.1 0
(x.1)
0
biaxial/experiment biaxial/arruda_boyce
planar_shear/experiment planar_shear/arruda_boyce
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Equal Biaxial
Engineering Stress [MPa]
Engineering Strain [1]
Planar Shear
Tension
Stable Upload Cycle
Fit for Arruda-Boyce
Adjusted Data
Raw Data
phys i cal tes ti ng s er vi ces
Mar103
o' c' , ( )
o
p
c
p
, ( ) Min o' c' , ( ) =
c c' c
p
– ( ) 1 c
p
+ ( ) =
o o' o
p
– ( ) 1 c
p
+ ( ) =
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APPENDIX D ANSWERS TO COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS IN RUBBER PRODUCT
DESIGN
1. What can one expect from the Finite Element Analysis?
The quality of the finite element results depends on several factors including computational technology in
the code, experience and level of understanding of the analyst, and the interpretation of the results.
Deficiencies in any of the above can lead to erroneous results or a poor design. However, an experienced
analyst, who has a good understanding of the design process and the mechanics involved, can use the
analysis judiciously as a verification as well as a predictive tool for better product and process design.
2. How do analysis and testing compliment each other?
Testing comes at two different levers:
(i) Material Testing: Depending on the anticipated deformation, different types of tests can be chosen for
determination of material coefficients. The quality of results is significantly affected by appropriate
choice of tests and equally importantly, maintaining material stability with obtained coefficients.
(ii) Product Testing: Several iterations in the development cycle can be bypassed if the design is first
simulated by analysis. Only incremental changes will then be necessary to fine tune the prototype.
3. How do you know the answer is correct in a nonlinear Finite Element Analysis?
Previous experience, laboratory testing, code verification against analytical solution and simpler problems,
and, above all, the intuition and engineering judgement of the analyst are the key factors in obtaining an
accurate answer.
4. Why is Finite Element Analysis necessary along with testing?
Analysis does not replace component testing, but it will significantly reduce the product testing for
performance and integrity. Several parametric sensitivity analysis before the mold design stage can
significantly reduce the development cycle of the product. Typically, analysis and testing can be used
hand-in-hand to iterate for a better design for manufacturing.
5. Which rubber material data is needed for nonlinear analysis (Uniaxial, Equibiaxial, Shear)?
For characterizing the time independent behavior of rubber, the following tests can be done:
(i) Uniaxial tension or compression
(ii) Equibiaxial tension
(iii) Simple shear
(iv) Planar shear
(v) Volumetric
Calculation of the material coefficients for strain energy function requires simultaneous fitting to more than
one deformation mode. Besides the uniaxial tension (or compression), another deformation mode should
be selected depending on the application of the rubber component. For foam-like materials, a volumetric
test is required.
To include strain-rate effects into the model (viscoelasticity), one requires either:
(i) Stress-Relaxation test or
(ii) Creep test
The stress-strain data must be obtained by applying ramp type loading if damage or stiffness degradation
is to be considered in the elastomer.
Finally, during the fitting of the experimental data, care must be taken to insure the positive-definiteness of
the material matrix as dictated by Drucker’s Stability Postulate.
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6. How realistically will the code simulate multiple deformation modes (for example, Tension, Compression, and
Shear)?
Multiple deformation modes can be accurately predicted by fitting experimental data of these deformation
modes simultaneously. The kinematics of deformation in Marc is general enough to accommodate any
deformation mode.
7. How to incorporate stress relaxation and creep behavior of rubber in Finite Element Analysis?
Stress relaxation and creep phenomenon can be modeled by a finite strain viscoelasticity model in Marc.
The viscous response is characterized by a linear rate equation leading to a convolution representation
generalizing viscoelastic models. For extremely small or very large relaxation times, general finite elasticity
is recovered.
8. What type of elements should be used for Finite Element Analysis of incompressible materials such as rubber?
Typically in elastomeric analysis, the nearly incompressible material behavior is modeled by using two- or
three-field variational principle giving rise to the mixed elements. In Marc, either standard displacement
based or Herrmann elements can be used for elastomer analysis since they treat the incompressibility
constraint the same way. Compressible foam material can be modeled with standard displacement
elements. The cord-rubber composites can be analyzed by using rebar elements. Analysis can be done
using continuum, shell, or membrane elements depending on the kinematics of deformation.
Computational efficiency can be obtained by reduced integration elements (requiring hourglass control for
the lower-order elements). Thermal effects can be modeled using the heat transfer elements. Recently,
special triangular and tetrahedral elements satisfying incompressibility conditions have been introduced to
model elastomers.
9. What are the material models available in the program?
Marc offers a rich library of several material models, namely:
(i) Generalized Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, Boyce-Arruda, and Gent models for elastomers.
(ii) Foam
(iii) Finite strain viscoelasticity model appropriate for elastomers and Narayanswamy nonlinear
viscoelasticity model for glass
(iv) User subroutines allow the user to implement his/her own model (finite strain kinematics information
is passed to the user) which may include temperature effects or internal variables in the model.
(v) Discontinuous and Continuous Damage models to represent progressive stiffness loss, Mullins’
effect, and fatigue behavior of the elastomer.
10. What are the major strategies for getting convergence for a rubber model?
Typically, full Newton-Raphson or secant methods are used to solve the nonlinear system of equations.
When instabilities, buckling, snap-through phenomenon exist, then an arc length procedure needs to be
used. Marc includes the full Newton-Raphson as well as arc length procedure for the analysis.
11. What are the convergence criteria?
Several convergence criterion exist in Marc, based on:
(i) Displacement
(ii) Rotation
(iii) Residual force
(iv) Residual moment
(v) Strain energy
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12. How to incorporate damage phenomena into Finite Element Analysis?
Damage effects can be incorporated in the analysis in two different ways. In a phenomenological model,
the Kachanov factor for damage can be modified to accommodate the degradation of material properties
with time through the Marc UELDAM user subroutine. Both, Mullin’s model for discontinuous damage and
Miehe’s model for continuous damage are available in Marc.
13. How to consider fatigue in a rubber Finite Element Analysis?
Fatigue behavior due to cyclic loading and unloading of a rubber component can be simulated by Marc
through the Continuous Damage Model due to C. Miehe. The model is available for all elastomeric strains
energy functions in Marc. It allows modeling hysteresis and progressive loss of stiffness due to cyclic
loading
14. How to model a dynamic rubber part with large deflection?
Small amplitude vibrations superposed on large static deflection can be analyzed by frequency domain
dynamic analysis. Marc uses the phi-function approach to modal the vibrations in a sinusiodally excited,
deformed viscoelastic solid.
15. How to incorporate a failure criteria into a Finite Element Analysis?
Simple fatigue, damage crack growth, and wear models can be used to analyze failure. Marc offers two
different damage models: discontinuous damage model (to model Mullins’ effect) and the continuous
damage model (simulate fatigue behavior). Crack propagation is modeled using the energy release rate
method using the quarter-point elements. The wear models can be constructed with the information
regarding relative slip between contact bodies and the frictional forces given out in the program. Several
subroutines exist in Marc to facilitate the user in developing his/her own failure models.
16. Do you have a quick summary of the deformation modes, deformation gradient, and principal stretch ratios?
X
x
1
x
2
x
3
=
F =
λ
i
, i = 1, 2, 3
b λ
i
2
I – 0 =
λX
1
X
2
λ
-------
X
3
λ
-------
λ 0 0
0
1
λ
------- 0
0 0
1
λ
-------
λ
2
0 0
0
1
λ
--- 0
0 0
1
λ
---
λ
1 λ /
1 λ /
λX
1
λX
2
X
3
λ
2
------
λ 0 0
0 λ 0
0 0
1
λ
2
-----
λ
2
0 0
0 λ
2
0
0 0
1
λ
4
-----
λ
λ
1 λ
2
/
b = F F
T
λX
1
X
2
λ
------
X
3
λ 0 0
0
1
λ
--- 0
0 0 1
λ
2
0 0
0
1
λ
2
----- 0
0 0 1
λ
1/λ
1
X
1
γX
2
+
X
2
X
3
1
γ
0
0 1 0
0 0 1
1
γ
2
+
γ
0
0 0
γ 1 0
1
1
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ γ
2
2
---- 1
2
4
---- + + +
1
2
2
---- 1
2
4
---- + – +
1
Univolumetric Simple Shear Planar Biaxial Uniaxial Modes:
X
1
X
2
λX
3
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 λ
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 λ
2
1
1
λ
Maping
Deformation
Gradient
Figer
Tensor
Principal
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SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING
Contact Problems, Static and Kinetic Friction
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Ogden, R.W. “Elastic Deformations in Rubberlike Solids,” in Mechanics of Solids (Eds. H.G. Hopkins and M.J.
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Padovan, J.F., F. Tabaddor, and A. Gent. “Surface Wrinkles and Local Bifurcations in Elastomeric Components:
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Numerical Methods
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PREFACE
MSC.Software Corporation, the worldwide leader in rubber analysis, would like to share some of our experiences and expertise in analyzing elastomers with you. This White Paper introduces you to the nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) of rubber-like polymers generally grouped under the name “elastomers”. You may have a nonlinear rubber problem—and not even know it... The Paper is primarily intended for two types of readers: ENGINEERING MANAGERS who are involved in manufacturing of elastomeric components, but do not currently possess nonlinear FEA tools, or who may have an educational/professional background other than mechanical engineering. DESIGN ENGINEERS who are perhaps familiar with linear, or even nonlinear, FEA concepts but would like to know more about analyzing elastomers. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic principles in strength of materials theory. The contents of this White Paper are intentionally organized for the convenience of these two kinds of readers. For an “Engineering Manager”, topics of interest include, an Executive Summary to obtain an overview of the subject, the Case Studies to see some real-world rubber FEA applications, and any other industry specific topics. The “Design Engineer”, on the other hand, can examine the significant features on analysis of elastomers (which constitute the bulk of the Paper). The Appendices describe the physics and mechanical properties of rubber, proper modeling of incompressibility in rubber FEA, and most importantly, testing methods for determination of material properties. Simulation issues and useful hints are found throughout the text and in the Case Studies. Rubber FEA is an extensive subject, which involves rubber chemistry, manufacturing processes, material characterization, finite element theory, and the latest advances in computational mechanics. A selected list of Suggestions for Further Reading is included. These references cite some of the most recent research on FEA of elastomers and demonstrate practical applications. They are categorized by subject for readers convenience. On the Cover The cover shows a deformed configuration of a washing machine seal with fringe plots of deformation magnitude. You can observe the wrinkling the seal undergoes due to excessive deformation.

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MSC.Software: Whitepaper - Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. Material Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2-1. Time-Independent Nonlinear Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 2-2. Viscoelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 2-3. Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 2-4. Hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 2-5. Other Polymeric Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Determination of Material Parameters from Test Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Damage and Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Dynamics, Vibrations, and Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Contact Analysis Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Solution Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Adaptive Remeshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Current Trends and Future Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 User Conveniences and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

Case Studies A. B. C. D. E. F. O-Ring Under Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Car Tire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Constant-Velocity Rubber Boot Compression and Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Rubber Mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Car Door Seal: Automated Multibody Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Downhole Oil Packer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

Appendices A. B. C. D. Physics of Rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Mechanics of Rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Material Testing Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Answers to Commonly Asked Questions in Rubber Product Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67

Suggestions for Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 About MSC.Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

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Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This white paper discusses the salient features regarding the mechanics and finite element analysis (FEA) of elastomers.WHITEPAPER MSC. Therefore. Although. rubber can undergo large reversible elastic deformations. prosthesis. it will return to its original shape after removal of the load. plastics. this White Paper should be of value not only to the rubber and tire industries. and variable stiffness. Unless damage occurs. but also to those involved in the following: • Glass. athletic protection gear. monitoring equipment • Highway safety and flight safety— seat belt design. impact analysis. Elastomers are used extensively in many industries because of their wide availability and low cost. moldability. long service life. and solid propellant industries • Biomechanics and the medical/ dental professions—implantable surgery devices. orthopedics. orthodontics. ability to seal against moisture. plastics. wheelchairs and beds. and biomaterials. artificial limbs. flexibility. sports equipment safety. seat and padding design. O-ring Car Tire Rubber Boot Shock Mount Car Door Seal Oil Packer Rubber is a very unique material. During processing and shaping. artificial organs. and pressure. the main focus of the paper is on elastomers (or rubber-like materials) and foams. They are also used because of their excellent damping and energy absorption characteristics. After its polymer chains have been crosslinked by vulcanization (or by curing). non-toxic properties. many of these concepts are also applicable to the FEA of glass. passenger protection • Packaging industry • Sports and consumer industries— helmet design. it behaves mostly like a highly viscous fluid. ceramic. resiliency. shoe design. -4- . dental implants.Software: Whitepaper . heat.

sustaining strains of up to 500 percent in engineering applications. 3. MSC. Marc possesses specially-formulated elements. making it similar to glass and plastics in this respect. cracking.Software: Whitepaper .Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Proper analysis of rubber components requires special material modeling and nonlinear finite element analysis tools that are quite different than those used for metallic parts. nonlinear analysis. Nonlinear material behavior—compressible or incompressible material models. Failure—causes and analysis of failure resulting due to material damage and degradation. material and friction models. Y 3 ELEMENT 2 NODE 1 X 1956: Triangular Element 1970s: Gap Elements 2. and automated contact analysis procedures to model elastomers. The nonlinear FEA program. This means its volume does not change appreciably with stress. industry-scale problems are highlighted throughout this white paper. time and temperature effects. Automated Remeshing . plastics. damping. 4.WHITEPAPER MSC. 2. Automated solution strategies—issues related to model preparation. how to “curve fit” test data and derive parameters necessary to characterize a material. It is nearly incompressible. the assumption of near incompressibility is relaxed. This makes Marc uniquely suitable for the simulation of complex physics of rubber.Software Corporation offers a well-balanced combination of sophisticated analysis code integrated seamlessly with easy-to-use Graphical User Interface (GUI) Mentat and Patran. Efficient and realistic analysis for design of elastomeric products relies on several important concepts outlined below: 1. time versus frequency domain viscoelastic analysis. Modern automated contact analysis techniques—friction effects. and biomaterials. Its behavior is time. that is. and ease-of-use of the simulation software. 5. 4. and debonding. 3. it exhibits significant damping properties. It cannot be compressed significantly under hydrostatic load.for effective solution of problems involving distorted meshes which can lead to premature termination of analysis. The following sections briefly explains the ‘insides’ of a nonlinear FEA code (and its differences from a linear FEA program) along with the accompanying GUI capabilities. harmonic analysis of viscoelastic materials. parallelization. The unique properties of rubber are such that: 1. Capabilities and uniqueness of Marc in analyzing large. foam. Its load-extension behavior is markedly nonlinear. -5- . glass. for the simulation of elastomeric products. It can undergo large deformations under load. hysteresis due to cyclic loading and manifestation of instabilities. and implicit versus explicit direct time integration methods. 6. Because it is viscoelastic. Determination of Material Parameters from Test Data—perhaps the single most troublesome step for most engineers in analyzing elastomers.and temperature-dependent. since large volume change can be achieved by the application of relatively moderate stresses. presence of anisotropy due to fillers or fibers. Dynamics—shock and vibration isolation concerns. and the use of “contact bodies” to handle boundary conditions at an interface. For certain foam rubber materials.

• MARC pioneered use of rigid or deformable contact bodies in an automated solution procedure to solve 2-D variable contact problems—typically found in metal forming and rubber applications. Also. like displacements. and Topp (using triangles). and coupled field problems still require extensive research. first introduction of large-strain viscoelastic capabilities for rubber materials by MARC. thousands of simultaneous equations are typically solved using computers. Argyris published work on energy methods in structural analysis (creating the “Force Method” of FEA). nonlinear general-purpose FEA code.” Herrmann developed first “mixed method” solution for incompressible and nearly incompressible isotropic materials. the most popular example of which is the Galerkin method (see any of the finite element texts listed in the Suggestions for Further Reading section at the back). It was the world's first commercial.WHITEPAPER The Finite Element Method MSC. (The user needs to know a priori where to specify these interface elements—not an easy task!) 1974 1979 1985 MARC introduced Mooney-Rivlin model and special Herrmann elements to analyze incompressible behavior. S. and that areas such as damage. or the hydrostatic pressure. A structure is idealized as many small. Special viscoelastic models for harmonic analysis to model damping behavior introduced by MARC. Clough first coined the term “Finite Element Method. In structural analysis. Classical paper on the “Displacement (Stiffness) Method” of FEA by Turner.Software: Whitepaper . It is based on the principle of virtual work. crack initiation and propagation. nonlinear analysis. Martin. and Herrmann extended Herrmann's work to orthotropic materials. History of Nonlinear and Rubber FEA A National Research Council report on computational mechanics research needs in the 1990s [Oden. First release of the Marc program by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. One approximation method is the so-called weighted residuals method.W. Taylor. 1970s-todayMost FEA codes claiming ability to analyze contact problems use “gap” or “interface” elements. 1991] emphasized the “materials” field as a national critical technology for the United States. which are connected at nodes. MARC. Before embarking on the issues related to the material behavior. Prager and Synge used triangular elements to solve a 2-D elasticity problem using the “hypercircle method”. Clough. discrete pieces called finite elements. In finite element analysis. -6- . rotations.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers The finite element method is a computer-aided engineering technique for obtaining approximate numerical solutions to boundary value problems which predict the response of physical systems subjected to external loads. Pister. Key extended it to anisotropy [1969]. it is interesting to review how the finite element method has matured in the past sixty years—paying special attention to recent improvements in nonlinear FEA techniques for handling rubber contact problems: 1943 1947 1954-55 1956 1960 1965 1968 1971 Applied mathematician Courant used triangular elements to solve a torsion problem. the unknowns are the nodal degrees of freedom. Generalized Maxwell model added shortly thereafter. • Oden and Martins published comprehensive treatise on modeling and computational issues for dynamic friction phenomena.

MARC introduced Adaptive Meshing Capability. Martins. • Coupled structural-acoustic model for harmonic analysis. This makes it possible to calculate the J-integral for rubber applications. MARC introduced Rubber Foam model. MARC introduced fully parallel software based on domain decomposition. Inc.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers • Oden and Kikuchi published monograph on contact problems in elasticity—treating this class of problems as variational inequalities.WHITEPAPER 1988 MSC. MARC was acquired by MSC. is introduced which is more accurate than the model using the velocitybased smoothing function. and Simoes published exhaustive study on static and kinetic friction (concentrating on metal contact). bilinear. 1990 1991 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2003 Marc introduced the following: • Steady state tire rolling • Cavity pressure calculation • Insert option for tire chords • Global adaptive meshing in 3-D • The J-integral (Lorenzi option) now supports large strains. 2005 Marc introduced the following: • Global adaptive meshing allows general boundary conditions in 3-D • New unified rubber model with improved volumetric behavior • Coupling with CFD using MPCCI • Global adaptive remeshing enhanced in two-dimensional analyses such that distributed loads and nodal boundary conditions are reapplied to the model after remeshing occurs. based on the updated Lagrangian formulation. • A framework. users can easily define their own generalized strain energy function models through a UELASTOMER user subroutine. Within the framework. has been set up for hyperelastic material models. MARC and Axel Products. both in the total and the updated Lagrange formulation. • A new friction model.Software: Whitepaper . MARC introduced Ogden rubber model and rubber damage model. • MARC extended automated contact FEA capability to 3-D problems. • Strain energy is correctly output for rubber models in total Lagrangian analysis. Oden. and less expensive and more general than the stick-slip model. to create “Experimental Elastomer Analysis” course MARC introduced Narayanswamy model for Glass Relaxation behavior. arc tangent.Software Marc introduced the following: • Boyce-Arruda and Gent rubber models • Special lower-order triangular and tetrahedral elements to handle incompressible materials • Global adaptive remeshing for rubber and metallic materials. -7- .

The benefits of performing nonlinear FEA of elastomeric products are essentially the same as those for linear FEA. Understand by involving yourself in the corresponding workshop problems to touch and feel the curve fitting of hyperelastic constants. thereby ensuring a competitive edge. Furthermore. preferably from the CAD. The advantages of this enhanced design process include: improved performance and quality of the finished product. Learn how to distinguish a good hyperelastic curve fit from a poor one. faster time to market. -8- . verification of structural integrity before prototyping. and overall reduction of development and production costs. that is. optimal use of materials.WHITEPAPER 2007 Marc introduced the following: MSC. a good predictive capability can help to reduce the scrap rate in manufacturing stage. FEA should be an integral part of the design process. “green” stage to the finally “molded” state. weight savings.Software: Whitepaper .Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers • Virtual Crack Closure Technique with remeshing to see crack growth during the loading. • Cohesive zone method (CZM) for delamination • Connector elements for assembly modeling • Steady state tire rolling • Puck and Hashin failure criteria • Crack propagation in 2-D using global adaptive remeshing • Simplified nonlinear elastic material models • Solid shell element which can be used with elastomeric materials • Nonlinear cyclic symmetry • Rubber example using volumetric strain energy function 2008 Marc introduced the following: • Simple material mixture model • Moment carrying glued contact • Hilbert-Hughes-Taylor Dynamic procedure • Interface elements added automatically on crack opening with adaptive meshing 2010 Marc introduced the following: • Incorporated generalized 5th order Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model • Parallel solver technology to utilize multi-core processors • Segment to segment contact • On-demand video training for the Mar103 Experimental Elastomer Analysis course where you can see and hear how eight of the experiments in Appendix C are conducted. Click here for a four minute video summary.

6 0. A brief overview of the concepts of nonlinearity and the stress-strain descriptions suitable for nonlinear analysis is presented first. anisotropy. Hyperelastic (Neo-Hookean Law) It is very instructive to view the stress-strain behavior for rubber.) Bending --------E = PL 3δI 3 P. The most important concept to recognize about rubber is that its deformation is not directly proportional to the applied load.0 0.0 100% strain with each cycle repeated twice. Stress [MPa] a tensile test is preformed on a synthetic rubber called EPDM 2. Linear Elastic Behavior (Hooke’s Law) “As the extension. The features of time-independent and dependent material behavior. 50% and 2. Apply twice the load. In most applications this one time Eng. For a steel spring under small strain. and the deflections are such that they do not cause the spring to yield or break. it is most common to measure elastomeric experimental data using engineering stress and engineering strain measures. it exhibits a 'nonlinear' behavior. it is very stiff. the typical force-displacement (or stressstrain) plot is thus a straight line.) Tension P/A E = ------------------( ΔL ) / L P. Changing the material from steel to rubber.0 0. so the force” [Hooke 1660] suggested a simple linear relation exists between force (stress) and deflection (strain). Strain [1] very stiff event is usually discarded where it is assumed in these 0. this means that the force is the product of the stiffness and the deflection or. whereby the engineering stress is the current force is divided by the original area. While we may think Hooke’s Law is simple. We must be careful in what we seek. obtain twice the deflection. Δ L A L T.WHITEPAPER MSC.Software: Whitepaper . All test data presented and discussed herein will use engineering stress and engineering strain measures. This phenomenon is often 0. For a linear spring. but upon recycling in this same strain territory. 20%. how it is measured. Any material behavior must be determined experimentally. δ I 4. the deflection can be obtained by dividing the force by the spring stiffness. the rubber softens dramatically. torsion. where the stiffness represents the slope.5 areas. other polymeric materials which share common material characteristics with elastomers are reviewed. E. and other polymeric materials are detailed next.8 1. Measured? 1. -9How is Young’s Modulus.0 Eng. This relation is valid as long as the spring remains linear elastic.2 0. stress is never proportional to strain.0 the first time.5 referred to as the Mullins’ effect. In the final note. and the wide variety of rubber compounds make this experimental determination even more important. First. hysteresis. since the material knows nothing about Hooke’s Law or these simple formulas. as the rubber is deformed into a larger strain territory for 1. let’s examine how to measure Young’s modulus. bending.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 2 MATERIAL BEHAVIOR This section discusses the issues central to the description of material modeling of elastomers. wave speed? Performing these four tests shall yield four different values of Young’s modulus for the same material. and how what we measure is used in analysis.) Torsion Tc / J E = 2( 1 + υ ) (-----------.4 0. and the engineering strain is the change in length divided by the original length. φ J 2. What test should we use: tension. The stress-strain behavior of rubber is very different from Hooke’s Law in four basic 1.5 (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) cycled to 10%.) Wave Speed E = v ρ 2 ρ ((( Are all four E measured the same? . in other words. Nonlinear elasticity has several stress and strain measures (Appendix B).0 1. however. the forcedisplacement curve is no longer linear.2 applications repetitive behavior will dominate.) φ 3. Here 3.

8 Eng. Also discarded with the “one time” stiffness event is the shifting of the data to go through the origin. data from these three modes becomes more important to prevent spurious analytical behavior not observed experimentally.4 -0. there is always a viscoelastic effect present in rubber leading to a stable hysteresis loop when cycled over the same strain range. As Treloar [1975] points out.0 0.Software: Whitepaper . biaxial and planar shear are show here with their corresponding stress-strain responses.2 Eng.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Secondly.0 Original Data 1.0 0. this will cause an apparent change in gage length and original cross sectional area.6 0. Stress [MPa] 0. say tension.6 0.4 0. The incompressibility of rubber with its ratio of bulk to shear modulus over 1.8 Eng.5 1.2 Eng.8 1.2 -5 0.2 The third area of difference between hyperelastic laws and Hooke’s law.0 0.6 0.4 -0.0 1. 3. Hyperelastic models seek to find a simple equilibrium curve. For example. As the hyperelastic laws become more sophisticated with more constants to be determined experimentally. Hooke’s law always assumes that stress is proportional to strain. Gent or Arruda-Boyce hyperelastic material models to be safe. any comprehensive treatment of rubber behavior should address these different strain states.5 2. is the enormous difference between tension and compression of hyperelastic materials. Strain [1] -40 Hookean Hyperelastic (Yeoh) -60 -80 -100 The final difference between hyperelastic laws (there are many) and Hooke’s law is the sensitivity of the hyperelastic constants to deformation states.0 Eng. uniaxial. If you only have one mode.WHITEPAPER MSC. not a hysteresis loop because viscoelastic effects may be included as we shall see later. a requirement for hyperelastic materials. This shift ignores irreversible damage in the material when first stretched.4 0. Stress [MPa] 0.2 0. stick to the Neo-Hookean (one constant Mooney).2 -20 0. Stress [MPa] Equilibrium Curve Shift Data 2. whereas this is never observed for elastomeric materials. hence Hooke’s law is inadequate for rubber. Strain [1] -10 -15 uniaxial biaxial -20 -25 planar shear -10- .000 times larger than steel. 5 -0. Strain [1] 0. 20 -0.4 0.5 Eng. causes the larger stress magnitudes in compression as compared to tension for the same strain magnitude.

whereas the dilitation component is of most concern for foams.Software: Whitepaper . Strain Energy Density Functions Elastomeric material models are characterized by different forms of their strain energy (density) functions. I 3 = 1 . the rod would have a strain energy density function of: 2 2 2 2 2 W = C 10  I 1 – 3  = C 10   1 +  2 +  3 – 3  = C 10   + -. which are used in many strain energy functions. In large deformation analysis of nonlinear materials (such as elastomers). This section is referring to only that function of the product that depends on strain. I 2 =  1  2 +  2  3 +  3  1 . .    2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 and the stress becomes:  = W = 2C10   – ----- = G  1 +  – -----------------. the simplest model of rubber elasticity is the NeoHookean model represented by a strain energy density of: W = C 10  I 1 – 3  . namely. the intensity of force. If we pull a slender rubber rod along its length. I j for j = 1 3 . if we apply an in-plane. From statistical mechanics and thermodynamics principals.  (or stretch) is defined as the ratio of the deformed gauge length L divided by the initial gauge length L 0 . If we take the derivative of W with respect to strain. where e is the engineering strain. Generally. Such a material is also called hyperelastic. strain energy density functions and incompressibility constraint. The commonly available strain energy functions have been represented either in terms of the strain invariants which are functions of the stretch ratios or directly in terms of the stretch ratios themselves. one that depends on strain (or stretch ratio). we can define three principal stretch ratios in the three respective principal directions. the stretch ratio.  = L  L0 =  L0 + L – L0   L 0 = 1 +  L – L0   L 0 = 1 + e . is of most concern for elastomers. Assuming a Neo-Hookean material. the stretch ratios are a convenient measure of deformation and are used to define strain invariants. Furthermore if our rod is incompressible. In case of perfectly incompressible material.– 3 . The strain energy density is usually represented as a product of two functions. W .Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers This section discusses aspects of nonlinear elasticity: namely. We shall discuss the deviatoric component first. where the dilitational part. Stretch Ratio Strain is the intensity of deformation. Let’s now suppose our uniaxial rod above is stretched so  1 =  where  is an arbitrary stretch along the rods length. In Marc. Implicit in the use of these functions (usually denoted by W ) is the assumption that the material is isotropic and elastic. The three strain invariants can be expressed as: I 1 =  1 +  2 +  3 . This model exhibits a single modulus ( 2C 10 = G ). biaxial load to a piece of rubber. I 3 =  1  2  3 .1 Time-independent Nonlinear Elasticity MSC. and gives a good correlation with the experimental data up to 40% strain in uniaxial tension and up to 90% strains in simple shear. another that depends on time.   2 2   1 +  -11- . the strain energy function is composed of a deviatoric (shear) and dilitational (volumetric) component as: W total = W + W dilitation .WHITEPAPER 2. then  2 = 3 = 1   so that  1  2  3 = 1 . we obtain the stress.

8 Tschoegl's investigations [Tschoegl. it has been found inadequate in describing the compression mode of deformation.4 0. The Arruda-Boyce model claims to ameliorate this defect and is unique since the standard tensile test data provides sufficient accuracy for multiple modes of deformation at all strain levels.4 0. Although. All the models listed above account for non-constant shear modulus. so Young’s modulus becomes 3G ).4 0. the Mooney-Rivlin model fails to account for the hardening of the material at large strains.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Plotting stress versus strain for our Neo-Hookean rod along side a Hookean rod (whose Poisson’s ratio is 0. The models along these lines incorporated in Marc are: Three term Mooney-Rivlin: W = C 10  I 1 – 3  + C 01  I 2 – 3  + C 11  I 1 – 3   I 2 – 3  Signiorini: W = C 10  I 1 – 3  + C 01  I 2 – 3  + C 20  I 1 – 3  2 Third Order Invariant: W = C 10  I 1 – 3  + C 01  I 2 – 3  + C 11  I 1 – 3   I 2 – 3  + C 20  I 1 – 3  2 Third Order Deformation (or James-Green-Simpson): W = C 10  I 1 – 3  + C 01  I 2 – 3  + C 11  I 1 – 3   I 2 – 3  + C 20  I 1 – 3  + C 30  I 1 – 3  2 3 This family of polynomial strain energy functions has been generalized to a complete 5th order. since this may result in unstable energy functions yielding nonphysical results outside the range of the experimental data. -12- .4 0. -0. The earliest phenomenological theory of nonlinear elasticity was proposed by Mooney as: W = C 10  I 1 – 3  + C 01  I 2 – 3  . 1971] underscored the fact that the retention of higher order terms in the generalized Mooney-Rivlin polynomial function of strain energy led to a better agreement with test data for both unfilled as well as filled rubbers. However. Notice how much compression differs from tension for Neo-Hookean behavior. caution needs to be exercised when applying this model for deformations involving low strains [Yeoh. Please see Appendix B for issues regarding material stability.8 5 -0. namely: W =   Cij  I1 – 3   I2 – 3  i = 1j = 1 5 5 i j .8 5 Eng.8 -25 -0. caution needs to be exercised on inclusion of higher order terms to fit the data. 1995]. it shows a good agreement with tensile test data up to 100% strains. This leads to reduced requirements on material testing. The Yeoh model differs from the above higher order models in that it depends on the first strain invariant only: W = C 10  I 1 – 3  + C 20  I 1 – 3  + C 30  I 1 – 3  2 3 This model is more versatile than the others since it has been demonstrated to fit various modes of deformation using the data obtained from a uniaxial tension test only for certain rubber compounds. Moreover.Software: Whitepaper .5. has the linear Hookean behavior tangent at the origin to the Neo-Hookean curve.0 0.WHITEPAPER MSC. However.0 0. Stress/G 0 Hookean 0 -5 -5 -10 -10 Neo-Hookean -15 -15 -20 -20 Eng. Strain -25 -0.

and the second term represents volumetric change. Finally. Gent-Thomas. and Varga material models can be recovered as special cases from the Ogden model. I 1 – 81  + -----------------------. it has been successfully applied to the analysis of O-rings. where  n .  is the temperature and N is the number of statistical links of length 1 in the chain between chemical crosslinks. usually tension. and I m is the maximum value of I 1 that the molecular network can attain. – EI 6 I – I* Im Ogden proposed the energy function as separable functions of principal stretches. which is implemented in Marc N in its generalized form as: W =  n=1 an an  n -------. Other strain energy functions include Klesner-Segel. several models have been suggested. W dilitation = 4. for materials going through large volumetric deformations. Marc has adopted the foam model for compressible materials with the following representation: N W total =  n=1 an an n an ----.log --------------. should that hyperelastic model require several moduli. Storakers-1986] with n = 2 provides good correspondence with data in uniaxial and equibiaxial tension. The Arruda-Boyce model is described as: 3 1 1. I 1 – 3  + --------. I 1 – 27  + -----------------. as such they are called micro-mechanical models.J 3   1 +  2 +  3 – 3 where J .2 11 19 519 4 5 W = nk -. Editor’s Comment: Many hyperelastic models have been proposed since Ronald Rivlin began with the NeoHookean model in 1948. What single test can simultaneously determine both Young’s modulus and the shear modulus for a Hookean material? . I 1 – 243   where n is the chain density. However. politely ignore the claim and test other deformation modes.Software: Whitepaper .where E is the small-strain tensile * * modulus. three different models have been incorporated facilitating different levels of compressibility.5  J – 1  . defined   n –n as the determinant of deformation gradient F (Appendix B). The second form is to introduce a fifth order volumetric strain energy function W dilitation = 2 5 n=1  Dn  J – 1  N 2n . some of these models proclaim needing only one test. m m 1 The constitutive relation from Gent can be represented as: W = -----------. for example. 1968] proposed for polymers and compressible foam-like materials is a subcase of above model with n = 2 . Mooney-Rivlin. Penn's. is the Jacobian measuring dilatancy.  1 +  2 +  3 – 3 +  n  n=1  ----. The simplest is to introduce a constant bulk modulus such that. and  n are material constants. -13- .WHITEPAPER MSC. This model [Hill-1978. The Ogden model has become quite popular. I – J n n n  . Be skeptical of such claims particularly for the phenomenological hyperelastic models. The Neo-Hookean. and Valanis-Landel for modeling the nonlinear elastic response. that one test claim is most likely correct. Hart-Smith. Blatz-Ko's. the underlying molecular structure of elastomer is represented to simulate the non-Gaussian behavior of individual chains in the network thus representing the physics of network deformation. The Blatz-Ko model [Blatz and Ko. and Storaker's.None. seals and other industrial products. 2 3 4 2 20N 1050N 7000N 673750N k is the Boltzmann constant.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers In the Arruda-Boyce and Gent strain energy models. If that model only has one modulus. I 1 – 9  + -----------------. Also. I 1 = I 1 – 3 . for   2 or  2 .a n ----. While the above classical representations of the strain energy function indicate no volumetric changes occur. The model accommodates non-constant shear modulus and slightly compressible material behavior. the material softens or stiffens respectively with increasing strain. The model gives a good correlation with test data in simple tension up to 700%.  n .

Choudhry. Appendix B provides more details about the FEA of incompressible materials. and gives an overview of analytical approaches. large strains. In the real world. and det F = 1 .Software: Whitepaper . while the bulk modulus is infinite. natural as well as filled rubbers are slightly compressible. and contact. facilitating development of algorithms with greater numerical stability. Special formulation for lower-order triangular and tetrahedral elements satisfying the LBB condition (Appendix B) or simply the Babuska-Brezzi stability condition effectively handles analysis of incompressible materials [Liu. In addition to rubber problems. P/Ao P/Ao ΔV/Vo ΔL/Lo P/Ao ~ 3K(ΔV/Vo) Volumetric Compression Slope = 3K @ e = 0 P/Ao ~ 3G(ΔL/Lo) Simple Compression Slope = 3G @ e = 0 K >>> G for Rubber -14- . Incompressibility was first considered in FEA by [Herrmann. The pressure in the material is not related to the strain in the material. These elements exist in Marc and show a very close correlation of results when compared to their quadrilateral or hexahedral counterparts. where F is the deformation gradient (Appendix B).49+. Analytical difficulties arise when it is combined with nonlinearities such as large displacements. the engineer may also encounter aspects of incompressibility in metal plasticity and fluid mechanics (Stokes flow) problems. “Near incompressibility” means that Poisson's ratio is not exactly one-half. thereby. Perfect incompressibility is an idealization to make modeling more amenable for obtaining closed form solutions. the incompressibility of the material can be represented by: I 3 = 1 . 1997].Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Exact (or total) incompressibility literally means the material exhibits zero volumetric change (isochoric) under hydrostatic pressure. 0. Poisson's ratio is exactly one-half. 1965]. Wertheimer.WHITEPAPER Incompressible Behavior MSC.  1  2  3 = 1 . for example. Mathematically. it is an indeterminate quantity as far as the stress-strain relationship is concerned.

the originally circular cross-section of the O-ring has filled the rectangular region on the right while remaining circular on the left (where the pressure loading is applied).01 MPa. and is bounded by three contact surfaces.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers CASE STUDY A O-RING UNDER COMPRESSION Most people had probably never heard of an “O-ring”—until the failure of an O-ring was blamed for the Challenger disaster in January. In the subsequent televised failure investigation. Otherwise. and potential instability problems as the analysis progresses. a total pressure load of 2 MPa is applied in the Z-direction. compressing the O-ring against the opposite contact surface.5 cm. During the subsequent 50 increments. a 2 = 5. a 1 = 1.0012 MPa. then loaded uniformly with a distributed pressure.Software: Whitepaper . the solution algorithm in the FEA code must be able to pinpoint such difficulties during the analysis and follow alternative paths.63 MPa. This study demonstrates only one of the complexities involved in analyzing 2-D rubber contact. equivalent Cauchy stress contours and the final contact force distribution are shown below.WHITEPAPER MSC. The important point to note about this example is that the applied pressure is many times larger than the shear stiffness ( ~10 1 ).  2 = 0. Notes: For this type of rubber contact analysis.  3 = 0. It is found that the CPU and memory usage are about the same per iteration as for the 3-term Ogden model. The deformed shapes.2 cm. This type of elastomeric analysis may encounter instability problems because of the large compressive stresses. the top surface moves down in the radial direction of a total distance of 0. and a 3 = 2.0 (see Section 2). the nonlinear FEA code must be able to handle “deformable-to-rigid” contact. compressing the O-ring.3 . Although the analysis is 2-D. where an axisymmetric model of an O-ring seal is first compressed by three rigid surfaces. The Ogden material parameters are assigned values of:  1 = 0. we witnessed (the late) Professor Richard Feynman of California Institute of Technology dipping a small O-ring into a glass of ice water to dramatize its change in properties with temperature. At the end of increment 70. Axisymmetric O-ring Inc 20: Compress -15- . the FEA code may give incorrect results! The O-ring is also analyzed using a 2-term Mooney-Rivlin model.0 . the solution of this rubber problem is not trivial. friction. mesh Inc 70: Pressurize Inc 70: Contact Forces distortions (especially at the two corners). the incompressibility of the material. 1986. During the first 20 increments. The O-ring has an inner radius of 10 cm and an outer radius of 13.

this phenomenon is called stress relaxation. which consists of a spring and a viscous dashpot (damper) in ηδ (t-t0) series. while the spring assumes an increasing share of the load. Its behavior is a combination of the Maxwell and Kelvin models. which is a combination of two springs and a dashpot as shown. the stress decreases with time. Details of the material test data fitting. Christensen-1982. When subjected to a constant stress.Software: Whitepaper . Instead. A third model is the standard linear solid. creep.WHITEPAPER 2. In this case. The first Creep Funtions is the Maxwell model. by permission of force produces no immediate deflection.] Linear Viscoelasticity Linear viscoelasticity refers to a theory which follows the linear superposition principle. A sudden application From Fung [1981]. The Marc program features a more comprehensive mechanical model called the Generalized Maxwell model. Creep functions and relaxation functions for these three models are also shown [Fung. the instantaneous stress is also proportional to the strain. a deformation builds up gradually. undeformed state. which is an exponential or Prony series representation of the stress relaxation function. with its properties depending on both temperature and time. Collectively. a sudden deformation produces an immediate reaction by the spring. the Maxwell. it creeps.4). Hysteresis refers to the different stress-strain relationship during unloading (as compared to the loading process) in such materials when the material is subjected to cyclic loading (see Section 2. because the dashpot (arranged in parallel with the spring) will not move instantaneously. t 0 TIME TIME TIME The second is the Kelvin (also called Voigt or Relaxaton Funtions Kelvin-Voigt) model. When unloaded. This model contains. Kelvin. Rubber exhibits a rate-dependent behavior and can be modeled as a viscoelastic material. and relaxation—all dependent upon temperature—are often called features of “viscoelasticity” [See the texts by Fung-1965. Experimental data shows that “classical” linear viscoelasticity (applicable to a few percent strain) represents the behavior of many materials at small strains. which is followed by stress relaxation according to an exponential law.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers This section introduces the concept of viscoelasticity and mentions some important mechanisms through which temperature and fillers influence rubber behavior. On the other hand. it eventually returns to the original. are discussed in Section 3. as special cases. to determine input data required for viscoelastic analysis (such as calculating the necessary Prony series coefficients for a relaxation curve). which consists of a spring and dashpot in parallel. When given a prescribed strain. and Ferry-1970.2 Viscoelasticity MSC. where the relaxation rate is proportional to the instantaneous stress. these features of hysteresis. which is followed by “creep” of the t0 dashpot. The dashpot displacement relaxes exponentially. The sudden application of a load induces an immediate deflection of the elastic spring. Maxwell Model Kelvin (Voigt) Model Standard Linear Solid σ σ σ σ σ σ DEFORMATION FORCE DEFORMATION Mechanical models are often used to discuss TIME TIME TIME the viscoelastic behavior of materials. and standard linear solid models. FORCE FORCE DEFORMATION DEFORMATION DEFORMATION FORCE -16- FORCE FORCE DEFORMATION . 1981].

Poisson's ratio. log t The WLF-shift function depends on the glass transition temperature of the polymer [Williams et. including viscoelasticity. which would be included in the analysis. hysteresis. Temperature Effects Temperature effects are extremely important in the analysis of elastomers. Temperature has three effects: (1) temperature change causes thermal strains. For glass-like materials. the relaxation function is independent of the temperature at very small times—which implies that the instantaneous properties are not temperature dependent. 1987] has been implemented in Marc. Ogden and rubber foam constants. An example of such a shift function is the Williams-Landel-Ferry shift.WHITEPAPER MSC. This shift in time t as a function of temperature T is described by the so-called “shift function”. In contact problems. a multi-parameter viscoelastic model incorporating the memory-effect and nonlinear structured relaxation behavior [Narayanaswamy. 1963].Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Nonlinear Viscoelasticity Nonlinear viscoelastic behavior may result when the strain is large. The time-dependent phenomena of creep and relaxation also depend on temperature. and affect all aspects of rubber behavior.) A large class of materials exhibit a particular type of viscoelastic behavior which is classified as thermo-rheologically simple (TRS). thermal conductivity. al. and Zapa. 1955]. Another important consideration is the heat generation of rubber components in dynamic applications. (The Marc code allows TRS-materials for both Thermo-rheologically Simple linear and large strain viscoelasticity. Note that with TRS materials. Kearsley. Ogden. modified forms of the Mooney-Rivlin. The model also predicts the evolution of physical properties of glass subjected to complex. since after each deformation cycle some fraction of the elastic energy is dissipated as heat due to viscoelasticity. (3) heat flow may occur.Software: Whitepaper . A finite strain viscoelastic model may be derived by generalizing linear viscoelasticity in the sense that the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress is substituted for engineering stress. The finite strain viscoelastic model with damage [Simo. arbitrary time-temperature histories. In other words. The viscoelasticity can be isotropic or anisotropic. as do the coefficient of thermal expansion.. The viscoelastic analysis is thus temperature-dependent. (2) material moduli have different values at different temperatures.) Another well-known shift function is the Behavior in Polymers BKZ-shift [Bernstein. and other polynomial strain energy functions are implemented in nonlinear FEA codes. 1970] has been implemented in Marc. and Green-Lagrange strain is used instead of engineering strain. TRS materials are plastics or T3 T2 T1 glass which exhibit in their stress relaxation function a logarithmic translational property change with a shift in temperature (as shown in the figure). the analyst uses the same finite element model for both the thermal and stress analyses. which must be combined with mechanical strains. vary with temperature. such as Mooney-Rivlin. and damage. and both thermal and force equilibrium are satisfied in each increment before the nonlinear analysis proceeds to the next increment. etc. In practice. Material constants associated with the strain rate independent mechanical response. This includes the nonlinear volumetric swelling that is observed during typical glass forming operations. RELAXATION FUNCTION G(t) -17- . friction produces heat. A modern nonlinear FEA code such as Marc accounts for heat flow and offers the capability to conduct coupled thermo-mechanical analysis. (Dynamic applications are discussed in Section 5.

shock isolators. Such composites pose a challenge. It is well known. 1990].0 a few hundred to thousands of angstroms. or fibrous depending on their construction.5 1. and hoses.shear strain contours). -18- . a numerically efficient phenomenological model has been developed to analyze carbon black-filled rubber which accounts for the Mullins’ effect [Govindjee and Simo.5 The unique behavior of carbon black-filled elastomers results due to a rigid. as well as from a numerical point of view in which numerical ill-conditioning can occur due to stiffness differential between rubber and cords.0 [Bauer and Crossland. among the existing strain energy functions. and can represent both tension and compression behavior equally well. the relaxation rate (in 0 0.Software: Whitepaper .or higher-order continuum composite elements in Marc. features a shear modulus that can change with deformation. Such cord reinforced rubber composites can be modeled using the membrane or continuum rebar elements [Liu. Choudhry. both from a manufacturing perspective. Unfortunately. 1981]. that such composites usually exhibit highly anisotropic response due to directionality in material properties. Fillers are added to rubber products such as car tires and shock 2.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Rubber composites can be classified as particulate.0 TENSION where the carbon black particles are dispersed in a network of polymeric COMPRESSION chains. (MPa) 1.5 filled rubbers) is not proportional to the stress. laminated. This damage model has been extended to include the Ogden strain energy function. both the polynomial as well as Ogden models are unable to capture the sharp decrease in shear modulus for filled rubbers at small strains.WHITEPAPER 2. Laminated structures can be modeled using the lower. 1990]. Yeoh Compressive Data Replotted derived a third-order strain energy density function which does not depend Versus  I 1 – 3  From Yeoh [1990] on the second strain invariant. 1992]. and Wertheimer. Laminated composites occur in rubber/steel plate bearings used for seismic base isolation of buildings and bridges where horizontal flexibility coupled with vertical rigidity is desired (right .0 1. This makes it an extremely useful tool to simulate the energy dissipation or hysteresis in filled rubbers. Laminated Rubber/Steel Shock Isolation Bearing Computationally. Another area of application is composite sheet metal forming where a layer of rubber may be sandwiched between two metal sheets for desired stiffness and damping characteristics. On the computational side.5 mounts to enhance their stiffness and toughness properties. and one may need a general (I1 –3) nonlinear finite-strain time-dependent theory. Applications of such composites can be found in tires. The most commonly available particulate composites are filled elastomers 3. Common fillers σ include carbon black and silica where the carbon particles range in size from (λ–λ-2) 2.3 Composites MSC. particulate phase and the interaction of the elastomer chains with this phase 1. They influence the dynamic and damping behavior of rubber in a very complex and nonproportional manner. air springs. An important class of composites arises due to the presence of textile or steel cords in the rubber matrix [Clark. results agree well with experimental data for cyclic tension tests with quasi-static loading rates. Current research on the Yeoh Model: Tensile and characterization of filled rubber shows promising results [Yeoh. The standard failure criterion for composite materials can be used in analysis with brittle materials. Unlike unfilled rubbers. this problem is handled by Marc using a in Shear From Billings and Shepherd [1992] nonlinear elasticity model within a total or updated Lagrangian framework for the rubber while resorting to large deformation plasticity within an updated Lagrangian framework for the metallic sheets. where adhesion of the fibers to the rubber matrix can occur. 1997]. Marc offers a damage model capability in conjunction with the large strain viscoelastic model for all strain energy functions.

On a final note. anisotropic layered shell elements provide a viable option.0 1.014 0. Likewise.0 120.Software: Whitepaper . -19- . cracks.0 640.000 5. Adding further complications is the fact that the cords themselves are composed of twisted filaments.5 5. designed originally for concrete reinforced with steel rods and then extended for cordrubber composites has recently gained popularity due to its computational economy.0 Matrix modulus. although the phenomenological theories of elastomers are quite satisfactory in the gross design of structures. the rebar element. E c (GPa) 75. E 2 (GPa) 50. Typical cord-rubber composites have a fiber to matrix modulus ratio of 104 . Ec  Er E1  E2 Graphite-epoxy 250. E r (GPa) 3.0 860.014 0. This rise to a bimodular system dependent on the tension or compression due to microbuckling of the fibers.0 Nylon-rubber Rayon-rubber Steel-rubber 3. This is primarily to provide added flexibility to the system and to prevent frictional sliding between the cords in large deformation situations.0 79.200 0.1 83.0 200.0055 0. Anisotropy.0140 Longitudinal ply Transverse ply modulus.0 (GPa) 18.8 38.7 18.4000 0. and Akasaka-Hirano equations to derive equivalent mechanical properties for cord-rubber composites. Marc offers several options to model the large strain behavior of cord-rubber composites.900. Gough-Tangorra. Such composites have a volume fraction of cords less than a typical stiff fiber composite (used in aerospace applications).0 2. 1979] have shown good correlation of the experimental data with Halpin-Tsai.WHITEPAPER MSC.4000 3.0 930. and freeedge effects.0055 0.0 E 1 and E 2 are calculated at volume fractions typical of use for the different composites. they cannot be expected to accurately model microscopic effects such as debonding.1 1. This gives rise to an internal constraint of near-inextensibility of cords which is analogous to the near-incompressibility of rubber.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Table 1 Modulus Ratio Comparisons for Rigid and Flexible Composites Filamentary composite system Glass-epoxy Reinforcement modulus.0 5. E1 modulus. [Walter-Patel. Material modeling of such composites has traditionally been carried out by smearing or averaging out material properties over the domain of the composite structure.0 74.021 22.0 Modulus ratio.106: 1. If the composite structure is thin. The most popular ones include modeling the composite plies as anisotropic membranes sandwiched between continuum or brick elements representing the rubber.

and tire life are the most important design objectives. snow. dynamic. ride comfort. as of yet.WHITEPAPER MSC. involving a complicated shape (tire cross section). a collection of 15 different isotropic and orthotropic materials. by definition..5 bar. The metal wheel is modeled with continuum elements. Passenger safety. It is a very complex 3-D contact analysis. car and tire manufacturers also need to worry about: occasional “buckling” of the bead region. composite materials (comprised of polyester or steel cords. and traction effects due to rain. The complete load history consists of: mounting the tire on the rim. and ice. Finite element analysis allows them to minimize the number of prototypes required by eliminating designs which are not structurally correct or optimal. A good tire model is. tire wear for different tread designs. tire puncture by a nail or glass. All leading tire manufacturers use nonlinear FEA to help design safer and better tires. The deformed tire shape is shown. inflation pressure. and the contours are of the displacement magnitude as the tire begins rolling to the left. and rolling down the road. Friction. The tire (right) is modeled using rubber continuum elements. uncertain loading conditions (mounting loads. abandoned full-scale testing. internal pressurization up to 1. and fatigue effects are also important.. hitting a curb. The road is assumed to be rigid. and large deformations.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers CASE STUDY B CAR TIRE Analyzing the interaction of an automobile tire with the road is one of the most challenging problems in computational mechanics today. steel wire beads. very complex and typically consists of hundreds of thousands of 3-D elements. and rubber—leading to anisotropic behavior).).Software: Whitepaper . temperature effects for a car cruising. noise transmitted to the passenger cabin. etc. Contact Bodies and Mesh Orientations Displacement Contours -20- .but none has. manufacturability at reasonable cost. side impact. applying the axial car load. car weight. Notes: In addition to the complexities of tire analysis mentioned here.

= ----------------------------v  Tg  C2 + T – Tg An increase in temperature results in increased chain mobility. it is related to its value at the glass transition temperature. for example. leading to decreased viscosity and reduced hysteresis. Strain-induced Crystallization Large extension and retraction of elastomeric material gives rise to formation and melting of crystallized regions. the stress relaxation rate usually exceeds the rate at which the molecular chains disorient leading to an extended period of crystallization. In this regard. Stress Softening Modification and reformation of rubber network structures in the initial loading stages can show a lower stiffness and changes in damping characteristics. underlying mechanisms responsible for hysteresis of rubber are: 1. the larger the subsequent loss of stiffness.Software: Whitepaper . decreases as temperature increases and at temperature T  Tg . Filled rubber undergoes so-called stress-induced softening (sometimes referred to as damage). It manifests itself as history-dependent stiffness. past each other. an unfilled natural rubber exhibits more hysteresis than its unfilled synthetic counterpart as shown in the figure. leads to decreased segmental mobility and hence increased viscosity and increased hysteresis. but experiences a substantial softening below this maximum strain. The steady-state response is quite different from the initial response. Internal Friction Fracture Behavior of Polymers The internal friction is primarily a result of rearrangement of the molecular structure under applied load and subsequent sliding of chains. such a phenomenon has been observed in unfilled rubbers also. 2. T g . The phenomenon of internal friction or internal viscosity is highly temperature dependent and its temperature dependence may be described by the concept of flow viscosity. In a cyclic test. The uniaxial stressstrain curve remains insensitive at strains above the previous achieved maximum.WHITEPAPER 2. thereby. The larger the previously attained maximum. the material is loaded in tension to a strain state labeled “1” along path -21- Cyclic Tension Test Demonstrating Mullins’ Effect . This strain-induced stress softening in carbon black-filled rubbers is called the Mullins’ effect [Mullins1969. here we will only discuss the more common case of rubber softening. Presence of particulate filler.  v . During the retraction phase.4 Hysteresis MSC. 1992] although. Although rubber will stiffen under load in certain situations. Simo-1987. Such a strain-induced crystallization produces hysteresis effects. The flow viscosity.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Under cyclic loading. typically given by the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation: v  T  –C1  T – Tg  log ---------------. 3. Govindjee and Simo. a phenomenon caused by a breakdown of crosslinks and a progressive detachment of rubber molecules from the surfaces of reinforcing fillers. The five primary. carbon black. A typical one-cycle force-extension plot for rubber in biaxial tension is shown on the right. rubber dissipates energy—due to hysteresis effects.

Features contributing to the stress-softening behavior include the modification and reformation of rubber network structures involve chemical effects. the carbon black particles tend to form a loose reticulated structure because of their surface activity or mutual interactions. (This permanent set is caused by rubber network modification and reformation. Structural Breakdown In a filled rubber with carbon black filler particles. with an initial increase in displacement followed by a cycle around a “permanent set”. loading another 10 steps of 0. and microvoid formation. If additional loading is applied. gives rise to hysteresis. The breakdown of these aggregates.. thereby resulting in an even greater loss of stiffness in the material. In some instances.1 second. Case Y shows a “transition” type of behavior.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers “a”. path “c” is followed. Calculations show very different behavior for the three samples. multi-chain damage. and of the matrix/filler interfacial bonds due to loading. microstructural damage. the domains are themselves capable of exhibiting energy dissipating mechanism. If the material is again loaded.) Case Z exhibits a typical “long term response” behavior—with a lower stiffness.1 second. etc. Finally an example of hysteresis due to large-strain viscoelasticity is demonstrated here for three rubber samples with identical static behavior but different time-dependent behavior [Konter et al. then. 1991]. unloading of 10 steps Hysteresis Effects in Rubber of 0. Case X exhibits a “short term response” behavior—with a high stiffness. Domain Deformation Viscoelastic stress analysis of two-phase systems [Radok and Tai. however. path “a” is followed to a point labeled “2”. Such rubbers exhibit an inelastic deformation leading to permanent set due to shear yielding and typically show very high levels of hysteresis. 4. Certain elastomers also contain domains of dispersed hard inelastic inclusions. next.1 second. They are also interlaced by the network of rubber chain molecules which are crosslinked during vulcanization. which is primarily developed during the initial loading. These mechanisms are considerably enhanced by strain amplification caused by rigid particles in filled rubbers. the stress-strain curve now follows path “b” to point “1” and not path “a”. Upon unloading. loading in 10 steps of 0.Software: Whitepaper . A series of identical load histories with constant time steps are applied: first. 5.WHITEPAPER MSC. 1962] has shown that dispersed inclusions or domains in a viscoelastic medium contribute to an increase in the energy loss even when the domains are themselves perfectly elastic in nature. -22- .

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2.5 OTHER POLYMERIC MATERIALS

MSC.Software: Whitepaper - Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers

Many of the concepts used to analyze rubber behavior are also applicable to glass, plastics, foams, solid propellants, and biomaterials [Harper, 1982]. These include: large deformations, strain energy density functions, near incompressibility, and viscoelastic effects. Here, we'll briefly note some important considerations in the modeling and design/analysis of these materials. BIOMATERIALS include human tissues and polymeric materials used in modern medical/dental implants and devices (for example, cardiac pacemaker seals, filled dental composite resins). Plastics and other synthetic polymeric materials are viscoelastic. Human tissues may also be treated as viscoelastic materials; these include blood vessels, heart muscles, articular cartilage, mucus, saliva, etc. [Fung, 1981]. They creep and relax. Many of the concepts introduced in this White Paper are also applicable to biomechanics studies. These include, for instance: curve-fitting of test data to determine material parameters for FEA, viscoelastic modeling, response of a viscoelastic body to harmonic excitation, large deformations, hysteresis and softening; and so forth. The figure shows typical roomtemperature stress-strain curves in loading and unloading for four species. Typical Stress/Strain Curves in Loading and Unloading for Notice that, in all four cases, softening occurs and the unloading behavior is Four Species different from the loading behavior (as in the case of rubber). From Fung [1981], by permission FOAMS, often made of polyurethane, are soft and spongy. Techniques now exist for making three-dimensional cellular solids out of polymers, metals, ceramics, and even glasses. Man-made foams, manufactured on a large scale, are used for absorbing the energy of impacts (in packaging and crash protection) and in lightweight structures (in the cores of sandwich panels, for instance). Unlike rubber, foam products are highly compressible, and are porous with a large portion of the volume being air. Elastomeric foams are fully elastic (resilient), metal foams may have plastic yield, and ceramic foams are brittle and crushable. Resilient foams are used for car seats, mattresses, shipping insulation materials, and other applications which undergo repeated loading where light weight and high compliance is desirable. Some foams (for example, rigid polymer foams) show plastic yielding in compression but are brittle in tension Crushable foams are used widely in shock-isolation structures and components. These are sometimes analyzed by “foam plasticity” models. In compression, volumetric deformations are related to cell wall buckling processes. It is assumed that the resulting deformation is not recoverable instantaneously and the process can be idealized as elastic-plastic. In tension, these cell walls break easily, and the resulting tensile strength of the foam is much smaller than the compressive strength. Strain rate sensitivity is also significant for such foams. GLASS is brittle, isotropic, and viscoelastic. Crack initiation and propagation are important concerns (even though most glass products are not ordinarily used as load-carrying members). Like concrete and plastics, glass creeps with time. The proper FEA of glass products must pay attention to several important characteristics of glass when considering various forming processes and environmental conditions. (1) Glass exhibits an abrupt transition from its fluid to its glassy state—known as the glass transition Blatz Ko Model for Foams

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MSC.Software: Whitepaper - Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers

temperature. (2) Transient residual stresses are developed during manufacturing, thus requiring a time-dependent analysis. (3) For safety reasons, many common glass products (such as car windshields and show doors) are tempered: in which the glass is intentionally heated, then cooled in a controlled manner to develop a thin surface layer under compressive stress, in order to resist crack propagation and tension-induced cracking. (4) For optical applications such as lenses and mirrors, the curvature of the surface and its birefringence are of crucial importance. Here, the critical design parameter is deflection, not stress. (5) In hostile environments, such as those faced by solar heliostats in deserts, the adhesive bond cementing the mirror to its substrate is highly susceptible to deterioration by ultraviolet radiation, intense heat, moisture, etc.—usually leading to a change of the mirror's intended curvature or flatness after continued exposure. (6) Many glass products in their service life experience a combination of thermal and mechanical loads, thus requiring a coupled thermo-mechanical analysis as part of the design procedure. PLASTICS behave similarly to rubber in some aspects, but differently in others. For instance, plastics and rubber exhibit no real linear region in their stress-strain behavior except at very small strains. Load duration and temperature greatly influence the behavior of both. Like elastomers, plastics are viscoelastic materials. Both are dependent on strain rate. Although, while the elastomers typically undergo large deformations even at room temperature, plastics usually do not. Additional complications arise in the characterization of plastics. Two generic types of plastics exist: thermosets and thermoplastics. Thermosets (such as phenolics) are formed by chemical reaction at high temperatures. When reheated, they resist degradation up to very high temperatures with minimal changes in properties. However, at extremely elevated temperatures, this type of plastic will char and decompose. At this point, the thermal and mechanical properties degrade dramatically. Phenolic materials are often used in thermal protection systems. Thermoplastics, when heated, will soften and then melt. The metamorphosis is more continuous. The relative variation in properties is more significant for thermoplastics than thermosets for temperatures below the point at which the latter decomposes. Thermoplastics generally exhibit a broad “glass transition” range over which the material behaves in a Snap Fit of Plastic Part viscoelastic manner. This behavior is contrasted with thermosets that exhibit an abrupt transition. Some plastics (such as certain polyethylenes) deform inelastically and may be analyzed with standard metal plasticity models (for example, Drucker-Prager model). One important distinction from a modeling standpoint is that plastics, unlike most metals, behave differently in tension and compression. In this respect, plastics are similar to rubber and composite materials. The proper FEA of plastic products requires the analyst to be aware of certain important characteristics of plastics. (1) The plastic forming process (for example, injection molding) results in a deformed shape with residual stresses. Coupled thermal-mechanical analysis is necessary, and automated contact analysis becomes very important. Properties are dependent upon temperature and time. (2) “Non-equilibrium” rapid heating and cooling effects are also important. In this respect, plastics are similar to glass. For most plastics, the bulk modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion are known to be sensitive to pressure. (3) Before actual cracking, a phenomenon called crazing often occurs. This is associated with localized regions where polymer chains have become excessively stretched due to high local stress concentrations. Rupture is most often initiated there. Crazing is associated with a region of altered density which is detrimental to the desired optical or aesthetic qualities of plastic products such as transparent utensils and containers. (4) Birefringence is important, as for glass. (5) Plastics are also susceptible to damage due to hostile environments, such as ultraviolet radiation and steam. Plastic products used in sterilization and autoclave applications often fail due to steam effects. They exhibit significant reduction in ductility with continued exposure to steam. (6) In some cases, linear FEA may be satisfactory when designing plastic materials under low-level loading and low strains. However, for those problems involving large deformations, buckling/ postbuckling, contact/impact, high loading, or where residual stresses are to be determined, nonlinear FEA is a must. -24-

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MSC.Software: Whitepaper - Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers

CASE STUDY C

CONSTANT-VELOCITY RUBBER BOOT COMPRESSION AND BENDING
a

Rubber boots are used in many industries to protect flexible connections between two bodies. The boot itself should have enough stiffness to retain its shape; on the other hand, it must not have too much stiffness so as to interfere with the flexible connection. In the automotive industry, “constant-velocity” joints on drive shafts are usually sealed with rubber boots in order to keep dirt and moisture out. These rubber boots are designed to accommodate the maximum possible swing angles at the joint, and to compensate for changes in the shaft length. Proper design dictates that during bending and axial movements, the individual bellows of the boot must not come into contact with each other, because the resultant wear would produce failure of the rubber. Such undesirable contact would mean abrasion during rotation of the shaft, leading to premature failure of the joint. Local buckling can also occur in one of the bellows. The FEA of rubber boots presents many interesting features: (1) large displacements; (2) large strains; (3) incompressible material behavior; (4) susceptibility to local buckling; and (5) varying boundary conditions caused by the 3-D contact between various parts of the boot. Proper design should also consider bellows shape optimization, fatigue life, maintainability and replaceability, and cost. This example (panels a-d) shows the analysis of the axial compression and bending of a rubber boot. The boot is clamped on one side to a rigid surface, and on the other side to a translating and rotating shaft. Axial compression is first applied (panel b), followed by bending (panels c-d). The Cauchy stress contours on the deformed shapes are shown for the axial compression and rotation of the shaft. Once in place, the shaft rotates and the boot must rotate about the axis of the shaft in the tilted position. Notes: One leading U. S. rubber boot manufacturer has applied such 3-D contact analysis techniques to evaluate and optimize new boot designs (one design has a longitudinal seam to facilitate installation). Improved fatigue life was the design goal, and nonlinear FEA was successfully used to minimize time and cost—and come up with a boot design which achieved an acceptable product life cycle. The analysis was correlated with test results, and showed that a modified design with a seam attained a similar fatigue life as the original design (without a seam). The new design with a seam substantially reduced the installation costs. Note that “do-it-yourself” kits using this split boot design are now available to replace worn-out boots.

b

c

d

Cauchy Stress Contours

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5 Biaxial Planar Shear 1. most rubber applications experience mixed deformation modes. Rubber Elasticity For time-independent nonlinear elasticity. Once the 0.WHITEPAPER MSC. or balloon. and the Foam model for compressible materials. planar shear. including any modes not tested to facilitate selecting the best curve fit.0 0. Data from equibiaxial tension or planar shear may also be needed depending on the deformation modes of the structure.0 Engineering Stress [MPa] 1.Software: Whitepaper .6 0. The significance of (non-equivalent) multiple tests for material modeling cannot be overemphasized.5 the ten hyperelastic strain energy functions using all the adjusted data from any of the Engineering Strain one to six different types of experiments mentioned above simultaneously. Mentat. and volumetric tests.8 1. Other than a rubber band.0 Tension Mentat computes the constants of any of 0. Mentat will plot both the data and curve fit together. uniaxial compression.2 0. for example. foams.0 0. and tension) have decreasing stresses for the same strain level.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 3 DETERMINATION OF MATERIAL PARAMETERS FROM TEST DATA Successful modeling and design of rubber components hinges on the selection of an appropriate strain energy function. the generalized Ogden model for slightly compressible materials. Also. typical behavior of many elastomeric materials have stress-strain curves as shown here. Appendix C describes the tests required to characterize the mechanical response of a polymeric material. the fitting procedure may be carried out for polynomial representations of incompressible materials. Marc offers the capability to evaluate the material constants for nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic materials in its graphical user interface.4 0.0 constants of the selected hyperelastic material are determined. Volumetric data must be included for materials undergoing large compressible deformations. In general. simple shear. the curve fitting in Mentat allows a combined input of more than one test to obtain the appropriate material constants. This particular data set came from a silicone rubber where each of the three strain states or deformation modes (biaxial. planar shear. and a good fit must take more than one deformation mode into consideration as we shall see. equibiaxial. -26- . Six different types of experiments are supported: uniaxial tension. 2. After selecting appropriate test data for the application and adjusting the data to become comply with hyperelastic assumptions (see Appendix C). a combination of uniaxial tension/compression and simple shear is required in the very least. and accurate determination of material constants in the function.

62 biaxial/ogden planar_shear/ogden uniaxial/ogden uniaxial/experiment Stress (MPa) Two Term Ogden Moduli Exponents 6. -27- . the material constants follow from a set of nonlinear equations and the data is fitted based on the Downhill-Simpson algorithm. The curve-fitting in Mentat shows how other (non-measured) modes would behave. 1992] in order to obtain non-negative constants. Typical curve-fitting results are shown. Of course.WHITEPAPER The importance of performing multiple mode tests is to assure that hyperelastic model predicts the correct behavior of other modes. the material constants may turn out to be negative and therefore physically not meaningful.Software: Whitepaper .51E-05 16. improves its behavior. (2) evaluation—where the program mathematically fits the data. The curvefitting program is interactive and consists of four steps: (1) data entry—where the user inputs experimental data.711 the user determine these material A Good Fit . The phenomenon is a numerical serendipity and not a fundamental material behavior.62 Neo Hookean Fit: C10 = 0. based on sequential linear programming [Press. a constrained optimization process can be invoked.594 -0. determining the material constants for an incompressible material is relatively easy. From a mathematical point of view.Non Measured Modes Too Stiff! 2. Vetterling.610 0 0 Strain (x.678 -4. and Flannery. but still biaxial and planar modes are too stiff. Forcing positive constants for the “poor” 2 constant Ogden fit here. In this case. MSC.1) 8.1) 0 8. More sophisticated hyperelastic materials seeking more constants require more modes to be tested. since they follow from the least squares method in a straight forward fashion.711 A Poor Fit .583281 MPa uniaxial/experiment biaxial/neo_hookean planar_shear/neo_hookean uniaxial/neo_hookean Stress (MPa) 0 Automated facilities are available to help Strain (x. However.One Modulus One Mode parameters from test data. you really don’t know unless you test the other modes. For the generalized Ogden as well as the Foam model (principle stretch-based models). The example here shows how what appears to be a great tension fit for a 2-term Ogden material greatly overpredicts the biaxial and planar response. Tenkolsky.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Using Only Tension Data 2. (3) plotting/display—where the user sees graphical verification of the results and is able to observe the behavior beyond the test range. and (4) write—where the program automatically creates a data set and the necessary coefficients for the strain energy density function of choice.

Software: Whitepaper . The Ogden constants in this case were determined to be [for details.6 0. 1975] in simple tension. The fitted lines are straight.  2 = 0.WHITEPAPER MSC.  2 = 5. it is clear that the 3-term Ogden model gives the best fit.1 0.3 STRESS E D C A B 0. more than a 3-term Ogden model is rarely used.63 MPa.  3 = 0.0 60 SIMPLE TENSION NORMALIZED STRESS 40 EQUIBIAXIAL TENSION For this example. 20 PURE SHEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Example 2: Correlation of 3-Term Ogden Model with Treloar’s Data in Simple Tension.2 0.3 .9 1. 1972]:  1 = 0.5 0.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Example 1: Determining Mooney-rivlin Constants The figure on the right shows typical Mooney plots for various vulcanized rubbers in simple extension. simple Shear. and Equibiaxial Tension From Ogden [1972] STRETCH λ -28- .01 MPa  1 = 1. and biaxial tension.4 G F 0. 0. and intercepts C 10 . with constant slope C 01 .8 0.0012 MPa. simple shear. which typically vary according to the degree of vulcanization or crosslinking.  3 = 2. see Ogden.0 1/λ Example 1: Determination of Mooney-Rivlin Constants for Vulcanized Rubber in Simple Tension Example 2: Determining Ogden Constants The figure on the right shows how a 3-term Ogden model compares with Treloar's data [Treloar. Practically.7 0.0 .

0834 0.0011 -2.  2 = 0.3337 -0. or the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio may be expressed in terms of a Prony series.5005 -0.7508 -0.0 2700.0 3600.5840 -0.0339 3. 3.41648 .0021 -3.Software: Whitepaper . The Prony coefficients are obtained from fitting the relaxation test data.9545 2.0021 2.1660 -0.11765 MPa.9386 2.9228 2. a relaxation test is more accurate.41755 .  2 = – 5.0 7200.00243  1 = – 5.0 900.  3 = – 6.  3 = 7.  2 = 1.0000 The data representing a time-dependent or ENGINEERING STRAIN viscoelastic response of materials can be approximated by a Prony series.715832 . The coefficients were determined to be:  1 = 1.0074 -8.2503 -0.0 8100.0 1800.0 4500.0053 -6.8910 0.0032 -4. 1986]. a Prony series inversion must be performed before using it as an input to Marc.0 6300. based on a Example 3: Curve Fit to Foam Data relaxation or creep test.0043 -5.11983 MPa  3 = 0.0 TIME Example 4: Curve Fit to Viscoelastic Relaxation Data -29- . For large strain viscoelasticity. If the deformation is large.0000 ENGINEERING STRESS -1.WHITEPAPER MSC. Mentat attempts to fit the entered data based on a procedure described in [Daubisse.0085 Viscoelasticity -9.0064 -7.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Example 3: Determining Rubber Foam Constants The figure on the right shows how a 3-term rubber foam model fits a rubber foam in uniaxial compression.0 5400. Example 4: Determining Viscoelastic Constants The figure on the right shows a typical stress-time plot for a large strain viscoelastic material in relaxation test.9069 2.0096 -0.9704 2.85885 0. If the data is obtained from a creep test. For a linear viscoelastic material.0180 ENGINEERING STRESS 3.6674 -0. either the shear and bulk moduli.125023x10 –4 MPa  1 = 7.4171 -0. the elastic strain energy or the stress is expressed in terms of Prony series.9863 2.83173 .

In a study of the fracture of bonded rubber blocks under compression. extrusion. al. Also.Software: Whitepaper . Frictional heating at cord-rubber interface and internal heat buildup due to hysteresis in rubber cause the temperature of the material to rise. fiber pull-out due to lack of adhesion and microbuckling of cords. 1992] predicted the critical loads for crack growth. This model is currently implemented in Marc.) or fatigue caused by service loads and/or material degradation due to environmental/ mechanical/thermal conditions. Besides mechanical loading. compound mixing. thermal and viscoelastic effects play a critical role in failure of cord-rubber composites. Yang. the initiation and the initiation direction was found in good agreement with the experimental data for filled Styrene Butadiene Rubber.WHITEPAPER MSC. the most likely fracture mode of the rubber is by crack propagation. breaking away the bulged volume. the temperatures can rise to a very high value causing adhesion failures and microcracking in the rubber matrix. [Simo. (2) under cyclic compression. No good models exists currently in open literature to simulate the above failures. and Leung. and splitting open of the free surface. Using the virtual crack extension method [Pidaparti. [Gent. Along these lines. Damage and Mullins’ effect in filled polymers was simulated by Govindjee and Simo. Due to low thermal conductivity of rubber. or vulcanization. and Soedel.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 4 DAMAGE AND FAILURE F CIRCUMFERENTIAL RIGID PLATES CRACK The most important and perhaps the most difficult aspect of design analysis is failure prediction. RIGID PLATES Tearing Near the Bonded Edges From Gent et. al. [1992] F Splitting Open of the Free Surface From Gent et. 1993] found that: (1) Under static compression. 1987] developed a damage model incorporated in a large-strain viscoelasticity framework to simulate the stiffness loss and energy dissipation in polymers. and. Chang. debonding between layers of dissimilar materials. al. two modes of fracture are possible— circumferential tearing at or near the bonded edges. Recently.]1992] -30- . molding. 1992]. the critical modes of failure are ply separation. F(t) Fatigue Failure of Bonded Elastomer Block From Gent et. using a fully micromechanical damage [1991] and continuum micromechanical damage [1992] models. etc. researchers have calculated tearing energy to simulate crack growth in an elastomeric material using the popular fracture mechanics concept of J-integral [Cheng and Becker. [1992] Two Possible Fracture Modes Under Static Compression For cord-reinforced composites. besides damage and fracture of the rubber matrix. Failure in rubber can occur because of flaws introduced during the manufacturing processes (for example.

bushings. N = N 0+ N* exp(iωt) T = T0 + T* exp(iωt) Steady State Vibrations in a Strategically Stretched and Twisted T Viscoelastic Cylinder N NORMAL FORCE N0 (NEWTON) FINITE ELEMENT SOLUTION EXACT 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 lo 1 0. bearings. These common rubber components include: snubbers. air springs. and moldability. high speed rolling of tires or sudden loss of contact in a snap-through buckling analysis. VIBRATIONS. Coulomb Damping—or dry friction. performing a dynamic analysis is unnecessary. highway and bridge structures (especially in the United States and Japan). engine mounts. Joint Damping—results from internal friction within the material or at connections between elements of a structural system. Common damping models include: Proportional (Rayleigh) Damping—assumes that damping may be decomposed as a linear combination of the stiffness and mass matrices. Stretch Ratio -31- . AND ACOUSTICS A widespread use of rubber is for shock/vibration isolation and noise suppression in transportation vehicles.WHITEPAPER MSC. load bearing pads. such as for engine mounts and building bearings. c o co = 0 0 0. Viscous Damping—occurs when a viscous fluid hinders the motion of the body. When the viscous effects are important for such cases. and buildings. long service life. When inertial effects are unimportant. comes from the motion of a body on a dry surface (for example. bumpers. These applications take advantage of well-known characteristics of rubber: energy absorption and damping. on the areas of support).Software: Whitepaper .02 0. a quasi-static analysis is performed to obtain the overall deformation which is followed by a harmonic analysis to obtain frequencies and mode shapes.04 lo = 0. and so forth. Recent seismic isolation applications have seen increased usage of laminated rubber bearings for the foundation designs of buildings. resilience. for example. machinery. Damping The nature of damping is complex and is still poorly understood. The damping forces are proportional to velocity in the equations of motion. A dynamic analysis is required whenever inertial effects are important.9 0. flexibility.8 co2 lo .785 Finite Element Solution: Axial Force vs.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 5 DYNAMICS.

The material was assumed to be isotropic. Small-amplitude Vibrations In Viscoelastic Solids: Use Of “phi-functions” and Time vs. In the Maxwell and Kelvin models discussed in Section 2. Twist small to medium size problems in FEA codes is the Lanczos method. The method was applied to improve the design of carbon black-filled butyl rubber body mounts and carbon black filled natural rubber suspension bushings in several car designs. incompressible. accurate and efficient modal (eigenvalue) extraction method for Torque vs. Because of the viscoelastic behavior of rubber. including biomaterials such as human tissues [Fung. -32- .2 FINITE ELEMENT SOLUTION EXACT 0. the automatic component modes synthesis or automated multilevel substructuring are effective for models with millions of degrees of freedom. both of these would require nonlinear analysis. Natural frequencies are dependent upon pre-stress and material properties. 1981].6 0. The treatment of damping in dynamics problems may be found in any book on vibrations or structural dynamics. complex modes result.2. damping is represented by the dashpot and is usually assumed to be a linear function of the velocity in the equations of motion. Morman and Nagtegaal's FEA results using Marc for the steady-state vibrations of a stretched and twisted viscoelastic cylinder which is subjected to a large initial deformation can be seen to agree well with observed results. This factor is important in the design of isolation mounts for buildings. isothermal. and behaving according to a “fading memory” finite-deformation linear viscoelasticity theory. Frequency Domain Analysis In the analysis of an engine mount.2 0 co (RAD) Finite Element Solution: A popular. it is often important to model small-amplitude vibrations superimposed upon a large initial deformation.WHITEPAPER MSC. The presence of damping forces progressively reduces the amplitude of vibration. The problem of small-amplitude vibrations of sinusoidally-excited deformed viscoelastic solids was studied by [Morman and Nagtegaal. T (NEWTON-METER) 0 Internal friction in the elastomer accounts for the damping nature of elastomeric parts. real modes give useful information (the natural frequencies). damping is especially important in the design of rubber components. damping is dependent on frequency of the excitation. In the case of nonproportional damping. The same type of dynamic analysis of a viscoelastic body subjected to harmonic excitation may also be applied to many materials. For the case of proportional damping.4 0.1 0. For From Morman and Nagtegaal [1983] full vehicle models. The finite element model is a 30° wedge. when thousands of modes are extracted. and ultimately stops the motion when all energy initially stored in the system is dissipated. This method is available in the Marc code and uses the third-order invariant form of the James-Green-Simpson strain energy function.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers TORQUE. Modal Extraction 0. Although it also exists in metals.Software: Whitepaper . 1983] using the so-called method of Phi-functions.

Implicit Methods—In an implicit method. the storage and loss moduli are dependent on the frequency. the state of the rubber changes from an elastomer to a glass. Hilbert-Hughes-Taylor. -33- . Large time steps may be used in implicit. special formulations are required because they do not have any associated mass. Explicit methods possess some known disadvantages. As for the use of dynamic methods in viscoelastic analysis. the storage Frequency-Dependent Storage modulus typically increases with frequency.WHITEPAPER MSC. and Houbolt methods. In nearly incompressible problems. Laplace transform techniques and harmonic excitation are commonly used. but the loss modulus first and Loss Moduli increases with frequency and then decreases to zero. experimental data is required over the time domain of interest and a Prony series is usually used to represent the data. In frequency STORAGE MODULUS domain analysis.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Time vs. Explicit methods include Central difference while the implicit schemes include Newmark-beta. the behavior can be characterized in the frequency domain in FREQUENCY ( ) terms of the storage and loss moduli as shown in the figure. which makes the coding much simpler. These methods have different behavior in terms of stability. and improves computational efficiency. no additional damping should be introduced because viscoelastic effects are already included in the material properties. and hence an extremely small time step is required. Direct Time Integration Methods In transient nonlinear dynamics. and the generalized Alpha method. reduces storage requirements. As the frequency increases. Wilson-theta. Explicit methods are conditionally stable for undamped linear systems. 1982]. with the maximum in the loss modulus signaling the transition to the glassy state. In filled rubbers. both time and frequency domains are used. Explicit Method—In this method. and it is important for users to bear in mind that a definite stability limit exists. the nonlinear matrix equations of motion are solved at each time step to advance the solution. Popular implicit methods (offered in several FEA codes) include: the Newmarkbeta method. In time domain MODULUS (E) analysis. the solution is advanced without forming a stiffness matrix. The choice of whether to use an implicit or explicit method is very subtle and depends on: the nature of the dynamic problem and the material. The storage modulus and loss modulus are dependent upon frequency (and amplitude for filled rubbers). For many problems. dynamic analysis. if Lagrange multipliers are included in the analysis. Notice that in viscoelastic materials (assuming harmonic loading). Finally. Hilber-Hughes-Taylor. the storage modulus depends significantly on the strain amplitude. Frequency Domain Viscoelastic Analysis—In viscoelastic problems. and the magnitude of the speed of sound in the material. single-step and multi-step Houbolt. which means that sometimes extremely small time steps may be required—resulting in higher computer costs. A common solution to overcome these numerical difficulties using explicit methods is to conjure up a scaled mass matrix—which is very often assumed to be diagonal. accuracy and damping. In unfilled rubbers.Software: Whitepaper . the type of finite elements making up the model. In linear viscoelastic problems with harmonic loading. an explicit operator requires fewer computations per time step than an implicit one. Treatment of boundary nonlinearities must occur within a time step. but the former is largely independent on the strain amplitude. the speed of sound in the material approaches infinity. the adaptive time stepping procedure can be used advantageously. For a given time step. and one LOSS MODULUS needs to be aware of the in-phase and out-of-phase concepts [Christensen. the time step should be a fraction of the period. For oscillatory behavior. both implicit and explicit direct integration methods are available for solving the equations of motion.

This functionality is suited for modeling of coupled structural acoustics where the acoustic medium is undergoing small pressure vibrations. for example.Software: Whitepaper . Typical application areas would include—determination of sound transmission in an enclosed deformable structural cavity. deformable cavity) and can simulate a steady state harmonic response. the effect of the acoustic 40 medium on the dynamic response of the structure and of the structure on the dynamic response of the acoustic medium can be taken into account. The ADAPT GLOBAL option may be used to remesh the acoustic regions when large deformations occur in the cavity walls. Since the interface Frequency (Hz) between the acoustic medium and the structure is 0 determined automatically by Marc based on the 60 70 80 90 CONTACT option. Modeling of ‘exterior problems’ like acoustic radiation and scattering is not considered. Such a coupled analysis is especially important when the 20 natural frequencies of the acoustic medium and the structure are in the same range.WHITEPAPER Coupled Acoustic-structural Analysis Coupled acoustic-structural analysis is of great interest to the automobile industry. Pre-stressed Membrane both the acoustic medium and the structure are modeled. 60 -34- . Chapter 8. setting up the finite element model Coupled Structural . interior noise level in a car compartment. mode shapes. A coupled acoustic-structural analysis capability also exists in Marc. In this way.Acoustic Analysis is relatively easy since the meshes do not need to be identical at the interface. It is applicable to ‘interior problems’ (for example. A typical case is modeling the deformation of an automobile door seal by the glass window in order to analyze the static deformation (Case Study E) and conduct acoustic harmonic analysis. The eigenfrequencies. Problem 63 where the UPHI user subroutine captures the magnitude and frequency dependent damping of a rate dependent or viscoelastic material. MSC. and pressure amplitude in the compartment thus calculated can be used to design better door seals.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Excitation Membrane Node 168 Air Air 80 Sound Pressure Magnitide Node 168 Stress Free Membrane In a coupled acoustic-structural analysis (see figure). Read more about this problem in Volume E: Demonstration Problems.

implying that an optimized design should have as low stress levels as possible. The figures show the deformed geometry and equivalent Cauchy stress distributions after various increments (panels a and b). Mesh distortion is usually a problem in such analyses. b This bushing example assumes a Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function.) The usual design goal is to prolong a component’s service life. This analysis was performed both with and without adaptive meshing. the analysis is static.) Strain Level 2. the engineer may need to take into account several real-life phenomena ignored in this example: material damage. Damping can generate heat during cyclic loading. As with the other case studies.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers CASE STUDY D RUBBER MOUNT a Rubber is widely used in engine mounts and suspension bushings for shock/ vibration isolation and noise reduction purposes. c Equivalent Cauchy Stresses: Using Local Adaptive Meshing Criteria Used: 1.) Nodes in Contact 3. actual service environments—which typically include combined axial. This improves the accuracy of the solution. a certain amount of stress softening occurs—which reduces its stiffness and alters its damping characteristics. viscoelastic behavior—to account for creep and relaxation effects. dynamic (inertial) effects. followed by eventual stiffening. and fracture and tearing effects.WHITEPAPER MSC. When a piece of rubber is stretched a few times. causing the rubber to contact itself. radial. bushing preload (if any).) Nodes in Box (red) -35- . Notes: In order for the stress analysis to be rigorous and complete. additional elements are automatically located in regions of stress concentrations and high stress gradients (panel c).Software: Whitepaper . a rubber shock mount is designed to buckle (in order to absorb a large amount of energy). Rubber is viscoelastic and is usually analyzed using quasi-static methods (See more detailed discussions on rubber viscoelasticity in Section 4 and Section 5. and torsional loadings. The FEA code must Equivalent Cauchy Stresses: be able to handle such variable contact automatically. Fillers in the rubber also influence the damping behavior. It possesses significant damping properties which are very useful in such applications. a metallic sleeve around the rubber insert. where the top rigid surface moves downwards. Sometimes. One may observe that in using local adaptive meshing techniques. and very often. Automated contact analysis is used.

and the algorithm tracks variable contact conditions automatically. Marc also allows the analytical treatment of deformable bodies. Interface Elements. car tire) and dynamic contact problems can be handled. 1993]. bodies in contact develop frictional shear stresses at the interface. Besides modeling the rigid bodies as analytical. the contact problem occurs as a constrained optimization problem where contact conditions occur as inequalities described as Kuhn-Tucker conditions. rolling. direct application of contact forces. The bodies can be either rigid or deformable. Marc bypasses the above objectives by the solver constraint method to solve the general 2-D/3-D multibody contact. and the oscillatory and unstable nature of sliding should all be considered when performing sophisticated rubber contact analysis. The Langrange multiplier method leads to high solution cost due to extra variables for contact pressure. Mathematically. The user no longer needs to worry about the location and open/close status checks of “gap elements. When friction is present. time.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 6 CONTACT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES Rubber products always seem to involve “contact” versus “no-contact” conditions—for instance. look at Case Studies B. “steel-to-steel” contact results in a significantly lower coefficient than “rubber-to-steel” or “rubber-to-rubber” contact. During contact. Both deformable-to-rigid and deformable-to-deformable contact situations are allowed in Marc.WHITEPAPER MSC. This method allows an accurate modeling of contact without the problems associated with other methods. 1992]. 1985. by nature. rubber gaskets and the contact of a car tire with the road. One important point to recognize is that the use of interface elements of any kind requires the user to know a priori where contact will occur. guessing the location of the contact area is very difficult. C. Since rubber is flexible. The user needs only to identify bodies which are potential candidates for contact during the analysis. To see applications of Marc to analyze typical 2-D rubber contact problems. Hybrid Methods [Wunderlich. Martins and Oden have published two comprehensive studies on the physics of static and kinetic friction. both the forces transmitted across the surface and the area of contact change. This is important for concentric shafts or rolling simulation. Because rubber is flexible. the most popular ones include: Penalty Methods [Peric and Owen.” or about “master-slave” relationships. common in rubber problems. and F. extrusion. and Solver Constraints. Augmented Lagrangian [Laursen and Simo. Among the approaches within the finite element framework that have been used to model the frictional contact and impose the nonpenetration constraint (to prohibit the overlap of contact bodies). 1981]. Experience has shown that the proper simulation of friction is extremely important for the success in rubber contact analyses.and rate-dependence of the coefficient of static friction. in addition to the possible numerical ill-conditioning. is also permitted. As for the value of the coefficient of friction. Wriggers. Surface imperfections. and Taylor. Friction Friction is a complex phenomenon. casting. shear stress is also transmitted. and E. D. stick-slip motions. Use of a carefully measured friction coefficient will also help to achieve success. Also. The contact stress is transmitted in the normal direction. For 3-D examples. material softening due to heat in the contact area. see Case Studies A. this change in the contact area is both significant and difficult to model using earlier methodologies (such as gap elements). and computational models [Martins and Oden. Self-contact. coupled thermo-mechanical contact problems (for example. In this regard. 1985]. Perturbed Lagrangian [Simo. Langrange Multiplier [Chaudhary and Bathe. This improves the accuracy of the solution by representing the geometry better than the discrete finite elements. Gap Elements.Software: Whitepaper . thereby resulting in incorrect loads being transmitted across the surfaces. Experiments have confirmed that the various components contributing to friction force in rubber are: -36- . 1990]. is a nonlinear boundary value problem. An improper choice of penalty parameter in the penalty methods can lead to either penetration (low penalty number) or numerical ill-conditioning (high penalty number). Contact as a Nonlinear Constraint Problem Contact. If friction is present. 1986].

however. here friction along with the Pin Insertion and Extraction Forces with and without Friction incompressibility of rubber conspire to make the extraction force magnitude of 135 N much larger than the 90 N necessary to insert the pin. This particular problem 0 Displacement. Marc offers two friction models: Coulomb friction and shear friction. the physics of deformation dictates modeling the regions of sticking fairly accurately (for example. whereas shear friction is where the friction force depends upon the shear strength of the material. Sometimes. Coulomb friction suits elastomeric contact.0 2. Coulomb friction is where the friction force depends upon the normal force. a coupled thermo-mechanical analysis is often required in rubber contact problems. friction can be made to vary arbitrarily—as a function of location. the extraction force would be even larger. moment. In many rubber applications. transmission belt. or a steel pin from a -120 rubber housing you may have experienced Axisymmetric that insertion is usually easier than extraction. these 90 components of force. a regularization procedure is applied. amount of sliding. F viscous represents the existence of a layer of either absorbed or liquid species between rubber and contact surface. the traction (for example.0 -30 2.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers F adhesive is caused by surface adhesion kinetics and bulk mechanical properties. This phenomenon is also responsible for the wear. If you have -90 C Rigid Pin Extract L ever tried to install and remove a rubber hose from a steel housing. and center μ = 0. In this way. Because friction generates heat. Imagine if the fingers of the seal were backward facing. Rigid bodies that participate in contact Force. In addition. The energy lost by the work done by friction generally dissipates in the form of heat. -37- . where as shear friction is more appropriate for metal forming. bilinear. a user subroutine is available in Marc. 30 μ=0 Here we seek the force necessary to insert Insert and extract the pin with and without the effects of friction. For such cases.23 position may be plotted over the load history. -150 For instance. temperature. In order to reduce numerical instabilities in the transition between sticking and slipping. permitting the user to constantly monitor the interface conditions and modify the friction effect if necessary. car tire). or arc tangent friction model based on Coulomb friction is also available. demonstrates this visualization of friction forces.Software: Whitepaper .WHITEPAPER F friction = F adhesive + F deformation + F viscous + F tearing MSC. pressure. the design objective is to increase the friction and. F tearing is due to the fact that some solid surfaces (due to roughness characteristics) tear off particles from rubber. F [N] 120 always have generalized force and moment components resolved to their center. hence. u [cm] described in the Marc User’s Guide in Chapter 1.5 J some 10x larger than energy to compress the seal) is lost for the friction case (red curve). 60 Consider a rigid pin inserted into and extracted from an axisymmetric rubber seal.10. F deformation is due to partial irreversibility (damping loss) during the deformation of rubber. driver pulley transferring torque through the belt to a driven pulley). and other variables. The frictionless case (blue curve) conserves energy. more importantly it illustrates how a small amount of friction can Seal -60 dramatically affect insertion and extraction forces in rubber components. whereas a significant amount of energy (2. a stick-slip.

Such a description of contact bodies is an essential requirement for robustness of solution algorithm. this prevents self-penetration. Panel a shows the belt and pulley assembly where the right driven drive pulley is stretched placing the belt into tension (Component 11 of t c d σ 11 = 0. Contact is determined between a node and all body profiles—deformable or rigid. -38- . Deformable bodies are defined by the elements of which they are made.WHITEPAPER MSC. For rigid bodies.] = 0. In Marc. one must define bodies and their boundary surfaces. such as normal and friction forces. one can define the following surfaces: 4-point patch. as shown in the figures here. plane. Friction can be visualized by the ratio of the force in tan θ = μ σ b11 the top and bottom portions of the μ = 1 ln [ --------.33 M Pa to 180o (panel c). Automatic Boundary Condition Handling for 3-D Contact Problems “Real-world” contact problems between rigid and/or deformable bodies are threedimensional in nature.51 σ 11 pulley. but the contact will still be automatically detected. Bezier Surface Ruled Surface These surfaces can be converted into NURBS which have the advantage of continuity of the normal vector along the surface and the flexibility to model complex surfaces with a single mathematical description. ruled surface. Here rotational motion is transferred using an elastomeric belt between two pulleys.842 MPa in panel b).51 -27o t π tan 27o = 0. The ratio of these two forces will yield the coefficient of friction Cauchy Stress (11 component) Contours between the belt and pulley as shown (panel c). four-point patches are automatically created and are constantly updated with the body deformation. A body may fold upon itself. Once all the boundary nodes for a deformable body are determined by Marc. 0. tabulated cylinder.Software: Whitepaper .270 M Pa Cauchy stress of 0. To solve such contact problems.51 (panel d). are available in Mentat. the components of contact and friction forces are added in a user subroutine and displayed in panel d. the definition of bodies is the key concept in automatically analyzing 3-D contact. Virtually all common surface entities as defined by the latest IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Standard) are included. Bezier surfaces and NURBS. surfaces of revolution. Furthermore. The tangent of the angle between the contact force vector and the normal of the surface also yields the coefficient of friction. The drive pulley begins to rotate transferring torque to the driven pulley via friction until the belt rotates b σ 11 = 1. Two examples of curved surfaces that can be used to define the shape of contact bodies are the ruled surface and the Bezier surface.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Visualization of relevant contact a b variables.

weather resistance (including ultraviolet radiation effects). ease of installation. On the other hand. empirical data. such as those around windshields. Today. most leading seal manufacturers use nonlinear FEA to optimize their seal designs early in the design cycle. Mechanical requirements include: sealing of components against water. A typical car door seal (panel a) is subjected to three loading conditions: (1) install seal onto door frame (2) door closure (3) window closure The rubber is assumed to be isotropic. windows. but must also compensate for the manufacturing tolerances of various body parts. strains. are important but relatively simple. such as door and window seals.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers CASE STUDY E CAR DOOR SEAL: AUTOMATIC MULTIBODY CONTACT a door frame door Automotive body seals are necessary due to the presence of openings in the car body such as passenger doors. It also tells the designer where the rubber material is best used—leading to an optimum design of the car door seal for its expected dynamic loading histories. dynamic seals. and deformation histories. dust. and closing/cycling effort.Software: Whitepaper . -39- . are complex in function. An automated solution procedure which keeps track of the multibody movements and variable contact conditions is crucial for Equivalent Cauchy Stress Contours success here. sliding contact and potential contact of the body with itself are important. bonding strength. tear and abrasion resistance. and strain resistance. the design and prototyping of automotive seals have relied on experience. Historically. They must not only maximize the seal between fixed and movable components. reaction forces. and noise. Such an analysis helps the designer to understand and improve the seal behavior by providing information about stresses. Material requirements for automotive seals include: resilience. Panel b shows the deformed geometry and the equivalent Cauchy stress (see Appendix B) distribution when the door frame moves downward. however. window b c d Notes: In this type of analysis. and “trial and error”. This example illustrates how a modern nonlinear FEA code can easily handle difficulties with complex boundary conditions. with a Mooney-Rivlin strain energy density function. and sunroofs. air. Panel c shows the effects of door closure and panel d shows both door and window in their final position. surface finish. The requirements of static seals. The window and door approach the seal simultaneously.WHITEPAPER MSC. engine and trunk lids.

or re-evaluated if the boundary condition is a function of a table.). or other parameters. several key features distinguish Marc from other existing nonlinear FEA codes. the key difference between nonlinear and linear FEA is that the solver performs the analysis in load steps (called increments). These methods are often very successful when there is effectively one source of the external load present. etc. The second procedure is similar to the first. a very robust singularity-free implementation for case of equal stretches of the Ogden model. Adaptive solution strategies run into three classes. In the preprocessing phase. converged solution at the least cost. improper modeling of physical phenomenon. -40- . “contact” control parameters.) and additional material properties (for example. etc. Within each increment. Fast. Features on the materials side include. the objective of a successful nonlinear analysis is to obtain an accurate. it automatically increases or decreases the step size in order to achieve a converged solution using a minimum number of increments. that effectively use mathematical methods to get a sense of the direction of the solution. Riks. and special treatment for extremely large compressive stresses generated during deformation. for implicit analysis the program seeks a solution by iteration until equilibrium is achieved. On the computational front. solution. A modern nonlinear FEA code like Marc helps the user achieve success by first querying for acceptable tolerances in force.Software: Whitepaper . such that convergence is achieved. the first is a procedure where if convergence is not achieved the time step is reduced. a user must specify certain nonlinear analysis controls (analysis procedures. Then. Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden coefficients) required for a nonlinear rubber analysis. and postprocessing. displacement strain energy. Ramm.WHITEPAPER MSC. This is an effective process when rubber components are present. and solution schemes which are able to analyze buckling and post-buckling regime. besides the data required in a typical linear analysis. In the solution phase. or real physical instabilities. The third method is the use of arc-length or continuation methods (Chrisfield. convergence controls.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 7 SOLUTION STRATEGIES The core of a typical design process encompasses three phases: preprocessing of data. Lack of convergence can take place due to input errors. Therefore. The applied excitation will be scaled down. but additionally artificial damping is added to the solution. before proceeding on to the next increment. efficient elements incorporating special treatment for incompressibility and hourglassing modes.

and higher-order displacement and Herrmann elements in static. -41- .WHITEPAPER For ease-of-use and computational savings. and heat transfer analysis. Marc. is tightly coupled with the analysis program.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers C L 3D OAXI-T Axisymmetric Axial Motion 3-D Radial Motion Data Transfer from Axisymmetric to 3-D Analysis The role of graphics (pre. Analysis with Marc can also be done via Patran. This function transfers the results from the nonlinear axisymmetric model to the 3-D analysis. The second stage of the problem invokes asymmetric loading (radial motion) and needs to be fully three-dimensional. Besides a wide array of geometry modeling features. Mentat. dynamic. Marc allows a data transfer capability from axisymmetric to 3-D analysis.and postprocessing) capabilities cannot be underestimated. MSC. In many cases. The interactive graphics program. Large savings in computational cost can be expected. is truly axisymmetric. hence. it is not uncommon for the model preparation stage to be more time consuming than the actual analysis itself. This feature can be used with lower. Augmenting the array of visualization techniques are the animation and movie capabilities in Mentat. Rapid developments in the nonlinear finite element technology has brought the modeling of full scale industry problems within reach. This feature can be used with both rubber elasticity and metal plasticity.Software: Whitepaper . both Mentat and Patran offer a variety of mesh-generation capability in 2-D and 3-D. Hence. In addition. the component has an initially axisymmetric geometry and is initially axisymmetrically loaded (axial motion) and. interfaces to other commercial CAD systems allow designers to access the nonlinear capabilities of Marc while operating in their familiar environment.

) Inc 0: 1 element b. Global adaptive remeshing in Marc is a useful feature to overcome these difficulties. global adaptive remeshing can also be done in three dimensions. This is demonstrated in Case Study D.and postprocessing software which is closely coupled to the solver.Software: Whitepaper .f) the automatic global adaptive meshing option automatically generates new meshes as many times as needed (38 remeshes here) until the seal fills the horizontal channel. Besides global adaptive remeshing.28 of the Marc User’s Guide or you may run this problem from the RUN A DEMO PROBLEM menu on the HELP menu of Mentat. and the analysis continues. the deformation can be so large that the mesh used to model the materials may become highly distorted. the analysis is stopped.) Inc 50: 358 elements e. Remeshing can be carried out for one or more contact bodies at any increment. A new mesh is created based on the deformed shape of the contact body.WHITEPAPER MSC. careful evaluation and application of the analysis results. availability of the necessary test data and friction coefficients. Several error criteria are available to the user for subdividing the mesh adaptively. Based on the different remeshing criteria you specified. Although this illustrative problem is two dimensional. The contact conditions are redefined.) Inc 75: 378 elements f. The original rectangular rubber seal only uses one element to begin (panel a). Marc also offers an h-method based adaptive mesh refinement capability called local adaptive remeshing (an automated process in which mesh is repetitively enriched until the error criterion is satisfied) for both linear as well as nonlinear analysis.) Inc 1: 260 elements c. Here the automatic remeshing of a rubber seal demonstrates what is called global adaptive remeshing. Find out more about this model in Chapter 3. During the process. When the mesh becomes too distorted because of the large deformation to continue the analysis. Now the above steps are done automatically (see figure). deformed mesh to the new mesh. Different bodies can use different remeshing criteria. A data mapping is performed to transfer necessary data from the old. an experienced user. A successful rubber analysis requires: a state-of-the-art nonlinear FEA code with automated contact analysis capabilities. it is called RUBBER REZONING. complex shape. As the material is pushed into the horizontal channel (panels b . very often. and good pre. the program determines when the remeshing is required. a. the materials may be deformed from some initial (maybe simple) shape to a final.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 8 ADAPTIVE REMESHING In the analysis of metal or rubber. and the analysis cannot go any further without using some special techniques.) Inc 100: 402 elements Global Adaptive Remeshing of a Rubber Seal -42- .) Inc 25: 329 elements d.

Software: Whitepaper . While packers are three dimensional. which would otherwise have been a very challenging problem to solve. Click Input files to download: oil_packer. Because of their location underground. In this case study. a pressure subroutine assures that the pressure loading will advance only along the downstream direction as the packer separates from the outer casing. they are subjected to harsh environmental conditions and high temperatures and pressures. Self-contact. 50%. about 50% of the packer separates from the outer casing. As the packer continues to deform. model of a fictitious packer assembly is analyzed demonstrating the benefits of automatic remeshing. At operating pressure. deformable-deformable contact. loaded and fixed cones. more volumetric compression of the rubber packer occurs. including self-contact of the packer elements. Subsequently. the maximum stress and strain in the packer may be examined to determine possible failure locations.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers CASE STUDY F DOWNHOLE OIL PACKER Downhole packers seal off the region between casing and production tubing helping prevent flow of corrosive fluids upstream. making physical testing difficult and expensive. large deformations and strains. automatic remeshing facilitates quality mesh enabling superior convergence and accuracy. However. Simulation provides a superior alternative both in terms of cost advantage and testing safety. automatic global adaptive meshing is activated in this analysis whereby new meshes are automatically generated as many times as needed.f V Ring Cone Load Packing Element V Ring Casing OD Cone Fixed Casing ID 25% 50% 100% Compress to Set 25% 50% 100% Pressurize Packer -43- . and friction. Because of the high pressures on the packer. the v-rings are made of steel and the cones and casing are assumed to be rigid. many are very nearly axisymmetric and may be simulated using an axisymmetric finite element model as shown here. Use of this advanced capability of Marc leads to a successful completion of the analysis. simulation of these products presents a challenge as their designs incorporate multiple nonlinearities: material. as shown in increased blue and green colored regions in the total equivalent strain contours.WHITEPAPER MSC. all the components of the packer assembly experience contact. to name a few. contact between multiple components and self-contact. During this process. oil_packer. the original finite element mesh becomes too distorted. Automatic global remeshing. Once the packer seats. The packer is compressed by the loads on the cone until it reaches 100% of its setting and fills the volume between the inner and outer walls.mfd. a system pressure is applied to the packer (left end at red arrow) to analyze packer performance at operating pressures. User subroutine for customized pressure loads. left and right v-rings and the casing walls. In this case. For larger pressures. Marc capabilities used: Elastomer material properties. Rigiddeformable contact. The simplified packer design shown here contains packing elements. The packing element is an elastomer. subsequent studies can determine if the seal continues to operate within tolerances under material relaxation and creep. and 100% of the compression set. Total equivalent strain contours are shown here for 25%.

: Cord Orientations • material constants for strain energy functions SOLUTION INCREMENTAL LOOP • update configuration • update contact conditions ITERATION LOOP GLOBAL ADAPTIVE REMESHING Output • displacement • strains • stresses • strain energy density Results Evaluation • deformed geometry • strain distributions • stress distributions • temperature distributions • contact forces distribution • strain rates • history plots • derived variables Postprocessing • thermal strains • creep strains • plastic strains • Cauchy stresses • failure criteria -44- . e.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Linear FEA Data Preparation • FE model (nodes.WHITEPAPER MSC. elements) • material properties • loads • boundary conditions Preprocessing Nonlinear FEA (same as for linear FEA) Nonlinear analysis controls required Material data to represent nonlinear behavior required.g.Software: Whitepaper .

00 0.05 0. u 5 F. Force.WHITEPAPER MSC. surface folds and wrinkling • Viscoelastic effects in filled rubbers • Improved plastics and other polymer models (to model large elastic as well as inelastic deformations) • Coupled processes involving interaction between mechanical. Previous difficulties in the 19701985 period with handling complex contact boundary conditions have now been solved. u 10 F. chemical. Areas which still require further research and development include: • Global and local adaptive meshing for nonlinear FEA (especially for 3-D problems) • Coupling of design optimization methods with nonlinear FEA • Methods for dealing with crack or void initiation and propagation in elastomers • Improved modeling of friction effects • Material instabilities–for example. Sometimes rubber seals have closed air pockets. significant progress also has been made in 2-D and 3-D automated adaptive meshing. and these automated procedures are now being used in the design/analysis of rubber components. u Tube Crush: Open and Closed Air Cavity 15 Open Air Cavity F. thermal.15 0.10 0. Here the crush force increases dramatically and the deformed shape of the tube changes as well when the cavity of air is closed. and electrical phenomena. recently.20 0. F 20 Closed Air Cavity F.25 0. or in the case of air springs the closed cavity is actively pressurized.Software: Whitepaper .35 0.40 Displacement. The compression of the air inside the closed cavity of the tube plays an important role in the analysis. u 0 0..Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 9 CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE RESEARCH Nonlinear FEA of elastomers has come a long way in the past twenty five years.30 0. u Elastomeric Tube Crush -45- .

This is a hands-on workshop covering material testing. analyzing the rubber problem. Inc. including MAR 103 “Experimental Elastomer Analysis”. Attendees Performing Analysis Using MSC. and the MSC. Inc. Training. such as MSC. writing a final report. Material models are then developed and examined on workstations running the Marc software. used along with Marc. and become familiar with the recommended procedure before venturing into a difficult rubber contact problem using a large 3-D model.Software Corporation also offer consulting services to assist an organization in performing rubber FEA. In such cases. and sometimes. Customer Support. The scope of such consulting work usually includes the development of a model(s). an oral presentation of the key results. The latter allows new users to try a rubber analysis similar to their own. Click here for a 4 minute video summary. Details of the curve fitting program in Mentat.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 10 USER CONVENIENCES AND SERVICES MSC. Instructors from MSC. the user should expect help from a knowledgeable support person or. The required tests to characterize a material are given in Appendix C (Courtesy: Akron Rubber Development Lab and Axel Products. obtaining the correct material parameters for analysis from test data is the major obstacle to a successful simulation. Consulting. MSC.WHITEPAPER MSC.Software and Axel Products. In addition to the reference documentation. MSC. Marc can refer the customer to materials testing firms which specialize in this type of testing (the same firm can also be used for testing the structural integrity of the finished elastomeric product). the particular developer who created that part of the analysis capability.Software Corporation offers prompt and professional customer support.Software offers an array of tools and services to help the customer design their products efficiently: Material Characterization. Documentation. Most nonlinear FEA software developers. In addition. present an integrated testing and analysis workshop featuring the experimental facilities of Axel Products. Recognizing the complex nature of FEA of elastomers.Software Corporation. The availability of competent support is often crucial to success in nonlinear FEA.Software offers training with a wide variety of workshops. This service is especially valuable for a company that either does not possess an FEA capability or their in-house engineers do not have nonlinear analysis expertise. Inc. Very often.Software Corporation also offers tutorial documentation. Attendees perform elastomer experiments using laboratory instruments to create data appropriate for use in building elastomer material models in FEA.). a curve fitting procedure is required to determine the coefficients of the selected model.Software: Whitepaper . in some complicated cases. -46- . material modeling and finite element analysis of elastomers. are described in Section 3.Software MAR 103 Experimental Elastomer Analysis Training Class in Action MSC. For rubber FEA.

User Subroutines. the program checks for items such as: the completeness of input coefficients for a certain strain energy density function. FEA programs all contain built-in input error checks. etc. More importantly. non-positive definiteness. to define the dependence of friction coefficient or some other material property on time. or location. In rubber FEA. for instance. and boundary conditions as a function of time. contact body definition correctness. step size.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Error Checks And Warning Messages. temperature. In rubber FEA. user subroutines can be used. loads. friction definition. consistency of the nonlinear analysis controls (tolerances. etc. User subroutines give the flexibility to users to tailor the nonlinear analysis specifically to their exact problem requirements. They allow the user to define arbitrary variations of material properties. -47- . To help detect potential instability problems.Software: Whitepaper . negative eigenvalues. These are a must in nonlinear FEA that involve complex geometric. The coding and accuracy verification of user subroutines is best left to the experienced user. etc. the code also issues warnings to the user during the analysis about possible snap-through.). material.WHITEPAPER MSC. they can be also used to define a new material model. whether a user subroutine is used and if the required data for that subroutine is completely defined. and boundary nonlinearities (such as in rubber and metal forming problems). space. and temperature or some other state variable.

Finally. For instance.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 11 CONCLUSION In the final analysis. a professional engineering judgment must be applied to interpret the numerical simulation results. -48- . and convergence criteria for your situation? • Does the code developer have an extensive track record in analyzing applications similar to yours? If so. This White Paper has presented a lot of information about what one should know about analyzing rubber. boundary conditions. After the code has been selected. and tolerance selection in the convergence criterion used.Software: Whitepaper . the user should bear in mind that there are other additional considerations which help to ensure success. where does one go from here? By that. Modeling of real world rubber parts is often complicated by a lack of good material data.WHITEPAPER MSC. the FEA of elastomeric or viscoelastic structures is a nontrivial undertaking. we mean what types of questions should be asked when selecting a code for rubber FEA? • Does the FEA code contain the proper material models? Which is the proper model? • Are there suitable finite elements for incompressible analysis? • Does the code have modern automated contact analysis capabilities? • Does the code offer the best choice of elements. All these questions relate to the quality of the nonlinear FEA code and the support. the developer should possess examples and verification problems similar to your application. These subtleties very often mean the difference between success and failure. some important considerations about model definition include: mesh refinement. and knowledge of the actual field service conditions. These are “tricks of the trade” that come with experience in analyzing rubber parts. solution algorithms. material models. specification of the incremental load schedule. But.

rubber manufacturers typically use “stabilizers” (for example. accelerators. high tensile strength. The increased stresses at the particles produce molecular orientation or alignment. On the other hand. 1994] and a possible redistribution of rubber network stresses can be enhanced by use of carbon black and silica. Mechanically. manufacturers subject specimens to xenon (or carbon) arcs. and wear resistance make NR an attractive choice over the synthetics in many applications even today. Rubber is vulcanized at high temperatures with addition of sulfur. cis-polyisoprene Rubber products are manufactured via a vulcanization process. StyreneButadiene. Erman. brittle. and Eirich. resilience. The basis of modern synthetic rubbers lies in synthesis of macromolecules by way of step-growth or chaingrowth polymerization. the desire to improve certain properties like resistance to environmental factors such as ozone degradation and ultraviolet rays. carbon black. To inhibit these ultraviolet radiation effects. nevertheless. These are used. Other varieties of NR came from balta. There is. Butyl. the Typical Polymer Molecules process manifests itself by an increase of retractile force and a possession of “rubbery” properties such as increased elasticity. federal regulations require that exposed rubber components must withstand exposure to ultraviolet radiation for approximately five years. guayule. is sticky and deforms permanently under large deformations. as a basic monomer unit involved a product derived from the Hevea Brazieliensis tree. Butadiene. The superior heat dissipation properties under cyclic loading. and curatives under application of pressure. in exterior rubber gaskets and seals for cars. several properties of unfilled rubbers such as hardness. electrical insulation. Isoprene. and exhibit crazing and stress cracks. On one hand. led to the discovery of synthetic rubber. rubber does not have the desired tensile strength. cis-polyisoprene. and guttapercha. etc. Other fillers like wax.Software: Whitepaper . which causes exposed rubber to become brittle. The advent of World War II saw an increased interest and necessity of the development of synthetic rubber compounds. tires. where the specimen is typically stretched 20% at certain prescribed temperatures. stress relaxation and creep reduce the stress concentration at the crack tip. In an unvulcanized (green) state. -49- . This crosslink network determines the physical properties and is controlled by vulcanization time and temperature. an excellent absorber) and “masks” (for example. and Urethanes. However. rubber parts become discolored. Acrylic. Nitril. a correlation between the above two characterizations of carbon black. urethane-based paint). The most damaging effect is due to ozone. In the United States. abrasion resistance. To simulate these effects and to improve the design of rubber parts. After prolonged exposure to the sun. tensile. together with metal ions and organic radicals. However. blunting the crack tip and diverting the tear from a rapid fracture. Fillers play an extremely important role in the manufacturing of rubber to impart the desired properties. cable insulation. Commonly known synthetic rubbers are Neoprene. tear strength [Mark.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers APPENDIX A PHYSICS OF RUBBER CH2 C H3C C H CH2 n Early applications of a material which came to be known as natural rubber (NR) with C 5 H 8 . It is hypothesized that carbon black particles act as stress concentrators and originators of microscopic flaws which precede a gross macroscopic tearing. form the crosslinks between polymer chains. the viscoelastic response and hysteresis losses are greatly enhanced by fillers (since the material Carbon Black Filled Rubber From Govindjee and Simo [1991] properties depend on the strain history). thereby. for instance.WHITEPAPER MSC. aging. The sulfur and carbon atoms. paraffin. and mineral oil are added to increase the heat dissipation capability. Some common uses of NR can be found in golf-ball covers. and protection against industrial oils.

due to straining. the force ( F ) exerted on stretching a rubber strip equals the rate of change of internal energy ( E ) and entropy ( S ) with length ( L ) for a given temperature ( T ).384 3. Entangled chains have significant impact on the viscoelastic properties such as creep and stress relaxation and melt viscosity. Breakdown of chains.Software: Whitepaper . Rubber is composed of long chain of molecules. It has been concluded from experiments that rubber elasticity manifests itself in the second term of the above equation.000-3.11 2.292 27.WHITEPAPER MSC.967 67.5000 Shear Modulus (MPa) 0.35-1.60 1.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers The distinctive features of rubber elasticity have a thermodynamical basis: E S F =  ------ – T  ----.29-0.348 69.35 0. oriented randomly due to thermal agitation of their segments.25 0.483 23.3 0.25 0.40 207. at which molecular chain orientation and strain-induced crystallization occurs.31 0.501 2. 158. The following table shows how some mechanical properties of rubber compare with other materials: Young's Modulus (MPa) 0.  L T  L T Thus.520 3.499 22.116 55. results in damage and stiffness reduction of the elastomer.76-7.733 36.179 89-255 55. except at low elongations (<10%) at which the thermal expansion masks the entropy effect resulting in thermoelastic inversion or at very large elongations.50 Material Rubber (typical range) Lightly Vulcanized Rubber Mild Steel Aluminum Alloys Glass Concrete Oak Human Bone (along osteones) Polyurethane Foam Plastics: Polyethylene Phenolic Laminate Polycarbonate Cast Acrylic Cellulose Acetate Vinylchloride Acetate 138-380 8.-152 0.38 Poisson's Ratio ~0.117 0.021 10.631 79.646 10.35 -50- .110 1.021 3. at equilibrium.18 Bulk Modulus (MPa) 3.25 0.

not possible to determine the complete state of stress from strain only.) Incompressibility is one of the most troublesome areas in the finite element analysis of elastomers. Marc provides all of these strain and stress measures to the analyst. In the limit. e = L  L 0 . (For more details.Software: Whitepaper .WHITEPAPER MSC. the differences between various measures of stresses and strains are negligible. it has little physical significance and is difficult to use for the interpretation of results. all hydrostatic deformation is precluded. Therefore. the original configuration is the material reference frame. but also to orthotropic and anisotropic materials. It is important to note that at small strains. the current deformed configuration is the material reference frame. the total Lagrange or the updated Lagrange procedure. It should be noted that the Green Lagrange strain is often expressed with respect to the deformation gradient.    = ln  L  L 0  or one can utilize the familiar engineering (Biot) stress. it is. where stress and strain measures are with respect to the current deformed configuration. As an alternative one can use the updated Lagrange formulation. When using the total Lagrange. Poisson's ratio  approaches 0. Numerical Treatment of Incompressibility This part explains the principles underlying the behavior and numerical treatment of incompressible materials.5. the engineer resorts to either the Cauchy (true) stress. S 2 .= ----------------------. [Hughes. Although the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress is useful for the mathematical material model.5). Modern computational mechanics practice in the analysis of incompressible materials is to suppress the volumetric component of the strain field by appropriately selected variational principles. S 1 . For nearly incompressible materials. most nonlinear FEA codes such as Marc use a strain measure called the Green-Lagrange strain. Incompressible Elasticity A simple way to understand why incompressibility results in numerical problems is to examine the familiar elasticity Bulk modulus (K) 21 +  relationship: --------------------------------------------. which for uniaxial behavior is defined as: E = 1  2   – 1  2 and a corresponding “work conjugate” stress called the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress. Shear modulus (G) 3  1 – 2  2 and the bulk modulus becomes large relative to the shear modulus. Then the Cauchy stress and logarithmic strain are naturally used.. 1987]—listed in the Suggestions for Further Reading. E [Fung. -51- . S 2 = P  A  L 0  L  . therefore. whereas updated Lagrange. This indeterminacy difficulty applies not only to isotropic materials.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers APPENDIX B MECHANICS OF RUBBER Stress and Strain Measures In large deformation analysis of elastomers. In such cases. two equivalent methods may be used to describe material behavior. F = x  X where x and X refer to the deformed and original coordinates of the body. S 1 = P  A 0 with energetically conjugate strain measure being engineering strain. see any of the finite element textbooks—for example. when the material is completely incompressible ( = 0.    = P  A with energetically conjugate strain measure the logarithmic (true) strain. In this limiting case. 1965].

which are used by researchers such as T. Overview of Analytical Approaches Modern analytical techniques used in treating incompressibility effects in finite element codes are based on the Hellinger-Reissner and Hu-Washizu variational principles [Zienkiewicz and Taylor. due to an over-constrained condition and insufficient active degrees of freedom. Filled elastomers. Taylor. Note that the element locks despite the fact that its area has remained constant. Well-known applications of these principles include assumed strain methods. It is important to note that the use of these values in finite element codes that have not been tailored for incompressibility analysis will lead to very serious numerical errors. Specifically. “mesh locking” may occur when using conventional displacement based formulations. 1990]. it will lock as the bulk modulus becomes infinite. 1991]. resulting in the prediction of too small of a displacement and too large of a stress. For instance. however. 1974]. More importantly. “Mesh locking” refers to the inability of an element to perform accurately in an incompressible analysis regardless how refined the mesh is.49 and may be considered “nearly incompressible”. therefore. To check whether an element will lock. Hence. special finite element formulations must be used to obtain reliable results. 2-D Hourglassing Mode 3-D Hourglassing “Eggcrate” Mode -52- . A tendency to lock occurs if r is less than these values.H. and special techniques have been used to improve the behavior of the elements. Mesh Locking and Constraint Counting Whether a particular finite element code is suitable for analyzing incompressible problems depends on the type of element used and its formulation. 1989]. and r = 3 for threedimensional problems. standard lower-order quadrilateral isoparametric elements found in many FEA codes exhibit extremely poor performance in analyzing incompressible or nearly incompressible problems and exhibit a pathological behavior called mesh locking. caused by the ill-conditioning resulting from the division by a value which is nearly zero. Another class of approaches is the so-called assumed stress methods. Before embarking on an incompressible analysis. the constant dilatation method of [Nagtegaal. Atluri and their co-workers.H. Whenever the material is nearly or completely incompressible. Typical values of Poisson's ratio are in the range of 0. often have Poisson's ratios of approximately 0. and Rice. and selective-reduced integration methods. they do not ensure convergence.49999. Parks.Software: Whitepaper . the user must exercise extreme care and fully understand the limitations of the elements to be used. The constraint ratio r is defined as the ratio of the active degrees of freedom to the number of constraints. 1980] and [Simo. the related B-bar methods of [Hughes.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Most rubbery and polymeric materials are not completely incompressible. A mathematically rigorous approach instead makes use of the so-called Babuska-Brezzi stability condition [Hughes. if a standard element is distorted into an hourglass mode. Pian and S. such as: the mixed method of [Herrmann. Optimal constraint ratios are r = 2 for two-dimensional problems. the mixed assumed strain methods used with incompatible modes by [Simo and Rifai.49 to 0. as explained in the following subsections. 1985]. 1965]. Parks. 1987]. While constraint ratios are a helpful engineering tool.WHITEPAPER MSC. the locking is a peculiarity of the finite element discretization.N. the Hu-Washizu methods of [Simo and Taylor. a method called constraint counting has proven to be quite effective [Nagtegaal. 1974]. Some effective analytical approaches to overcome mesh locking are discussed in the next subsection. and Rice. and Pister.

A modified form of the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle is used to derive the stiffness equations. dilatancy. or a bifurcation point which is characterized as an intersection of two equilibrium paths. Appropriately chosen functions will preclude mesh locking. a hierarchy of folds appears: single folds. 1990]. In short. The earliest mixed method is the so-called Herrmann formulation. would cause no instability at all [Beatty. folds of folds.. Surface Instability [Padovan et al.. The constant dilatation method of [Nagtegaal et al.Software: Whitepaper . and various in-house codes developed by leading solid rocket propellant manufacturers. the material must satisfy the Drucker Stability criterion that the change of energy in a closed cycle is non-negative. 1991] have studied the occurrence of physical instabilities associated with surface wrinkles and local bifurcations in seals and gaskets. Inflatable cord-reinforced rubber products present an example of structure whose stability limits are governed by air pressure and construction parameters in addition to the material properties. Selective-reduced integration under integrates the volumetric terms. Herrmann's approach has been used since the mid-1960s and 1970s in FEA codes such as Marc. Possible onset of buckling may be characterized by a limit point when the rubber structure can snapthrough from one equilibrium configuration to another.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Mixed methods usually have the stresses. 1974] decouples the dilatational (volumetric) and distortional (isochoric) deformations and interpolates them independently. or sudden folds or wrinkles which occur due to high compressive stresses near a surface. that is. Other types of instabilities would include necking of a sheet. which if applied to unconstrained material. strains. These instabilities which result in a sudden change in stiffness pose a severe test of a code's solution algorithm. A pressure variable (energetically conjugate to the volumetric strain) is introduced in the form of a Lagrange multiplier. 1980] to produce physically acceptable modes of deformation. Stability Instabilities that arise in the FEA of elastomers can be either “physical” or “numerical”. In fact. Marc has extensive post buckling capability to analyze rubber-to-rubber contact beyond the initial stage of folding. In studying surface instabilities of oil well valve rubber packings. Physical instabilities include buckling of a structure. the Drucker Stability criterion is expressed as:   dij dij  0 .WHITEPAPER MSC. The B-bar method of Hughes is a generalization of this method for linearized kinematics. With valve closure. and multiple foldings. Padovan has found that strains will reach 400 to 450 percent and that low cycle fatigue becomes important. However. near inextensibility of the fibers. In those cases where folds occur near a rigid or very stiff boundary. and instabilities in the numerical enforcement of the incompressibility constraint. all these methods can be shown to be equivalent under certain conditions [Malkus and Hughes. i j -53- . 1978]. The material model must satisfy certain restrictions on its elastic moduli [Rivlin. Typical mesh densification results are shown for those elements bordering the folds. incompressible materials. buckling and warping of surfaces of a reinforced material may result from the loading. Numerical instabilities include: instabilities in the mathematical description of the material law. or a combination of variables as unknowns. refining the model would not help to achieve a converged solution! Cord-rubber composites present yet another example of instability that may arise due to treatment of internal constraints. TEXGAP. For isotropic.

al. The numerical algorithms in Marc enable the user to avoid these instabilities. [1991] Wrinkling of Seal -54- . 1987] has shown the existence of multiple solutions with more than one stable solutions in pure. Mesh Densification During Folding From Padovan et.Software: Whitepaper .WHITEPAPER MSC. homogeneous modes of deformation using perturbation method. the above criterion reduces to an equality.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers For elastic materials without energy dissipation. Marc material parameter evaluation solves a constrained optimization problem to assure the stability of energy functions. [Tabaddor. These instabilities do not usually occur in the actual structure and are often the result of the mathematical abstraction of the real material.

The development of experimental data is so intimately tied to elastomeric material model development that MSC joined with the physical testing laboratory Axel Products. There are several standards for the testing of elastomers in tension.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers APPENDIX C MATERIAL TESTING METHODS Cut Specimens From Same Material 150mm x 150mm x 2mm Sheet The testing described herein is to define and to satisfy the input requirements of hyperelastic material models that exist in nonlinear finite element software like Marc. However. This means that the specimens used for each of the experiments must be of the same material. This difficulty derives from the complex mathematical models that are required to define the nonlinear and the nearly incompressible attributes of elastomers. The testing of elastomers for the purpose of defining material models is often mis-understood. Specimen Cutouts Testing Machine physical testing services Mar103 -55- . it is possible that you may be inconsistently testing the material.WHITEPAPER MSC. the experimental requirements for analysis are somewhat different than most standardized test methods. Remember to cut specimens from the same material as the application. data from all of the individual experiments is used as a set. Although the experiments are performed separately and the strain states are different. The appropriate experiments are not yet clearly defined by national or international standards organizations. This may seem obvious but if the specimens are specially molded to accommodate the differing instrument clamps for different experiments. Inc.Software: Whitepaper . to create a workshop called “Experimental Elastomer Analysis” (MAR 103).

In the following tests. strain range. The data recorded can be output in ascii files that contain the engineering stress.WHITEPAPER Physical Measurements MSC. length. The load cell can be seen at the top of the specimen in the right top figure. strain rates. The load cell actually measures changes in resistance of strain gages placed in a bridge on a metal shape that deforms slightly as the specimen is loaded. temperature. Another non-contacting technique is the use of a laser extensometer. temperature and time. The change of resistance is calibrated to report force. the initial gage length is entered into the data acquisition system. The laser sends out a planar light which is reflected back from reflector tags attached to the specimen as shown in the bottom right figure.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Basic physical measurements discussed here are limited to force. The recorded force is divided by the initial specimen area automatically by the data acquisition system. Video Extensometer Video Extensometer Readings Laser Extensometer with Tags on Specimen physical testing services Dramatic Change in Properties with Temperature Mar103 -56- . and as the test progresses the change in gage length is recorded by the data acquisition system.Software: Whitepaper . Time is recorded by the data acquisition system that synchronizes the force and length measurements. The output from the load cell enters the data acquisition system in the computer along with the initial specimen area. and preconditioning should be determined by the application to be modeled. engineering strain and time that are later used for the hyperelastic material model fitting. At the start of the test. Length or position is best measured by a non-contacting device such as a video extensometer as show in the middle right figure. the material. Force is usually measured by a load cell. The length between these two marks is continuously recorded by the data acquisition system. The video extensometer senses differences in color between two marks on the specimen.

The load. the material is assumed to be incompressible. P. A noncontacting strain measuring device such as a video extensometer or laser extensometer is required to achieve this.6 0. there is no need to use a dumbbell shaped specimen that is commonly used to prevent specimen failure in the clamps. Stress [MPa] 3.0 0. One can perform finite element analysis on the specimen geometry to determine the specimen length to width ratio. Stress state:  2 =  = P  A 0   1 =  3 = 0 Simple tension experiments are very popular for elastomers.5 1.0 1. Therefore. L/ L0. 1 = 3 = A  A0 MSC.Software: Whitepaper . If this area is not measured. normal to the load. Deformation state: 2 =  = L  L0 . is measured by a load cell. The objective is to create an experiment where there is no lateral constraint to specimen thinning.8 1. Since the experiment is not intended to fail the specimen. where a pure tension strain state is occurring. Calipers can be used to measure the instantaneous area. Strain [1] 0.WHITEPAPER Uniaxial Tension Test a. V=V0. but away from the clamp. The results of this analysis will show that the specimen needs to be at least 10 times longer than the width or thickness. must be measured on the specimen.4 0.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers b. the specimen straining. A. The length in this case refers to the specimen length between the instrument clamps. The most significant requirement is that in order to achieve a state of pure tensile strain.5 Eng.2 0.0 0. Tensile Machine    Tensile Specimen Eng.0 0. There is also not an absolute specimen size requirement.0 2. Specimen clamps create an indeterminate state of stress and strain in the region surrounding the clamp in the process of gripping.0 Specimen Response physical testing services Mar103 -57- . the specimen be much longer in the direction of stretching than in the width and thickness dimensions.5 2.

  Compression Machine Specimen Sizes physical testing services Mar103 For incompressible or nearly incompressible materials. the maximum shear strain exceeds the maximum compression strain! Because the actual friction is not known. Secondly. Hence the wrong material may be tested. Often. 1 = 3 = A  A0 MSC. Even very small friction coefficient levels such as 0. rather than extruded or poured sheet.3 mm diameter x 17. Stress state:  2 =  = P  A 0   1 =  3 = 0 Uniform states of strain are desired and this is especially difficult to achieve experimentally in compression. the data cannot be corrected.8 mm thickness Deformation state: 2 =  = L  L0 .WHITEPAPER Uniaxial Compression Test (Simple Compression) a. There are two basic reasons that make the compression test difficult. the specimen is not completely free to expand laterally during compression. This may require a molded specimen. a pure state of strain can be achieved which will result in a more accurate material model. For the compression button depicted the first difficulty is making the button so that it becomes thick enough to measure the gage length. b. -58- . Although the actual experiment is more complex than the simple compression experiment.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers  c. equal biaxial extension of a specimen creates a state of strain similar to pure compression. Other compression tests include the split Hopkinson pressure bars designed for soft materials such as polymers and elastomers which measures high strain rate data. because there is friction between the test specimen and the instrument platens.Software: Whitepaper .1 between the specimen and the platen can cause substantial shearing strains that alter the stress response to straining. Specimen size: 25. The equal biaxial strain state may be achieved by radial stretching a circular or square sheet.

if a square or circle are drawn on the specimen.axelproducts. Finally if the instantaneous thickness. D is the original diameter between punched holes.WHITEPAPER Biaxial Tension Test (Circular) a.com/downloads/BiaxialExtension. In other words. Once again. For more details about this test and specimen. they deform into a larger square or circle as the specimen is stretched. V=V0.Software: Whitepaper . is not measured. P is the sum of radial forces.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers b. see: http://www. and t 0 is the original thickness. The nominal equibiaxial stress contained inside the specimen inner diameter is calculated as:  = P  A 0 where: A 0 = Dt 0 . the material is assumed to be incompressible.PDF Biaxial Machine    Biaxial Specimen physical testing services Mar103 -59- . Stress state: 1 = 2 =   3 = 0 The equal biaxial strain state may be achieved by radial stretching a circular disc. a non-contacting strain measuring device must be used such that strain is measured away from the clamp edges. the radial components of stress and strains are constant with the polar and in-plane rectangular components of stress being the same value. Deformation state:  1 =  2 =  = L  L 0   3 = t  t 0 MSC. Since the deformation state is uniform in the plane of the sheet. t.

the material is assumed to be incompressible. t.WHITEPAPER Biaxial Tension Test (Rectangular) a. and t 0 is the original thickness. is not measured. and W is the width and height of the specimen. Finally if the instantaneous thickness.Software: Whitepaper . V=V0.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers b. The nominal equibiaxial stress contained inside the specimen calculated as:  = P  A 0 where: A 0 = Wt 0 . Biaxial Machine    Biaxial Specimen -60- . Once again. a non-contacting strain measuring device must be used such that strain is measured away from the clamp edges. Deformation state:  1 =  2 =  = L  L 0   3 = t  t 0 MSC. P is the average of the forces normal to the width and height of the specimen. Stress state: 1 = 2 =   3 = 0 The equal biaxial strain state may also be achieved by radial stretching a square sheet.

The experiment appears at first glance to be nothing more than a very wide tensile test.5 λ2 3. This experiment is very sensitive to this ratio.00000 -61- .Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers b. V=V0.99996 0.  3 = 0 The planar shear experiment used for analysis is not what most of us would expect. Planar Shear Test With Laser Reflection Tags    Planar Shear Specimen Y.99998 0. λ2 Z. because the material is nearly incompressible. A noncontacting strain measuring device must be used to measure strain away from the clamp edges where the pure strain state is occurring (top right figure).  3 = t  t 0 MSC.WHITEPAPER Planar Shear Test a. Modeling the actual specimen shows that 1 = 1 to within 30 parts per million as the specimen deforms. However.0 2.5 2. This requires that the specimen be at least 10 times wider than the length in the stretching direction. Stress state:  1  0   2 =  . a state of planar shear exists in the specimen at a 45 degree angle to the stretching direction.99997 0.5 Mar103 λ1 1. is not measured. The objective is to create an experiment where the specimen is perfectly constrained in the lateral direction such that all specimen thinning occurs in the thickness direction.0 Laser Extensometer physical testing services 1. λ1 3. The most significant aspect of the specimen is that it is much shorter in the direction of stretching than the width. the material is assumed to be incompressible.0 0. Deformation state:  1 = 1   2 =  = L  L 0 .99999 1.Software: Whitepaper . Below illustrates how analysis can be used to verify experimental assumptions. λ3 X. If the instantaneous thickness. t.

Software: Whitepaper . As a result of low shear strains. This test does not allow for the measurement of compressibility and as such this the volumetric compression test can be performed or the material assumed to be incompressible. The quad lap simple shear test is used by the bearings industry. Since the material shear requirements are much higher.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers X2   V atan  1  =  – -   X1 81) 1 = 2 2 -+ 1+---1 + ---4 2 2 2   1 + ---. Stress state:  12 =  = V  A o Dual Lap Shear Test The dual lap simple shear test is used in the tire industry. Quad Lap Shear Test -62- . this phenomenon is termed as Poynting Effect). the end plates in the quad lap shear test are allowed to move in the vertical direction due to development of very high normal stresses (in mechanics.WHITEPAPER Simple Shear Test a. Deformation state: MSC. the end plates do not move in the vertical direction in this test.–  1 + ---2 4 2 1 2 = 3 = 1 b.

-63- . for example. Furthermore. foams. Deformation state: 1 =   2 =  . and p is the fluid pressure. Eight buttons stacked and lubricated with silicone oil.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Specimen size: 3 mm diameter x 2 mm thickness.  3 = L  L 0 c. Marc estimates the bulk modulus as K = 10000  C 10 + C01  . b. Plotting volumetric along side simple compression expresses rubber’s incompressibility. Stress state: 1 = 2 = 3 = – P  A0 A0 is the cross-sectional area of the plunger and P is the force on the plunger. Whereas for Ogden models. Marc estimates the bulk modulus as N K = 2500  n=1  n  n . Marc will estimate it. 3 =  Stress state:  1 =  2 =  3 = – p where:  =  V  V 0  13  Volumetric Compression Test physical testing services Mar103 . b. when using Mooney-Rivlin forms of the strain energy density. if a bulk modulus is not supplied. volumetric tests need not be performed.Software: Whitepaper . Information regarding the bulk modulus can also be obtained by measuring relative areas in an uniaxial tensile or biaxial test. For example. volumetric tests may be performed by using a pressurized incompressible fluid such as water and the corresponding deformation and stress states are: a. Deformation state:  1 = 1   2 = 1 . In this case.WHITEPAPER Volumetric Test a. Otherwise this volumetric test may be performed. MSC. P/Ao P/Ao ΔV/Vo ΔL/Lo P/Ao ~ 3K(ΔV/Vo) Volumetric Compression Slope = 3K @ e = 0 P/Ao ~ 3G(ΔL/Lo) Simple Compression Slope = 3G @ e = 0   K >>> G for Rubber For materials where compressibility is very significant.

As such. Conversely.0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Viscoelastic Tensile Test physical testing services Mar103 -64- .2 Stress @ 50% Strain 0. Fortunately visocelastic behavior not being sensitive to the deformation mode can be determined by a tensile test being the easiest to perform.Software: Whitepaper . when a rubber sample is subjected to a constant stress.9 Stress @ 30% Strain 0. biaxial tension.pdf Eng.1 second to 1 second is as valuable to the fit as the relaxation data from 1 second to 10 seconds and so on. this behavior is called stress relaxation. the force necessary to maintain that strain is not constant but decreases with time. or shear. this behavior is called creep. Stress [MPa] 1. http://www. an increase in the deformation takes place with time.axelproducts.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers When a constant strain is applied to a rubber sample. compression.WHITEPAPER Viscoelastic Stress Relaxation Test MSC. This means that the relaxation data from 0. The link below is a discussion of stress relaxation testing and the use of Arrhenius plots to estimate the useful lifetime of elastomeric components. The material data is typically fitted using a Prony or exponential series expansion. Stress relaxation of a material can be measured in tension.3 Time [sec] 0. The accuracy with which this may be fitted is sensitive to the number of decades of time data.6 0. A simple loading experiment where the a specimen is stretched to a set strain and allowed to relax may be performed to provide sufficient data to model this behavior.com/downloads/Relax. proper data collection early in the experiment can provide several decades of time data without running the experiment over several days.

friction plays an important role in the performance of these applications. The normal force is known and the friction force is measured. The friction force is: (1) approximately independent of the area of contact over a wide limits and (2) is proportional to the normal force between the two surfaces. The measurement of  is depicted here where a sled with a rubber bottom is pulled along a glass surface. In order to model friction in finite element analysis. Friction Test . rediscovered in 1699 by G.Software: Whitepaper . one needs to measure the aforementioned proportionally factor or coefficient of friction.  .WHITEPAPER Friction MSC. These two laws of friction were discovered experimentally by Leonardo da Vinci in the 13th century. Friction is the force that resists the sliding of two surfaces relative to each other. This type of friction is referred to as Coulomb friction today.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers Friction Force Position Friction Data physical testing services Mar103 -65- Increasing Normal Force Because elastomers are commonly used in sealing applications. Coulomb performed many experiments on friction and pointed out the difference between static and dynamic friction. Various lubricants are placed between the two surfaces which greatly influence the friction forces measured. Amontons and latter refined by Charles Coulomb in the 16th century.

www. a hyperelastic fit can be generated like the Arruda-Boyce material shown here. After shifting each mode to pass through the origin.4 0. Fitting a single cycle gives an average single equilibrium curve to represent the hysteresis of that cycle.4 0.0 Engineering Stress [MPa] Equal Biaxial 1.com 2255 S.Software: Whitepaper . Inc.6 0.0 Tension 0.5 Biaxial Planar Shear 1. Industrial Hwy.2 0.8 1.5 Stable Upload Cycle 0.axelproducts. Inc. planar shear and biaxial having increasing stress for the same strain.Further information on material testing may be obtained from: Akron Rubber Development Laboratory.1 uniaxial/arruda_boyce biaxial/arruda_boyce planar_shear/arruda_boyce Fit for Arruda-Boyce physical testing services Mar103 -66- . the entire stable hysteresis cycle can be entered for the curve fit once shifted to zero stress for zero strain.Software Corporation is greatly indebted for the generous help provided by the Akron Rubber Development Laboratory. in the preparation of this section. one observes that the ratio of equal biaxial to uniaxial stress is about 2. Acknowledgements MSC. In doing this hysteresis is ignored.WHITEPAPER Adjusting Raw Data MSC.2 0. Very many elastomeric materials have this basic shape of the three modes. With the adjusted data. The raw data is adjusted as shown by isolating a stable upload cycle. Remember hyperelastic models must be elastic and have their stress vanish to zero when the strain is zero.8 Engineering Strain [1] 1.529 0 0 (x. with uniaxial.1) uniaxial/experiment biaxial/experiment planar_shear/experiment 9. then the adjusted data becomes:  =   –  p    1 +  p   =   –  p   1 +  p  2.ardl.com 2887 Gilchrist Road Akron. This cycle needs to be shifted such that the curve passes through the origin.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers The stress strain response of a typical test are shown at the right as taken from the laboratory equipment.0 0.0 Raw Data . Ann Arbor MI 48104 Tel: (734) 994-8308Fax: (734) 994-8309 1.0 0. A more in depth presentation “Testing Elastomers for Hyperelastic Material Models in Finite Element Analysis” is available from the Axel Products web site below. and Axel Products. www. Inc.6 0.This shift changes the apparent gauge length and original cross sectional area. Inc.5 Engineering Strain 0.0 0.0 Engineering Stress [MPa] There is nothing special about using the upload curve. the data is not ready for fitting to a hyperelastic material model. Letting     be the raw data selected and defining   p  p  = Min     . Ohio 44305 Tel: (330) 794-6600Fax: (330) 794-6610 Axel Products. respectively. 2.5 Planar Shear Tension 1. the adjusted data curves are shown here.0 0. In its raw form.0 0. Typically examining the shifted curves. Also one may enter more data points in important strain regions than other regions.0 Adjusted Data 1. It needs to be adjusted. The curve fit will give a closer fit were there are more points.

5. Typically. who has a good understanding of the design process and the mechanics involved. can use the analysis judiciously as a verification as well as a predictive tool for better product and process design. Finally. Equibiaxial. How do you know the answer is correct in a nonlinear Finite Element Analysis? Previous experience. above all. (ii) Product Testing: Several iterations in the development cycle can be bypassed if the design is first simulated by analysis. How do analysis and testing compliment each other? Testing comes at two different levers: (i) Material Testing: Depending on the anticipated deformation. one requires either: (i) (ii) Stress-Relaxation test or Creep test The stress-strain data must be obtained by applying ramp type loading if damage or stiffness degradation is to be considered in the elastomer. Several parametric sensitivity analysis before the mold design stage can significantly reduce the development cycle of the product.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers APPENDIX D ANSWERS TO COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS IN RUBBER PRODUCT DESIGN 1. but it will significantly reduce the product testing for performance and integrity. another deformation mode should be selected depending on the application of the rubber component. code verification against analytical solution and simpler problems. experience and level of understanding of the analyst. laboratory testing. and. Why is Finite Element Analysis necessary along with testing? Analysis does not replace component testing. Which rubber material data is needed for nonlinear analysis (Uniaxial. What can one expect from the Finite Element Analysis? The quality of the finite element results depends on several factors including computational technology in the code. different types of tests can be chosen for determination of material coefficients. To include strain-rate effects into the model (viscoelasticity). Deficiencies in any of the above can lead to erroneous results or a poor design. analysis and testing can be used hand-in-hand to iterate for a better design for manufacturing.Software: Whitepaper . the following tests can be done: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Uniaxial tension or compression Equibiaxial tension Simple shear Planar shear Volumetric Calculation of the material coefficients for strain energy function requires simultaneous fitting to more than one deformation mode. maintaining material stability with obtained coefficients. Besides the uniaxial tension (or compression). the intuition and engineering judgement of the analyst are the key factors in obtaining an accurate answer.WHITEPAPER MSC. a volumetric test is required. 4. and the interpretation of the results. Shear)? For characterizing the time independent behavior of rubber. For foam-like materials. -67- . Only incremental changes will then be necessary to fine tune the prototype. The quality of results is significantly affected by appropriate choice of tests and equally importantly. an experienced analyst. 3. during the fitting of the experimental data. However. care must be taken to insure the positive-definiteness of the material matrix as dictated by Drucker’s Stability Postulate. 2.

shell. What are the major strategies for getting convergence for a rubber model? Typically. (v) Discontinuous and Continuous Damage models to represent progressive stiffness loss. and fatigue behavior of the elastomer. What type of elements should be used for Finite Element Analysis of incompressible materials such as rubber? Typically in elastomeric analysis. 8. Recently. buckling. either standard displacement based or Herrmann elements can be used for elastomer analysis since they treat the incompressibility constraint the same way. 7. and Gent models for elastomers. (ii) Foam (iii) Finite strain viscoelasticity model appropriate for elastomers and Narayanswamy nonlinear viscoelasticity model for glass (iv) User subroutines allow the user to implement his/her own model (finite strain kinematics information is passed to the user) which may include temperature effects or internal variables in the model. How realistically will the code simulate multiple deformation modes (for example. For extremely small or very large relaxation times. What are the material models available in the program? Marc offers a rich library of several material models. What are the convergence criteria? Several convergence criterion exist in Marc. Marc includes the full Newton-Raphson as well as arc length procedure for the analysis.Software: Whitepaper . namely: (i) Generalized Mooney-Rivlin. The viscous response is characterized by a linear rate equation leading to a convolution representation generalizing viscoelastic models. and Shear)? Multiple deformation modes can be accurately predicted by fitting experimental data of these deformation modes simultaneously. 10. Boyce-Arruda. Compressible foam material can be modeled with standard displacement elements.WHITEPAPER MSC. Thermal effects can be modeled using the heat transfer elements. full Newton-Raphson or secant methods are used to solve the nonlinear system of equations. Tension. Computational efficiency can be obtained by reduced integration elements (requiring hourglass control for the lower-order elements). When instabilities. Analysis can be done using continuum. Compression. 9. The kinematics of deformation in Marc is general enough to accommodate any deformation mode. In Marc. based on: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Displacement Rotation Residual force Residual moment Strain energy -68- . Mullins’ effect. Ogden. the nearly incompressible material behavior is modeled by using two.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 6.or three-field variational principle giving rise to the mixed elements. general finite elasticity is recovered. 11. or membrane elements depending on the kinematics of deformation. snap-through phenomenon exist. special triangular and tetrahedral elements satisfying incompressibility conditions have been introduced to model elastomers. How to incorporate stress relaxation and creep behavior of rubber in Finite Element Analysis? Stress relaxation and creep phenomenon can be modeled by a finite strain viscoelasticity model in Marc. The cord-rubber composites can be analyzed by using rebar elements. then an arc length procedure needs to be used.

In a phenomenological model.Software: Whitepaper . 16. It allows modeling hysteresis and progressive loss of stiffness due to cyclic loading 14. 2. The model is available for all elastomeric strains energy functions in Marc.+ γ 1 + ---2 4 γ γ 1 + ---. How to consider fatigue in a rubber Finite Element Analysis? Fatigue behavior due to cyclic loading and unloading of a rubber component can be simulated by Marc through the Continuous Damage Model due to C. How to model a dynamic rubber part with large deflection? Small amplitude vibrations superposed on large static deflection can be analyzed by frequency domain dynamic analysis. the Kachanov factor for damage can be modified to accommodate the degradation of material properties with time through the Marc UELDAM user subroutine. Miehe. deformed viscoelastic solid.0 λ 1 0 0 -----λ λ 0 0 1 0 -. i = 1. Mullin’s model for discontinuous damage and Miehe’s model for continuous damage are available in Marc.0 λ 1 0 0 -λ 2 Biaxial λX 1 λX 2 X3 -----2 λ Planar λX 1 X2 -----λ X3 Simple Shear Univolumetric Volumetric X 1 + γX 2 X2 X3 X1 X2 λX 3 λX 1 λX 2 λX 3 Deformation Gradient F = λ 0 0 0 λ 0 1 0 0 ----2 λ 2 λ 0 0 1 0 -.– γ 1 + ---2 4 1 2 2 2 1 1 λ λ λ λ -69- .Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers 12. Do you have a quick summary of the deformation modes. Marc uses the phi-function approach to modal the vibrations in a sinusiodally excited. How to incorporate damage phenomena into Finite Element Analysis? Damage effects can be incorporated in the analysis in two different ways. 3 b–λi I = 0 2 λ 1/ λ 1/ λ λ λ 1 /λ 2 λ 1/λ 1 γ γ 1 + ---. damage crack growth. Crack propagation is modeled using the energy release rate method using the quarter-point elements. 15. 13. and principal stretch ratios? Modes: Maping x1 X = x2 x3 Uniaxial λX 1 X2 -----λ X3 -----λ λ 0 0 1 0 ------.WHITEPAPER MSC. How to incorporate a failure criteria into a Finite Element Analysis? Simple fatigue. deformation gradient. Both. The wear models can be constructed with the information regarding relative slip between contact bodies and the frictional forces given out in the program.0 2 λ 0 0 1 2 1+γ γ 0 2 γ 0 10 01 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 λ 2 2 λ 2 0 0 2 0 λ 0 2 0 0 λ Principal Stretch Ratios λ i .0 λ 0 0 1 1γ 0 010 001 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0λ λ 0 0 0 λ0 0 0λ Figer Tensor b = F FT λ 0 0 2 λ 0 1 0 0 ----4 λ 0 λ 0 0 1 0 ----. and wear models can be used to analyze failure. Several subroutines exist in Marc to facilitate the user in developing his/her own failure models. Marc offers two different damage models: discontinuous damage model (to model Mullins’ effect) and the continuous damage model (simulate fatigue behavior).

Martins.C. Oden. Pennsylvania.Y. pp. 52. N. “Computational Model for 3-D Contact Problems with Friction Based on Penalty Method. Martins.J.” Int. and J. 1995. Cook.S.. Finite Element Procedures. pp. Englewood Cliffs. Malkus. Vol. The Finite Element Method (4th ed.A. J. “A Solution Method for Static and Dynamic Analysis of Contact Problems with Friction. McGraw-Hill Book Co. “Algorithmic Symmetrization of Coulomb Frictional Problems Using Augmented Lagrangians. J. Simo. Prentice-Hall. A. and D.Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING Contact Problems. “Formulation of Contact Problems by Assumed Stress Hybrid Model.E. ISBN 0-309-04648-3. N.. R. P.J. 163-180.J. D.C. and J. Engineering Sciences.. Wunderlich et al.. and F. Washington. Englewood Cliffs.T. Hughes. and J. D. pp.. N. Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis (3rd ed.C. V.J. J.E.Y.A. 1990. 1985. 1987. Plesha.. 1981. and Nonlinearity. 28.K. Prentice-Hall.C.” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering.J.T. Finite Element Method Bathe. Springer.1972. V. Clarendon Press. Vol.K.A. The Finite Element Method—Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis. Taylor. 2. pp. and K. D. Oden. Y. (eds).. 1965. Kikuchi. Basic Formation and Linear Problems (1989).) Vol. Oden. and R..R.” Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis in Structural Mechanics. Ogden.C.).W. 50. 1992. 1289-1309. Oxford. Finite Elements of Nonlinear Continua. N. Laursen. R.” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. J.Y. Vol. U. 35. J. Adkins.. Prentice-Hall. Theory. 565-584. Oden. N. Fung. Vol. New York.D. K.WHITEPAPER MSC. National Research Council.” Computers and Structures. “Models and Computational Methods for Dynamic Friction Phenomena.B.R. Nonlinear Elasticity Ciarlet. Philadelphia.M. 1972.. and R.C. Springer-Verlag. pp. Oden. N.A. Dynamics. Zienkiewicz. 1. Martins. 11.” Proceedings of Royal Society. Mathematical Elasticity.G. Simoes.T. 1981.C. Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues. and J. Methods and Applications. N. Berlin. Inc. 1991.) Research Directions in Computational Mechanics. A (326). New York. Simo. V. V. J. J.J. Green. 1960. -70- . “Existence and Uniqueness Results for Dynamic Contact Problems with Nonlinear Normal and Friction Interface Laws. J. No. Y. J. A. pp. 29-92. 1989. O.” Nonlinear Analysis. Owen. Foundations of Solid Mechanics. 3. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 1985.L..Software: Whitepaper . 527-634. 855-873. U. 1986.T. McGraw-Hill. pp. Large Elastic Deformations and Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics.J. John Wiley and Sons.” Int. T. “Large Deformation Isotropic Elasticity: On The Correlation of Theory and Experiment for Incompressible Rubberlike Solids. 133-146. and M. Vol.. 1988..T. “A Study of Static and Kinetic Friction. 1993. North-Holland Publishing Co.L. Fung. Static and Kinetic Friction Chaudhary. 407428. Oden. 24.. (1991). London. and J. 1. T. “A Perturbed Lagrangian Formulation for the Finite Element Solution of Contact Problems. Englewood Cliffs.F.” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. Solid and Fluid Mechanics..C.. (Ed. Bathe. pp.. National Academy Press. Peric. New York. Wriggers.T. Contact Problems in Elasticity: A Study of Variational Inequalities and Finite Element Methods.C. 108.E. Taylor. P. 1988. 1987. No. of Numerical Methods in Eng.

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(Late) Juan C.Software works with thousands of companies worldwide to develop better products faster with engineering simulation technology. transportation. references. For additional information about MSC.Software: Whitepaper . electronics. across several industries including aerospace. Simo (Stanford University). Use of these individuals' names does not necessarily imply their endorsement of Marc or the contents of this White Paper. Joe Padovan (University of Akron). consumer products. software. agricultural equipment.Software MSC.Software’s products and services. Fung (University of California at San Diego). heavy machinery. MSC. JAPAN Telephone: (81) (3)-6911-1200 Fax: (81) (3)-6911-1201 ©2010 MSC. please visit www.mscsoftware. Y. and services.Software Corporation. Bauer (Dunlop Tire Corporation) and the worldwide staff members of MSC. nuclear. or valuable comments in reviewing a draft of this Paper: Professors J.Software Corporation 2 MacArthur Place Santa Ana.Software GmbH Am Moosfeld 13 81829 Munich GERMANY Telephone: (49) (89) 43 19 87 0 Fax: (49) (89) 43 61 71 6 Asia Pacific MSC. save time.com. and shipbuilding. renewable energy. Acknowledgments Appreciation is also expressed to the many individuals for their interest and kind contributions to this White Paper by providing their research findings.Software Japan Ltd.Software Corporation MA*11/2010*Z*Z*Z*LT-WPS-ELAS -75- .Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Elastomers ABOUT MSC.Software is a global leader of multidiscipline simulation solutions that help companies improve quality. MSC.C. Locations Corporate MSC. Shinjuku First West 8F 23-7 Nishi Shinjuku 1-Chome. CA 92707 Telephone: (800) 345-2078 FAX: (714) 784-4056 Europe MSC. automotive.WHITEPAPER MSC. medical devices. defense. Shinjuku-Ku Tokyo 160-0023. Dr. packaging. and reduce costs associated with designing and testing manufactured products.Software’s products and services are used by 900 of the top 1000 manufacturers in the world. Rudolf F. analysis results. oil and gas. Tinsley Oden (University of Texas at Austin).