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Download this Document for Free mon bus bar/load on the secondary side. Such requirement isquently encountered in practice. The reasons that necessitate t o a f a u l t o r i s t a k e n o u t f o r m a i n t e n a n c e / r e p a i r t h e l o a d c a n ers working in parallel on the primary side.ing the polarities they are connected tos t e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e v o l t a g e s o f t h e t w o t r a n s f o r m e r s . T h e s e s are examined first with reference to single phasee voltage ratio Generally the turns ratio and voltage ratio are siderable current can be drawn by the transformers and they aller machines must have larger ohmic impedance. Thus thes must be in the inverse ratios of the ratings. As the voltagen k s i t i s possible to have permanent phase error between t h e es with substantial circulating current. Such transformer banksmers having −30ralleled with the one with −30ase angle, the phase minals. If the phase sequences are not the same then the two ase sequence

Substituting V in Eqn. Thus the ohmic values of thep e d a n c e s m u s t b e i n t h e i n v e r s e r a t i o o f t h e r a t i n g s o f t h e asor diagram of operation for these conditions. Performance of two or more single ays two transformers of equal voltage ratios are selected forr k i n g i n p a r a l l e l . _ e same. Loading Considerations When ParallelingTransformers . The drops are g n i f i e d a n d s h o w n t o i m p r o v e c l a r i t y .u) impedances must be the same.indicator. at a larger current. Knowing the individual current phasor. In order to a v o i d a n y ce and to share active and reactive powers also properly. 98. I t i s s e e n t h a t t h e t o t a l nsformers is v but the currents Ie f o r c e d t o h a v e a nts of ther p. T h i s w a y o n e c a n a v o i d a c i r c u l a t i n g c u r r e n t ivalent Circuit for Transformers working in Parallel -Simplifiedminal voltage is V = IZnsformer. the load shared byeach transformer can be computed. I A . The lation of load currents following the method suggested above Parallel Generator TheoremCombining these equationsGrouping the terms togetherFrom this V can be obtained.I B etc can beobtained. In such cases the circuit representation for parallel -load secondary emf. Ze l o a d i m p e d a n c e a t t h e d Ire will be a circulating current between the transformers. Introduction In this section we will look at the conditions under which transformers can be connected in parallel and theirloading .

and kVA ratings are different. and impedances. impedances. Generally whentransformers are installed in parallel they have the same kVA. As systems . turn ratios.considerations when turn ratios.



change over time.Transformers are generally paralleled in industrial and commercial facilities to • Make power systems more reliable • . users need to conceptualize the role ofcirculating currents and load sharing and understand the impact of paralleling transformers using differentparameters. and transformers are replaced or added. Paralleled transformers have used in electrical distribution systems for many years.

the current will be divided such that the voltage drop inone transformer is equal to voltage drop in the other transformer. but the primary and secondary terminal voltages are the same in both transformers. Connecting transformers when one of these parameters is . there are some misconceptions of when circulating currents actually exist. their impedance should also beidentical to ensure that under any condition of load. Principles of Paralleling Transformers connected in parallel have the same voltage on each primary and the same voltage on eachsecondary. We shall discussthese issues in the following sections. thencirculating currents must flow between the transformers.Provide better power quality • Prevent voltage sags • Add load requirements. Often these tap changes produce circulating current in parallel-operatedtransformers. and X/R ratiosare the same. Forthese terminal voltages to be the same for the paralleled transformers.. if the turn ratios of the transformersare different. even at no load Limiting Conditions and Transformer Parallel Connection Types Transformers are suitable for parallel operation when their turn ratios. The difference in the voltage between the primary and secondary windings is the turn ratios. Though most engineers may know that these parameters are important when parallelingtransformers. percent impedances. Also. Many times auto-tap transformers are used to adjust voltagelevels due to loading conditions.Electrical utilities are ideal examples of these applications. Their main objectives are reliability and powerquality. along with keeping consumers on-line.

absent of exciting and circulating currents. with the total load current equal to the combined kVA rating of thetransformers. • The combination of the circulating currents and full load current exceed the full load rating of eithertransformer. the circulating currents represent the current flowing at no load in the high and lowvoltage windings. excluding exciting currents. Both of these situations lower the efficiency and reduce the maximumamount of load the combined transformers can carry. Typically. Types of parallelconnectionEqualloadingUnequalloadingOverloadingco ncernsCirculatingcurrentsRecommendedconnectionsEqualimpedances-Equal ratios-Same KVAY e s N o N o N o . • The no-load circulating currents in any transformer exceed 10% of the full load rating . transformers should not be operated inparallel when: • The division of load is such that.different results in either circulatingcurrents or unwanted current division. Refer to the appropriate section in the following pages forexplanations and calculations specific to these different connection types.From the list above. Table 1 is an overall summary of differentconnection types of parallel transformers. Full load current is the current flowing in the transformer with aload connected. one of the transformers is overloaded.

.Y e KVAN N o Y e ratiosN Y e N o s o s o s -Equalimpedances-Equal ratios-Different Y e s N o -Unequalimpedances-Equal Y e s N o -Same KVA-Unequalimpedances-Equal ratios-Different KVAN o Y e s Y e s N o N o -Unequalimpedances-Unequal ratios-Same KVAY e s N o Y e s Y e s N o -Unequalimpedances-Unequal ratios-Different KVAN o Y e s Y e s Y e s N o The standard method of connecting transformers in parallel is to have the same turn ratios.

percentimpedances. Paralleling is typically accomplished by maintaining a tie breaker in thenormally closed (N. and kVA ratings. Connecting transformers in parallel with the same parameters results inequal load sharing and no circulating currents in the transformer windings.) position.C. Figure 1: Typical Parallel OperationFigure 2: Typical SinglePhase Parallel Operation .


as shown in Figure 1. that if the percent impedances in each transformer arethe same.It can be seen by using equations (1) and (2) below. that there will be equal current division and load sharing on each transformerWhere:I 1 = load current from transformer 1I 2 = load current from transformer 2Z 1 = impedance of transformer 1Z .

Where:%Z 1 = % impedance of transformer 1%Z 2 = % impedance of transformer 2kVA 1 = kVA rating of transformer 1kVA 2 = kVA rating of transformer 2 The total load current I L =I 1 +I 2 Since current has a direct relationship with kVA.2 = impedance of transformer 2 The total load current I L =I 1 +I 2 Substituting for Z 1 and Z 2 below into equations (1) and (2) produces thefollowing equations (3) and (4).the same . substituting kVA for current into equation (3) and (4) above.

.comparison can be made using load kVAL as shown in equations (5) and (6).



the sumof the individual load current will be greater than the current in the line.The above equations are arithmetically correct only when the ratios between the reactances and resistancesof the transformers are equal. Frequently in practice. In other cases. engineers try to enhance their plant power system by connecting existingtransformers . They give accurate results when X/R ratios are large. This is because of the phasedifference between the currents in the different transformers.

andlarger current flows through the smaller impedance. Seldom are transformers in industrial and commercial facilities connected to one common bus with differentkVA and unequal percent impedances.in parallel that have the same kVA rating. The heavily loadedtransformer's taps have been adjusted to raise the operating voltage. the load current carried by the combined transformers will be less than their ratedkVA A good example of a system with circulation currents would be a double-ended substation (similar to Figure1 on page 3) that normally has the tie breaker "open. What happens when these two transformers are paralleled without changing the tapon the right . there may be that one situation where two single-endedsubstations may be tied together via bussing or cables to provide better voltage support when starting largemotors. Thus. This iscommon when budget constraints limit the purchase of a new transformer with the same parameters. If the percent impedances and kVA ratings are different. and the transformer on the left sidehas been lightly loaded. As with the unequal percent impedances shown in 5. but with different percent impedances. Whatthe engineer needs to understand is that the current divides in inverse proportions to the impedances." The operator has decided to close the tie breaker toprovide loading and voltage support for a heavily loaded transformer on the right side. However. the lower percent impedance transformer can beoverloaded when subjected to heavy loading while the other higher percent impedance transformer will belightly loaded. care should be taken when loading thesetransformers.

transformer to match the left? See Figure 3 for a single phase diagram of circulating currentsdescribed above with no load connected. To calculate the circulating currents.emersonnetworkpower. Figure 3: Single-Phase Diagram with Circulating Parallel opn of Transformers Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport Document This is a private document.com . The circulating current is obtained by dividing this valueby the sum of the impedances of the two transformers. Info and Rating ratan_mathur7432 Ads by Google Paralleling Switchgear Keep Your Power On With ASCO Emergency & Backup Systems www. This would be the total impedance through which thecirculating current is flowing. the difference in ratios mustbe expressed in the percentage of the normal ratio.

portable.com Share & Embed More from this user PreviousNext 1. Recent Readcasters Add a Comment af41e60e6beddb . www.Reliable Transformers Transformers.reltrans.hvtester.za Circuit Breaker Analyzer 5kg. 13 p. www. plasma cutters.co. chokes. voltage regulators. reactors. excellent security Built-in operation power supply.

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Established records of reliability coupled with the lack of movement. or radiator liquids in common use. Silicones Askarel is a nonflammable synthetic insulating fluid which is subject to strict environmental controls and manufacturers instructions shou PCB's ( the better known name for it). because a transformer failure is requiring extensive repair and long down time. transfor categories in accordance with their insulating medium and construction. For maintenance purposes. as any problems such as law suits must be handled by the original owner and not by the company handling th . Askarel 3. the core and coils are immersed in the liquid. and second. Mineral Insulating Oil 2. Each also requires slightly different maintenance techni the dielectric value and/or resistance of the insulation are the major mainten LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS In a liquid transformer. Each has several variations that will be listed and covered under t recommendations. tank surface. This an important part of the insulation medium. If they are nor overloaded or otherwise trouble-free service.TRANSFORMERS Transformers are one of the most vital links in industrial type electric powe reliable components in the system. However. it serves to transfer where it is dissipated to the air by the cooling fins. comes under severe rules published b should be done by a competent company. noise in general disregard and neglect. regular maintenance proced continued long life and high reliability. These are: 1. Th dry type.

Sealed Tanks (a gas space above the liquid serves as a cushion for intern 5. or less freq . As this is electrical gear in your plant and the most neglected. 3. once a week. Conservator or expansion tank (exposure to air limited to the conservato 4. Water cooled (heat exchange by means of water pumped through a p the transformer tank. once a day. Self cooled (heat is dissipated by the tank surfaces and cooling fins or t 2. 4. too much cannot be sa ROUTINE INSPECTIONS Routine inspections of power transformers should include observations of basis. why they are oil filled and what is expected phase of transformer work. Restricted Breathing (open to the air through dehydrating compounds). Before going into the testing. 3. Forced Air Cooled/Forced Oil Cooled (an oil pump circulates the oil thr exchange). Forced Air Cooled (fans are employed to force air over the cooling surf self-cooling rating). The period may be once a shift. I types of oil filled transformers. Free Breathing(open to the air). Gas-Oil seal (Exposure to air to the oil in the auxiliary tank). many more items will be pointed out. 6. inspecting and maintaining of transformers. These types are: 1.CONSTRUCTION OF OIL FILLED TRANSFORM There are several types of transformers construction regarding the preserva mean the exposure of the insulating oil to the atmosphere. the various cooling methods are: 1. Inert (gas space above the liquid maintained under positive pressure by n In addition to oil preservation. 2.

CURRENT AND VOLTAGE READINGS Voltage and load current checks are important in routine inspections. and a condition rate in their routine inspection. TEMPERATURE READINGS Transformers are rated to carry their name plate load in KVA with a given temperature is at a standard level. The indication of the transformers performance and load conditions. and result in reduced life of the winding insulation. steps should be taken to reduce this load. If th current rating of the transformer. the following should be established routine for a Load Current--------Daily----------and Record Oil Temperature-----Daily----------and Record Oil Level------------Weekly---------and Record Voltage-------------Weekly---------and Record These readings for current. Underload served. If either low or high voltage readings are discovered. Excessive that the cooling system is not working properly. steps sho determine the cause and it remedied.by the importance of the transformer. voltage and temperature should be taken during level reading taken during the lowest load tests. Either of the problems listed above ca deteriorate and eventually breakdown. These exact values are stated on the sam transformer with a Class A insulation may be rated to deliver name plate ca temperature rise above 30 degrees centigrade (86 degrees Fahrenheit) ambi readings should be taken at set intervals and a permanent record kept. chance of total transformer failure. Over-voltages can be detrimental to the transformer and it serves. . Continued operations at ex deterioration of the oil. the severity of the operating environm is recommended that a form be adopted by your company and attached to e rating and routine inspection findings can be recorded.

be done at least on always be the de-energizing should always be handled by an approved posi assure against unplanned re-energizing and the resulting hazard to both equ should be performed to assure that the lock-out procedure has been followe equipment. After all the abo work should be done. Contamination should be carefully avoided during any type of test. It is at this time that the oil should be at its lowest level. The tap changer compartment. ONE YEAR INSPECTIONS AND REPAIRS The following work and inspection should without fail. radiators and all g be checked for leaks. Leak repair. Both primary and secondary connections should be checked for signs of o insulator bushings should be checked for cracks or chipped skirts and the g insulators should be cleaned of any contaminations and any leaks should be should be checked to assure that there are no leaks or corrosion and that the damaged valves or diagrams should be replaced.OIL LEVEL INDICATOR AND PRESSURE/VACUUM GAUGES Oil levels should be checked as previously outlined. both items should be checked. Pres on sealed type transformers are valuable indicators of the conditions of the change with the changes of the oil temperature. it should be applied . cleaning or painting sh The conservator tank. tubes. inert gas and dehydrating breather equipment shoul accordance with the units manufacturers recommendations. tank. especially after a long temperature. If any insulating oil is to be added to the transformer the oil should be at l To prevent areation (air bubbles from being in the oil). cooling fins. When the transformers has been safely de-energized and locke placed on all phases on both high and low side to ground. leaks above the oil level are indicated or the pressure/vacuum above. dirt or corrosion.

OIL MAINTENANCE AND ANALYSIS The dielectric strength of the insulating oil is of the most concern. combined with the heat developed during normal op acids and sludge in the oil. As small a lower the dielectric strength of the oil below its acceptable value. plus many more can be and are performed in the fi technicians. 1. This sludge will settle on the horizontal parts of the windings and at the bo the normal circulation of the oil and its ability to dissipate heat. showing how th for. The acidity test 3. 2. The color test All three of these tests. Thus. is directed at detecting any variance from established levels or any deteriora of the dielectric strength. The oxygen in the air. Prior to add performed on the oil even if the oil is new. Of the many test that have been developed to determine the condition of in considered sufficient for average maintenance requirements. Moisture is the most dangerous contaminant of insulating oils.The proper means for this is by a filter press pump. If in an emergency an the oil can be added through the top. If large amounts of oil must be added in this manner de-energized long enough to allow the air bubbles to dissipate. It is recommended that at least two th strain the oil through. The sludge of the insulating surface. DIELECTRIC TEST . A minimum test value for mine is acceptable. I will now outline each of the preceding tests. The dielectric breakdown voltage test.

power f . specific gravity. acid the acceptable limits more complicated tests may need to be performed. Some ma reading below this that the transformer be de-energized immediately ACIDITY TEST The acidity of oil is a measure of how much it has oxidized and thus deter propensity to form sludge.504 as covered in ASTM specification number D877 and/or D1816. free ions. The color scale on these charts range from 0. It is an accept tests and the average of the three being considered as the actual dielectric st acceptable value is 22KV for mineral oil. Acidity is measured by a neutralization number 1. The p A sample of the oil to be tested is placed in a clean "standard" cup so that it are one inch in diameter and have their faces apart by one-tenth of an inch.0 with n less. electrodes and increased gradually until a flash-over occurs. This potassium hydroxide (KOH) required to neutralize the acid in one gram of indicate deterioration but does indicate a possible chemical reaction with or COLOR TEST The color test is performed by visually comparing the color of the oil to a manufacturers. ADDITIONAL TESTS If the results of any of the three recommend field tests (dielectric test.The dielectric breakdown test measures the ability of an insulating oil to w of failure.5 to 8. This test indicates at what voltage the oil will allow a flash-over particles will cause the oil to breakdown below its acceptable levels. New oil will appear to be clear to a light straw color. while a dark red contamination. Am flash point. interfacial tension. and 25KV for Askarel. viscosity.

oxygen (Fyrite) or any of the other tests listed by ASTM D117.gas. . South the equipment in our mobile laboratory unit to perform any of the above tes NEXT PAGE > MORE INFORMATION ON OIL TESTING.

the linear type and the switch mode power transformer. The function of a transformer is to change AC voltage. Typical . and Repair Testing transformer is very easy if you follow the procedure explained in this article. In this article I'm only explain on how to test the linear transformer.Transformer Testing. Filtering.e. Before that. I would like you to know what the function of a transformer is. A transformer cannot change direct current (DC) voltage. There are three types of linear transformer:1) Step up transformer-to increase the output voltage. Generally there are two types of transformer in the market i.

There are three ways or techniques on how to test a transformer: 1) Switch on the equipment and measure the input and output voltage of the transformer with either an analog or digital meter. The output voltages are then converted into DC voltages with the help of diodes.example is 240v ac input with a 480 volt ac output (high voltage). Typical example is 240v ac input with a 12 volt ac output (low voltage). I would not go too details into transformer theory as this article touch on the topic of how to test a linear transformer. Make sure you have someone to guide you or else you can try the second method. the transformer need replacement. The disadvantage is that you must be very careful when checking it especially when the power is ‘on'. Typical example is 240 v ac input with a 240 volt ac output. If there are no voltage or lower voltage then it suppose to be. I personally liked this method because you are testing the transformer under full operating voltage which is very accurate. . 2) Step down transformer-to decrease the output voltage. 3) Isolation transformer-produce the same amount of voltage as the input voltage. A single transformer can have different independent outputs to serve as a step up transformers as well as step down transformer.

I will cover on how to test a switch mode . A shorted primary or secondary winding is still checked well under resistance tests. it will usually produced a bad smell and the transformer gets very hot on its core or casing. Lastly. However there is still one disadvantage which is the winding can go shorted when under full operating voltage even though both windings checks okay with ringer test. For some transformers like the UPS (uninterruptible power supply) you need wiring diagrams to assist you because there are so many secondary windings and you may get confused. checking switch mode power transformer is different from testing linear transformer. suspect an open winding and the transformer need to be replaced. If there is no resistance or ohms reading on the primary and secondary winding measured. but first you must know how transformer work and get an experienced technician's friend to help you out before performing the test on your own.2) With power off. remove the transformer from the board and perform a resistance or continuity test on primary and secondary winding as shown on the picture of transformer below. The disadvantage is checking the resistance for ohms reading is not as accurate as when you perform a ringing test mentioned on the third method.The first method is the best choice to test linear transformer accurately. Checking the ohms resistance or continuity on a linear transformer is not accurate as compared when using a ringer tester. The advantage of this method is. However the good news is when either the primary or secondary winding developed a short circuit. Conclusion. you are safe because no power is applied to the transformer. 3) Perform a ringing test with a ringer tester.

voltage regulators.za Reliable Transformers Transformers. www.switches. Isolators Gen.za transformer oil test determine dielectric properties of transformer oil .co.com Change-Over Switch (RSA) Change-Over Switch. chokes.com/article_1268066_45.switch (100Amp) (011)462-4253 www.reltrans.quick and onsite www.co.za .html?ktrack=k cplink Top 5 To Try  Side Effects of Binaural Harmonics  What Are the Causes of Electrical Harmonics?  The Effect of Harmonics on Electric Metering  How to Correct Neutral Harmonics  How Is Harmonics Related to Sound? Ads by Google Mr Power Giant Controller Saves 50% of your GEYSER costs! Pays for itself within months.mrpower. plasma cutters. www. reactors.articlealley.transformer in times to Read more at http://www.co.b2hv.

oil and insulation. Package/Compact Substation www. Harmonics can result in a heat increase in various parts of a transformer. Overheating in the Transformer 1.transformer & substation Power / Distribution Transformer. including the windings. Leaked energy can take the form of eddy currents that can be transmitted to parts linked by flux and cause further overheating. This can create non-linear loads referred to as harmonics. including transformers. Overheating from harmonics can result in a shortened service life for transformers as well as major problems for electrical systems. 2011 Harmonics are non-linear curent in an electrical system. Fires from overheating in electrical components such as transformers have become more common due to harmonic waves.mec-pspt. leads. eHow Contributor updated: January 13.com The Effect of Harmonics on Current Transformers By HarveyS. Effects of Harmonics 2. Overheating can also . Electronics are widely used in order to increase the efficiency of power system components. These non-linear loads can cause heat issues in some electrical components.

html#ixzz1F5sQzrw2 .com/facts_7769302_effectharmonics-current-transformers. The higher the K-Factor.com http://www. The amount of harmonic disturbance caused by a device is known as the K-Factor.cause circuit breakers to trip. K-Factor 3. the entire electrical system must be inspected. the greater the harmonics. After a fire or other major event.ehow. The devices that have the highest KFactors are personal com Read more: The Effect of Harmonics on Current Transformers | eHow.

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