AN INTRODUCTION

TO KAMBUN

Sydney

Crawcour

Center The University

for Japanese

Studies • 1965

of Michigan

• Ann Arbor

Copyright © 1965 by The University of Michigan

Sales correspondence should be directed to Publications Distribution Service The University of Michigan 615 East University, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106

Editorial correspondence should be directed to the Center for Japanese Studies, 108 Lane Hall, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104.

PREFACE

This manual is intended to provide an introduction to the kambun kundoku style for students whose primary interest is in Japanese studies. Secondarily, I hope that it will be of some help to students whose main field is classical Chinese and who wish to make use of Japanese editions of Chinese texts. At the same time I have tried to explain as far as possible why Japanese scholars render the Chinese in the way they do, since a proper understanding of the way in which Japanese scholars construe Chinese constructions can provide some useful hints for the grammatical analysis of classical Chinese. The Japanese renderings given in the examples follow current standard practice, as followed, for example, in Kokuyaku Kambun Taisei ( l~ ~ ~~ 5(_ K tx,' ). The reading of kambun became standardized only in the nineteenth century, and many variations may still be found. Japanese scholars of the Nara and early Heian periods, many of whom had studied in Tt ang China, translated Chinese more or less freely, much as we now translate, for example, Japanese into English. From roughly the ninth century until about the end of the twelfth century, intercourse between Japan and China practically stopped. When the Gozan ( ~ ~ ) Zen scholars came to Japan from China after this long interval, classical Chinese was no longer a living language, and the Japanese readings became extremely literal and mechanical. At this time were introduced the principles that as far as possible every character in the Chinese should be represented by something in the Japanese rendering; and that a given Chinese character should as far as possible always be read in the same way. The current standard style of reading kambun was evolved during the Tokugawa period, but contains elements from as far back as the Nara period. Thus a number of ancient Japanese words and constructions which have disappeared from ordinary Japanese survive in a kind of fossilized form in the kambun style. The kambun style has also contributed to the Japanese language many modes of expression which were not originally Japanese, but which were evolved specifically to render or imitate Chinese expressions. Since I am not a specialist in this field, I feel diffident about compiling a manual of this sort. I hope, however, that it will be of some value to teachers and students until a better work is available. I have relied very heavily on the work of Professor Akiyasu Todo of Tokyo University. Almost all of the examples used have been taken from those collected by him and Professor Kondo in Chugoku Koten no Yomikata (Gakushu-hen) ( -cp 1;~ if) M:' Jj- § published by Kanan Shoin ( ;:r:.. J; i'J8 ), Tokyo, 1958, and now unfortunately out of print. For permission to do this and for much other help I am very grateful to Professor Todo. I have also received valuable assistance from Dr. Gerrit Mulder and Mr. Tamotsu Sat6 of the Australian National University, Mr. Morio Nishida of the Japanese National Museum, Ueno, and from Mr. Komatsu of Nish6 Gakusha, Tokyo. I would like particularly to express my thanks to and admiration for Professor Leon Hurvitz of the University of Washington, Seattle. Without his careful reading of the preliminary edition and his many corrections and suggestions, this would have been a much sloppier job than it is. Thanks are also due to the Department of Economics, University of Michigan, for permitting me to work on this manual, when I should have been working in economics, and to the Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, and its associate editor, Mr. John Weber, for undertaking the production of this work. The calligraphy was done by Mr. Hirofumi Ando. The Chinese title on the cover was done by Mr. Fang Chao-ying.

It V ~

),

m

m

Sydney Crawcour. Australian National University. Canberra, October, 1964.
iii

CONTENTS Preface " iii

INTRODUCTION I. Verbal and adjectival 1. Verbal forms 2. Adjectival
IJ" f,( ...;....

forms

commonly used in kambun style.

. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ..

ix ix xii xiv xiv xiv

.....

forms ...

II.

Spelling (1f1_~ 1. Spelling . . . 2. Kunten ....

3t.

tA)

and Kunten (~JJI1.t )

PART I - BASIC SENTENCE FORMS I. Topic + Simple Comment .. 1. Topic + action comment. 2. Topic + descriptive comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
v

1 2 2
2 4 5 5 6 6 7

3. Topic + identity comment 4. Topic + comment II. Verb + Supplement 1. Verb + object supplement 2. Verb + supplement indicating place addressed of extent

3. Verb of speech + person 4. Verb with passive 5. Verb (adjective)

meaning + agent
+ object of comparison

7
7

6. Verb of speech + words spoken 7. Verb of change + result 8. Verb + combination 9. Causative.
III.

of change

8
9

of supplements

..................

......... . ..... ......

"

10 10 10 11 11

Comments without Topics - Existence 1. Comments without topics 2. Natural phenomena 3. Existence or absence. .

and Absence.

vi

IV.

Qualifying Constructions 1. Qualifier 2. Qualifier
+ noun + verb

...

. ....

13
16 16

..... 14

3. Qualification V. Co-ordinate

as to number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. · · . . . . ..

Words and Phrases ..

16 16 17

1. No conjunction 2. Conjunctions

PART II - TYPES OF STATEMENT VI. Types of Statement ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. · . . permission . of likelihood f}-,",-" . "ought to" .. . .... . ..... ..... to do" .. . a part of a sentence . between statements .. meaning "should," or approval. · · ...••. 19 19 21 24

1. Types of statement. 2. Negatives 3. Possibility 4.

VI ~

indicating

25 28 28
30 30

5. Necessity 6. Degrees 7. 8.

\t~ , ~>~,
K-

meaning "had better" to do," "difficult preference

9. "Easy VII. Emphasis

r.10. -If indicating
1. Emphasizing 2. Emphasizing 3. Emphasizing 4. Exclamations. VIII. Commands

31 31 32 32
33 34 34

a statement the relationship ........

and Requests ....

37 37
38

1. Imperatives. 2. Requests.

IX.

Questions

... requiring requiring words an answer "Yes" or "No" . . · · · "For what reason?" "Whither?", . . "Whence?" · ·

41 41
43 44 45 48 49 49 "Where?", 50 50 50 a choice of alternatives

1. Questions 2. Questions

3. Interrogative 5. 6.

4. Which, Who, what?

19" -kD

M )..'J.,.
,

7. ~ 8.1"j 9.~' 1O.

,* , ~. ,--'k-,~ k
,1>1 ~
"When?"

,1{p

M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
"Why?"

"By what means?",

, and its compounds

~)f1-.

vii

X.

Rhetorical

Questions

.... .

. ................••.... . . . . . . . . .. word . . .

50 51

1. Rhetorical

Questions ..

2. Yes/No form 4. Rhetorical interrogatives

52 52
55

3. Rhetorical questions involving an interrogative

PART III - COMPOUND SENTENCES XI. Compound Sentences ..... 1. Compound sentences .. 2. Neutral relationship 3. Adverse relationship 4. Consequential XII. relationship. .. .. . .. ... . . . ............... . ....•. · ...• · .... 56 56 57 59 61 63 65 65 65 68 . ...•.... . . . . ..•......... . · .... 69 69 70 70 71 . .
73

5. Additional relationship Qualifying Relationships 1. Temporal 3. Concessive XIII. Summarizing 2. Qualifier qualification qualification

. . . . . .....

2. Conditional qualification Words and Phrases.
+ verb

1. Topic + comment

3. Consequential

relationship. ...

4. Conditional relationship Index of Chinese Characters Index of Japanese Readings

INTRODUCTION

1.

The kambun kundoku style. 1. Japanese seem originally to have read Chinese in the literary time. Since then a particular style of literary Japanese Japanese current at the for

has evolved specifically

rendering classical

Chinese, and this style has in turn greatly influenced the literary In the Meiji period the official written language and the kambun Chinese were very close to each other. Since then,

language as a whole.

kundoku style used for rendering

while written Japanese has changed, the kambun kundoku style has remained practically unchanged. Basically, Japanese
ibungo),

the kambun kundoku style and those who are

is a greatly

simplified

form of literary analysis should

interested

in its grammatical Japanese.

consult standard works on the grammar a number of expressions as literal renderings

of literary

It, however, includes but which were evolved

which were not originally Japanese

of Chinese.

Many of these have now passed into the Japanese

language, and the reader will find a number of them commented on in the text of this manual.

2. Verbal and adjectival
i. Independent

forms commonly used in the kundoku words

style. words--nouns

Japanese

are usually divided into uninflectible
(~IJ

and pronouns (

~-t-~ ), adverbs

t~ ) and

exclamations

(~

)7~"t~

) - and
adjectives

inflectible words ()fJ

t ). Inflectible

words are verbs (

ttl ;6] ) and

Usually included as a separate category of inflectible words are a class sometimes verbs called descriptive verbs (fij

%- tfJ ~~ ).
L, J ........ \. ) ,...._ -.;"

These classes of inflectible words are inflected by the addition of auxiliary

('1J ~1J t~

, --.... J ~,~
-

,~t·, ~ t-:. '), ~ v t:.;, ,...._: <

etc.) or

auxiliaries Japanese adjective. grammar

( JiJ] ~~

-1""1.", ~

it

etc.), or combinations of the two, to cermorphological forms. On top of this, between a morphological distinction

tain stems of the word to produce various makes a conceptual and usually

final, continuative (inconclusive) and attributive uses of a verb, auxiliary verb, or Analytical descriptions of literary Japanese of this process may be found in any standard As, however, and I shall not repeat them here. ix

x

only a limited only. Indications

number

of the possible

combinations

formed in this way are in may be useful for reference guide only. More

actual use in the kundoku style, the following tables of the function or "meaning"

are a general

detailed the text. ii. Verbs.

explanations

of the functions of some of these forms will be found in

Japanese grammarians
~k_

distinguish

six forms of verbal stem in literary

(final),

i! "1~ (attributive),

(conditional) and

4f.4?-

1i)fj

(continuative),

*- J~,: (potential),
according

JapaneseG

1':::

(imperative).

Verbs are classified

to the way

in which they form these stems. a. The majority,
kana table

like t ~ (== to take), use four different namely, the

vowel sounds following
j

the root to form these stems,
V9 j~

h

,

v

l,

and

-7._

rows of the

5-t

if]

).
use only the 7 and )_ rows of the kana

b. Some, e.g. c. Some, e.g.

l1. t;

(== to praise),

table in the syllable

t

following the root (
vI

r

zz:

tt. ~~Jff

).

Z" (== to pass), use only the
J::..::::-

and -) rows of the kana table in the

syllable following the root ( d. A few, like Ji. ~

t9::. ;:-t ffl ).
on the (
J::._
v:

(== to see), form all stems

row.

In practice,

the

root may be thought of as acting as all stems e. The irregular verb

t

(== to do, make) (

-tf

frt_ 3$ Jf1 ). f'T f_ t.tr-:;:~ Jf:l ). This
-

is found freely

very frequently in the kundoku style, adding
==

t

since verbs are formed rather verb, e.g. ~ see;

to a word other than a Japanese

to punish;

ft;t t

== to respectfully

~X

t

t

== to love;

~*r

by

==

to desire.

Where the

word to which it is added ended in a nasal" (but not always) readings, e. g. highly.

and its various

forms are usually

modified by becoming voiced.

This applies also to Chinese

words which originally had a final nasal which no longer appears inthe Japanese

r~ t" == to argue;

Note, however, that

t

.!£_

-1"

== to grow, give rise to;

i:_

r ,-==

to value com-

is not as a rule voiced after a Chinese because

pound, even where f. !)

it ended in a nasal, presumably into Japanese. ( 1J. I) ,1:. ~
,lb-I)

compounds are

less easily assimilated
I)

(== to be) and its derivatives

like

t~

(yrg

,.3 1-:.) etc.) are conjugated ' tt_ ) except that the final form is ;1) I) and not 17,:;, (=; ~1 t_
behave as though the final (c.f. Ji) ~
-<:» /\('

1}-5;1;

lfJ)·

Note, however, that they nevertheless

stem were

ih -9

v ).

xi t\<I ~ ~
r .,.;> ~w --JJ
Q,)

~ ~ \P ~

....)

..0

:::;-,

"(

~1'=>-

~
~}'::>-

)CO

~
....)

tQ,)

t"
...,:}

~

y
~
,..J

~

<to"

'.r-

....)

....}

\l ¥

~

~

¥ :\l
~
__.j

~

~

~

~

~

~

-;,;,~

~

~

-'-d

+> oo
::J

\I

S
..s::::

'. <::
~

\

t('b

)(.b

~ ~

~

~ ~
?

~

~
"0

~

l{;

rt

~

~

,

''\"6

~

~

,:t,

--=t .=t ~

~

?

.~ ~ ~
~ ?

~

~

.~
,.:t
~

-w
~)J

eo

Q,)

~

~

~

..s::::

~

~ ~

.S 'ti3
00

~

l{;

-s
-;>
'.;:..)

S 0

...
0
Q,)

~
0

~ ~ \\
-.( .. ¥II

::;'\

.l.I
0

~

~v~v
)O'~

~

~
--", '¥(

~
J

y
~

"<l'

~
'S

~
_)

I

Q,)

''t'6

;;,.:l_

I

..~

of( 1 "'i'( J

1<>

-p

1=

-\o--p-

.

'"'ir) ''f('}

<

?

~
"frl

~
?
' 'I( J

I .>KJ

~
.'V

~
'y

S 0
00

~

~

1$ ~>it)

+> :!:l ......
ell >,

0

1""'l"" ..p- i"" -ts'

io' 1'="

-p

6<

...
0

~

~(

...J

\\

'f..0

~

e ~~
tt6
ttl!'

£

~ ~

~ ~
?

\J ~

, ~

-o
'Td

,.£1

~
-:I

~

?

~

~

~
~ );
It1S

\~
~ ~
I

-,j)

Q,)

<)J

~

+> 00
;
ell

~

~
tT6

~
tI'6


ITII

~
rt'd


~

~
fti

~ ~

~ ~ ~

~
~
..0

~
ITt

tt6

""'

It1S

.s ...
0
00

00 Q,)

...
Q,)

• :>
' ~

ell

,...)

::;'\

~ ~ ~ ~ >J ~
)J

~( ?

~I

~ ~
)J

~
)J

)0
)J

~
)J

~ :::)J

'" '" c
?

N

~

~
,.£\

.

~ ~
~ ."Q
)J
....)

",

10~
.J)
)J

.

• ~
~

"7f' <)J

~<
s:'\

,....::l

....
>,

'+-< ..... 0:;:::
Q,)~o8

ell "0
S

"(
......
Q,)

s:"

)J

.~
)J

.

~

~

~
~ .....

ell
Q,).£

Q,)

..(\

~
)J

~
)J

~
AI

~
)J

0 00

...... +>..0 0..0

lJ'-.J

)J

)J

~-"Oo..
] -I

;:s'-:'

t: ......
Q,)eIl

M

..... Q,)

0 '+-<

S ...

0 .....

~ ...... ~

.::.
~ .....
0
00

.::.
..0

Q,)

.::.
~
0

Q,)

.::.
~
+> 0 +> 00 c,
ell
'+-<

Q,)

...... ......
ell .....

+> 0
S

......
ell

.....
0

0 ...... ......

6<

U

* +> rn

-

~

.S

ell

...

~

.....
+>

...

.S
1:j

;:j

+>
Q,)

~

~

U

c,

Q,)

...

Q,)

O+>

.S
~

;:j

'+-<0 1U 0

1:j

+> Q,) ..s::::

0 .....

ell

c,

~

b

Q,)

b

.::.
~
ell
00 00

Q,)

.::. .::. ~
Q,) 00

Q,)

...... ell ~

.....
0 0

.::.
00 00 Q,)

Q,)

:2

0..

@

~

U

Z

Q,)

bll

"0

:!:l

~

0 0

~

.::. ~ ...
Q,)

Q,)

"0 ~
Q,)

0

+>
Q,)

~o.?i' ... ~ +>1:jo'" §:!:l Q,) '+-< .,1 ..c '+-< ;:j Q,) "':' ~ 00 Q,)..... O":>r
~ ~ ........ +> ,+-<i:<:l ...
Q,)

;:s..o

Q,)

£

S'+-< 0

a
:::

S~

s

U

U

S .....

0..

ot: o

ia

0..

Q,)

~ -::..~.S
ft

;:j

0

+> Q,) +> ,s-..:(o..s:::: U ~ -I
~

'+-<

~

~ ~

N:

'~~

~

4~

.....

~M'"

S~ Q,)

'>t

%

hJ

xii
iii.

Auxiliary Auxiliary

verbs. verbs may in turn be inflected. Those regularly used in kundoku be-

have as follows: "'-- {} (passive),""'-'

~?

,and

-"-'G t-

, behave like [1. -tsee f. above).

(--r

-=...

.f9::. fi]

).

""' t-:. ')

behaves

like ~ ') ( '7:11' tA$-flj, form, ......... . G has the attributive

----.!
~ ')

has the attributive (second perfect) (~Iv)
I>

form ----.:, .

~t;
-cr-:

has no other forms like an adjective

in use. (e.g. t-:.. 1J'v
).

behaves

......... r has the continuative
hypothetical form negative "'-'

form ........ (=.....__

t'· ,

perfect
).

continuative

"'--t" v 7..

,and of the

t"1v It.'·

'f,.._., [1,"

All other forms verb

are formed from a negative

auxiliary

~" ') which behaves like

iv. Adjectives. Adjectives inflect Similarly to verbs. Some parts behave similarly to ~ ')

( ::;4'1

t. t~tl"J
of

) and

appear

to have been formed (~Z.

by the addition of appropri-

ate forms

rf> ~

to the continuative

) stem

(it Jt11tJ ),
these

the final

7 sound of the stem
forms forms commonly
in the right

having been elided.

In the following table of adjectival r-1) ()
_j

found in the kundoku style I have arranged hand column under the stems of

type

'1> ')
<, G

1 ), this syllable is not

Note that when the root ends in L- (e.g, reduplicated. root. 2

J:. ~

v ,-1 '/

This affects only the final form, which thus consists

simply of the

1. Note that I have put "'-" r-: l_, in its normal place I thus take to be ~ ~ although the actual final 2. Japanese grammarians do not admit an adjectival end the root on the previous syllable and include called _....__ ;~)fJ v< ).

under the final stem (f~.Jl::.. ~ ) which form is ;h '). (See page x.) root ending in L-. In such cases they the G in the inflection throughout (so

xiii Colloquial Stem (ifj Form

)

Function Final Ascriptive Attributive Continuative Past Perfect continuative Potential Hypothetical Causative Negative Conditional Concessive
(Imperatfvej+

r

J7> !J..I

forms

t'(

-b\ •

<
-<. '" -(

tc -b 1
( f-:.
-bl.

<~

L.-

-r )

t. -17\ • < "'"'(~) / l

t-. .pI • 13\ b '" t: ( ~)
t~ b\
r:
. 1;\

b "-'
b
rv

l

t,

1J\ • 1J\

-t,.

t: -b\ • 11 n ~ Ii'
t-:.. • It it. '"'- ~_"'L .Q \

1. Although adjectives as such have no imperative imperative form ~ -O',J-t. formed with ~ ~, This 38).

lj:tfl}t

stem (~~~), the adjective {tv (= non-existent) has an form is regularly used in prohibitions (see below, page

v. Descriptive This class
(.;''1

verbs

(

10 %--

ttJ ~~ ).
(f; ~

lent),

i:. f.

('1

of words, of which
i-;; ')

0

b> f;r ~

(= bright),

1::::"'1.. 7

v'lv

')

(=

benevoas a from

(= upstanding) are examples,
-tj_ ')

are

sometimes

described

(dependent) noun +

or (~~

Many grammarians,

however, refrain verbs.

splitting them in this way and describe they behave like continuative

them as descriptive with the single

Either way, that the

;n

I)

(::;

ft

1:.. :t.fr ~ ffl )

exception
if;.

form of a descriptive

verb ending in ..,,__ ') iJ.

is ---

, and of one t-: ~ in re-

in .-.... ') is --- t. (-: these descriptive spectively.

This seems to be an indication that verbs are actually contractions of (:' + ~

Ii ~ and
I)

and l::.

+ ;.y ~

xiv
b' ff.

II.

Spelling ( 1(1- ~ 1. Spelling

it v-

","U'

) and Kunten (-t)'i;w.lZ

).

Although Japanese phonetic, style.

now uses

a system

of kana spelling

which is almost

entirely

an older system dating from the Heian period is still used in the kambun dictionaries employ the phonetic spelling system, the

Since modern Japanese

old spelling must be converted to the modern phonetic system in the dictionary. 2. Kunten The ( A conversion

in order to find a word dictionaries.

table will be found in most Japanese

tnl

,r.~).
use a system of marking in Japanese. Chinese texts to indicate the way in Indications of this sort have been used in use was standardized have not been em-

Japanese

which it should be rendered

from at least the early Heian period. by the Japanese Ministry

The system currently

of Education in 1912. Since the Japanese

These markings

ployed in the present

work.

reading is given in full, these indi-

cations are unnecessary.

Many Japanese editions of Chinese works, however, employ rendering in full. of the Japanese

this system of marking instead of writing out the Japanese Three types of indications order
i,

are used -- punctuation, indications Japanese endings.

and indications
< ~;

of the appropriate

Punctuation

({;_J

tt ,tt
< t;

).
are used. character. character. items in a

The following punctuation marks a. b. c. list. d..... ~ ' Quotation marks Full stop Comma Separator

(J;]
1:.;

<. t

<Iv

.~t;).
i;

Placed at lower right of preceding Placed at lower right of preceding

($f
"-"

:f_i;).
"'., 11v

(.:1i. 1)J :~17).

Placed between characters

to separate

and double quotation marks. to the order

Punctuation

is applied to the Chinese as Chinese without reference rendering.

in which the words may appear in the Japanese

xv Examples:

1-±"
~
L.

/I)
"{

J~

*)::J

1: ;t"G~ 2!

~J
;tr. $(!t.
,f\.
1;;'

1J:. 1±.. -r
+F
~
L...

t
~

b.

JG
~ttG

~J ~<
:.fA '/
II'G'

(/).

~

j.,t~ ~"

1~ s

;K.~

ii.

Indications

of Japanese

word order.

(:Vb

I," '"

~ti ).
to which they apply.

t

i;

These marks are placed at the lower left of the character
If the character

marked is to be rendered the marking indicates

in two parts

which are not consecu-

tive in the Japanese, p.19 t, Examples e.g. a.

the position of the second part. (Cf.

b and c).
J."
~ I:'

~T .t ,

~. J'_

",'

v

Placed at the lower left of a character,

this indicates that this character of the Chinese order.

and

the following ones are to be read in the reverse

xvi

Examples:

~;['
t
below). Examples:
"(,

t

-

,

c
~~

'b.

E.

~

tf_ v ,t

L-

~

Jt_~
r-:

r *v

'f

A.._t
~

JtJz
v

a...

L".

.:tJ(i: -.
<
or J::..

This mark may be used in conjunction with -.~.:::"'.

tr

markings

(see

qf~
!" ~

T'J.

,

~kr Jf
If)

~J
t_.'

-,( :;ffy
~ ~

y

P~~
(-:

b. -.:::... .::...1$

etc.

These numerals are used to indicate inversions involving more than two characters.

~}-;

*~',~.
~{
")

Examples:

-k~~ 1!
'Jf_v

-

0

t:.

~"

i"
0

t..

;l'c J.
~i)
A..

I:'

,;;It ;r,'
J\.."

fr~~
't

111.. '(

...----.. 1~

't_

-~Jt_
;;:.

)f

* l
t;t_

cL.
~

frIf-.
J1L t-a:

1:.

{)'t.:! A.7
",'

!K'~ -q
'"

c.

b.

o, tJ:_j

r

~~
I)

t-

tl
::::.

[;.

tt 0

fA.

tr
I~
~.!"

J:....~

,

=-

~

t.

t

-

J:_

t ~tr, - .
t

t·~
~

='

ft

<:»:

,t.

'"

"(

\.
readings

Where the Japanese

returns

to a compound, the indication is placed

between the two characters

forming the compound, as in the following example.
~t.'

f~'

r. ') ~'( ~~ 1
'(:7

-1-'

f..-t..

v'

'ffi:
~

"'.,.

I~" ~ t\1 ~

~

1:.-

xvii Since this may be confusing for the beginner, elementary that the two characters tween them, thus: texts often indicate

are in fact a compound by placing a linking line be-

When only two are requtred r;

r

are used. reading requires text, that the reader an inversion

These are used to indicate that the Japanese return marked to an earlier by
>

character

in the

Chinese

passing

;:::...~

etc. on the way.
a.

Examples: c.
~Tf.

b,

Z"
~
.2-

<

.it:<e' ,hr
'01..

t 4;j1t )''A~
~\

1;r ~ ~

A~ >-'A r JI\~ % ~ T;r t ~ ,J -/f \ ~ -tJfI
~,~
l'~
:;.

'f~

-l1J'}..__ '"

J-kf,."

~~

}.:.,i..
:;'~.

11~
t t;

,

+1- *-1'3:
l'

fib

$
"f

~
~v

.jl of

..J-{' ~

~

hX
~J1}
-e

T

j..__'£
'>

&~ ~
'I'

1K
0

-c

tJ'

.k<'~ ~
'(

;K

II
~

A

~

~t!

1:..

1.

;wr
?

K.

.,

x. •

ff %~
:::-

A~ -$~ ~
j(,
l'

t

1K,-'

J3Q

11J:L
~

~x.
"f

"'t!7

...~
A_

~,i.

!It.

11~ .
. 1'f,.

l

L

..---.

t:1

AiX

t

riot
't
"(

.z_

):..

1 ;

.t

~

r•

11t~
;,/!/ 1._:;·~

tr.:.

_l.

1::" .....-

Notice the use of the combination

-v

indicating "Read the following character from
.J::..

before the one to which this mark is affixed and then return d.

to

r. "
to an

fZ~T

etc. reading requires a return

These are used to indicate that the Japanese earlier by J:.. marks character in the Chinese text, passing also

on the wayan
j::.

inversion

marked

't 1'.

They are

used in place of

t1'

where more than three

are required.

xviii Examples:

-t-v
~
\

'Ji!C_

);/..._7

'iJ

~L

\'£7"1.(
,)

,

.

~

*-1.
~,

;:._:_'
t::.

-z

-f , l'f
'

J.J

)1~~
11'

~trt
)..'J... t
lot£;>

If r<. ,N_

I:

t
\~

l"

--titl!"

V

l

'7

j;J...~

f;,
\ ,.),

A?F~ ~i
"' -z..
l"j:

-r'

If.

t;l )1:).Jt.
~~
'I)

T

1~
J(_

);ttl

~"P
));.._
~ ~

;
ffil]
-L
~

;2_

-t-:,

Z

~

m]~

t

v.:

r

,:t:
~

-t

s: £
f~

fr

e. If any further categories are required, is very seldom necessary,

~ the marks j;._J;1!!_,J.... are employed.

W-'

This

but the following example requires order. ~ ~:It ~ B ~ t. ~ -""(

all the markings

available for indicating the Japanese ~~

Iv~

->:- (I

t"

"-

"\"

~'~

'Iv

L
Y)

~~
~ t"

(d:"
~:t
i7)

;1f~
1?
"(

~

l~
\

~

~

I)

\

~t

~

q:fLh

,Hi

1

-e:.!

JZ_1j:~;

t~
te
~~ '?
L- r~" ,;'

~:i

11 ~..

t:I ;"

,~

t~
~ ~~~

1%:t_", ~

VA ~ t

.l-A~
"(
IG'~

~ ~

r:r

~n),'~ f

-.
~ ~ t-: :

A~'
~
~,

"i

.l:-

s.
'

A

1~

t. 1'-'.,
v

~L

fitliX

-t'E
~~ 'i:!e
.-...,

i-:.

j

"

1-'"
(;I;

~ ~~
-\"

Lr."

ffi_
J'\

s

1"

<,

tJL~

~r

;;t1f

* t
f~

1k

. 1-\

~.

il 41'
),;J....

l'

/f )-'J.,
~

,"-'fI;l

*~t
~~ J(

Jt!.

;,;l

~ ..... ~

j-

!{

l
~

f_

K~

~ The student may take some slight comfort from the fact that this is as complicated as these markings
iii.

can get.

Indications

of the Japanese

endings.

(;¢:--1Ftk ).
markings indications of the The

'I."

fJ'"

Some editions add to the above punctuation and order Japanese endings.
If this is done the Japanese

rendering

is fully indicated.

endings are written in katakana at the lower right of the appropriate
If a character

character. the second

is rendered

in two parts which are not consecutive,

ending is written at the left of the character.

The general rule is that all kana

xix which appear between the characters is included. lows: when the Japanese text is written out in full

The example in p. xviii, e above, for example would appear as fol-

-A
""

-7:;;:

1( t "" ~
v
"/

~

);,1._"

.' ~A..,. 't i ...."

~;;

j:t!!..J
B

K

' "I

fl

)t"{
~t"

~Il

_B~

-*
I

r 1:"

:~

~L.,

_-t.,
~

l-- ~f. f,..
f...

Jft 'flit
1t
ftt

*~ .,
~~r "'11
v);
::..

z..1"
l'

-"

~
J:.-

1

,.. '"

i

T

Notice that the general rule that what appears the written out Japanese version

in kana between the characters

in

is put beside the characters

as soegana is a ) is to be read

general

rule only.

For example, where a negative (e.g.

"f

or:;f

simply as (e.g.

t" , no indication
),

is supplied. Where a negative is read other than The causative

t" ,

~"1K [j:"

the negative stem ~" is omitted. parts ('E

_.)t.

,although

rendered in two non-consecutive ting

v ""( ..... v L'

), is indicated by putA. (not ~L... )

'1 ~

T

against the character

to which it is attached and putting

on the right of

'it.

In the above example (i: ~ required,

Iv ~,. has been indicated in hiragana,

meaning that it is not strictly the reader

but has been added as a favor to help The precise rules are some-

with this somewhat unusual reading. arbitrary.

what complicated and may seem rather

They need not, however, conto affix soegana for himself.

cern the student, who is unlikely to be required

Part

I

BASIC SENTENCE FORMS Most Chinese simple sentences can conveniently be divided into two parts. One intro-

duces the topic on which the sentence has something to say. topic. We shall call the former in no more precise the "topic" and the latter

The other says something about the the "comment." Remember that

the two stand the topic.

relationship

than that the comment says something about

It is, therefore,

quite natural

that, if the topic on which the sentence has some-

thing to say is obvious, the topic need not be stated.
1. Topic + Simple Comment

In Chinese the same word can often fill various is used. propriate. A hard and fast classification In any particular

roles,

depending on the way in which it is therefore not entirely ap-

into word classes

case, the role in which a Chinese word is being used is In Japanese, however, the role in which a
It is,

usually recognizable

from the word order. recognizable

word is being used is generally therefore, practicable

from the form of the word itself. in Japanese.

to speak of word classes are used in reference

In what follows, familiar

terms for word classes the Chinese.

to the Japanese

translation

rather

than to

1. Topic + action comment:
i.
IHI:

Japanese
t4;

form:

Topic - verb

a. b. c. d. ii.

At r-1f"~ • tit
0

::

t- it t,
~ V'
;;l.

£ f1f~
I~v

'.

The flower opens. Li leaves. The horse runs. The king goes east.

,~

L.

:£..

,_.

=,~
-t>';

"t_ ~.
v.~1J

=

z,

t t.

Japanese makes it quite clear that the comment is an action by using a Japanese verb form (e.g.

Ml <..,.t_ ~ ),

or by creating
1

a verbal

expression

(e. g. by the

2

addition of expressions

t j #f
\,;'

r} t r ).
.. ".."1.0 (:~-'

Here are some further examples of the way verbal

are formed in Japanese.
"-Iv v

a.

:g -}Jt fe;fr ~
The superior

*J::.)

=~

f
~(

I~

m M- ~.zt~-(~
It."

1~7 -;.",

1l"

J.

man puts the kitchen at a distance.
"':;

b.

z. ~ fi -a Jii] '-.

(~'*-J::...)
..civ ~

=

£.,
1:-

13 tt ~~ ~)~
11

,"IL#

1;'~

v, '0

A king makes his joys the same as those of the people . c.

:f i!.. -+- 1:.. (k.· ~ J:..)
Not to consider

=

-4- I:. ~ 2! v
t

~ -'<!:.

t:

a thousand li (too) far.

d. e.
f.

tt. 2:.. (tJffl:: . tt jifJ ) =
0

_(,

1;'')1/1.

T:1f)

~ Go == G

'?~
J:.

~ ,j,

~

=

I~'

a ') t

,~ro
0

t E ;f~ r.

To make it into a pillow. To act on one's own behalf. To come from Lu. Japanese pression. form: Topic - adjectival ex-

2. Topic + descriptive

comment.

i. a. ~

fa

e

The color is white. The moon is bright. He is benevolent.

Example a shows a Japanese Example b shows a Japanese Example c shows a similar

adjective, descriptive descriptive

L.-?

L; •

verb, ~ ~ ~ b'Td-. ') • verb formed from Chinese word,

J::: .1

ii. Japanese sometimes, ment by

as in the following example, separates

the topic from the com-

Ii. This serves to draw attention to the topic.
¥t

a. ~

«..

1=1 •

==.:Jt::

(I)

At

I~~

I.-?

It

8 v.
Japanese form:

Its flowers are white. Topic - 1;1: - noun (1J:V, t-:.~ , etc.)

3. Topic + identity comment.
i.

His uncle was Hsiang Liang. In this construction Japanese normally inserts
(;I: and draws attention to the topic,

since the sentence is answering or anticipating a question specifically
1.

about the

See p. xiii.

3 topic, e.g. "Who was his uncle?" inserting;f
b.

When Chinese does much the same thing by renders
1f,J,..

, Japanese

sometimes
iJ ,), l:.lt

it more explicitly

as

z, l;t

1

i:.)(._t ~

c. )::~

*~r

tW -e. (~.~~)= jE z_ ~E t,r 'J. tt
't'';

The "second father" was Fan
'I'sang.

::hi J..i3. (Jt_. ~~) =~;ijrenders ~ as

~7

<!:.~

Ii

r::rn ",z..
CAl;

.,,-

vl:7

1;r ~.

Hsiang Chi was Hsia-Hsiang.

a man of that the

If Japanese

t. 11.

,as

in example

b, this indicates

following comment is not merely identical with the topic, but is in fact a definit ion of it. explanation. therefore ii. In these
It assumes

that the word has already sentence

appeared

and now requires

Example c is the first

of a book and Hsiang Chi has

not previously
+ identity

been mentioned. comment" constructions, requires as indeed in all "Topic +

"Topic

comment" constructions, tive).2

normal Japanese
1j: ')

a verb (or conjugable adjec-

In the above examples

is added to supply this need and is more Notice that
1j: I)

or less equivalent to the English copula, "is." said to be the Japanese ~ appears rendering of ~

can hardly be it whether of identity

, since Japanese

requires

in the Chinese or not.

In rendering the traditional

Chinese expressions

or extent (see following paragraph) out 't;r ') where Chinese

Japanese reading tends to leave

has no ~.

On the other hand, where the Japanese

sentence

is already

complete without

fJ"

I)

,the

Chinese ~

is sometimes

not

read at all. Some evidence that the Japanese as the reading of do not, strictly speaking, regard this

1J.~

e is

supplied by the fact that when indications

("till

,f);

1.

c. I"j: may

be regarded

as an attenuated or slogans.

form of t are:
l.+<~<'

vl,~\

t

17)

l;t

(see p. 43, ii). can be found in Japanese at: 4,.J"l1

2. There

are

a few exceptions to this rule. Examples
1'0

Instances
lJ1>

usually in aphorisms

;1R Ii

r:.'Vo'·

of ".~?~ ellipsis

ling a companion; in life sympathy"

i: 1. t;t"tj{ft.

1:>/Ll;t"J;f±.. ft.

II" folv

3!.it. 11"- 'It: 1"1, 11'

.

"In travel-

"Standing she is like a her-

baceous peony; sitting she is like a tree peony."

4

of Japanese Japanese

reading

are

marked

on a Chinese text (instead of writing out the may be marked beside the character which is

reading in full),

ta:

I)

read immediately

before it, and e.g.

e:,

given no reading at all.

To sum up, although Japanese scholars of the Kamakura is no evidence period,

scholars,

especially extent

the

Zen (3i__ "tt ~

th
with

have to some

associated

e,

there

that they regarded

the Chinese ~

as fulfilling the

function of a copula.

4. Topic + comment of extent.
a. b. c.

.if-1- :z_

0

=

1.;y

~

Japanese form: Topic in noun form supplement (- 1j: ~ ).
0

-s ;

~ lJ j1).. = r%j J ~t;fj 11J.. (~'l)
1:. ?~ f)( • = 1: f ~.: Gftl ~
s:
1/'9> ~

r~»:

t ;z__ v
11.'/.-I.:'fv

fA:!

The waiting was long. The height was ten thousand ells. The sitting down was for a moment.

(1;[1))

Whatever the usual function of the word appearing in the position of topic, Japanese makes it clear that it here has a nominal function by forming a nominal expression, usually by the use of :: t The word
-tJ:. ~

"thing," band

"the fact of its being - - -." c is optional in these expressions and

in examples

in fact is usually omitted. II. Verb + Supplement. Very many comments consist

(See page 3.)

of a verb (or something functioning as a verb) followed What follows the verb

by a word or group of words to which it in some way relates. in this way we shall call a "supplement." plement are related is sometimes

In Chinese, the way in which verb and supwords as ~ ,

indicated by the use of such indicator

5

t ,or
origin;

t

before the supplement.

Very often, however, there is no such indicator.

The or

relationship

may be that of an action and its object; a movement and its destination

an action and the place or time of the action; a communication is made; a change and its result, and if so which indicator,

and the person Whether an partly on the

to whom the communication indicator

and so on. depends

is used in the Chinese,

Chinese verb and is partly a matter In Japanese, relationship Japanese

of style; but there is no simple explanation. the verb, and the type of verb/supplement

the supplement precedes ~,

is indicated by indicators the use of these

r- , J V

,or

t

following the supplement.

requires

indicators,

and their

use is quite independent of Nothing extra is, thereand they are not

whether words like

:51'-, 'f ,

etc. appear in the Chinese or not.

fore, required to render these Chinese indicators specifically read at all.

when they do appear,

A verb + supplement thus appears in Japanese in the form "Supplement - indicator verb." Since basically only four Japanese indicators are available to cope with a larger

-

number of relationships but it is always helpful. 1. Verb + "object"

between verb and supplement, the indication is not always exact,

supplement. seems

Japanese form: Supplement - ~ - verb. to be no basis for considering verbs

Although in Chinese there "transitive" than

41: A..

any more

@.

,t- , Japanese
object.

which can be used in the form "suppleand the supplement as be-

ment - ~ - verb" may be thought of as being transitive ing equivalent to a direct
i.

a. £.-t} fro

(A, ~

J;::.) =;£.~'

>1>7 f~f."~

~ -H-

o?

t;

Your majesty

likes fighting.

To sell dog meat. To raise sheep.

To write poetry. To love people.

6 ii. The supplement

may itself consist
;;, v

of a verb + supplement.
iffII?

a.

%~1t.}Lf (~·r~)t)
0

= Jt.. T ~ ~
"'t

Iv:,t ~~
to~~

r,

He hoped to see Confucius. To enjoy killing people.

b.

)1~

:H::_

j,_.

(Ji.. ~

1:.)

= ,.z_ ~ :11:_ 1" : t ~11.g. ti,
;r

'?

f1 /l.J

t~ and::f_,.._are made into nominal expressions potential (future) form of ~

by the addition of _:; . Notice t the hope was for the future.

~ ,because

2. Verb + supplement

indicating place. indicating destination.

i. Verb of movement + supplement Japanese form:

a.
b.

ilL ,t-.
-f; 't..

=
=

rr (:: -ij ~. c. ~)~r§. ==~%-f~ t::J.!: ~. d. A)t t"-.. == £. t,-;:'<' ~-1

li- ~~®_ <.
ro";
'> 11,"

Supplement - I: - verb. To go to Lu To go up to the hall. To transfer to Loyang. cave.

77

-

'17

l:_ ;__

~.

To go into a tiger's indicating origin.

ii. Verb of movement Japanese form:

+ supplement

Supplement - j ')- verb. To come out of the water.

iii.

Verb + supplement Japanese a. b. form:
,

indicating place of action or state. Supplement= !c

t 1':1:....
;j£

(.Ji._.:1:..)
(~_.

fn

c. ~

K_~f If.(
/.._. (.iz_.

J:._.

:cl )
Y~ )

t__-

=

=,;_r K~r
~if
"'-'1~:i J::.
I:

- verb.

J" ~

1.
V.
1.,0

To sit in the hall. To be in Pa- shang.
~.

(:,ft_
:;"5
l-:/~

ro" r·~

'?

To rise up within Ta- Ts~. Japanese form: Supplement - V-

3. Verb of speech + person a. ;{b.

addressed.
.... 1:

Pa'

*if 1& • ($-·M;r,j )
H> J._
, (Example would have been

t- J::_)

= A_ v.:
"7

u- ~.
/I

-

verb .

'to

To talk to someone.
i:.

=

1i~
a)

":If<'

I':

t",1 .s ,

To enquire of Yu Jo. To report to the king.

c. ~ Notice that if the Japanese
-r-«

had been taken to mean "to talk about someone;'

CAe.

A.~}%- ~ .

7

4. Verb with passive

meaning ( +,;1'0

) + agent

Japanese form: Supplement-tosive verb form.

pas-

i. a. ~~
b.
~A_.

(Ai.·n~.l::..)=A._,;:~t~~1/'L{j.
0

~~

k.!

To be ruled by other people. To be controlled form. by other people. form of

~J X0- A... UiJ f . ~1}) .: 'z1~~jIt S ~ verb is in the passive is the passive

The Japanese

~pIf) .,

'U

~

is the passive

form of

t

"to do," the addition of which is the

standard ii.

way to make a Japanese verb appears

verb out of a Chinese word. in a passive form whenever the meaning rean explicitly passive Chinese are

Since the Japanese quires

it, nothing further involving ~

is required

to render

construction

,it.
.
I_..,., ~.

,A

,etc.

Thus the two following examples

read in exactly the same way in Japanese. a. ,~ b.
'Il!?

~0-A-o = A._,~
..-to
0

t< l:

;Y

,"!9

t,t,;...__ .J;

~Ji?

To be reviled To be reviled

by people . by people. verb (

= A._ r: ,~ (., ~. '7

The Chinese construction
+ supplement

in Example b must have originally been: The Japanese, lost their however, original regard

-*1
as

().._,~).

t1. , ~ , Jt, , etc.

having in these constructions mere passive 5. Verb (adjective) Japanese a. form: (T indicators. ~

force as main verbs

and become

) + object of comparison.

t *- J... (~. J,f ») K J... J:? 1: v =
T<" ;fh.-

Supplement -

J: '} - verb (adjective).

1,~

0

Weightier

than T'ai Shan.

Even bluer than indigo. ('I, meaning "even," is optional). 6. Verb of speech + words spoken or quoted. i. Verb of speech + words spoken. a.
.t

Japanese

form:

Supplement - t

- verb.

"'1,~J~;.
_t ".

I;I.~

~'..

(t.. ~~) ,~~. = (j:_'j{P.t) =

<b;

b. E

t t ~ .). -s
'(10

z,

pf .s ~.
0

To shout hooray. To be called Huang Ti.

8 ii. Verb of speech + quoted words.
",.;(

Japanese
i:...

form:

verb - supplement - .!:. He said, "I agree."

a. b. c.

)EI

t*o("!._·~t)=~<.
'a

'it.J
~;

T.,."<

tk_

-k ~1'-"&.

0

(~.:

J:j_)::

tt 'Ei

... ;(

<, 1l J;- H-K ~.') t..
s,.. "

~J,.

~;

%- _r_z_4 jE:_)(_ 1t.'-t. (~.;,:~) = {.
I think he is an emissary

.0"'-

J-~

~<

if. j(_

6:> o .

Liang said, "He is older than 1."
v ,,~
I')

1~'~ -r~ ~ t..

from "Second Father." grammarians as

This construction,

known by Japanese of speech
["1,. <,

Z tfi-

5t.

is used

when the Chinese verb verbal

is translated

by one of a group of Japanese are good examples. Literally,

nouns of which ~, means "that

, :;t:)

t

A..

'? <.,

which he said

was as follows"

and these forms are The

used final

only to introduce

something in quotation marks,

real or imaginary.

t. , which indicates "end of quote," may sometimes be omitted, especially
of conversation. which seems originally to have meant "to take and to have crystallized into

in longish passages

In Example c. ).).,~

make" (Cf. page 9, section ii), is taken by the Japanese a compound equivalent in function to
S .

7. Verb of change + result i. Intransitive verb.

of change.
.;1;<'"

Japanese

form:

Supplement -

t - verb.

a. ~

tiif ±. (~'1~:f:f-)

f;l;

= ~±:

t.~

s,
t-:.~.
;!J';

To become a court scholar. uses of

Notice the following renderings

of various

/!:; .
the fish or meat.

b. f~;~J~'~o(1t·~l)=~·ltl~,J~
t-:. ') (= i::. + if)
c.
~)

"''''-

~ ..~ v:. <

Weare

indicates

a state reached rather
't ~?

than a process.
v
if)" 10:;

(;t]iT:fL)A~:G!Kyff'to Ot·)~jf:lL)=(~jf.fl)5h.J?K!7)t'J
(Kao Tsu) was hit by a stray arrow. of the Chinese passive constructionft

r.r

HJt_~~.
....

(Lit. became what a stray arrow hit.)

This conventional rendering a literal translation

f1r ....

is simply

of the Chinese

and is not originally of ff[

a Japanese

construction.

z; ~

meaning "place"

is the normal rendering

in its spatial sense.

d.

itJ ta~).._ rl: ~ nn f~~

.,':' 't v-"0 (~.~

~

'f.a.)=~tJi).__~~') A.t~
1At. f~

n:~v:.v
, ... , <"?

1.

~!jj~.

'.I:;

9
IJ""_

Kao Tsu was by nature high of nose and dragon-faced.
~A_

in the sense of "personality"

is read

~.

Notice that here ~ ') does not In this example the main verb

fill the role of main verb in the Japanese is omitted. 3.)
ii. If it were expressed

sentence.

the sentence would end

ft ./fl13: J

(See note, page

Transitive
ll.;

a.

H~ 1\':E. (~. ~l = !t v' <: 1-\' 3:- t.~ )
'fJ:.

r"',,, 0/:>;

1.i:

r,
1.1;

r

To enfeoff him and make him King of TaL

is a transitive

form meaning "to make."
ob7
'/;?

b. _l;A £.

/f!J ~.

Gt. . f:J::_) = :£. f. J;A t, ~~Jl..tr.
i,,""

,

To consider

the king stingy.

This is a literal The Japanese consider."

translation,

meaning "taking the king, to make him stingy."

.... ~ -t? \. , ... l:. 1;;1;

r

can hardly have originally this special

meant "to

It has, however, acquired

meaning through its use as Many such un-japanese into common

the conventional expressions Japanese

translation

of the Chinese phrase.

derived from the Chinese in this way later passed Cf. II, 7, i, c (page 8). For Japanese
d
~~o

usage.

j;).._ ~

see II, 6, ii, c (page 8). indirect object - ,;:: direct object - ~ - verb
H,

8. Verb + combination of supplements. a.

form:
II'

k ${_~'L~

(ji_.~J;::_)

=~

tl_, ~ ~-;: *-~ ~4~13'.

".t<

r.~

~.t<

Hou Chi (the God of Agriculture)

taught the people agriculture.

The Ch'in army surrounded c.

the King of Chao in ChU Lu,
~; !lt7
LJ: .. 'Iv

7k
n..

all t- %1'-j_l £.. (5t_. ~l)= fk t-:t ~ ~l. it ~. £
b'"

ib;

I;::

Chang Liang sent a letter
d. ,~ ~

to the King of Han.

.£ t"?'-

s: J-.. • U.l. . ~
renders

Jl) =A:;

'

'11v

~

'1>,
:£_ f_

.K J.,.
in which they occur

tfvl'/v

He attacked King Yu Hsien at T'ien-shan. Japanese normally in Chinese. the supplements in the order

10
9. Causative. a.
1>"
l_,"

4p-;(_ ff . = A__ r- ~
Ai
as a causative.

bot

-U T

'1>

0- Vl_.- •

To order someone to go.

The Japanese version is literally "to order someone and make him go," taking Notice that the Japanese reading is not

"to order someone a going." b. 1i_ (~/t--) Although Y

}..._At..
v
<::

,,'-

= A._

~

f-,

-z ft -! L- L;

0 :;

To cause someone to kill.

is a kind of formal acknowledgement that these are regarded

A..

is the object of

,-\f__

or its equivalents,

as though they had lost most of indicators.

their verbal force and become simply causative III. Comments Without Topics -- Existence 1. As we have already and Absence.

seen, the relation

between topic and comment is no more spe-

cific than that the topic introduces a subject or topic on which the comment has something to say. We have also seen that a topic may not be necessary. There are, in

fact, cases in which it would be hard to think of anything suitable to put in the place of the topic. This seems to be the case with such expressions there is a topic it usually introduces as as

-r:)~ , ~)if_.

,

j;_ JEF-

,;fJ )...___Where
Such expressions however,

a place or time.

-r

r,JZ)

etc. appear to be in the form "verb + supplement."

Japanese, form since

cannot deal with them in the usual "supplement- indicator-verb" which regularly at all. indicates this type of relationship. is "supplement-verb," a form

it has no indicator uses no indicator

Japanese

here

The result

indistinguishable

from "topic-verb,"

and generally understood as the latter by Japanese. follows it

If such a Chinese sentence

does have a topic (e.g. ~ -rT,f<:] ) Japanese

with indicator

v.:. but leaves it at the beginning of the sentence.
thus becomes in Japanese from

The Chinese order

of "topic-verb-supplement" supplement-verb" supplement-

"Chinese topic- K -Chinese the Japanese form "Japanese

and thus is indistinguishable topic-verb.t'J

V:. -Japanese

1. I am aware that this description may be controversial. tively what is done; not why it is done.

It is an attempt to explain descrip-

11 2. Natural phenomena. a.
b.

r )~" r ~" == f;TiJ K r m. = .K ,'( ~ T ~.
6,/1) ..Iv

.1,

Rain falls . As to the sky (weather), rain The wind gets up. falls .

"/1).3.

.. '>t:-

1;:

c. ~
d.

JfL. =~~.

;"J)fJ

r~.

... ~oI: N

= ;\7J

ifJ ,::~ T ~

~l ,3,

In Honan, snow falls.

3. Existence i.

or absence.
t..

a.

t qt·. = ft- 1f , . 1i
A-. =
.. I:.

h

There is virtue .
<."'"

b. ~,

A_ ~, V.
Itk,M
'6::

There are no people. In the army, there are no provisions on hand.

c.
d.

f~~~.(5t·J:~)='~M~-l.;.
,~,

d.
-

In Lu there is a sage. Whenever the Chinese topic introduces a location it is dealt with as in Example ~

t ~),__.=,t-

~

.\1:"

170 h

K~

~1f ~.
~<

e. ii.

"f f4J ]f. •= J.,. 't r.: 1£ ?11 <.
with generalized meanings.
b'-Iv {"'.... ~"IJ

st; ;.,.,

It%

In the mountains

the flowers open.

1f

and ~

a. ~ ~
When;:f

)i1 •. (~.fi. e )=$llEJ ~".s~
follows a name as here,

t~.

There was one called Yen Hui. be trans-

it may, when the sense demands,

lated as b. c.

t

Vl'~'=b

17)

literally

:w.- -}..__~. (~. ~~) = -}..__ t..-"t i{_ ~ ~ v" ~ t,., 1f ~ ~ .vA %. ~ . *-r ) 13 j) v.: YZ -z -%- <_.. ~ =
•. ; t>

"'''?

"a person

~"~

(thing) called
Ii

"
Not one man returned . t.,

:b ()) jt_

Among the officials there

1f~K

,,\~

\I

is not one to make a report to

of it.

is

analogous

2f
("J.-

r-:. (in Example 3, c, above.
? /J'A

"person") is more or less optional after the verb is in the attributive
d. ~_ ~ ~

~ Z·· ~

cr. ~
~

7.1

*,
1!1;

(7)

("fact"

not

V.

Either way

form.

~X. (~;~o~;j)=)l
'1

~.l.""·
L v-Z ~

.,

<1 ;!.~ ~

V.

There was not an evening when I did not drink (it). A

li may be inserted after

1X a ~".:, without

altering

the meaning.

The Japaones."

nese version is literally

"As for evenings, there were no non-drinking

12
Notice that although the Chinese construction with the English "Not one man returned," sociate ,--, with the verb associating
iii.
.!fiji,VO

~-f._1i.;.
the Japanese

is practically

identical

reading seems to ashas no way of

1]b.

This is because

Japanese

it directly

with - A._ • Japanese form: ::;:::. K

Ih I)~

This form

usually

means "Let there

be

"

"Suppose for the sake of argumay not make this hypo-

ment that there

is - - -."

The Japanese

rendering

thetical sense explicit. a.

It is nevertheless
__

conventionally understood in this sense.l
6)

1f -kj:_' ~j:ff

• (~.:;--~)

=

1fT 1-;: k ~1f IJ.
(Lit.

-o: ~~ <.

Suppose for the sake of argument that there is a beatuiful piece of jade. "Here is a beautiful piece of jade.") Notice that although the Chinese the Japanese
iv,

Jlt ~

-k.£.'

would not have this hypothetical force,

rendering

would be identical with Example a.

11

and~,

used actively. it is translated by the Japanese equiva-

When;;Jf means "to hold" or "possess" lents -L ~
---? ,

t-::: t /

and the Japanese sentence takes the usual "topic-supplement.~:·k..p7 -r_1v

-ver b" form.

a. ~~

~K

r. = J(_£_
(%-. _:ozz...
I'

K "F ~ 1f----:7.
by 1£
?I-

h'

r~t

Wen Wang possessed

the Empire.
it-v>

When ~, means "to set at naught" it is translated
b. ~,//1LhrzI. ~'fItl
~

,,,, -t::\;

s-,

0

P-..J-

\-)

_

-

J(}L

:;;~

t

t.) '"

---lm- v;:rx ,Ji;._.
I

t .".. ..

J"

- -t.

c... '"

-\iH

~I'~

r

t

He set the rites ~,----.. meaning

at naught and set righteousness of ---"

at naught. use.
~

"irrespective

may be thought of as an active

Actually it is not taken this way in Japanese, c.

~l-~!l!:J!{) ~-l
Irrespective

~)'. (trt:: .

tr

~}tJ

=

-f ~~ ~~r t.~
-'t:.k.

~

but is read ~t
'i
1;(

1j <,

-;~1

7a:

-It]

(J-R!:-~

"Jt~<.

of rank, irrespective

of age.

1. Example a gives the traditional rendering. It is, however, sometimes c. : l:":~:i: <. .n =0 to-'~): < " plicity as K~ ~ tv It: or:]tfr 1-:: £: '7 L;(.

Jtfr

1f ~

rendered

more ex-

1:: 13

d.~,

~-W

i_";

1iI:

0'1-li;

~1'-

v

13

ir~.z:_o(}t_·j:t)=~~
of intelligence, - - - means

t,~ <.~:L
all know this.

~~~.

Irrespective Where~, --- ~
1.;(

"There

is neither
o~

- - - nor

," it is read

---

t '1 <- ---:t
e. v.

L> , as in the following example.
«: ~
.I-

!il!t. l>J

~

f pJ (~o1f~.:t.)= ""f 'b,~

<-

f);j '" \J 1#t,

It is all the same to me.

Words indicating extent or number can, in Chinese, perform a form identical with they are rendered a. b.

as stative verbs in in Japanese and

1f I._.

They cannot, however, do this

as adjectives.

:+ if

~A
~o

0

= I.. ~

r--~ btl

c-,

People are numerous.
11,,~ it fit..

c. ~

(~.$-~ )=~ l;t t'7.l t "',; t,: ) • Those i> -:f1f 171 )/~1,t;ff #-. (t:;-· j(~f!.~l = :flJ 11 ., ~"~ =b )
,..: .... > 6

who do not lose are rare. ~ .1:< a~ I> f<O;
rJ)~

ttJltt·''iJ$,#- v iff

9~f v.

Although there is nothing that does not have a beginning, there are few things that have a good conclusion. IV. Qualifying Constructions. In general the Japanese word order is the same as the Chinese - the qualifier precedes what it qualifies. using an attributive as a qualifier Japanese makes it clear when a word is being used as a qualifier or adverbial form, by translating an indicator by

with a word which can be used only

(*J1;i] ), by using

(~ ,

r- ,

1::..

,

l.. t- -z

etc.) or by some

explanatory phrase.
1. Qualifier i.

+ noun. form + noun.
~?
7;1

Attributive

a. ~
b.

,Wy = E ! ,1!J
0

J1fl fJ

1JH

White horse.
""7~

0

=~~

IJ'~

~

fJ
are attributive

Bright moon. forms of [_,?
L..,

and ~ ~ ij:t;1 ....1;(~ ~ respectively.
ii.

and J; J '7 o- fJ:.

Use of

I/')

Where a noun is qualified by another noun or by a longish phrase, noun are usually linked in Japanese by
C') ,

qualifier

and

the genitive indicator.

To indicate

14 possessive genitive only,
;Z_

the alternative
11)

v'" is sometimes in Japanese.

preferred

to

r/)

If

the Chinese uses

a. J"~~;j
b.

*

then
D'7.,

0 (~.;:~

)=~~ ~:]
»:

7
<"'t.-

,,*".
........ ,,)
1

is required .s.

" Hsiang Yu's soldiers.
" Hsiang Yu's uncle.
The Ch'in army.

~f?J:iJ~.>C.(

~.~j!_) = ~
101../

;j7)

.,:f.-Z_
1..1--1"
t>

c.

~f-. (:(_.~~) f.. =f-t'>

d. ~

r:z_ -± . (~·;;ft.li:,j:t) ""~ r: '? -:l::.
•. 7
0

The gentry of the Empire . Meritorious
~~

e. ~ :r:-1J ±_J-__ f.

(~'~~J=
j:.

1f ~/:J ~ A_
r Iv
t,1v

07

""z.

people.

j(_:C

_

-*-2__

}1"To

Ct__·1~J )(_~~ =

tJ~

i: (~ .. tD)p;j-o The time when Heaven is destroying Ch' in. form.

In Example

f,

Il:; ll."t

is the attributive

iii.

Noun qualified by a verbal expression. dJ' t-:-; rio(,

a.

rf[1Jifl:£
If

~*-0

(~

J't ) = 1Jfld~' Pry 0 £'"f-JC_. J.l

It?

The jade ornament which he wore at his belt. for "the jade ornais purely an acexpression.

ij;,

It'?

1Jifl.3:'~32.

J~

would be perfectly good and clear Japanese at his belt." The insertion of l.::?

ment which he wore knowledgement Cf.

of the Chinese
!:.~.;

Pry-

and is not originally

a Japanese

rTf IG-J::. rtf
pry- 1;
b. Note one

=
=

%r t?J Pry-.
I~?

What one wants Where one goes What one says

.t!. JA" fifo
0

""

e:?

=

t ,3 ' Pir
[17

,.

1'-!.;

rif
the

~~t. ~ =
special

t~ rif

t_!?

IJ)t.
tIT.YA ~,

'b~

The thing that one wants. "The thing by reason (means) of which" as having fossilized into a compound,

reading

of

does

something. in Japanese
ro-Ifo
0

This is regarded

rendered c.

by, ~ ~ Iv , derived from ~

l.

meaning "reason."

rlT J-:zt:-~

== ~

f-l:-,j . tfr j..~
11Jt.1v

~ ",101;

",

t.1v

....,
")~

That which is the means of nurturing the people. The reason for acting.

d.

tiT y)., ~1. = Ff ,3, 1fT J.'J....

1;~'i.

15
2. Qualifier + verb.

i. Translated

a.
b.

* ~. ~ t. =t1f,
..'l ,,'"

by an adverbial
"'~f.>.~

form + verb . To love broadly. To think about in detail.

1.':(,

~

~-.

=~fJ,(~~-.5-o

respectively. ii. Translated a. ~ b. c.
'tfj~

1!...~.

by a word which can be used only as an adverb (rf;11 ~i] ). ,Pit," l~' (3t_.:r~) == ~ 1J:' ') It is extremely urgent.

-.t. ~~ ~. ~l~' t~ ul·t-) = ;~1!It:. #J ~ ~\
-ft: 1&
0(

)t_. ~

r~"J6, 11.11" Jt. ) == J%.-.:Jt:.
fJ'1v

e

"

(7)

L-t1

:.

1

I pretty well know his intentions.

D

7.

Han frequently

attacked the Hu. when used

iii. Words usually used as nouns require as qualifiers. a. '

some modification in Japanese
:.
jr-.

e. ~ 1-1-. (iL·
Japanese

The common people came like children. makes it clear that "children

*

It

",Iv

1:.) =ff, ~

f- ~ c: t <
qualifies

'*

if'.-Yo

At, ~ 3(7)

l-J;

3t-1v

~

t

~

and that the construction This is done by adding
f!);:'

is not
"t

of the common people."

<.

"like. " b. ,

11 J::_ -r. ('to:tJ.) =f;f ~ 1--1
1;1;

JZ -r f
ruler.
=>!l

",-/"'>11'

if

Toot
'?
0

He held the Empire as de facto "as ---."
0

c.

1} 1JJJ

1fr ±_ U{· t) = 1} ~'1 -t "( :z.. ~:tfr ~.
""~ ':>~~..

i!

He cut them all down with a sword.

llJJ
iv.

describes

the way he cut and modifies.ffT

0

t"{

=

"with."

Direction Where

of action. etc. qualify an action, of." Japanese makes this explicit

U.ifi3L8iT1t.t:f
t:1)

by adding

a. ~

t Jf

o: t:
0

"in the direction :l~ )

(:t.-.

=t

(7)

17'

r~t:

If

.-'"

II>

0 ~ t. Ai,R
direction.

r..

He was about to return

in an easterly

16
b. ,1§J

lfl.fr-- ~e, ('f..
0

.J:~

)

= 11\¥

1"-'-'

; C') I)'

r:. ~

~

1fl~r.
~{

He occupied territory
If the

in the west. Example
L-

Japanese
,

had taken

b to mean "He went west and occupied

territory"

it would have read ~
'a

i.~ ~

liA1, c. }(::

foj ;tJ ft.

(~=t *-- J:_J;')
0

*r .
-c.1--

'N~'?

.,.

L"-?

It~';"~"

."

= J(_J.i_C')

lJ'r~

r; f1~ r1 R;fj")I.J'r~I~r-r<.

Heaven moves to the left and sun and moon move to the right. 3. Qualification as to number. Usually translated directly. One man. Several years .

i. Qualifying a noun.
_.-.; ,~Iv

a.
b.

ft +. == ft t .
n
.. " ol'ak-

-;...__. == -.J.._.

c.

~

~.=~

A..
of times root

,: Iv

How many men?

ii. Qualifying an action. To indicate "times" the number an action is repeated, for numbers Japanese adds

to the Japanese

numeral

up to tenl and to the Chinese

style numeral

a. ~

a

a ~3t. (~
,
0

for numbers

above ten.

·ft \;yry)
~

z:

%- B

>l?fIt

'"

iI+-

Jb

iIf'

t;

_::__

f::

tA'· {;

bY)}

~:i ~.

~'A')iIf'

I reflect

on myself three

times

a day. approximation.
JoN
It·b'

iii.

\if '"'- ,-;t ~, ;fr,,__
a.

etc. indicating
~'"
~~)

,~-;y
~~liJ

z, ~.

U~

=

\~~:=_Ji; PI ') .
_, -- 7,,,

Some 30,000 horsemen.
b.

~:r..+. (t·~t~)=~t;:G_i_;"

4~').

l:-

I~':'"

Drinking maybe five or six tou.

v.

Co-ordinate

Words and Phrases.

1. No conjunction. i. A list.

a.

~tt »~11iJ Jtt, ±..~.
The rearing

(1z. • *J::.)

=

IY..

<I"

'?

< ..

>('

v 1l

~it~~~t]~

t?) ~

tA.

of poultry,

SWine, dogs, and pigs. 8'f 10

1.

u- t;

2 'J' f-.

3

ij-

;

4

J;

5

lI\?

6 tr ; 7 ~ T,r

9':':t?)

c..

17
ii. Explanatory.

a. Jb
b. ~

jp;z_tE

~t. (~·Jl)

= ~jfr:t
"'''1)'';

~.I:

~J

(1)

It:£- +-11-. (5t·4~) =-$.~pt-:£ 3-¥~Il1j.:Z ..(~J~~.t\'~'

01'>;

A-Z,tW'_
v 7..V'
0

fAt ,;.l..I Jt";i

Fan Tseng, a man of Kiltsou. Tzu Ying, the surrendered Ch'in.
.:tafv

king of

iii. Reduplication.

~JvJ""

~V"

LI.t"

;,\..

..::.

a. 5f-!fix;;fx',fL

B~ ~)=!if
as "Every
>-

~~'fx'1t

*El1l-~ t;:~ ..

Year after year, the flowers are similar. Sometimes the Chinese is understood not reduplicated. b. ---" even though the word is
t::: "each and every
.. " 1.~~

In such cases Japanese adds

,,:."c
~I:.

---."

@ ~ifX.,
Countries

~7!t-3:v\ CtT·j(}f)
differ in government,
-'<!: '""

<,~ ~.,~o"/:. =)~ ~"t.K:ifj(_ k

~

I;: u,~:."e.lz..~~

ff: t:_jo

,<-

c. ~~

«.', A.. -t $;. (3J..·,~)

families
~

=~',

~-m
T~

differ in customs.

iI.

:7 :.

c

<1'1:.

t:.;,

A_~" G 1-:

+ ~.
:.

s...

He presented 2. Conjunctions.

copper cash to the tune of 100,000 per man.

meaning "and"; ~

'"'"' ,~$"-'meaning "or." as nouns, and are always ". ,
rI)

Words linked by the above conjunctions are regarded rendered

a. ;~,

».~ 1* :Z:_*. (Jt_. ~~ ) =3__ '?l- bl o: ~ jlt.
trlv
<-"Iv is'$. '-',t:.

by a Japanese

noun form.

7

*- .

The Han army as well as the barons'
iJ'J;.t,."

soldiers. usage, but is derived from this

in this sense is not originally because

Japanese

Chinese use, reach."

.&. as a verb meaning "to reach"· is read 4::;J; ,~," to

In the Heian period "-'&__,...._ as a conjunction was read
·3· ~ -

c. the Japanese
",I:
II,.,

word for "and."
b.

_

,~i#*:;itA.. Z P(T~X.~. (~.
Notice that words

~1;::_)=;t ~

Y l:.1;t.;t~A.')~ t~ ?fraJ.
by l::. following both of the preposition the meaning by

1:.::.;'

Wealth and honor, these are what people desire.

",i#-"" as

a conjunction is rendered it from

joined.

This distinguishes

JM. ""

"with," which is rendered

by .!::. following the word or phrase

preceded

18 E.g.

'tl;£..~~ ~
c.

1~ f(J

'E' _r:"'_j

0

(to ~~ = 'ra}O_ )
(t; H
vI;

,.I?"

01>; L.t:7

~ 1*-~ *1\/ l
----."
,,"~,

\'<..

~

I~

< ,'":"''_1

1:..

King Huai, making a pact with the barons,

said"
(;:1' -IJ v

::t~ ~ t-9:'Q.1L -K t

0

(~

.!t1!)=:;1 ~

-'c.

t -ktJ < (;;I:.1i..." t .
-'t ~}jt
;'~t.-tv

'';:1.

Sixty or seventy, or possibly fifty or sixty (li) square.
d. ~

-t:. .K~-t--t, ~ 'S 'J
4,,,

t:-L
;tI\

D

(~~

I i Iv~

v:: (j: , ~%~

,rlv{ip/..,

J

i>'

-(A"( :t_

!!

-t

Ilk
-r-,

i.~)=
i;
0

jz_1§- < (;t

-t- -& -c.
."l\

,;v1,t

For those who lose husband or wife, the local official shall buy something and give it to them.

Words joined by these conjunctions are regarded as adjectives and are always rendered as such. The word preceding (-?~

or verbs

(m ~ )
_El

M

or

takes

a continuative form.
i.;

The perfect

continuative forms

1~ l/<. L-1.

1. , etc.) indicate state rather than tense.

In example c a perfect form is not
,,1;iv

used because a.

]<2, ~

indicates

action and not state.

»:
v'

:f;Jfu_

nn ~ ~
J'iL
r~'i)

;h ~ t

tr 0

r :';f.-?>t"~

i1fJ /f f*) ;f.ifu
t-

<

L-1.

*
~r

*. c~ . bE m )
L0

=

f-

.s:

V- t- 1.

£ i..
inspired
r~'r

1 It..

The master was warm but firm, had authority but was not fierce, reverence but was easy to get on with.
J;I;'t"

Here each of the pairs is taken as a separate sentence. are final forms. Since ~'is familiar

~

v

and

tli- o: 0 r
or "having."

as a noun rather

than as a verb

adjective, it is made into a verbal expression by the addition of

1J !.J(:

He is benevolent as well as wise. ~ ~ Here again -1:::. I::. 1..- -z (perfect continuative) and ~ forms.

rs ~

{final) are both verbal

The Emperor

was on the one hand angry, but on the other hand pleased.

19
Part II

TYPES OF STATEMENT VI. Types of Statement. 1. Many statements prediction, involve some sort of subjective valuation - negation, possibility, These meanings are conveyed like

permission,

recommendation,

and so on.

in Chinese by verb modifiers aries like

such as negative indicators
,'I'J

f.

or

*-, or

auxiliare also

%f. ,~1- ,l'J

,j~

~

,~

}~

, etc.

Many of these auxiliaries

found as independent verbs. The Chinese combination of "modifier of three ways. i. Unlike Chinese, Japanese can modify the meaning of a verb by changing the form of the verb itself or by suffixing an auxiliary to it [Type I]. May say. + verb" is rendered in Japanese in one

a.

__,-

"J ~ =
.j.0

~

'" ~,.l,...-...:"

L•

Here -'"'-'" l> is an auxiliary verb indicating the" ascr iptive" mood (Seepage 25,i). /\_"" The number of Japanese verb forms used to translate Chinese is, however, in-

adequate to convey all the shades of meaning contained in the Chinese modifiers. To give somewhat more precision, in conjunction with particular Japanese adverbial expressions are often used

verb forms. Must surely tainly."

[Type Ia]. say.

a (! v:.

means say. ot?

"indeed,"

"cer-

Ought to say, had better "better. " ii. The Chinese "modifier + verb" may be rendered [Type II].
)-~ ~
0

v <,

"rightly, "
+ verb."

in Japanese

as "adverb

a. ftt. i:> = 13t. .z
b.

<>1::

J:

2.) i'1

I~'

D

Able to say (physically capable of saying) . .t<.. means "well," "effectively." Dare to say. J5" '( means something like "daringly." It is now used only as the standard rendering of 'lIZ .

R

t. =R '("t,~,

~"-

20
iii.

The Chinese "modifier + verb" may be taken as "verb + supplement."

[Type III]

, 1-+
may still retain
Vl

, etc., were originally

main verbs followed by supplements they

in Chinese also, and although they have tended to become simply modifiers, something of their verbal force.
t -;:

a. )t_ ~.
T-:.~

=

t .s.

JL ~ .

f-:.

Worth saying.
vd,

means "to be sufficient," "to be worthy." of
V',~,

is a verbal noun formed

with the attributive b.

"to say."
7

4':} ~.

=

t ,3,
VJ,~,::,

z:

tt

+It.
)
h It:

7

Can say (have an opportunity of saying). noun.
-;t"

means

"to get."

t.. is a verbal

POt. -'...>c. flfc.p.=~,J,~!:. cf) (:- I~

t:

"'I::. fJt:...lt'j.

Unable to say.
It means

t"

is negative of an extinct form tfJ t: ,3,.

"is not able." renderings method

By the use

of the above three types of translations,

standard

Japanese

have been evolved for all the Chinese modifiers. in any given case may be partly accidental. structure atically--in familiar of the Japanese

The selection of a particular

Usually, however, it is influenced by the read systemis

language at the time when Chinese was first

the Nara and early Heian periods;

by the extent to which the modifier

in some other function, for example, as an independent verb; and by the apof the principles be represented that a given Chinese character by the same Japanese by something word, and

plication, at one period or another, should as far that every as possible always

Chinese

character

should be represented

in the Japanese render about

translation.

Without an appreciation

of some of the reasons

why Japanese inferences

these constructions

in the way they do, it is easy to make unjustified the structure readings of the Chinese.

the way in which they have understood In the following sections

the Japanese

of Chinese expressions Each Japanese

indicatreading

ing "mood," are explained under headings based on meaning. will be identified by references

to Types I, Ia, II, or III above.

21 2. Negatives i.

':f

negating

a verb

or adjective.

Japanese

form:

Negative form of verb or

adjective.

[Type I]

a.

til

-f :f W;.
ro

(5t. .

t-iftf- )= :t1L1=:-~ it t:
V'

1':.,

I}

t".)

Peach and plum trees

do not speak.
It?
L.-

b. c.
d.

:f 1ft:7 5:£. • (~,
(7-

Jt-J-)

=;~

~~

0r:
,jL.CO

Not to know the art. Not high.
-; »:«.

If ,'$7
~ ~

0

=~

o> 0

r:'

f -tJL :f ~. ~ .
Japanese

The populace do not starve ii.

*)::_)
=~
V\ ~

~ ~JL

s. r~

z_

-r.
(Type I~]

and do not suffer from cold.
'-7;
l~

*a. b.

"not yet."

form:
..1
..;t

t... ____negative form. '" it"

t-17

0

(

~

f-lfp/*.

c4~n)=
~

tr- firJ ) = t r-."

*

i)'-,

k"

pt

~~Sr.
v

r:

Not yet studied. Not yet know learning. h;;t (-{.""still" is used in ~ is often

Like English, Japanese has no single word for "not yet."

conjunction with a negative verb form to give, literally, "still not ----." followed by ~ or ing examples. c. d.
iJ'

-ow . This combination is translated in Japanese as in the followa
b'.., ~

*- f*-. = *- t~--t"(~
"'4
.. : ~-"?

*-~ ~. =.t- ~--t' "(.~ t r;
i)

t~&t~

He has (had) never yet come . There has never yet been.
in the Nara Period. It now survives

-:>"""(

seems to have meant "absolutely"

only in translation In ancient

or imitation of the Chinese '~ or Chinese,

:if ----,

*~,~_____"
L.-

f.

etc. negating a "verb + pronoun This is no proborder. E.g.:

supplement" involved inversion of pronoun supplement and verb. lem in translation e. to Japanese, as this is the normal Japanese
a,">1--

-:f Z: 4:-0.

(~·~iW)

f. -{iii.

t _z_ J)f1 t!::!. • (;!£ 1Jf-)

= G ~~ ~
.}?.fI..

=

~*
",,t

~011-

t:

~

They do not know me .

n'- ±_ ~~,

t7l:

I have not yet heard this.

Negative adverbs. Where a negative indicator Chinese makes it clear

[Type I~ is used in association with an adverbial expression,

by the position of the negative indicator

whether what is

22 negated is the verb only or "adverb corporated in Japanese. in the verb form, A somewhat
+ verb."

Since the Japanese

negative is inclear of an

it is often difficult to make this distinction distinction is made by the insertion
+ verb."

artificial

extra word (often 1;1: ) when the negative applies to "adverb a. ~

1-

t .= q; v:. *- tc 0 r:
-:>OIa~

He always does not come. (i.e. He never comes.) He does not always come.

b. ,);

If
Ij'

1f:p

0

=
=

-I;>'r,;?

l)l.l
""Iit.~

r~ ~
v

!"q;

Iv.

He certainly

will (can) not know. know.

/f

-hI. /f

t}t

f'L; -b

~

'-'

0

t:
sense,
*-

He does not necessarily the Japanese

Since I;;"

1f:p implies

a potential

verb is in the negative

potential form ",-,;::"; 0. 1 c.

1'if

+1- 1E'.=4(

,;;t:

",n"

r~ o:

5E, ~d7-r~
{~

/f {'1_ q~ ~ . = 1l_ t~tJ,"
iv. Double negatives.

<),To;;:

t~ 1+r~'
form:

;tr

,t

Again he did not get a rabbit. [He had failed the first time also.] He did not get a rabbit a second time. [He had got one the first time.]

a. ~

*- t "Jf 1+:?G~ . ( ~
il#

Japanese
0

"'- -("Iv lit"J, S
.n"", ... ~
11',

I\.. fff)

=-t-tresults

il".

r'.

.t.

h"1" -z )t ~~.::~ 1-it-9Iul"th ~J'~ ~ Y. l:.

I have never yet failed to obtain a meeting. This attempt at literal
.t.

translation

in peculiar

Japanese.
z,

:f1+~=}VN ~ t ~1-1"-1"

.

(d. page 21, 2, i, Example b).

modifying this whole phrase, giving

t
t

ft...

t -z '!L 1:9:>~ .::; t ~tlr r~
.t.

:b'.,

-!:;I,I..

*- 't
Jd: J;

is taken as S

has never yet been a 'not to obtain a meeting. '" for the sake of euphony. hypothetical ~ i:J form ~

4+ r"l~ changes

r ."There
to

4.Jj- 1'''1--11;''

;t

This form should be distinguished

from the negative (not of

t'A-tcl:" which is a contraction of "-' t"[~"

1" It. ).
.

t"

=

"There

is not" changes to attributive

form 1> '7 <"~ before

1J: I)

b.

"f

n: /f1!r -tt::..

(~o~,,,

",'1 ) = R ~<: ~

;,

."

lj"

,'Iv

I~"'; 0

t ",
Actually, however,

I could not bear not to report. At first sight this appears to be similar to Example a.

23

:It- -""'(%i It" r" is
-:>

I,

the reading of

f t!X%, not

of ~

f%

(see below page

52,

section 2, ii, Example c).

The solution, such as it is, seems to have been aras

rived at by analogy with Example a, but the result will hardly bear analysis Japanese; arises nor is it a very accurate

because

R* = jfL
iii>
0

translation

of the Chinese.

The difficulty

A..

1. -%- <.."

-;>

is rendered by Type II (adverb + verb) and

Japanese

adverbs

have no negative form.

Contrast c.

the following (fictitious)

/f ,~- f 1§--<!,
..,

.. =% l1''!'' ~
t- 17)

l-::

J!._..

\,."

example.

tA".!" ~

~cr~

D

He could not bear not to report.

Here, although the Chinese is parallel of

with

f~;f~

1:3 , the standard rendering

'f"/~-'%-=%-<'''~ ,:.J3.,u."t"
J1::_

is of Type III (verb + supplement) and does not inR
I"';'

volve a negative form for P since there and is no problem

as a verb can be negatived directly.

Thus

in finding a negative

/f ~'"'-'

all read

t-:. '"

r'

1§-lt",t:.;,

for

/f %

.1

::r i1irt~, 'f ~-,

"cannot endure" are handled in the same way as

If r<.~ "-',

[Type III].

See also

"f'

PJ/f~

(page 26, ii) and Japanese

':f I'J" ---1!f: --reading:

(page 26, iii) below.

.-....- ~ 0 v;:.

t ".
by a verb

Although a negative

indicator,

;t f

is not a verb modifier.
It is rendered

It is used to nega-

tive a noun or to deny a statement. form

in Japanese

65?

'r preceded
(contraction

by the indicator K.. of ,-;: +

This ~

l~

1> '7 r
form

is the nega-

tive of

tl'l

~ ~ ). ~~ '? 1" ih
",II\. ""

(attributive

v.: ~ S ;.;"~

thus means "is not."

a.

:IF ~'~~-e. (Ai· *_t:_)
It is not I; it is the year.

=~
f)'1--

,::

~F

r: ~;
I:. t>

1;:
1;>,

'l.

b.

;IF;~

rrr1f..

it?,.

(~~~)

=;:t_ ")~ tr J1T
~ ~~

,,'I:

1:.=;
I:.

~f~.. f;r. v. ~
h~ tJ:~.
i)

It is not what Han hopes for.

c.

~f~qt_~o

(MtF·-jfL~)=R"'-{1t'fl~'-;:(~=4f~"-3
?
'7'C

It is not that I wilfully held back [the truth

is, .... ]

-:-1-. -=T=h:-e-o-=-bv-l:-'o-u-s-s-u-g-g-e-s tion that;f~f%-~ should be read ·%-+rJ'~te.jj:_1. ~j"'~ 1;J:~ (analogous to Example c), though probably acceptable inprinciple, has not been adopted by Japanese scholars.

24 In this example the Japanese tries, not the case that ---," rather feebly, to indicate the sense, "It is by the insertion of It. after k .

"It is not true that ---"

The appearance of li in such a construction may be taken as an indication that this sense is intended.
d.

:l;a~; f- :if ~ -tZ.. (Ai· A. ~

I.-?

1<1)'

~

""f ) = ~\%j

1>;; tJ'7

i!"7.l ,:: ;1

r ~"-5

1;( ~

0

As for the walled town, it is not that it is not high. 3. Possibility.
i,
?t

!1t.

/"'-J

Japanese

form.
.I:

Positive Negative:
t=">1.1

~ cI..<

+ verb [Type II].

a.

~t~ (.:k . *0

verb noun + ~ 1~Ict1"(Type III]. He is capable of enjoying.
I>r~

J::. )

= 1iE,
I,"

<~

t..
let

J: <,
b.

means "well," "capably."

He was incapable of taking his leave. The fact that positive indicate and negative imagined

/f

~EtT. (5t.

~~)

=~t t~ (: i:.) ~~
are

[He had had too much to drink.] in different ways does not difference form ( in the Chinese 1~.3 .! ) correand

r':

translated

that the Japanese

any structural

It would appear that no positive

<h

sponding to the negative if; 1-:.[-;1:

1"
I)'

was in use in the Nara Period or later,
IiJ

~ t,- (.:.z.) Rt ,3 \ (parallel
of < ~

1=., I,.,

ih I:

to

"'' 1.-

~t t {, .:. flt (~ ( J:..) t")
entirely

r"

was therefore

not possible.

h would seem to have been selected as the best available rendering.
not considered satisfactory rendering may be indicated for the negative

That it was nevertheless by the retention instead of "

of ---- ) t-:.l~ 1

r' as

a more accurate

J:- <

+ negative verb." 1

~ c.
remains ii.
in

in Example b may be omitted, but the attributive
-r

~f

v

r3
j

or a word in its position

form. Japanese form:
1"3'

4*...._
a.

verb noun + ~ +:)

. [Type III]

4';- ~

j~

1t. (3~,~)
J. 7

b-f.,

L-

=5~ t;1~ v:: ~
of Han.

~~

i:

i:.)

f.1Jt.

He got to meet the emissary
1. In the modern Kansai dialect, (J <)

+ verb is used in this sense in both affirmative

and

negative.

b.

*f-rf 1.3J... (3l·,~)=~K;l Kff
Although both

""1 ""

trN

f)'A.

~.:.t.

In the end he did not get a chance to return

to Han.

~* f".
.t..

25

~t

and

11}-

indicate

possibility,

~t

indicates

personal

("endogenous") possibility, ("exogenous" Japanese. 4. possibility).

while

4-1j-

indicates

"to get an opportunity to ---" out fairly clearly in

This difference

is brought

l'J --i.

indicating permission

or approval.

Japanese

form: __..__ i- [Type I]. A.;_'

a. ~
b.

&. <liz. •

*- r )=ft r ","u.

if -;r t~.($_ • "f ) = & r A:' -U'? t:

c.

J-1f ~)~-kJ ~~~.(~.t:/t"*)=

*
<t

Fit to kill. Not permissible
v.:-:, ~

to kill.
b'!~[%

:r~):;-R ~ t;.3"-t--;,,,~

;~:i

~

J;r'J,

The Master said of Kung Yeh Chang, "He is fit to have my daughter married to him." Notice that Example c does not mean "Kung Yeh Chang can marry to someone."
"",,-

his daughter

This is an important
I:.

difference

between

-

"J ....., and .... 1:. """' • 11t:.

4i)ftlX-. = 1,LffE. <- Jf;z_~ • "..,,_ I:.. 4~ l>J ~ • = 1.i, XR-.Q A:' U.
d.

He can take [something]. As for him, he can be taken.

1:... r ~ ('tf lit . ;1z_. )
1;1;<

*-~ A ~ . ~ ~
{'Iv

~·Iv

BlJ

(It)

JF-rt; ","~ '1: V. 'rt~

,),

= 7(

r ~ (I~) ~
;:>t.,

tfo.

1>'

~ tlf=e,.
-J:I:]
0.1:.

5; .1:7

1.--

7

t <: J 1~~. ~
01;

t::J 7J JOj $ -e,. 'tf ~ /f
~<:

(1"J:)

;''t. <

r/-; 0
tl' vf> ~

;t~
-!"~

'5'"

AI""

(I~ )

M -r/\,"J 'tJ: L

PJ

~E,~.

1;1: ~.

An empire or state can be pacified, an appointment and its associated income can be refused, cold steel can be trodden underfoot; but the Mean cannot be encompassed. e.

It_ -tt.,.f /f ~

~l ~Jt -e.. ('0/~ . - ) ~

~1j

=

illt ~fl.~t; ~f!. ~
-ct;

ttj:

1'\,'

'b''?
~'"

t:
1:.<-

The Way is not to be departed from even for a moment.
f.

JL

&!~$t~ z~{J; ~ Trfft.
}Jf; -t!:: Iv .:;t}

#J

(±1~' r~·,~::::..Af) =;t$ ")4'-4~ c
of your

<Jv

t/)

\! ..3 ",,' l1 l-: >?( •

Can it be permissible not to do one's best to make the splendid virtue predecessor shine forth!

26 The auxiliary ~
A","

v originally implied conjecture.

It is added to the final
f;j; ')

form of positive verbs (e.g. -:: t= V ,
U ".7- ~

~1 ,,",",,"""v)

except for if:> ~ and its derivatives,
,,'

and ~

t~ ~ , which add it to their attributive forms (e.g, ~ .;, ..-v
it is attached to the attributive form (e.g.

u).

When added to negative verbs
~"~ ",,"""L-).

~:;;!"

In the case of conjugable adjectives, ,a contraction of

it is attached to a form end~A..."

ing in _...__ :o'~

< + ~~

(e.g.

t~tJ'i)'?;

v ). ~

<:

v itself is

conjugated like an adjective In extension its use in translating "will," "may,"

(see Introduction,

page ix, section

2). as a result of

of its original

basic meaning, it now (largely covers

Chinese expressions) and "must."

a range of meanings

including

"should,"

It is normally

added to an active verb active or passive mean-

form, but the resultant ing without distinction.I ii.

form is used to express

either

7f "f if ~
a.

Japanese
11

form: "-' ~"~ """I.:1''J
•" £~.. "-"

r:
"

[Type I].
0' &

;c_-ilt

.z..!if- f. J /f.!fu

-t!::,

e (~.

I 1:::') = X:_--I£t--- t') If-J

~ .; -! "9 " ..

J" ~ ~

J•

Parents'

ages must be known. "They may not 'not be known.'" here Un-

This double negative form means literally like

If~"f%-t!:.

(page 22, iv, Example b), Japanese

can get two negatives

into the verb - one in the verb itself

(.lJ::o ~ .::r- ~

<.-

) and one in the suffix '" v

iii.

if l1J
a.

~
13 ~

Japanese

form:
"7

--,~.,

c.. v -z --- ~
~~ f(

1,i;

0.... <: b'~'('. 9
A,:'

[Type I]

:f liT -

;g

o (~

¥- . SlJL)
makes 3, ii).

=

-"Fl L L- -z %

f!t.... ~ C'

o : -?

'r~
, qualifying

There must be a prince The addition of t.. v

every single day. an adverbial expression out of -"F1

-z

{cf. page 11, section

The suffix --...., o.... A"," !)

r,

although attached to the

1. Because of this flexibility the Japanese active verb -+ -: v throws no light on the question of which voice we should use in English to translate the Chinese verb following""iJ. In the Chinese itself the question is irrelevant, since the relationship between Chinese topic and comment does not involve the more specific English subject-verb relationship. In Examples c - e above I have used an English passive form. Since the basic force of as a rendering of ~ is to ascribe a state or quality (fitness, etc.) to the topic, I have called it "ascriptive."

27

verb (the only place where it can be attached) actually applies to the whole phrase, just as

'f" )oj

modifies the whole phrase - t:1 ~

$

. This literal Japanese trans-

lation follows the structure iv.

of the Chinese very closely.

""-J

or

/f lj

can stand as independent words in Chinese, for example in anSince in these cases there is nothing to attach a suffix to,

swer to a question. the auxiliary given their ~~

u

cannot be used to translate

them.

They are, therefore, is needed to com-

Chinese style readings

and followed by whatever

plete the Japanese

a. -j.

9tJ

PI .c~. ~ 1::::.) = 57 ,:

*

sentence

- usually

*"i.,,· ...

9"t...

-r t. :b lOJ ~ ~.
l-.t

P.J:. ~ •

Even if you die the same evening, that is all right.
T~",l. <?' ,).
0'

b. ~K~~BT~. 1>J J.:.,(

(.Ji·*T)=ttj(_J;__*rfPJ1r~.J t? 1.
'£,

L 'B.3·.

The notables all say, "It is not permissible." v.
""'-'

a. :re. ~ €:I Jf. i1iJ ~

Japanese form: ? t:.'~~ }:_Z £.. (t__. ;J:~) = ~ t j§ I

~ ""'.. v
l s:
+7 h?
A:'

K l/( J..-:)..

U•

With a piece of land 100 li square,
.:(;-;;>

one can be a king . This use meaning "by means of," translation of )..).... The

l originally means "holding," "taking."
is not originally Japanese,

"thereby"

but is a literal

Japanese here is literally, may be a king."

"A piece of land being 100 li square,

holding (it) one

:£... , more familiar

as a noun, is made into a Japanese
'ii.

"stative" of t
A,"

verb form
I) ).

meaning "to be a king" by the addition of i:::. t) (a contraction

+ ih

b. ~);A;--t

~A._

.:z_~

• ($-.~i=I

) = vi; r j'(){_

?<1!.t

">

a-JA. ~

~

tt "f

1<.(

i.,

One may entrust In ancient China one therefore, refers worthy. object. means

a young orphan to him.

x.. was

a measure

of length, about 9 1/4 inches. inches in height.

~ J<...

about four feet seven

In this example vx,

vaguely to the man's

good character,

on account oj which he is trust-

Note that the verb after This is, roughly speaking,

1f

J..'.,(

has an active sense and can take an between

the distinction

"if;;J..

and ~.-.._.. .

28
c.

~'fl7J

J-AG.

(~-roJjJ,*)-*

D'''<'

t.,

>t

lit J;)__ 7_

E U""tJ'Sr:

You may not stop learning. 5. Necessity.
i.

j~ ""'-' Japanese form:

Positive: Negative:

1"'::0'0
9,,"D'

<,
to'

'"'-' "'.\._, [Type Ia].

verbal noun ~ t 1j tAj"[Type

III].

a.

J~

.l.:,z

5~-f

0

('KJro~ .~=~~
r,'-iJ "-

'7 <, J-'A ~

f

~I:.

It.,

E:;~

t ",·u.
It therefore

J~ ':;"

It is essential q"'~ V'

to decide the matter.

(like B La: Z form

,_).;A~ '.? <. , etc.) is a verbal noun form.

no negative translated
b.

(cf. f

if
0

*

has

page

21,

section

2, iii).

T~~......___ is, therefore, .:t. ~ ~J..-o- 1".
As the translation
~? 'J? .,;
'l. ~

as a verb in a negative form .
0

/f ~~ ~l}lt .f C( /,~""tIt ) = .ft #
It is not necessary :/) -t';

.'l. r~ ~~;

~+ ~ f
(."1.-

j:~ 11 t

oP.,"';

to plague the general again.

f' is

the negative of iJ ? /), = "to use," "to accept." it is understood
0 (~~

c.

f' rii M ~~ ~-*~ ;f~p

of

:f 9~ ~

to mean "it is not necessary."
~~ •

t._ t._)=

t·~1i7J Jt"j~

~~7't~.,.J..

'l.~

1A1v;f~

~p ~ f§· t. &

0

Ch'iang flutes, why must you wail the willow tree

(song).

t ? v- Iv is a potential form.
ifj~
were translated

This shade of meaning would not be expressible

as an adverb

rt-: t.J'S<.

).

This is not a very good example since both the Chinese and its Japanese rendering 6. Degrees
i.

claim a good deal of poetic licence.

of likelihood.

~-+"'- , 1!i",,-a.

;t1-)-...__

He was about to enter the gate. b.

f'

"Is about to

"
J"T tlv

Japanese
....

form:

iJ:..! t-: ---form

potential verb

0

(~.

~e )=#'r

1-=-"
)
J.
T

,-:.
~;

A .;,v!:. t
J ;r
~
f<

r.

+ t. ~

. [Type Ia].

-f ~~

.z. /14- L. (¥6i:.JKjfT]

=:t ');t1tA""'v

t::

1-. 0iv!:. t!J .: 1:. ~ ~

'-

0j

~

I did not know that I was getting old.
C. ;:~ 3'H

At.

(~.5~)=

~3J~_§_v:.f--\t

tr'j

.

tv ~-;.

Hsiang

yU was about to go east.

d.

t- /:i;

*

" Iv U'

li~

I-tr ~. C:t_· ~)
I.,T

't.. '1-'1: i. < < :b"'~ ~

"'J:

=~

.R v::~

l:.

-r~rtj tfJ ~Iv I:. r.

t.:?

>;;

29

Your family will all be taken prisoner. e. ~ 3L

-r £. . =~

t~

3k+ I
_.. Vj
')

1'a;:

0 Iv t

t.

Almost 50 li . (in line with the

Although Example

e is read

in the same way as the others should wherever possible

principle that the same character way) the meaning is different

be read in the same Notice the reading

(although obviously related). with the same meaning. Almost 50 li.

of the following similar
c: v;', ~

expression,
~J..'llv

i:s: --r £. =.L + Jf:_

~~ ~

t

1.
'xIv
form:

is a contraction Japanese Although this expression

of 1,;t')

meaning much the same as

~!31v

.

potential verb form + t: (~?

r

[Type III].

originally means "to want to," it is used from the T' ang and A . Dawn is about to break.
tl.-

period on in much the same sense as;ttt

a.

"-:tJJz

tt.-

1)

12~ • = }(_

J:1)j Lt tv t

~x.t
(it?

In the Heian period translation.

this would have read

J(

JiM It h.- t

IJ

r ,a

more

accurate is re-

Once again the principle usage.

of "one character,

one reading"

sponsible for the current

This does not fit any of the three normal types. clause meaning "if a little should happen."
~~

-t~ -t r1ttl-;t."
b' ..... '"
1",{

is a conditional

a.

t1J Ig 1!XI ~ 1ft. G'- .~ -t~ :t_)= t}J ~ r1/1-l1" ~
ffL
'f'f
0

:<.

~

">

1ft ~~ t.
~tN'

It might easily cause a national calamity.
b.

~tJ

+1- ~ (ft~ ..i!_.rtWf-) = f1] -D r r(L lx·j.lL ? ~e.
r1i(l~

*.
;

You may easily incur punishment.

1 t,rli,

the reading

of '-fG (as well as of

llJ ~p

and several

other Chinese

words) originally iv. /).' ------

means "at that moment." Japanese form:
.J."

tJ'1d_
IAv

S

a.

~'~t ~ lip' R. (:~t..~~= M'-1t ~ )
Wu Hsin Chiins army will certainly

<A.

r: -----potential
"'''Iv

Cf), r~~ 'lfLA.-.
,.'#:~
~.3~

verb form [Type Ia] .

/)2.'

be beaten.

30
b.
A__

fY,'

~::Z_.

C~

• i!__i1h) = )._1'X,' know it.

... z,

p'f~~

9" .::Z_ ~.J2p;;' tv.
"certainly." or free perfect verb. It is then read in suf-

~Jj\...

v

People will certainly
iJ'l"i_

0

t' is

an adverb meaning "undoubted,"

1)2' Chinese style
fix

is also found as an independent

v-

'"?

with the suffix

.Jct_ ')

,the

form of the verbal

c.

,vt_~,
,~,

t.

1)2: ~

• (~

:I-l_ )

"Iv

< "A'-

=~q

~,f,8l0 tv -:J::.

~ .~;.

"'-'

LX;

tt. V •

That we will beat the Ch'in army is already

certain.

7. ~

~

~ ,~~

meaning "must

surely."
11'

a. ~ -kpJt . Ut_.
This is surely
b.

~ 1& -tit ~__)=~
how it must be. (£.!rit

l~

v:. Jl:t <,0)
;t.~ ;:,

-3<P
~'\';

n:.

Japanese form:;l: -! (-:::-,-,/"/.... __ [Type Ia].

<- ~ -3 -:
"-I:.

v.
t..-

~~}1:7

t5(_~p".
"'~

·tMt~) =J7!~(-::-tznp C1>f;E.lKa
"'"

3 r-:

l/.

You should know about things in my home town. c.

[Since you come from there.]
"i(ll~

,~~IJ

~~::Z~~Jlt~.(}t·~,~:;fa-ffi1~)=,~:
~

0t;l:"~lJ

?

{tfr

"'oJ>

II') ~

~ -rrfr--(::.;lt

·3, U

l:#.. 3 A." t., [It cannot

Such being the case, the sign of the mandate of heaven must be here. be otherwise.] ~ ~ (:. means "correctly," 8. "duly." Japanese form:J:%<.

..1L
a.

meaning

"should," "ought to."
.t~ t..-<'~~ .t~
t-

.......u [Type Ia] . r-:

X~.=j[

A:,'

G. -: o: 0-r;'

You ought to know. You had better not enter. in

b.

:r.1L A

. = .1r

L-

< >-..._ ~

..

Since the adverb ot? L, <, cannot be negatived, the negative is incorporated ~ ~ the verb form A.. ~ ",' 1J'0 negative of A.. ~ ,,' L, •

r,

c. j[_

-ea~ ~ 1/f"4}-~~ ~. (1t)~::t.±.1;f- ) = .!k u <~ . ~ I-::fH # r ",'IJ'i;; t~
1~
tlk
V'

..t-?

~~

1$lJ ,,~tl <- ~ -:, r-:.. l.J •

«: ..

Things had better things around.

be according

to the old system;

you should not change

can also stand as an independent verb,

e.g.:

d.

:K

t, = X r~~ 1J'1j:.
is a descriptive

v''·

31
How natural! verb meaning "it is natural." For
i:>\~

see below,

page 35, section 4. 9. Expressions meaning "easy to do," "difficult to do," "adequate for," require some

ingenuity in Japanese.

The young age easily, but learning Japanese makes compound adjectives

is difficult to acquire. ~

by tacking the adjectives

tu

"easy" and

»<t: t>

"difficult"

onto the continuative forms of

_x, ~
01'7;

;"

iX

and~:
/.C

~.
1:-

b. ~

,....:; j.: J.. .E. ~ • ')L

(iz. .~

J::..) == Jt

~

t')

ic:

:0"

t~
J,:

A -Z.£.. 1z. ~

1t_ ~ •

As for this heart,

it is sufficient whereby to be a king.

.... ,~x_ ~
C.

f.:

here means to "be adequate for."

1m -A..~!

,):

if x..!¥-. Ot·):~)=1mI-j-j__">~!~J~:
to grips
k

ltlv

"'-''''-Iv"l.t

lfl:

vzJL~t:
form of

1:.

The sword comes learning. In Example a verb. 10.

with (only) one man (at a time); it is not worth

c .... Ir-1L~ means "to be worth."

v:. JL3

k

follows the attributive

f-

indicating preference. [Type Ia]

Japanese

form:

-to v-? ... =~
,j\.."

+

potential or imperative verb

form.

a.

;f:f~.:Jt.-~-e .f1Jt. (~'1\_1Jf)
Rites should be frugal rather

'l

1;t~

0)*
1:;:,"'

~fv,ty

(1", ?~1;r1i'L.
of
_,-;

UI-

.tA.

than over lavish.

t 01v is
~

-;";.

here a verbal noun.

J: f) l;;i.
['-1/

is the rendering
It""

:ill.. »<;
:,"

b.'~~! '0, tJ~4-1t.. (5t.lt-~)=#
t;r

~ $it 'CJ ~~

1

1.<

~

~il,

t1.t t.

~

~ (_::;~) ~ 1J'1j't.
Become a fowl's mouth if you like, but do not become an ox's backside.

l: v-7

seems to have originally meant "if anything," "if you have to choose."

32
VII. Emphasis. 1. Emphasizing a part of a sentence. may be emphasized in Chinese
it from

A part of a sentence, usually the topic or supplement, by putting the main

it at or near the beginning of the sentence, sentence structure.
It may

and often separating

also

be emphasized

by following it with an

emphatic particle.
i.

Emphasis

by taking a part of the sentence

out of the main sentence
\.0

structure.

a. fG

J- ~

~f-e

0

= JL 3- It 1t_;11._* IJ'"

~?

v

:.1I\..n

~f -r~ ~

b.

15*~
~"~

Confucius is my teacher.

z_:f ~ ,Jf(;'!JH; z.:;fJ!_ ~. (•.
~ Ht.

~1==-) = -t

"',-=.l/......

it

t~ (:.Z

It''Iv

:::.1f1...

...... Jit ..

)~ ~

(;i:, ~

"~l1

-='~ ~ Jf~'
,,I:

-:>"~(t.

..t;r

~. sayings was that they

The reason why in ancient times people did not utter were ashamed of not living up to them.

c. tt. .z:.__ tl .K 3t_~

(.l-.. •

n- -r )= tlt *'-- E.
z: l:.~

0<1'- r-"~C"t

Z:_

KU L ~W ,3, •
~J.

.!,'.

~

This is what is called a real man.
d.

4t-.z__~~.(~·r!Jit)=1t-f
It is to abandon virtue.

><1\.

1

(~)~"7~

In Example ~, the Japanese emphasized

reading treats

the Chinese as though the topic were structure, where it is represented
b, c, and d treat

by taking it out of the sentence The Japanese readings

by the pronoun ~. supplement

of Examples

the

in the same way.

There::Z_ is treated
It and

as the appropriate

pronoun.

Notice that the Japanese

indicators

~ follow the actual topic of suppleo>ll.

ment and that the pronoun has no such indicator even be omitted altogether, the Japanese treating

attached to it. indicator

The :Z_ may analogous to

it as a kind of status .::1: or

~ or, more accurately,
~tc

1." .1

1. It would also be possible to take .:2::.. in Examples band d as a genitive indicator, the following verbs being intransitive (or passive) verbal nouns. The Japanese reading would then be:
""'-:'v"

b. d.

-b

[-J:
(1)

f;

lfA.. 0)

It.. -z.. <!" ~ ? t:J: I) • /

(;t (F or ac t ive f orm with passive

;ff-

i? ~

"'7

meaning see page 25 ,i ) .

It may be significant

that the Japanese

have not usually taken it this way.

33 ii. Emphasizing a part of a sentence by following it with an emphatic particle.
>.H
0

~%
a. ;;~~~

~ let.."''t:.~

~ It) "-- t V\/~' 1>
;O'~; t.L1:.

(7)

(l;;t)

r ~A-t::.

(Jt..):.JJ.)

= ~~
""
t

II f;i:fj
.~Iv

(7)A- ~ J
9.

0

Hsiang Chi was a man of Hsia-hsiang.
b.

Jt..q ~E_J;f -t!:,.
"Second Father"

3

C~· J:'$J)
",,,Iv

= ift_)c UJ. <..,'"

3E

-:>rt-

J;-W ~

>t.";

was Fan Tseng.

c.

t~

fiJ ~ (~~.#i--t£. ) =~
0

leI ~ ",,~,AW if '1.

to:> I:>

There was one called Yen Hui. The Japanese rendering of % varies to fit the context (see also page expressions 2, sec-

tion 3, i; and page 11, 3, ii).

In some temporal

with which ~

is found regularly, it is regarded as forming a compound.

It is then not regarded

as emphatic and is not read at all, as in the following example:
d.

r~ft:_*irf~.
r~ -

('R._. ~)

=1'~, 11; -z.. ~

II

,l

VI

*~trt-\!::.r: ..
.., "

l..~'

Now I have gone out without taking my leave.

e. ):eJ ~)

YJ..1f:p

t .(~: ..;~f_) ~
0'

<-oj?... =

~J;

§ ~, -

tf,fj

~

t? v-

Z

J.•A_ :

"{

-r i ~ ~.
1.".1·

v

That Hui, he heard one thing and thereby knew ten. the beginning, he knew the whole.]
f.

[As soon as he heard

4'- ~

J,IJ 1:.. C~·j!.

~)

=1'-~ ~ IJ -i? t
--::Z__. __ i:!:.-

a

;6:l~

11: i. •

Now, of course, F or ~ 2. Emphasizing

he is no more. see page 70, section 1, iii.

in the construction a statement.

Chinese gives emphasis to sentences are used very freely.

by ending them with emphatic particles.

These

In the Analects

and Mencius, for example, their use vividly Although Japanese too is rich in such of classical

conveys the effect of animated conversation. emphatic particles, Chinese.

they are not made use of in the standard
Po.

renderings

The Chinese final particles

-e, and *. are normally not read at all; and
read
11)

iff] (3

,6

,etc.

are all mechanically

iJf-.

The result is often a very pale

reflection

of the Chinese.

34

This

is a final emphatic particle emphasizes read,

- not a copula.

(See page

2, section 3, ii).
It is not

It normally

a statement

of what is (or is not) the case.

necessarily

but Japanese

often uses an emphatic construction--attributive

verb form + ~ 'J

in an attempt to convey its emphatic connotation.

a.

J;)..
,;.(

M_

r?7~
'/.'>

tJ JJ~~,
It,

4):- 1~)JJt'f!::.,. 7J T #t
vlv,J~,

~

0

(;1a_ • ~ 1::::...) = 1] ~ yJ. -z: A

1jt>'~

~

?

~I:.

s:

I \J"

~a. ~ t K;fr

1;'7

~ ",g ~ ~. tJ

~"'~

J1t S z" ~ ~
-C:" ~I:.

1<.

J.

Making people submit by force is not making them submit with their hearts! Force is not enough!
b.

:f ~!lJv'~

j__

i!!... (1;.. • ~ J::_) = T 1;1: t~'K

L-

:i'.I:.

tf /; -r~ ~ •
jJi)t-

You really

are a man of Ch'i!

c. 'r!i.~lft_e.11

;f§±t_~

0

(~·~a)

= )/lE;#HtLvo 1ffJ

~~

;0'

%:';-tA

h'"

loll.

;:t:ij1!_ v.

When common people study the way, they are easy to handle! Not specifically read.
o

a. Jf__1..:J }L);A_£
This spirit b.

*- . (jz_ . *-_l::_)

O'?
(7)

-t"

= Jf__

I\;~

yZ

-z

<1>"

::£. h? ,-;::
~"l/2.

JL~.
kf ~~:i lJ""( -R-tt:"l4Jf7.V.
""Iv

1<-

is sufficient for one to be a king!
e

l' B #J ~ . t JljJ ~-k
I'm tired today!
''''I:.''

*

(jL . ~ L.)

0'" "~?

-i«>

=~

a~

11\_ k

9 • t rE ~ Jij]
to grow!

I have been helping the seedlings

C.

~:R_rm $, ~i!+~A..+.ft:..~.
~it :b ~
..,11'-."

(;t_.~.1::.) =!l ij:R_ t

ilt-:!'c'

b',.._'}",

$ v<.

."."'''

-<tk. LIo.-

1;;1:', It-~;(_c_

-tt

-If'

Iv •

If on personal

reflection I seemed upright, against me, I would go ahead!

even if thousands of people were

All these related final emphatic particles

are rendered

in Japanese

as

t7)~

"only.'

Jf

is equivalent

to

-?if] G .

&T)

Jf

is preceded

by an attributive

form.

1. Also read

1'J: {l

o- 0(;;1;"

with the same meaning.

35
, I;I:"-;!-Iv

a.

pt;c-t- :Lt.t Jf .
ffT

(3t_. ~)

=

M::.~ t:.~
'*J::)
<'iII-

tt "
Jt."<.

?j-.
l:-'? '-

This is simply a continuation
b. .£_ ~

of the late Ch' in!
.0'1
h'l'-

MX ~ ~ E. CA
tl'1v

=L

C7J}(_

V'

K%X t ~ rf[

11 ~

~ ~ A:,'J

1I)1j-.

One can tell what it is that your Majesty wants so much! c.

5~

~-W-Jf . ts.. 5~) = ~J__ I~*
G. (~'~mJ)

~ 1/ ~

f

J
c"

t7)

ij.

Han is easy to make an alliance with, sure enough!
fr..~

d.

PI~~ 1r}~~

=I~

~-J,r} t.~

tf,3, r-;

~

t') Jf

0

One can certainly 3. Emphasizing Such words parts

say that he loves learning! between statements and!j or parts of a statement. or

the relationship as

~JJ ,t!,p ,

when used between two Chinese statements

of a statement rather

(e.g., between topic and comment) appear to emphasize in the usual sense.

the re-

lationship

than to act as conjunctions

(See also page 66,

section 2, ii). formly,

Despite their different shades of meaning in Chinese, they are all uniunfortunately rendered in Japanese
b;1f> '1i.la
'J,J;

and somewhat

as
::.;

ttcl;!:, 13

which once

meant "thereupon,"

"at that moment."
jot ~;

a.

.g ~-5rJ3 :g,ja~.

(~.~5F..EL)=

f; ~ (7)'*"/3 ~
; 1~1~ <:"""

~io
~-J.., r?) ,

fj-

9.
LU.

The daughter of Duke LU was none other than the Empress

b. itt.J M'J J:.__A-..:Z...
c.
.3i- /~ ~11::st:.. /.~
l:7;;)3J ~

rr~. (~. t;" -r) = Jlt k\_JflJ ~-I-A.__
ol? ~;

~;;.

1';[~.

This was actually my fault.

r

/p

~ :81. ( ~. ~~ ) =.3i- IJ~' ~3J l:7

1tl(t

l-t.

,b

~p -i; .:it:- 1A":tg
.t:~

~J.!;.

td

/p

1;;rV.

Your old man is at the same time my old man. 4. Exclamations. Many forms of Chinese statements may be exclamations if spoken as such. A statelike

ment can also be made explicitly exclamatory

by the use of exclamatory particles force.

~' , K ,
particles tory particle

and

:sf.

These may also have interrogative
in Japanese

These exclamatory

are represented

by the Japanese

equivalent

~'1i , an exclama(1::f t

which in the classical

language followed a noun form this must be in the verbal

).Where
form.

it follows a verb or adjective

Of1~ ),

(attributive)

36
i. Very many Chinese exclamations

emphasize

an identity comment.

Example h on To emphasize

page 35, section 2, ii above emphasizes the comment the order is reversed, tory particle.

the topic of an identity.

and the comment is followed by an exclamav r-;
1j:?J q.1';;:
I

a..:k3f) I'i -jj:_::Z_

tW ~ ~ ~.

(ji."* J::_)

=".1r

E~

~<.

<'"

",,,,-

C?;f\' ~

~ ~

If') ~

!:.

":lB ,3,. v 11
That the hundred families
",,"~

How natural!
b.

should call me stingy.
11"1 ~

;K_%;t :t,_:Z__~$~.
above).

(~'~1E)

=A
(~

13:7;) b'1J:;
~_j

How great was Yao as a ruler!

Cf.

A A_
'"

0$

~'"

t~{J"f.
,

page 9, section 7, i,

c.

'ht t>t

¥'-;J'- ± -t]t ~

• (~

tit e )= -.
J;

-11'1'<.

J

1J'~:}1'p) tJt_ l:: ,t_1I'Lt-v:;
world! ~•
'J - :: C

1.

.t

l.1!P.t1'

~.

How difficult it is to get through this present
d.

-t- t ,~'. (.Ji. *--r ) = $- J tr- t;r ,2J,,~ tS
t.

That's

a good one; that question. are in this form. particle.
<..r>fv

ii. Not all Chinese exclamations

A straightforward

statement

may

be followed by an exclamatory tributive (verbal noun) form. ,) \ ~'. (~

As usual tf'tJ: is preceded
1,'1>1
J

by an at-

a.

lf it z_~'

.;\j]:j )

='lf1f ~ ~')J'

<7

t,;: 91J'~.

How small was Kuan Chung's capacity! Notice also the following:
'i"'~ ~

b. %-EJ.~j::_. iii.

( ••

}-~)

=~G

Iv~~:b'~.

I give up! form. (Cf. English "How terrible l")

An exclamation

may be in interrogative

Common forms -.1are

1PJ

----t!:,.
k.:;T

-

-1r"J

----eo
-----e,.
means

=fPJ

't...----~
,,~1f-J,.;

=-

v:;:
• Sv

P;y Jt"

~o

;t_~
1{J.

M ~-----e.=1?J
I-vYz"

>t'.----~ • 'I"'-J~ Jt .. :Jt:1/{_-----'t. "why?", "how?". The final particle

=}t_1K.~

~

is read ~ usage.

mechanically

although this preceded
1. Also read

does not appear

to have been Japanese

Here, too, "\" is

ii

by an attributive
{l:

v>

tJ'

(verbal noun) form required ~ 2. Also read ~ 1;1' g: .
l;;

by 1;J:. fv>z.."

.

37

a. 1'1 ;t--z.~*~

.(~·11::t )=1'1

"fS.1v

1,t,

s-o>
~C7)~~ ~~.

It''h,~,;:.

How deeply you are considering!
b.

f;(
-

w~J Jito .'...., *~
,~ ~ >t'
z;

MJl:l:. ~ • (51:..

#±- t;;:: 7;J Y.

t-Jr ifsJj) = iM "f $' ~-z ~
'71v ~

v:<.

E -t'j < .

~

You drew your sword and carved the meat.

Weren't
't
0.1:.

you brave!
b'q,

c.

Jt: fliT

5LA z.. jz ~

. (5t_.

~~) =

JL~ 1i>J -t" ft A-.'"
"1:".It ,,~ i!.

c

~w

~,!

~•

How numerous
d.

are the men of Ch'u !

M~

tJ-~.

(tt-~,t . ~~)
you are!

=~

~. .:Jt 1K.. -t~J!t_~~

0

How mistaken iv. The Chinese all uniformly

exclamations rendered as

):7;t, ~,~ "t ,"fo... , 'pJ:_ -oJ ,pt· "::f , 'Pt-. , ~_ ,
ih h in Japanese.
- surprise,
~1)
lr." \..-

etc. are

Since these Chinese exclamations admiration,
1:.4.
1~>!J-

cover a wide range of expression on - the Japanese rendering

disgust,
1:

grief, and so

loses a good deal of the feeling of the Chinese.
=)1~! ~

a.

11~

f:_- +-:;f

)[_~tt.

(5t.~~)

j-1J¢-rz_ ~

~

t~

i_
"'*-

;r:
<t~(t"
0

Faugh!
b.

pt· *-*- T, ;R.*- t. (~·;r,i!J= -ot-,:K t:&* ~ ~,~ 1" ~ ~ ~ ~
'tl.-

A poltroon is not worth discussing matters f.../"'''''''- 1iJ.?t:;"

"fJ

with.

Ah woe is me! c.

Heaven has destroyed

me!

Heaven has destroyed
~ a5
9'l:lt

me!
~J....11·;

):!,~1"-1- ~ ~J~ J_._ f-m ;f~;J5(_ t(Mir·
v

V-.

-kP

IJ'

-rt.

Alas! Fang!
d.

Can one possibly imagine that the T' ai Mountain is not as good as Lin
~ ;;, .,."", ~ 7,3.:' ~~ ,,-

t' '"~
'/,'1,

I"-.fif

)=

~~)1t_

t

?.!J4 let :r~~

k";!A,

tJ '.

'Oft. t «<».t-l<tJ;Jt

~.

()t.;tj

;j:JL)

= \7j_r, ;K.5t;t_Jt 17.J1:L < '?

Ah! This is what a great man must be like! VIII. Commands and Requests. 1. Imperatives.
i.

No specific
f'l.lt
t,.,

indication in Chinese.
.J:/'-

Japanese
b'o~

form:
J: ').I:~

Imperative
J)

form.

a. 4'1';fj ~~7J JlIJ ).'A~

11 JJ ? )..)., j(_z -z.
If after

~

t~

;C. <,

(#It

'l~iiiJ)

=

ft v. '( 1t)J1q

';[1:"

acting you have any energy left, then use it to study literature.

38
b. ~
.:£_

11 ~ .::t.. • (:It. ~ ) = $ £.. 1'1
-?,3~~

<-Iv

"'7 »?1.>' ~

;*''11; .z__ ~ ~ it: .
.v? J;)__ 1:
,;,1t.

Your Majesty, do this yourself! c.

-R.1-A"'J-i. Ul .~)

=* v::. -=t: t.!.
l".t::

-:H" J:

d.

~rt-o ut°t-)=);,t lt1h_.
rK

Reply in detail by letter.

Surrender ii. Prohibitions.

immediately. Japanese form: - - - attributive apart verb form + (::. C.)
~

bl!'L
in

As in commands, Chinese. it but

no special

indication

from the sense

is required

Most negative indicators

can imply a prohibition

if the sense demands means "Let there not -ing," taking the

-4J-

and 17;] almost always have this meaning.

'1J:.o/1l

be" and the Japanese form is literally Chinese negative as a main verb.

"Let there not be a ----

a. 5
"'''-

Hr /f%j(~~¥!,"-.
1'-

(~.~;~)

J__

~e11l) :b'-1K..
-o/J

,:r.b·'~

~

= G ",%X

~

11.,

-It" ,!'¢

rfrl~

t:=?

That which you do not like yourself,
b.

iJ!L ~I]
1~1:'''t1''

'f -f ~5c. (~. 'f_f?iii ) = ii!L ? 1: l"J;J!IJ
1i(

.,.p

do not do it to others .
Ml
ffl;l;I;

iIi;;k.

? zX,_ V ~ K

11"-'- ~ .:: t. tJ
-;t;lt-

a> KL.

Having made a mistake,
C.

do not be afraid to correct
1>'t7)~ t-

it.
4>")
t-<b

s:f

3(t:J

G

1r . C.· ~ M)= G
il.1 If''iV
~

1-:.

-ta: ;/J'.r~~ ~ j(

t-

f~ (-=
d.

%;

L)ilj-Q'~. of those who are not as good as yourself.
(::t:)-iJJ-~'t}'L.

Do not make friends

-tJt-~f;.

(~·:J'l)=*-f;r~

Do not speak wildly. 2. Requests. i. "I should like to do something" and "I should like you to do something" are expressed in the same form in Chinese. In the latter case Chinese usually makes unless this is

the sense clear by including a reference already quite clear. Japanese

to the person requested,

distinguishes

the two by using a poten tial form

39 for the verb expressing what one would like to do, but an imperative form for the verb expressing what one would like someone else to do (d. English, "Please in! "). ii. "I should like to come

"

Japanese

form: --- potential verb form.

Japanese
~.il'~ "'-' :.

form: potential verb form.

,5'
01>..0"

a. .Jr~j}d

,1E. (~ 'ItJih) =~

It <.

tit

+ ;fEl t}}
<!:7!Ao:;
>.I:

., 0.
oo">~'v ~

I should like to become an assistant
b.

master
,ja ,,~.

of ceremonies.
v

~J

f,(j :;- ±__ i~~ . (~.
~, ~
Il~

~ )~-f_ ) =}f~

It

< !~ f ~ 15,
,Q.I)'-

"&.

))fl

iJ'

A.-.
!I;

I should like to hear your ambition. c. ~~

~ 17.~

-!- .~, ~ ~.
"11k

-t;.'J....

(¥1ft. ~ )t:;*-) =~~

l-t < l~"* 11-

+X ~ .; C. ~

Il"

<

~.:

t~

-b'01v.

I should like not to boast of goodness nor to boast of my works.
~

d.

i1!1

-fJJr ~~. (~.~~~
J.-

A

_

~

)= pfl

,s,$=fr ~ ~

0

c"

E:

I should like to put these words into practice. iii. "Please

*
o.

t 1t: ""--.

"

"I should like you to Japanese form:

"

imperative ~~ .......... (. ,3,
olo. b'"

form. form.

-----10':'" to;

a.&~ ;K.£.t-~il__.(3t._'_,;~.J=~~
I beg your Majesty to cross
b.

1;J:(I;t

A£.Jt~.;

,..3·

imperative

quickly.
-Ia II'"

.Jf~~

f~ ~t<..
:z_. (1i.,

(~~~)=~JlI~

<.)1;

~,-z..~~ tt
<;'J...., :.11\.

~-:.5Jt~.

if,

I't.

vot>< 't"

4t:..t.

I beg the General to consider c . .£.

t~~

*

L.)

on; ~ ""'_£~.3,:2:__

this thoroughly.

e_;t_ 1M-.
of

'''to'

Your Majesty, please In example c.£. construction

weigh this matter.

is not the "subject"

tt , but a sort

of vocative.

This

is common.

40 iv,

~f"'--' Japanese
*- Iv

form:

attributive

(verbal

noun) form + ~:Z.. Iv "I would like to ---."

This is a

polite form of request is the potential

meaning "May I ---?", form of

:7 = "to get" and the Japanese construction
'1'"
v'

is literally a.

"Would that I might get a - - - - - ing. "
ol"01'- ~J/I-

%-q1J- x.... ~. (1t.~ ) =%- ±- (,::~.

r~~ A.-. Pt
J..

I should like to serve him as an elder brother.
b.

~l.Jt.f.:Z__. (~.~, ~ A)

,.0/'-

=

:Z__

v.:~-f
VNV'

t ~ 1-+ Iv. ~
V\

:I:.

I should like to serve him with my life. Japanese form:
-7' <,

v::

o> (V\-?"<.

tv~,,)

____ ~ *-- l
The Japanese form is literally

potential form.

"Would that I might somehow get (someone) to (do

something)" (Example a), or "Would that I might somehow get (something) to (do something with) (Example b). do something" The former requires the verb in the position of "to
~

a.

*14v J?:S:J

to be in a potential

causative form.

fAi_ -± /,'q Tl91j. (~. ~ ;FA)
:''6

3J~.!f- ~ Gil)

1~1

=*
.t:lvl,:'/,_

--","

'i,;

>:..

< v.: o> ~

± 1!. ~

"(

Iv.
to defend on all sides.

I should like to get brave soldiers
b.

*1+.Jl-t-~ fJJ,
)jL
1J-J.,_

Jk -:t: ~;;t

Hr ;fi.-f{;z) v"",:,
7A

1Jf!. ~-: t;::~ -e: Iv.

lo-t,

=*

jeftt<
!~

=J(

-r:jk -l-~ ~7Jj_.
p' "-N

(:t±m'·¥ JJ_1j
>:..
;J;·IJ:.

t;z
cry

"'~..

<-.p .....

#,"t-"

b'>l-J[_ -t$" rl3, ~ 1~ -r_ _ K"

~""

't.J.- lb'

KA"""F

Would that I could get a vast house with thousands of rooms to provide a great shelter for the wayfarer s of the world and enj oy each other's happy faces. Japanese form: ~ IvJt" (= why) negative form. preserves the Chinese form and

attributive ~ is equivalent to.fPJ

-:f:.

The Japanese

puts the request interrogative a.

in the form of a suggestion requires an attributive
lielv

"Why don't you

"

The

~ Iv f."

verb form.

M-;f~

'f1:~.

(.?If=i . ~?fr~G)-~

>to'

~Jl-

vo <-......

<- .;

f:;_ ~

It ~"~.

Why don't you eat some meat hash!

41
b.

-1q -;f-

¥ ~. ct.tk· &.~ ) = ~
J$J~. (~.

~Jv

'"l'~

V"

~"

-fz ~
;1;'''0",

lj;;

J'~.
~ "~3"·V

Why don't you speak quickly! c.

f£.~~

~*-k)=~tr."1r~ ~
v ~Iv

"f$.1v

~*",,/t--E.
(--/I)

is.,,,1j"

\00

~
~

I;C.T"~

Why don't you each state your ambitions!
d.

-r$_~ t'x; ~~.

~.

r)

=:f Jh_ Jt."-+X>-:'~

oj?

,..,f\.

v.:

z_ ~ t; ~\!.~.

Why don't you state this for me. IX. Questions. 1. Questions requiring Although almost an inquiring tone, an answer "Yes" or "No." can require an answer, "Yes" or "No" if spoken in sort is

any statement

Chinese normally makes it clear that an answer of this particles.1

required by the use of final interrogative ticles are

t
by:t..

,*

The common interrogative

par-

(also writteni#-

),

Jf~

(also written

1»)

and

-e,.

When

f

is in

preceded classical

, the combination

is often written with the single character

it

Chinese. Japanese:
iJ'

preceded

by attributive

form.

Are ceremonies
b.

subordinate?

Q-e, -tt" ;;)..-tA, lffflJ~' ~~~. ~~-S" .t ",.. 1;,1. =11\. -;z-- L-j; t ~ '( ~ ,if ~""(~ ~. 1:,z _.z_
J~ v~

(~·rtj:t

i-

A)

= ~~ {'I

-r!

~.,

(j;

t~

t IJ~
it?

Ts'u! c.

*'

Do you think that I study much and [just] remember
'.i:k1';" ot7

:l'r-%-l;)..__t.

"L--I..."oj

(3t_._J;~)=%t

I~%-ir,'

&tZ..v:

"r-S·-!l

»>;

Are you not an old acquaintance

of mine? by final form.2 require a final form before of Chinese.

Japanese: >(" preceded Although the rules of classical form Japanese grammar

>f

,an

attributive

will sometimes

be found in translations

1. Although used as interrogative particles their use is not limited to questions. (Compare page 32, 1; page 35, 4). They seem to be something like the English, "Huh?" or "Eh?" Some interrogative tone of voice was probably required to make it clear that an answer was expected. 2. ~ may occasionally be found read as 7.7' and be preceded by an attributive form.

42
In particular, adjectival attributive Thus forms
, 1'~~ ~

are
, ----

generally <: ~ ~
=

used in preference ,etc.

to

final forms before ~. ferred to form
1:.:IJ' ~

t~0' ~~

are generally pre-

,ij:l:'(,

~"",v""f ,etc.

The verb

t
1:.

"to do" takes the attributive

t Q "f

in preference

to the final form

t'\'.
....? tt"

a.

+ 5k 1'1:1~ + -tit PI l:f:oe.. ( ~
Are you not

•~ jft.. ) = f- *- r.,,~,~, )r:r-tlt
v ?'t;
11:,,-1;"

~~
p

v

1'(' ~ ~

J

C. •

Tzu Chang asked, "Can one know anything about ten dynasties
b.

/~4f t~ ~ ~P. (~. t~t1)

Yu

=~

lj;

tl tf_v:: ~f -r~
.t
l;l(o; i1>';

ahead?"

Jang?
vlv v~

c.

1:::.-t JtLf,:Z_ B:J:f;Jr 1~~) ktt_=z_~.
i_
->IL

(~·tffi-~)=1;::_~

v:

%w-z -#- v~ 1==-1§

--

Ie"

-r--t. 1?

~

~~"-"

l~

I)

t.

B ,~, L

fit.t

,Jt.~::t. I::.t:t_ A-k.
I~

't

;"'-

1.-1<.111'"

Would a benevolent man, even if he were told that there was a man in the well, go down after him? 1 Japanese:.::.1/t_ attributive form .
~ ~ ~.J ;11\- I>

1J'

or: .: 1ft.. - final form - ~

a.

f- B t ~.T ~ }- JB--t-i A. 1.
v ? :;k
..

1:t
J

'E1

;;jf :z:_.
,,,,_ ~

(~

• 12K M ) =

T

'e

I~

< , r~

G.

B lt

< r::z_;Jf

I)...! 1::.. for] it?" Tzu Lu answered, "There

The master said, "Is there [a precedent is."

Is there anything in the way of a Single saying which would ruin a country? This section refers to ~

t%

in the final position.

~

may also be found

as a fusion word in other positions where it may stand for probably ;f.:.
';0.._

*- +

a preposition,

or

-:t .

iv. The interrogative

particle

may be attached to a statement

which already ends cannot

with one or more emphatic particles. as a rule be rendered a.

In such cases the emphatic particles

at all in Japanese.
Ij::i..~-.,./:'

~~~--~~--~~1. I have followed the
2. r~
~~
J

--k: q~ )__~ Jf -t . (t:ii'r=· ~ ~ ) = -e: )..__ ~
usual interpretation also read (1"

,is

rtp

~* t

1+
to

(;:{j -b~

Have you got [good] men?

t.lt.

and taken 1~ as equivalent to J__ • with the same meaning.

43

b. ~ t ti:J

-;y 1~1Jtjft_-ei#. (~·tit ~ ) = 1'f tEl
a choice of alternatives. as separate questions.

"?'9'-;

"'j

;'??o·C_

vr._1I<'

Ij: jfP:_r-1.:t..1i:

L-l; ,,".!

b'.

Should one let Chung Yu take part 2. Questions requiring

in government?

i. Alternatives

presented

The second question may be intro) or:;Jr:. "or again,"

duced by a word (Japanese:

such as.¥f

"or,"

(Japanese:~t.Jt.=6

.i t: ).
(jz_.

a.

~9:..Ui, ~ f--.
Shall I tear For~.t

*

r ) tt =

~1f'I,..

;.

I'"

'("
1:. h..-j)\ f..,
6>')

& ~~

Iv '0'.

it down or shall I leave it? 1, iii, above.
~o\'\,j,t.,

, see page 42, section

b.

-t<':!L~;#f~
:Z:_ ~
bO~

:t1#.!:-. (~.
,1E ~
"" f)

~rn )=z.. ~ *.51)
1.,," .. :~ IH~.tf<.",;

L,

-6',

;;fIf.u

Jl..,t>t;......

1.>h

:;t_ ~~"

L-tJ-:

Did he ask for it or did they give it to him?

1'f 1- fiT Jl;
!;...;~

1~':;-;b'\'~

1!

{)

rfr t. (~,1E~"

:t_ ,1;~'"

rry- ~

-* ¥P ilr,A. ltP =t.. try- *-1#. (:tt. . ~ r )= ~.! v 1tr h\:fCP iIF51 i?fJ ~ W: ~ v7f{" b'.
<~
?!,," .. ;~

i;

Was the house where bandit like Chih? d.

Chung-tzu

lives built by a Po I, or was it built by a

~,1j Jt.~/ % J-~

$

+ ~t t:ilb".1
jj:

f, ~li.~ f.

(tifF· JtJ!:)

=~,';Jt

; i:

",<.:.,j1..

~YJ!.~ Lt."
man; or is

<.;0,.-

h';

If a man combines

debating skill and sincerity, is he a superior he only one who puts on an impressive appearance?

ii. ~

'/f

,..--....~ , .......... ~
~ ~ ;{±:

"--(j:_.

a. ~

/f.

*-1~') = /'tl., "t •%i'j-

or not."

Japanese:
II?

final form

iJ'"

1; 1t:J i:E ') \""

1/1-:

~I: J)

'f
V11;r ~

V'

1'J:'~

The king of ChIin wants to exchange fifteen towns for my jewel. it to him or not?

Should I give
"~

c. ~
d.

Jtt J'J fiO I~'$. (~. ~J::.) =)t <.. <?) -c: <. J..., It." ~IJ 1j J\.J""'
would it perturb
J:.
"?

>Ii'

~"c.

f'kl;l

~~~ ~

1';1] b'~
......11t

;'0"

Iv~~~.

If such were to become the case,

ire. ~ -;ff-

j¥t. (13% ¥j.

'f17'~J -r1t.)= ~t-,-;}:f ~~

~... r~.O..."",

your mind or not?

tr~,~ ~.

Can you drink a cup or not?
1. This is one of several

interpretations.

44
3. Interrogative words. -- Who? Where? When? etc. interrogative words and their Japanese

i. The following are equivalents.

the commonly used

(occasionally

f-:.. ~

)

Which? Who? (of two or more)

tit. =
M,~

f-:.
=
=

*-t~

Who? r.: What? How? Like what?

-M
--5r:tl

-9:tJ

VI -1;'

A.V>

1PJ/ ~ = if' Iv ~ fv 1PJ );).. = -f;r ,-: ~:b?-C
111 A
=

How to do it? How? Why? Why? By what means? Why?

-rJ: Iv

t~ " ¥t.
=
VI

1VJ
1i1 ~~

,*,~-)~
I

~fj

=

1'J: Iv -{ "
-::>"<,

Where? How many --? How much? When? How many?

=VI,..--....
vJ

~l¥J =

<'l-;t:"<.

ii. Japanese interrogative cle :6'\. particle

words are frequently

followed by the interrogative
Ie

parti-

Where they are followed by the indicators
V\ follows the indicator.

or ~

, the interrogative

E.g.

#J"k.

o> .

Classical Japanese grammar after the particles such as ~ It.- 1/1.. >t"

requires

an attributive
1'~ A., ,

verb or adjective form

(1l~JjJ ,
V> .. i'< :

t~ ) Jt.",
Iv:t:·,
,etc.

i> , and o> and their compounds

r
~;

Strictly speaking, the same rule is ex-

tended to any interrogative
E.g.

pronoun or adjective. Which are more numerous? What do you use? Why did you become my prisoner? is an interrogative as in English. word, the normal

t't JK~';
1iJ ~
t;,:1<

V"_,~.

J/'1

-! •
,3,~.

Q'

fj9

M~ 1,":1'\' 17"'-111 t ~it~
In classical verb--supplement order

Chinese, when the supplement is usually reversed,

45 4. Which, who, what? i."t1L

= which?

Japanese:

I/l-?",(L t.....

(v,).
v ~
"'7"

Occasionally
-11'-<':'
II)

fd't (
".l:

z» ).

a.

ffi f-l/LA*t'¥. (~.
Of the disciples,

"ji ~)=

#5 ~

~1Kv'\'t
...,t1'

k·i<1-1:t t~

t.
t, f,l~
1)~

which do you consider

to be most fond of studying?

b.

f, ~1LfiJ100' -f-~~
Jt ,3 , ~ ~
;K ~
I)

Of the various ways of rendering

t.~

t.

K. (.!z_ • ~tt J::.. )
service

= • ,3,g ta

lJL
\0'"

7"

q\. ~

* «); ~~ t~
ie""",

I consider
C.

rendering

service, which do you consider the greatest? to one's parents to be the greatest.
*,Iv(," ..(,0......
V"?"

~.J}~ liJ

~flL1!=:. (~- ~ >~R)=*~ liJ ~ ~~rjL~;(1"~
"'-'" (....1:<,

J..J

1/L~.

Of you and Hui, which is superior?

d.

it-l:_ ~

't ~ 1:. ~ -~'-f')

=}ff:

t_ ~

s. 'tJL ~

~~"

1J -,

Y ~.

;F,'",

Which is more important,

the proprieties

or eating?

Of Shih and Shang, which is superior?
H

iJ ~

The perfect ii.

forms

~,yl

and ~ or

U1-~

indicate

state

rather

than tense.

rJL

,when followed by the verbs ~ Japanese

1&

is rendered,

- - - If-:

Vl --;>" ~

Jt" (~)

.

This produces some strange ing of the Chinese structure.

which seems hard to justify as a render-

a. ~t.t.f7L*~ftL;)2x_
Which is better,

_Cst- ~ ~S(

~r~ it~)

=i: < R,3,

11:~1'<'

t>''t_

f <..

...

-e"

l~

n,t,<. ;j{X:$'I7_tll.AL~':

to save early or to save late?

Which is the greater, c.

Han or I?
.~ <t"?,,,;

fJLiJ!:. $~---k. (Jt.. ~~ ) = ~ ~:Z:..~~-ftJt.~~£..

'J

~-J:~:: 1It >t ", fJL
,;

w-e"

Is he older or younger than you?
d.

(~.J,f~)=

~

'?Jf#f' 1! Jt!L~v::-t--£.(r:1Jt.Rt.Jt'~

~

l.t-;

<'h,

""

v!..

>/0;

... ,,"

As you see General Lien, how does he compare with the King of Ch' in?

46

e.~

1>

A 1f~

Jt

%0(,j r}L$-~, ~~ ~0Jt:.1tJ~lt·J!
;,.,!>

J(.., ~

~

tft~ ~Jf )== ~ "-' f.J l:::fi1~
If.fJ/'-

t.

J."

?"

-1f01vJ:')I;t~CI)1t.1~~t_~,n-::.tJt*-Yc".
face, or not to be reviled
f. ~

Which is better;
Jt

to be praised
~

to one's

behind one's back?

;_ ? r- fll ~ t
In Examples

~It'-';

f\.t~:1t_ 'if: rJL1ff l ~. ~f:-t.~ (~P
.... .. ?

lk.~ 1~ ) =.:Jt Jt
d)

d)

11 f t~rj

"t"..:!>

I) 1;1:

Xl{:,
to kill this serf or to sell him?

Which is better;

e and

t,~
l(~

is treated as a preposition
~

and represented necessary

by

ot ') 1.:1:

(Cf. page 31, section in Japanese.
iii.

example a).

is neither

nor appropriate

The reading ~ f!) is mechanical. Japanese:
v L~

~it
a.

= Who?

k 1/1-.
1',~. *-

f-~ ~it. (MIff ·1v:.-J-) = -T
Who are you?

;ft

1<-0/1..

b.

KJ:..~ K_. (Jt_.:x:~) = Who made this plan for your majesty?
v
:'J}.-",''J...,

*~

tt ~ .

tit tJ' KL
'f'

ko/'-

~':"".p;

t- /I)
O)~

:.

r..Jlt
k>l\-

0-tt ~~ ~~$ >l".
.. "

IU·F-.!:.

.J,.,

c.

f-11 =::.,~U tfi_1#:-. (t~·i!r 1ii7)= J- 3.. '" ~AT~ ft." J!.IJ ~ tit ~.J#.t-~:: -ci:
If you were to have the conduct of the three armies, would you do it?

j~l~

,

with whose co-operation

d.

;1F j(_A_:Z:...1} tfj; ifh ttt.
If I were

c*·Jt1!:)= t.f)
e-

tAt.

A._ &? J0

2"

".Itt;

/:."1

t?J K 4r'-t- '( Mtv''A r-~L
f<¥)

~~

~

not to mourn for that man, for whom should I mourn? What? "what?" • normally Japanese: appears
"(r

iv,

*'r
~ read a. ~

(~)
meaning
1j:.

1-:: supplement and is then

as an object

v::. 2!: o>

A ~IJ ~ R~. (~·A

fox..) = ~
v ~~

~

tJ"~
~
'fl"

.! L:t"

j~I1.."~~Ai -ct.: •
vz. -tC t: 1:. t ?
z,

What should one do so that the people will submit?
b.

+~ ~ Jt . ($ .f J~) = t- ;J-+
~L ~
Once they are already
v ... A\.

t,:~

lIZ ~

7),;t

s~

What would you set about doing first? c.

*,)(_ M

71rJ~. (~.
t~

:J-J$--j = ~L I-::;t, r1) V. z1J;f

th

1:r-

<.

I::'

-& Q'1Jt] ~!v.

prosperous,

then what would you add to that?

1. The alternative

rendering

f- I~ ti !:.A t

(same meaning) seems too mechanical.

d.

~Jt:fJ ~

1"1 t..(~·~;frf

~

11-

)==~tr

C7)';_

-;I

tI).t Ki0-z iPT ~ Jt
f)'

".,

;"~

.. ~

~~

47
Vt

tC tv.

Of these three

things, what would you discard

first? parti-

v. As the second half of an identity,..fvr is read cle {", a.

~ A....!t..= ~ K + interrogative
tti ~I...!:.V
t~L'H>

;t-:f 1PT,It, ~"*{7
What is Spring?
~', )~

~.

(~-¥-1:f . f!~ = t-.!: l;t N J(:~'e, -j(~ 1;r 9. x,lf-)
~iv
1$.10-(''' ~"';~
fo."7

It is the beginning of the year.

b. ~

i>tr"

tYf 1i~. (~ .JJ~ ~f,j) = 19' If:'~! ~ "NTtJ it !:.l:t.
the thing which you call "distinguished?" is reversed to emphasize the questioner's bewilder-

What can it be -

Here the normal order ment. vi. The following phrases always very felicitous.

involving

M

have acquired

conventional readings

- not

a.
b.

M 1~ t. (~ .£ 1;:::) =,fir '"~ ~.. . ~
What does that mean?

~"-

.' ....

:!t 1PJ -t ~
But

0

(.Ji_ • ~

J::_ )

=]t_

~M ~~ yt"~
*10
iI'?

*1...

>10

,

What kind of saying is this?

1VTtJ 3t~:.t.~.

(~·~J::_)=M
v
fS.Jv

B'5%-\~~:»~l:.~!,)'. do you What
V\

-<:!:'A.!!

V'

mean

by "vast nature?
C.

f t_ ~ ~ . (~.
But

f*-)

=

1- I_ M t;O'

t1'

~

»<: ~.

What does Tzu Hsia say?

M~

is read in the usual way

M~ t" o:

»<; ~

"What do you say?"

The

difference

seems to be based on the fact that in P\ in

1"I ,-M

asks for a di-

rect quote, whereas
d.

M"t , it
iI'.(.

does not.
'l.'!I

_g_1PJ~;fo
)f] J~ -1~
~

"'1:1...;

(~.;s;~)

=~~;t1t>J)~
v; ~7

~~
~r-

~".
tJo"~

What are you? e.
A_ ~ •

(Ji. ~J::_)=~

~ \;t~

A_
LH ""

Jt""f •
1,1< ~"
1$..r(.o.'k.

What sort of person
f.

is the Duke of Chou?

~a~ 1i>J A._ -e . (~·iltnn)=~E *.:f5Z. ~ 1PT /:

If.''~ •

What sort of people were Po I and Shu Ch' i?

48

i. ~--5tO

= of what sort?

How about that?
•• l_

Japanese:
&1.'"

\J"l1:J'/v
t-"J

a. ~

~itt~~

1vT -kr:I.

(~·Tu--)=

~?'''I:. -''''-Iv 0''' Jk_ v:.1t_,~,t 11 1PTj:P.
v

How about those who are now engaged in government?
b. YA -}

:z_t r8 +- :Lm-1vT

~t:).

(#4f

TO~)
l1-iv

=

1-<1)
VI

t e})
IJ.~
-t,?
:;

-z f-d) ~~ r&:gr1i1J~.
::.

L-

~ '-

1:,11.

",,,,-,,,

How would it be if one were to pierce c.

your shield with your spear?
4.-tPV"

!/tpt- B 1'-Ff -*-.f-M «a, (~.~~)=
Fan K'uai said, "How is today's affair

Iv ,::.~

c..

......o ..Jv

~~~
going?"
~ b'

It(,r~'13

0~M-tm_l.
f.~ ~~

d.

M--9J:J ;t1} "J t~ :2:_ -±- X. (~
What sort of person

.}-,f,-)

=~

-ktJ -tx1tLlt,·;tif

~~~ ± t_ ~'f,5'I'\'~ b:
L-

should one call a gentleman?

ii.

-ktI

M ,1r-M .
rendering
=

The Japanese causative a. verb

is a contraction

of ", ,n:.kt: tv , taking -3z:.Cj

(1f:-)

as a

"to make (do) like ---."
;0

i7 i:..1}-M ot_,:r~ ) = z_ ~flj t:. (:-ff-M -'d:. t.,__..
0

>It

t,(

~ 0'''-

How should one go about doing this?
b.

"Jf:>z_{;-fl'7f~~tA'~

0

(~

••

r;')=-flb\"J!l

.po

"

~

1:.

.t?Jl\.

t)~;

~J(5Z_~.n' ~:'5A'

~ -W- /'.._r'~li"~

111<-

.'

0-1.,

~ tv.

What if he should take my jewel but not give me the towns? Since

-krl

(if;:)

is, in this construction, as a supplement. is still read

a causative

verb,

it may be followed comes between

by a direct

object

Although this
l'

object

--kG (-tf )
c.

and

1PT ,-trJ.f.7J

-o: i;
~v

.

.!if--r;~;JfJ .:f)f_ -kO:L--M. ($Wr·JtfU~) =~'L
fih /f 1:::.--ku r~M . (~./,--1Jif
do not have humanity,
<." p~

?

-z Jf1 JL'3>

.I.;

1-:

-r:z_~-kP,fitJ
=-it. ~'J'I...
~V'

~f..._o

When the year is a famine year and resources I do about it?
d. ).._

are insufficient,

what should
_rl...

) =A_V:

v{

1::::: ~

~~

b

-r;--t1-"/T£_ f:itJfi'J -'i:: tv.
the rites?
kt.f..--.

If people

how can they observe

e.

4: T~ It~¥J".
Y" 1 U.

(5to:Z;~)

~

xt:

4~:3W

<,"

flo 1..1J "

,,'b-/-..

t:: ~M

yu.

What shall I do about you?

49
f. ~)___ ±..

/f -=!- ~

*0

q~ Jt..,fPJ • (.Ja_

Q

~~

"F ) = A.__ "> ;if -!-

&-1:.

.l,<t.'x...

'&

t

~

~;r~.; VJ

,,->/:>s..

11."~

I't

1tt,~
later?

If you speak ill of people, what should you do about being disliked

6.

~)..A

"by what means?",

"for what reason?",

"in what respect?" Japanese:
t,j: 1-:'

~:t? 'C of
J.:)., ,

The Japanese

reading

is rather

mechanical. because

M
'I, '"

is taken as the supplement word.
v<.

the usual order being reversed a.

M

is an interrogative
1:....

M J..;)fJZ.1!t-. ($.~. rr>, ) =M ~ .J..:A. 'C 4.~- v:: ~
f.j: K

'" i: .
6: t-:","
t-

With what should one repay kindness?
b. -]zp

~'-10 ~ ~JJ M j;.J..
f.j:t(

~'Q

(~

;t ~d!_)= ~tJ

t

1)

L.

5fiJ ~ Jp ~4,

"> ~'01:("

~IJ?~

1ff.1~

~

.fJ?

J.:)., '1.. ~

i:

o:
you [by giving you an official position], ,
±_

If someone were to recognize would you do about it?

c.

7f ~-f-w-;r H~~
t)

1lJ1B );)_'$:.

(ji. *-J::.)

=I!y

-a:

."" ~:!''lJ-1i ~

-trJ, 'M 2!: j.;).,
:5C=J-PT YA."~
.J..J..¥p.J;-

t"k!>

~r::

~"

~l!:.

't
h~
,l';'''_

what
t")

It J"7.J~

Z~

U 3.

In what respect d. ~L

do those who do not and those who cannot differ in form?
t.~ J.:'J,_
i,

tS,:r;

4"

::~

yo.

±"'R:~. (~.

A.)~*-) =JL5c:rI1:M
'1,(K -f,?

!..J..')., "(±...~ j(_~

1~')~~,

For what reason was K'ung Wen Tsu called "Wen"? e.

1PT

.(~·Jfllll)=M"k
"Why?"

~

;:.1j'I.

V

j;),_ '(

±_ &~~6.

How do you know this? 7.

M ,~,Mfo:;
i.

M (~)
a.
Master,
b.

= "Why?"

"For what reason?"

Japanese:
fl.J..

iJ: h_!f."

'K:t M 1'i!11FJ -e:.. (~.

3(j!) =
v

*- -J-¥J ~" $ f! lJfl§ .s- 'f .
..l- ~ L

"'7

01>

$

why did you laugh at YU?
....1.

:f- t3 M -f-. (Mft· -f ]f,§--) = =r 15' < r1PJ ~"~
The master said, "Why are you late?"
v ~Iv

"'I..

t;;~

s~
~

.J.

c.

f- ~ 7F~JfX_.(Wt·Ajfx_)=:r~
j(_-t(tJ!t_.~

J,79:"1:_

Jt"jfJc.~~
>tl/'IJ~

e s:s,
~"I:.

Why do you not engage in government?
d.

rtfJ

-;r*-. (~.~f]:1')=j(jL,,>-izt:7l.J.

i. Jt.*!;1:~"~.

6:A..;

1,.10(

Since he is of such a character,

why does he not lose [his state]?

50 When, as in example this particle ii.
d, ~ or

M

is followed by the emphatic particle in Japanese.
1j: f,...

no ,

cannot be rendered

specifically

Mfos

"Why?", "For what purpose?" is derived from

1',jt

r

Japanese:

r1/'l~"
reading of" as
t(

=

"to do." Although the Japanese

meaning regularly

of "to do," "to make" read

has now become standardized

r;

in the

it was is

1in

the Heian period.

Notice that in this construction ~

not "on behalf of."

Why did you become my prisoner?
b.

Jt~M~ it. Jlt~ e
~-

o

(Ji_. ~jt

J::_ )

=

;t !£_ 1PJ 19 ~ 't" tL t
t7)

.ot"'<~

1fI:."-l

~

L1'X-

~h"

it ~

11;"

Why do you make that statement, 8.

sir? "Whence?"

-M

)~)

_z_

}

+! ~

"Where?"

"Whither?"

a.

-f-M:Z.. (ji_

·fzj::_)

=1M v: 1)'<:2:.. <'.
It." ;;

1v ",,,,'<,

""

Where is the ox going?

b.

;if A

s-«: (5to~~

",..,'<,

fJ

)=3f~*v.:tJ'i±~.
may also be read,

Where is the Duke of P' ei ?
;L-

The above examples

tfM ~z... < ~
v.:

w,', ~
~~

.;,ip 2:\

'10" l-; ~.:,.<.

*- v;: ~

;,

Q-'f

c.

-1-rf ~

~¥-. (~. t*- )=1~ K: (;t,~
I,"

~IJI';

... ,'(

tJ'''f,,-''~.
?><r? i1~

Where did Chung Ni study?
d.

»: f- -1&t -k. (.Jz.. ~
Fl. (~. ~

J::_ )

= j( :r I-X ~
V'O

,J':'

v

",':<_

~::

-'\t"~.

Wherein do you excel, master?
-..,".jI..

e. ~

rt7~) =~ E r.
Japanese:

.t.1

Where have you come from?
9. ~.

and its compounds. i.
:I.~,

T-'X.;

"How many?"

lA

<.
.:.':;'v-

'IJ' <"
<Iv

,

"J <.
..... . y:.h.... (

-toO ("f)
o>

a.

6 ~~j£~'~

A...@. (£_~.

5}f: -1'1'1 t~)= 1;-*-1jf_~',*A. ii' 'ill "-~.

From of old, going out to war, how many return?

51

How many days is it since you came?

u.

,*;f9T
a. ~t1 ~

= "How much?", "How many?"

Japanese:

V'

Z l~"<'

~I§.M 1tM. ce- ~tf_rJ.~)

.6...

=

fx:

",II"I')

~"t.

-t"r.! ~

l-;t

n:. < ~
J;

"'.. 11':(

fPJ ~:~
t. c,..

~("1

e. e,

How much can someone like me command?
t)'''<';

~\.c..I'··<

b.

~~~¥J~·.(~·.~%~)=~~t_<~':~~M~·-t
For how many years have you been receiving

...
instruction?

c.

~~*-M ~
e'

.11 t...,

-- <. IJ:',

--'"

~.(~.~~)=;~~

~i~·M~lt:'·.
are there?
i/l -7'~11)
to<

How many households of fishermen 10.

M -a-+

= "When?"

Japanese:

t.~
t. "

K.

a. A36

-~M
~~:_

J7f j'.(~

·~1t~)=j.__1t.

vz

""I:.

:!

-i':LA"~if\.-L~"

1PJ

II""'~'

~P)

-I)'

!f 0 Iv.

-e>»:

Once people die and leave, when will they return? Rhetorical Questions. Chinese rhetorical questions are recognizable as such by the

X,

1. Although some classical

~ ~ use of such specialized words as JL or ~ , many are identical in form with genuine questions which expect an answer. ing such rhetorical clear. The distinction depends on the context. In render-

questions in Japanese,

an attempt is made to make this distinction

This is done pr lncipally by the use of potential verb or adjective forms and particle ~ in preference to

of the interrogative

»>,

Either a question requiring

an

answer "Yes" or "No" (page 41, section 1) or a specific question involving an interrogative word (page 44, section 3) may be a rhetorical question if the context requires

it.
2. Yes/No form.
i.

Just as with genuine questions of this type, an interrogative may not be used in Chinese. any of the particles Where a particle

final particle

mayor

of this type is used, it may be is, however, used far

mentioned in IX, 1.

The particle~'

52
more often in rhetorical questions than in genuine questions. Rhetorical questions

of this type are very often in a negative form, although a negative form does not necessarily mean that the question is rhetorical.

a. ::f1:::'% 'f ~"t~'.

(j;_. ~jtJ::_)

= f}~ ~ 3~
ir):

,;,

l!,(,

;,

"J

(1.

-W- «s : ,'...:: ("1' Iv><f.

I:- ~

vI

Can one converse with one who is not benevolent!
b.

1==-11 t -#;'. (~
~~;ff
<."
~ li. i.«,

.l2t m) =-1==

l!o: i? h-><:;.
jH7l ) =

l<Jt

Can benevolence be far away! c.

f 1t1$r iffJ t:_ ~. (~.~"
I~-W-. (Ji:. ~
-:771..

t 1[
~'( ~

"'''

1;."

IJ

t Jft i %-1+"(

II->I/'-:t.

tt

::.>1\.

t!.

Though I were to have my tax grain, would I get any to eat!
d.

~if

-r)

='lj.

J. ~"~ A."L1A-~.

Should it not be done with circumspection! ii. Although in "Yes/No" form, the following expressions
tl'

may be taken as regu1(

larly indicating rhetorical a. ~!j

questions.

iiJ JL£!iJP:-" ($-.-t ~) = fi ~
indicates a rhetorical
~h "".,

~Iv""

;I/L

m

.. do.

'{~:. ~ C

13'

0

tvXf.

Is it not that you are mistaken? Here ~ 1)
b.

(i. e. You must be mistaken!)

question.

:if;1F~

f. (~o~im)

=i7f ~vi7'

0-r~.
one. Notice, howIIJ'" ",;1.1'-

Is it not a delight!

1f.iT\

generally indicates that the question is a rhetorical
r-.-

ever, that;1f. ~ c.

does not have this force.
in

mc./fl~·~.
Distinguish

(i£~l·}1{j

t_-t.-T)=Jtt.A.1.~~lt-·I~;!"0tv~.

Would I dare to disobey your command!

R7f , which is

always rhetorical,

from

:if R~ (th,,"(

/'-' -<t

r ).

Cf. page 22, section 2, iv, Example b. 3. Rhetorical questions involving an interrogative word.
if the sense demands it.

i. Most of the

questions

in IX, 3-10 may be rhetorical

Again Japanese attempts

to distinguish

rhetorical

questions by the use of potenfinal particle is supplied in the

tial verb or adjective forms.

If an interrogative

53
Japanese ~ is used, but this is very often omitted. Some interrogative pro-

nouns, adverbs a rhetorical

etc. are given a special reading to indicate that the question is

one.

.. -tIL n. -i:b a. ~

(Cf. page 45, section 4, i).

11/~.:__e,.11L -:t=Pf l5·,~. ( ~

.1'--11f) =

lL-t i~~/:;:'

0",,-

cO?

v>-i'

I/O?

<:-; h-L~';

l1t.IKiJ'~-

If this is to be endured,

what is not to be endured?

iii.

f;tt
a.

(Cf. page 46, section 4, iii).

~~ lfp :Z_~

0

(1:: ~1L) = tit-;O':Z_ 1! ~

kt--

::-if'..

v

'6.,

!J ~

i" .

Who would know about it!

As regards c.
10,;;';

:ty~t3 f.f fT, tttql*t:d~_o(;J, . it) = ~ "'-t-. ~ f 1~ -tft. 1L:z__ ~ 1f::'a S Iv -t,
h~"""
l.-

my attitude to men, whom do I revile
~t: L-

and whom do I praise!

<

'"

i.,.

.27 ~

f§ ~ .l.:j -z

f

Jtv:

1;'

0

Were I ingloriously ever know of it! iv.

to anoint the grassy plain with my dead body, who would

M

(Cf. page 46,4, iv).

a. T1=J-;{j
-f$;1':

f R ,M ,k,friJ #F. (~.IJl~Jf#)= 11/'-. "'''' ~'~ M 1! tJ'~'" tPJ & o> Jytth-tv (~).

T11~~t o- 0-r'A-!~" z IX-"
.;-; fr,,'}~

'l":

If, upon examining one's inner self, there is nothing seriously there to worry about; what is there to fear! b.

wrong, what is

*- ~ -t~'

p

(~~.

YJh 1()= X. ¥J ~ 11'

-tho

~K

:;:..

~ L1-

tv

-e,
~

Does Heaven say anything! c.

% -J- ffi .z.., 1i>Jftl1 ;z_:;tj • (~ b' z..;Jf " f-..._.
,"" I>

.3- '¥ ) =$ f- z_
<Iv

v ~4"-

~-:~ 3

,19" I)r~ vJ
~I.. "'~

::; i:..

For a superior

man to dwell amongst them; what is coarse read

~-- __t..1r :
question.

1'1~

e);

b':t_~

*t.

about that! a rhetorical

0 h...

regularly

indicates

54

v.

-31:0 M ,~

(Cf. page 47, 5, ii). sense this is usually rendered as
V'

When used in a rhetorical "How on earth!"

o: t-: ~"

=

"How?",

(*- ),

This rendering

does not bring out the causative

force of

1<tJ
,,",,

but it makes it clear that the question is a rhetorical

one.
",IJ'~

a. ~ If-

:Z_~: -ktJ z./~T J1t

z._. ( $

.rntJ- ) =$ 1t
>l
i7'-

c»;

t. /.-

t?)

Ix: :z:_ "& -itJ M >f' 't ~J;I Iv ~
be set aside!
1>
k

~';.<f--

>Jj\.

o

How can the obligations b.
o-r:

between ruler
0 (~~ •

and minister
T<t."

/f liE j£_ A- 3t! -9:t:1 iLf--fi>J

f J%---) = ~

"J

Jr- ~ -r .; L nE
_iE_
.t~

[;1:

f'h.-l-J:",

A. ~ j£_r~*[J1PJ -1:t:tv.1
If you cannot correct

k'k.·'

V\

""J.....

yourself,
/<r-

how can you correct
;!',;,

others!

c.

JEt 1& If l7J ):-l. ,1:J~, ~
~ ~<."

>7

t"t:Jit

'ii,

*'M
"b't.._

J

~

.:2:_. (~

~~ ) ="-.- l- -z i-::

)..)_

-z ,~e. A," -0' t

~

Jt"z... ~ ~

-c A.-~.

Though you are abandon them!
. VI. M);)._

in haste

and cannot gallop on their

account, how can you

(Cf. page 49,6).
J;)._ ~

a. ~

*
1iI:

A ~ ', (* .1Jtf_ 'f)

= 1>1 Z!. J;)_

~r.

'/,?

tAG

"( ;(_ (::

T4: S "'-'''('.

".11:

In what respect
b.

should I be different from other men! (~·Ajfjz_)=
't

K*~f?G,)J\:f,~'/G)#J)..J~('r±_%1'.
-I!j

J),

-*
V'\"

v: fiL -J!ft <.

11':'

;K.fKf£~-,.
without a swingle-

1'<·.,v~

Ir~·"'.I:

0l't'~

~~?J

~I~

'&).:J "( :Z.. ~

'II"

~"'"

11'" 0 A.., ~.

"I!

A large carriage without a crossbar, or a small carriage tree; by what means can one drive them. vii.

JiJ

I~

J

-J;~ I?JJj

(Cf. page 47, section 7).
0 ('~ 0

a.

-J-;{£.

Til ¥T ~3t-

3t~)= :f A£ 1.1iJ~
/;J..Jv >i'-~ ~..

c-~;1

<.>I'>"'f>."-

Jt_"

R" ~11:.t!:. tv. ~ <.ot

6)

t.

While you, master,
b.

are alive, how could I, Hui, die!

A 'IJf;_~t ;rf_~,~·o elL . ~.1=-)
What leisure

=~
-1><1>-

~"irt.4x'~;:i3 ts ~ ~z. lJrl.t?J
~'!>~:t-; "'"

!s

0 tv"f.

have they to cultivate propriety
J-±_ -)
0

and righteousness!

c.

% M ~-

(li...

5i7J.'J:::-) /F-

=*"M lC"-1- ~ ~ ~ i.:
... 1:.
1=~-

1I:A.-

Why should I begrudge one ox! 1.

-«a .if...)-._19J

may here also be read -3z:tlM !i"A.f:'£' -;r hIn the reading given above, however, the rhetorical

.. «-»:

, which is more explicitly rhetorical. force is quite clear from the sense.

55

How can it be that no one understands
Vlll.

you, master! Japanese form:
Vl

···~t~»; J.\:} 1....::1 )
Although reading though
V'

, (Cf. page 50, section

8).

"'7"<, fv~ ..

potential form (+ ~
It 1 -;i'.(

).

Iv-!f."
v;: -b'>

(= I/l -j'<, v.: {")
,

is originally

similar

to the plain interrogative question. AIrefer

-J"<.

it is now used only to indicate a rhetorical notice that Vl-'<'
tvlt,"

V)

""7"< means "where?",

does not necessarily
:!', to;

to a location. a.

(Cf. English "Wherefore?",
""I;J::t') j

"Wherewithal?").
"'.. "<_

~J ~tt~ J.f14-lJ. ($. r;;j[ )=1i!. 1.JfIJ c. K:~
Why use an ox-knife to cut up a fowl!

IvJt"1-J7
tI' tJ'

~m
t?
_...

tAJv.

b. )-'A I)'

~K,q~lfx:JZo

(~.1LJ::.) =,), ~),'A_

..t;

-'(,. ~...

<:j(_(r..~,~·,1!1lL!Iv-t':z:.!.!t:o ~ Iv,.
How should they know [the reason
J::

'"'<,

~....."

c. Je,~~*)[

You changed a larger thing for a smaller. for] it! " 1.-." V'''.< ll'

if. (~·:rl )=~

~lJ*tv~"~1

~ K 1_~ tv.
question, but are not used

Why should I refuse 4. Certain

a cup of wine! a rhetorical

Chinese words are used to introduce a plain question.

to introduce

The two following are common words of this kind. rhetorical force see page 52, section 2,

(For other combinations
ii. )

with a specifically

Japanese

form: ~

v:. ----

potential

form. negative answer.

-:t
Ch
K

introduces

a rhetorical
1Jr-

question expecting an (imaginary) "What?"
lHr I)'

is probably related

to ~ K
i)

a. ~

jt_Jj_

t. ('f.._. j:l )-~~ '"1. £.

tv ~
ohl't

0

How could they dare to rebel!
b.

Jl-.i J]<_ zA!t ft',. (jz_ • %- J::_) = 1[_.jL jt ll<How can this be the nature of water! Japanese seems to carry the connotation, rendering form: "Could

~

31-..," "J

-It.'"

r_t_ t.i ~ t;~.

ii.

t'""
ii7
fl

t~ (eI: 1:)

----

potential ---?",

form. "Could one

one possibly originally

ever ----!"

The Japanese

11t (-;t!5

seems to have meant

56 "a point of time" (d. page 62, section iv) and is based on the idea that here equivalent to

it

is

~p

or

Ji Ij .

a.

t ~~~~ Ifm "f;f-$:..1".($.1,,-17j)=
1~I;I;

r?~ 1+tXv::mb'1"t ~J,,~1;:
1~1;: fo .. ;r;t ')A- £il';'

v

ib'~

Can one possibly imagine that the T''ae Mountain is not as good as Lin Fang!
b.

rg~YJ..~ ~·t(~.~Jfj:_)= 't '5 Jt ~4.!:..l-:A~
Could anyone possibly consider

~11\.

-b';

~''i.

'" ~ e;

this to be filial piety!

Part

III

COMPOUND SENTENCES XI. Compound Sentences. 1. So far we have dealt with the internal most communications consist structure of a single statement. statements, In practice of con-

not of unrelated

but of a series

nected statements.

The connection mayor

may not be made explicit.

Chinese tends Where

to make the linkage between statements

explicit less often than English does.

English would link a number of statements using conjunctions or forming

into a compound (or complex) sentence by clauses, classical Chinese often simply

subordinate

places them one after another, leaving it to the sense to make the connection clear. Chinese may also emphasize the relationship between two statements by the use of

words like

i1h , ~ 1J

,and

so on. of statements to one anmore

Japanese uses verb forms to indicate the relationship other.
It does this very freely,

so that statements

are explicitly linked together Chinese. Thus, Japanese

than in English and far more than in classical seems to make the relationship

sometimes The

between statements
v. ~£.
;'tl.

clearer

than Chinese does.

following are some examples of how Japanese a. J(~;K.m.

-:l:

t~f fJL

uses verb forms

6

(5t:,:i)

= ~~

K r:.1tJ .j,.L.
V'

bl/)

-±-t /t1n.. 1.
tIt..

in this way. 1:." 't

The weather is cold, it is raining heavily and officers and starving.

and men are freezing

Here linkage is indicated by all verbs except the last being in the continuative form.

b.

:f1!.*- ~*~:ifVJ
~
'-?

~~.(ji_
D

0

5Rl::-)='_»1K!t
seasons,

,,-1

V'

"-11'-

<.

I>

57

11.!·"'-~~··~R~w1.

.s.

",-ii'

':7 ;! "{) 1J= J

If you do not conflict with the agricultural

there will be more food

than people can eat. Linkage is indicated by a conditional verb form.
11' 11\."

-I'll<-

j:

~","

c. -Ltf--t-HE ~±"'J;fe; /f JL~t
;fe.,~~t_~
:!
t-'Qv

~o

(~.1"-1R)=

l_tf) .ff~~tz

Z_~

t" ~·'tJ_

..

1~ ~-;:)t_

tc:

i) ~ • .fJ

~J.
of the Hsia dynasty, Chi is not suffi-

Although I could talk of the ceremonies cient evidence of them.

The type of linkage is indicated by the use of a concessive d. {~_ I§\

v~

~.t_)t·y;._ lfJ, -Itj:J:t_ ~. IJ-'"
.11\_,..

(~.

J!& jf5c_)=

t,~

~ ~ v 1.

~t-· v::

,t" "'.",

verb form.
;,?-?c.

V(

J;j Z

(1J i1)

t: (.<:

[1.,

.z., ~

-*tl "M -ci.,
and loyalty, how should I do it?

To make the people do their best in respect

The connection is indicated by a future verb form "in order to." Since Japanese links statements by the use of verb forms rather this function. than conjunc-

tions, it is not rich in words which perform anese do not seem although there were

Nara and Heian Jap-

to have had independent conjunctions "conjunctive auxiliaries" (

(*- ~
).

t~)

at all,

:J*-tl

'fIjJ ;~

In those and

early days Chinese words like

?ifJ

seem to have been omitted in translation Later, the principle that each character as a rule by adverbial expressions,

they are still sometimes omitted.

should such

be read led to their being represented as derivatives upon." of

vb'

"thus" ( 1.,,1.1':7 1/( ,

v 1)'t

,utJ'1(Lt.".v

, etc.) and

t f;1: ('i?

"thereJap-

Since the relationship

between statements

is already

indicated in

anese by the form of the verb (or verbal adjective), superfluous.

these expressions

often seem

In general, the Japanese rendering of conjunctions is not very satisfunctions in Chinese. expresses these relationcon-

factory and is not a good indication of their

The following sections describe the way Japanese

ships, and are divided according to the type of relationship ditional, concessive, etc.).

(e.g. co-ordinate,

58 2. Neutral relationship. relationship is meant the relationship between statements simply added

By "neutral" together

as in "East

is east and west is west." Japanese
t

i. No Chinese

conjunctions.

continuative

forms.
1>1';

a. lx;fJL ~t,±:'~fr5L, 'j!1:~Af_o
"'1'''

;fi_ ~

~>":f. v: 1- *-1~

<.;

~'A.

'11. ')~;

(5t0~~

)=~'h

!.,~t-v<.-±=t?f

r,~

~?

"

'l~

-;

v•
are eating wild
"""{;"~"v

The year is a famine year, the people are poor, the troops roots, and the army has no provisions on hand .

b.

:z .:y:f~ ;t ,7G~*t-1JtE-tt ~ftRr.
.) ;! /...

0

Gt. o~..l::.

• ~.

1..-

if.)'IA

)=j(_~I~;fIj

Jl. t", )(.~~~

iJi.

It

Fathers and sons do not see one another; elder brothers wives and children are scattered.

and younger brothers,
kr..lI'
I-J..,

c.

A1- .If-f~·~;;YjL,
*"1(.01>' ~'

If_~'5i>J

ifJ.(5t_·~~

)=-¥t ,"~VY:1L

v~; ,,-/...

IJ'

til"

,::.~'v-,

!l.li;'9"

«:

m r:
ltA-

..... ~
fought in Hopei while his humble servant continuative ,__{ fought in Honan. a somewhat closer

The general

The use of the perfect

form indicates

connection between the expressions tinuative.

so linked than does the looser plain conwhen the first action logically pre-

The ~ "( form is appropriate In practice, however,

cedes the second.

it is hard to make a hard and fast ~ '( form. Some-

distinction between the plain continuative and the perfect times plain the latter

will be used simply to break the monotony of a long run of or because the plain continuative something form somehow sounds of the difference be-

continuatives

awkward.

The following examples

illustrate

tween the two.

d.lt~t~'ilJ1tfJ4-~.(5t_·:J;~)=¥i~v:4bg
Drawing the sword must logically head.

't:.~..,~

(fA.-

~ t£~~q-(1) AA tftr~.
head.

IA

v.,.

00'';",'

:!

Chi then drew his sword and cut off the governor's

have been completed before he cut off the

e.

;l-JJ j'.. "$"~'ft,

4\1,)~}j-t.,.t

!tic

'iii"

1f~~~j~4. ~.,:~) ( .t 9~ I~'%~"( 14- kL-i-.
If..lo ~

=*

59

'.I!'; ,~

lJ?!t. '(,,"(1t!: ~~'), I

'"

t:.t

.. ~v

Liang thereupon went out and warned Chi to take his sword, stand outside and wait. Liang could not warn Chi until he had gone outside. sword, then stand The connection rather different outside Chi was to first take his

and when he was already

standing outside, wait.

between warning kind. Japanese Japanese

Chi and what he warned him to do is of a

form: form:

perfect participle

continuative

( "-

L- Z

form).

The neutral connecting word
It is

i1fJ

can be used to point up a range of relationships. which it

rendered

in various

ways depending on the kind of relationship

emphasizes.

(See below, page 59, section 3; page 61, section 4.) relationship as English "and" does,

When it indiomitted two in a

cates a non-specific in translation, statements

it is normally

but the function of

i'ifJ

in emphasizing the connection between the verb of the preceding statement

is represented

by putting

perfect continuative rather than the looser plain continuative form.

a.

-t 'f ~ *nn t.. (jj_
They throwaway

'*

j::_) =

f &t_ '( *- ~~ ·UE~.
VI

JI",J.;

"'~

-(10.

I'-\..

their
0

armor

and run, trailing
t.-~"

their weapons behind them.
#.<'!>

b.

'dt1 ~tp;fifJ ;f;t ±-. (~

l!t lib ) = fl~ ~ r1fi Lt' z: z_ ~ :;f;t ~ 9"•

l

"oIL

He bends his elbow and uses it as a pillow.

3. Adverse relationship. By "adverse" relationship is meant the type of relationship indicated in English by verb

"but" or "however."

The Japanese

way of showing this is to use a concessive

form (See page 57, Example c).

60
Japanese form:
1vt.J'::b
=

"even so," "nevertheless."

Your majesty has the position of the former utation of the former sages.

sages, but does not have the rep-

The tendency nowadays is to render the verb before
-ci;

i1fJ

in a concessive

form,

e.g.

3t,¥. "J1:Ir.7,f

1!:."

<.~;.;. I>

1tt.-t.":t;

Jt~t')~ ~
Sometimes

-I!:I-.'o!:."

~

V-

0

The

v 1;- t

then becomes redundant

and is usually omitted.

as in the following example, a final form
I~<' It?

is used, breaking the sentence into two.
b. ~
(.,(1'-

~f::1-t:. ~
.Jt
"Iv

it fffJ ~
0

Jf_,}X~

m 4J-A-f?)1f.tbtf ~~ ~ ?v~~ t.
Chih Pai has perished to take revenge. ii. and has no posterity; nevertheless his minister wants

11.;

(.,?"1t

11,

1Jt!-.(~.*-~) = ~ ~f3-t:
"!>

1/-""(

it~V.

.f)J:. ~

~!3:,,-a.

Japanese

form:
0

L,,-;C'1j'\-t;'t

= "Although it is so," "nevertheless."

Jt.~IJ1t.~

.s: ~fJFf ~

(~~·it;f)=

Jt- VtllJ

~~;,~m -t;,)t,
;~j

1;r ~

0

f!:~~r."~1:lrdr~'~ ')D 6:

",,'

~~,,~

Loyalty is loyalty; but it is not courtesy.
iii. ,-...fl.:

a.

t-~7f~JL'f~. s: nfrf£Afi $-:z_1f-t!3.
or I)

i1il ,--.._..
,,&'

Japanese

form:

i. t1' ~

v

t)'

5 v'(

= "nevertheless." ,._.._~;,."- 7 ~~ ..

(.$. '~J::_)

=~~

t7Ll.

,~~:

nfJ .; v -C£ k'?

v;

-t,'!I

.!.. 9-t ta

:t-k":2(...l3 ~ r'~ ~) .
10.,,,
1.. i; 13'

~#.

r"~z_f:

~>K ~

His people will be neither starving nor cold, and in such a case it has never happened that the ruler was not a real king.
b. ~
;1/'-

:V)..;K

r.f.l-). ~. ~~:1TJ/f~*:z_1f~.(~' i
'(.1.->11'

ii,

~-"f )=~
iJ"!

l·!,~ -r ~ ':::J:

'iJ? },'J...

Z

v

.!!-: I) lib? l/( .£ 1t';

lA"

"0'

>177

;r"{)~

14

*
"'#,

is V:7(r

~;;)."t

v,

tc:

Z.1f ~ <:.. ~ ~).

~oI\.l;

Pleasure and sorrows are on an empire-wide basis, and in such a case it has never happened that the ruler was not a real king. As in the above examples
td)' ~ LA}'?

v'Z is usually preceded by a continuative form.

\~: Tib

may also be read -J.J'< 0-::,"t<

v:: VC

"such being the case."

61
4. Consequential relationship. By "consequential" such expressions relationship is meant the kind of sequence indicated in English by

as "and then," "and so." Japanese form: vb'?
l" -c

"such being the case,"
.'Iv
0 (~~ )

"thus," preceded
-II
l,..o!I'

by

continuative form.

a. ~~ i!Kf

~ 1~~ .z.. K 1ft <.
Han possessed the greater part of the empire, and so the barons attached themselves to him.
b.

\,~ ~1 .... t''''-

K t fifJ ~ 1jz
?

* rf1~
Iloll.l!?

=' ~

ll1 J( r~ f ~ "5 fffJ '7 l- Z )(. ~

1. /Nb....

i<."l1-1v

His labors were grievous and so his merit is high. c. J::..

'* ~

(at:t;tt~"

CIT'

,,,,';

f~'"

i1TJ :X::jJ1fJ

o (~.

J.~)

=~
(jz_.

\1~

v<.

i1h
v<; =

'7 ~ 1: ;:jJ

\;1:

ifJ t-.
£.

r 5t.1jf_ -trJ l'ffJ ~ ;t,
.:z;;;...
JIIJ },._

0

*~

1:. )

J::

r 3t tlJ
I'

.:.=L:i.

~

"I!:

{:if..

'H ilfJ 7 H,

I..-Gl'

1Ml Jr. t-.

<.v.:

""')'

High and low scramble
11 • .-..... .., ... 11l....

for profit and so the country is in danger. Japanese form:
l.ItJ'J.1Q)?

..

~'~». _...,.,_ ,

~». ~

"after this,"

"after so doing,"

preceded

by a continuative form.

a. ;ft,~~~ f~ 1t:fu
IU'

it ? ·U'.~:~ 1t-k9i. ~~ ~.
It is only after weighing that we know the weight, it is only after measuring that one knows the length.

v.'

,,!>

1.r;

t..nr: 1t~ n. . (ji .*- J:_) = i ~ ~~iki "( r;.: !.itr~.
(.J..,

v

*
,

Japanese does not have a verbal distinction between weighing and measuring and so both

f[

and

Jt

come out as l;t

1)'~

to weigh or measure.

This sort of thing is

not too infrequent and sometimes b. ~;........_ B ~~
.'

rather

spoils the point of the Chinese.

1:- s: 1t'Jk.:z_ . ~ ~ ~ ~: qt_ m
~

'tj: I) ~

B v- ,~~

it ~ ~t/:• 'of\. ~.,

It'"

;,.

~. (~ . *- "f ) = 100 }.._~
~<.
., ~."._

L·1. ... -t

It I.

"

l"

~

~ ~ ~ {,

"(

tf~¢ 4t t:_ '&: )f1 ,J ••

.,0'

-l> OJ

Only after the people of the country have all said that he is wise, consider him; and only after seeing that he is wise, employ him. ~ was omitted in this translation, but it could have been read':

1K K "in him."

1..'f;:IJ'

0~

o'~?

1. Also read

J::_

'"f 5C_

tlJ ~ 4£~tl"(iifJ? ) ~ ~

!:.

toat

< r.

" >e',h

t.

.

The difference

in meaning is slight.

62

It is only when one is a wise man that one enjoys these things.

i1b 41

is sometimes Japanese

read

l- 1f'"7 l-1..11)

1) . preceded by continuative form.

form: J'l <: (J-? 1..) from

The reading J.)

'Z

is derived

at ~ ,

the reading of

1El

as a verb meaning

"to depend on," "to follow from." "and then," "and so," or sometimes

As a conjunction, however, lZSJ usually means not much more than "and."
,~ .. 07
1:.
'J'lJ.~ '"

a.

7ry; A ~
.1-J.
<.~ '"

itt]
11b.

JjI) tEl t{!1 ~
v' 0

I7t2l:\ • (:t_. ~~ ) = ~~~ k9 -s "{)jiJ v;: -9:tJ J ~
J;

.,Z

~ °t k tB .t z t,_ 1.... v t.The Duke of P'et come out. iv.

got up to go to the latrine

and then beckoned Fan K'uai to

~!J"-""-'

---..,~

,----

~IJ .

Japanese

form:

t-J;£

('t

t; "thereupon."
"at that moment."

The Japanese word
It was probably

t~(i.,

originally meant a "point of time,"

first

used to translate a variety

Yp ,

but is now used also for

lJ , ~

,

and

fl lJ .

These words carry represented

of connotations rendering

in Chinese which is not

adequately

by the standard

1t;1: l;t t .

These connotations

are expressed is really arated

by the Japanese verb form (hypothetical or concessive) and in Japanese. by the former The two statements

tfJ: (t,!)

redunant

linked may be found sep-

in Japanese

ending in a final verb form.
to.r.."? 1&ta
f:'"
1:.<.

a. i£!j

18 }(~, r.f. (5t. ~~ ) = Ji_ t~ .. "? j(_)f (~ 7]
literally

(1)

t ~-:: r~ s.
1i"~

oj'"

He went to the left and thereupon fell into the Ta-tsf marshes.

ji_
b.

t1f'Llt"

~J :£~t_A...rJJ

~~ v t:nl'Ll~" 1) ? Y~ £. ~ ~~ .
The king of Han had someone inquire turned out to have been King Hsiang. about him secretly,
-iI? L-b'

r,,~.::t..·lj ,~J1;
~?

means, "when he went to the left."
1N"

J:~

.£.~.

(Jt

0

~~

)

= 5J..£ f__ ~

ip;

t--!:.

to. 't l_.,"{

r~,

oiL
&'K_::Z_ ~

f,,'

t.

ol>;

and it thereupon
f~13.
tJ·V'

c. J::- J;A~

\~~J

~.~

ftt. U~ ~trt
0

""';

)=J::.

J-j \ \~~ 'J

t-At..:t.}@: ~ ~f,.
v'

The Emperor cleared up.

thought that it was so and his misunderstanding

was thereupon

d. '-

*

~>(';

rJ:;j-f .... ~31-k.
2!

I

b'

~'Iv ~-9x.

I~?

t. m ~~

.I.;

!!t~m . Jj
t.~

iii

~*ffi_¥. r
HI I#.

63
1:,;

>l!'1

<.;

~h.

(5t
i.....

o

~~

i ~ '" ~, -'b

00 )j

"5

1f-~

)=t1~ Il))'~ ... _
~

t-~

v:. -t)i113

-,

The youths of Tung-yang-wished to appoint a leader. to their needs and so they asked Ch' en Ying. 5. Additional relationship. By "additional" relationship is meant the sort of reinforcing

They had no one suited

of one statement also,"

by an-

other indicated in English by such expressions more," "and what is more," and so on.

as "not only-but

"and further-

i. "Not only--but also."

As in English the first statement is introduced in Chinese by an expression ing "not only." are as follows: Common expressions of this type with their Japanese

mean-

renderings

~f4t.

(~f~J

~H/tt J qF1t::l) =
if>rit; -;if 1Ei)= =
=

(~f~"v: - - - -

(7)

0< v;:

i6? t"

.If 1;l(if~J ~ F ffJ

t~ i~:K .. __ ~ ~ 1,[
i- I:. ~
CA!:. ~

!7f'
Ch ~ t"
meaning "but

"

~

v::

Again as in English,

the second statement

includes an expression

also" such as the following.

=

h'-::>

a. ;ff4t_~,~nfJ

x_$ ~. (1i.. ~ J::_) =1z K J!Ji~,
requires the two Japanese words

kF:.·

x., ~

~ (1)# v.: 1Ft;,t~';z_:z_~ t-r.
Ii)

I..I':.::-lit

",.",

It not only does no good, but is even harmful to it. Notice that

~t_

r: t-: "just" and ~ Jj "only."

In this example
b.

1m
v-k.

is not read at all.
h

~F J~
~ VZ

qr
hb

~

11Jt_ IS -e. A.. ~;ij
.".f,): ""'-

.z: • (jz. • % j::.

)

= fl9 ~;t
z:,.k.')

lrlv ~
II)

0

:O?;;
II)

J;l;1t

I\S' ~

;!·'6 1j '), A._

1r :Z.. if ~.
all people have it.

It is not only the wise who have this spirit;

64 c.

p

z__jL;K_'
~v~ ;:?!-~ ~

=

~ it-- /jf IJ •

;2* ~:i ~1,ri- K;i ft ~1~~~ -r ,if I;'t·¥;;~> ~ ~ ~
%, :;f 'rlt~
-J

~~

:Lt, itJ' I:i- -;Jr ~J& If ;f~Lt~o (~fr\'· ~ 4t~)
li0

(;t

Those who established great projects of old not only had surpassing but also invariably had an enduring and unshakeable resolve. ii. An intensified rhetorical appears kind of additional relationship read
vlJ'{; ~
\/1

genius

can be expressed
[1.. Aj<f

by the use of a When it Japanese the usual

question introduced by)7G in the form

"Shall I mention."
In the standard
It' [;:

?fiJ /~

it is read

II'

It Iv~

translation Japanese

the "object"

supplement of ~}L follows

A/ff (reversing

order) and is followed by the appropriate is usually

indicator

~. or

The rhetori-

cal question introduced by .If, Japanese preceding. as

concluded with~'

t , read

in

'f.
. -;f

Japanese often introduces

t or t s

= "even" in the sentence

;,~

a. )tl;] ~A~
1,(LI

-;;y ~.
"Ii

I)LA~

I\J-'~'.

t ~ ?J(l <. <:»- 0 r~ 1V-r1~ f6] I~
l

,"-<
<')

(~ffi~ f! ~.

.~q7't5c_~

t)=;t ~ ,ct.k.':t

o,~ I~

This verse feelings!
b.

even others

may not hear [unmoved].

Need I speak of my own
.011\.

%- *- f(j
~

:;1:£ G 1ffJ j£., A~ ~.
... z, ".1:.' •
oj ~

;, L 4}- G ).:J" J
,,"It

_j£
".,.,>"'-

J;..

r -t e. (J;:... ~ r )= %- .t- t-: G
... J..IJ'

poi

1>0)11\.

~ ;tf..lj"C: A...

~.if_.

t;t ~r~ 7':1,t. ;,x, c-e G ~ ~

J:b'

fJ' (., ~ '(

J<.. r ~.k£_ j- ~~.

«f:...

r

t"l

I have never heard of anyone setting others straight by warping himself--to say nothing of anyone setting the Empire straight by shaming himself!

"l..

:£_ ~ :!"7.I

~ ').

rrtJ ~ ~ ~x,w't'

v.....

,,'l1

.p?

~'"",

~ v:

:¥::' "Z.

~

-e.
benevolent and wise, how much less

If the Duke of Chou was not completely

can your majesty be expected to be so!

65 XII. Qualifying relationships. Although it is hard to draw a distinction nate relationships, The qualification some statements in Chinese between co-ordinate rather and sub-ordi-

qualify others conditional,

than simply add to them.1 The type of qualificaword.

may be temporal,

or concessive.

tion is usually clear, 1. Temporal

but it may be pointed up by the use of a particular

qualification.

i. No indicator.

a. ~ ~
., !"-3

~1 t7 :J;~', ffi._ -Jf: ~nn 91::. • ()t.
t..! ffi_ ryfK
I

*~
>t ~

Japanese

supplies an indicator.
Y~

)=

5E.:J;1f 4,-

,,.'" 'I.'?""

"''-

~ "(

*-

1;(;

ft."

b:J;b\' v.: i.
broke

Il~';

~f<

ft: l,,"(

,t~

v

~t", P' ~ng-Ch' ~ng when an ulcer

Fan 'I'sang went, but had not yet reached out on his back and he died. Here Japanese supplies "at the time when---." into two. found. ii.):j1f or similar temporal indicator. form. (E.g. :f_ l?
l::. ~

"time."

Preceded by an attributive form it means

Some schools did not supply this, but broke the sentence

r

.) Such readings

are inaccurate but may still be

Japanese

form:

t ~(or
I!~ :t':'"

appropriate

equivalent) preceded

by attributive

a.

;if ~lf;

J.>. f-~,

t ~'2'MAk

0

(j:_."~)=

5f ~
I:.~

,01:" ~1 s t: 1:.1

~fv;:~
n

~

I) [.,

»-t, J!~~ ~ i:'"!J.

p'

l.-~l~"

When the Duke of P' ei was east of the mountains, he was covetous of wealth and goods. b. ~

Jlt J1"'r,~ lJ!K.~:£.
-l';
'oJ.

:I;

(t_ .,:~ )=~17»)!~

-

,;: t 9, kM

IH:

~~

It?

z, h. L

""

At this time Chao Hsieh was a king. Notice £. P: V (not .£1:.~ ~ 2. Conditional qualification. i. No Chinese indicator. a. "became a king") because he already was a king.

1'~'

Japanese

form:

conditional or hypothetical form.

~1fR..At_,j."~!,ij-:2:..

(3t_o;J:l )=

0't' v( ]ffllj -rlvl-J:}t/j'fz_~

"'#..,~

I:.

'I~

~*",,"'-

~ '" tv.
regret
it.

<.

If now you let him go and do not take him, later

you will certainly

1. Some may like to think of the qualifying clause as a complete topic (Cf. page 69, section 1, below) about which the following (or "comment") statement has something to say.

66
b.

/f -!(tJ
>L; ,,";

$~ 4(- ««: r:

Jl;~ ~ 'l't

-r/f" Jr~

:f*.
Jj~~~.

(~~.-t_

*)

=

it <."

*~
v'

<. 1;:.; t"fv(1." ~ ~

";;~·t ..
of the aniJ

If it is not like this,

cestors c. :;f
< 5>

the emperor are not at rest.

is not revered
.."

and the mausolea
~IJ'\' .:

It*- 11.?f, *~:f1iJ
A_"t/',:;

(.~ .*j::_)

=Jt #tv.: It(~ .!.1tt-(:t.~J~
seasons,

<

(-f-z

~')'

.!"~ 1J:

~o

If you do not conflict with the agricultural than people can eat.

there will be more food indication of the

In the above examples

the negatives ~

and

f

are sufficient

conditional sense in the Chinese. ii. Chinese may point up the relationship "then" or;JtfT anese, clear. principle since (z , t-:
) "thus."

by the use of such words as $,IJ (1~ (i? ) are not really necessary in Jap-

Such words

the conditional nevertheless

or hypothetical translated

verb form makes the relationship or less mechanically on the

They are

more

that every character
'e::1

should be read.

a.

0'1:, JIll
~'~') z.,

~f~'e

j\' ~ .(~

.*

l>t.

1:.)= A__

9t. r1l\.L~"

L,

1~
~IJ

1?

a < ~' "'- ~ff'

'"La

obI!\.

"..,

If people die then you say, "It is not I; it is the year!" b. ~ ~ -~~' o,,~,

,Jtfr~ r z-R 1.~.
cfJ

<l?;

(~.*1:-)=

.£~; ~ WF r ~;: ~,vriu;t" ~

l:,v"'~

~

$fTv:._7(

~

~!.

Ki'tll'f:

S>

Iv.

If you majesty

does not blame the year, the people of the world will come. may be still further read :b t" ) or ~ emphasized (read
V' ~
L.,

iii.

The conditional nature of the relationship use of a word such as ~ the qualifying clause. a. £~

by the

,--9:rJ -t
u

,~p
and

,(all

< =t ) in

Both

v) ~ v<..-tJ

r~,:)t~
~ ~;

1f nfJ}ft;?t;e,JlIJ
-J ..

ctffPJ
'~(;J.

iff ~
(for

7/H-

c: U-Cft.t~

(~-n,'<. &.

F~-<i (,I:': J{IJ ~4=-¥-M

f:

.t'~.
~.;~;

mean "possibly."
.j>;:6 't

(~.*J::_)=£;f
f_ ..

1S.1.

:t'
;l:.'"

v~

f7J

l"t·'fv.

If your majesty was pained at their

going off to the place of death without being guilty, then why were you choosey as to whether they were oxen or sheep?
7';( tV~"

see page 54 section

3, vii, above).

b. ~
;~

if If

*

#_ ",-t . ~IJ JiZ r '2:..~
"'~~ ~ .. ~

* 51~~
;~I~ "(!vb'

67

i1fJ ~
(7)

:Z_ ~ •
H(~"

(1z..
~

*-J:_ ) =';tJ v ~"&
olft. .,Jt."

#. .,::./:. ~ ~"~;f;ff ~t7l

k~;jo-fI"

!::>

l~",

~IJ

? J( "f

B;, ~ ~

~ ~I ~ z

.:Z_ ~

-i£...

a tv.

If there existed someone who did not delight in killing people, then the people

of the world would look to him with outstretched c.

necks.
t-,1: ~;

1!P:f~~, tt1~Jlt-~TiTJt(~1~) =$P
If we cannot, the barons

'f,

1Jf:

ol'>

'1:<.

"'J

0

~~'"

v~~ l;tffv(1,·.t~1*{-b'lt

~~v.:[,1ft!::~.

will take our followers prisoner
~~,,< ~?

and go east.
"Iv ~

d.

Jtj~
(;I., ,,~

'ta I~')tut ~p1~. ~,/f~
t,;~

'ix.$t ~1 ~ ,ft!J
e.

v

~

~

G.(A·*j::.)=~
G

=Ii

'rN./~'~,ltjua",

,!

\! "Q ~

~

(7)

J7-

If they do not have steadfast hearts there just is not anything that they will not do in the way of unbridled license.

{J~-t, !~~\;fE1~-'. (~'1t;:~t!t~)=J;6.t$'"
;: ~~, tt rv.
~

~~v~ s.; l

"fA

"if

t.1.r? t.;/>.}E;;'-~;;,

Even if I should become rich and high ranking, I will not forget you. iv. The causative indicator English "Let construction form similar

it..

may be used in a conditional sense analogous to the An attempt may be made to preserve this

A equal B; then---." in Japanese

(Example a); or it may be rendered

more freely in a

to example b, above.

Should you become wealthy, I will become your steward.
b. ~~

7Iz: IJ'''~{;J E

~Iv~"

*1~ifu t£, ~ iifJ *-, r:t ~~-t;ij-H:tL (~4r.:r· E
V'~

~t:f;f-) 1t v =

{,

v?

<.

v -z

~i.~~ <. v"(

."

<~

If:.

17(1:.".

-T~

v hl'::.{

~t< l'fl- j_ \!"0 /V~.

1>'1"'-

Suppose that your dog were to go out white and come back black; how could you fail to think it strange? (For jf
,)I

see page 55, section 4, ii, above).

v.1k~ .
Although basically an emphatic negative rather than a specifically conditional word,

47t:R._

usually indicates a negative condition.

When the meaning is "If it were not

68 for---," "But for---," it is read

1J: fJ'

I)

{J::

l~"

1

=

"If there had not been---" it is read

(Ex-

ample a).

If the meaning is "Even if there had not been---,"

~~e--t
(;1;-,

"Even without---"

(Example b).

a.qtc:!Z Jf "it, %- ~}ft_ ~

k.;ffA:..
p

($.~- ) = f 1tf1;H. 1!: (~". rt:>~

...ir>1v

17",;

~ ll")

:::rt. ~ ;ff:f. "E: s. ,~-e:: Iv
vN

0:'&

p.t,,"?

+~
>biL 't

Ht_ ~

~

If it had not been for Kuan Chung we would be wearing our hair unbound and fastening our clothes on the left [like barbarians]. b.

q~t_f-:L~

,-~-AFa.:t_.

(~·a~)

= f- P) ~

v

11",

#it.:!-t ,{7'bi7F:t.. f. a",.
of him.

1:

.p,f\.

A. T::.t\.

; 'Ii: ;11'-

Even if you had not said anything, I would still be suspicious Japanese form: ~
II-

h~ ,2'"

~

at ~ It
is rendered lit-

This expression meaning "If it were not---," erally in Japanese. The result

"Unless it be---"

is hardly Japanese

but has become conventional.

Unless it be Wang 'I'zii-chin, who could always be beautiful and good? 3. Concessive qualification.
i. A concessive

meaning may be clear without any specifically

concessive word. verb form

The relationship

is made clear in Japanese by the use of a concessive Frequently,

(e.g. page 32, section 1, Example c). specifically concessive word such as

however, Chinese does use a or

~ft~

"Although---" as follows.

ft:tt......,

"Even sup-

ii.

*tt .........

posing---."

These are rendered Japanese

in Japanese

form: .-...-V'", t

t"t "Though one may say that---."

Although Yen Yuan was a deeply learned man, by hitching his wagon to a star his conduct displayed itself all the more. The sign J<. means "Repeat the previous 1. Sometimes contracted to character."

1J:v'.., ~

l~"

.

b.

J~l' iF PJ ~t. 1>, ~
~""I:... ~ /J-N

)..:,C~e.)*M~:t....
:.,jL

>t":L

~

*;

(~.

"l )=16,

~,;...
V-

l-1: )..:.Z

,,7

69

-z ,~~

(cJ.

r tJ'~·rt.
A,,"

1.

tv><e'

0

Although you are in a hurry and cannot gallop because of them, how can you abandon them! c.

;fEl-k'Cl
v~; ('N

~l~, f~~~#tf~.
1:,'t

,

(~o~ri1 ) == ;ff1*a:t ~ 1 t Jtt~,~",

"'r'; 1:'.1

z;"

~At."

... 101 1I\.s..-

~,

~~*,-Iv~.
may be dull-witted, form: 1: 1::. t» "'_ ~=b am I the one to be afraid of Gen"Even supposing that-v-."
kt

Although I, Hsiang-ju, eral Lien. iii. ~
r---

a.

~t.;.I:.f_j:_)L 'rJir m £_fx', ~'M

Japanese

fiJ Ef :L:Z... (~.
D')

,:l) -~

v-

~.Lf
""; 1:.7

,J.

V)

R_

)[, ltir- Jt- t ~'

,t"

6>~

01:>11\.

"';

~£. z,

t J::.-iJ) ~·fPJ

-n~

1$.1v

iiJ

~Iv 1&'<

.:-lIt.H-

l§'

h 'J '{

:Z_ v: ~ ~ tv.>(.

Even supposing that the elders pity, how could I face them? XIII. Summarizing Words and Phrases. between statements to summarize

of Chiang-tung were to make me a king out of

The connection demonstrative) other related

may be made by using a word or phrase statement and indicate its relationship

(usually to anto be

a preceding

statement.

These summarizing

words are often used where the statement

is long and involved.

Many kinds of relationship

can be indicated in this way. in the form of an independThe result is some-

In Japanese the statement

to be linked is usually rendered words are translated

ent statement and the summarizing thing hardly Japanese. 1. Topic + comment.
1. Jl'l....J
'.J..-j..-

literally.

,

ra_ ;z_ .

Japanese

form:

2.11'\.

In the kitchen there is fat meat, in the stables there are fat horses, [but] your people have the look of hunger and on the moors there are those who have died of famine. This is leading on beasts to devour men.

70
b.

~k~,~, ~ /f -;;y ~~,

1:'J::. ) = ~1
~ 1<~

,

.;,<

~j,

t. ,~,

l r.. *- We: ~
A."?

J)

ti;f.- if PI ~~m o~~t_
<.$ ;r';,

E;\ ~
-tJ<. Ii>

M;:~
!J1"(

~c~/~' e.. (~.

-3, ",,' t1''7

r:' ti;f._~
>;(

ffl J ,~ ,,' a- ~ ~'~

t ...

l1: , ~

1I't. ~

~

v t &:. ~ ~

..t:."

-'<'v~

v;!;'

e-

9t. ~ .fl:_

v<.

f~ ~

;,;;iI'-

tJ'S

1/

t- ~ ~ ).

When grain and fish and turtles are more than can be eaten, and when there is more timber than can be used, this enables the people to nourish the living and bury the dead without regrets. In Example b the "topic" statement is translated as a noun clause instead of

as the more usual independent sentence as in Example a.
ii.
:Z_ ~

Japanese forms a sort

form:

" ____

attributive

verb form + -'f

.
of

This

construction

of noun clause

which may be the topic

a sentence.

a. ~

r:: ~ t:. (·"C < iJ" .:.".!:. l;
"?

.. <

:z-"

-1~ e

I~

JJ<._ z.JM:' f. CAz. • -.!.k:- ) ==
0

~;I{-

t?)

,t~ 't t
I:.

1; -e J

;;

,U~
I.~

The turning downward. b. \~ ~~
...

of the people to benevolence is just like the way water moves
J:. 'J

ft,t!:::1v

?r.At ~~ e.~ ..A_:Z_.¥t It. ~-t e..... ..... -\~ (~ -1 a) k 't"'.or ""'t ~ t b~, =Jt <. ~~ i., A~-¥t v: 1"t:: -ttlv ~ -r~~J~' V)t._;,~.i.,
I

t?) ~

PI:

J. l

"

.>f.'.t

t1) ~~

When birds are about to die, their die, their sayings are good. 2. Qualifier
+ verb.

singing is pitiful; when people are about to

i. )..:)., k__

--- )

J.../(

Jt ---

Japanese
;>1\.

a.

J;)"

1t..lftt7.ft »t.

(Jt. ~$)=:3t

~ )-),tJJ; ")HE s ~~.
6';

t?

form:
Jt ,,;

z..1tl ~.:t

'7 "(

By this means he knew their abilities.
b. f~

*-

J..'!-,

LlZ-it~~~.(~. >'j_)

= Y~

*~~
~'I';;I/I-

~?

'1>'7 ~~

:!

J...)'

-z

Y~~

~~

t_

t.

On account of this Hsiang Liang considered nary. 3. Consequential i. relationship.

Hsiang Chi to be out of the ordi-

l:__ J..'A.. ,...._ ,

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Japanese to distinguish

form: 2.::" ~ :fJ from

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Having seen them alive he cannot bear their dying; having heard their voices he cannot bear to eat their flesh. For this reason the superior man puts the kitchen at a distance.
ii.

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form:

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"As a result."

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Kung Ao led his troops to attack Nan Chiin and his meritorious many. Therefore he created Ao King of Lin Chiang.
iii.

deeds were

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Japanese
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form: ~

t, VZ
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Actually I could not bear the way they were trembling like innocent people on the way to the place of death. For this reason I changed them for sheep. Japanese form: t.: ,-;:;h- lI'

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His attendants all wept, and none of them could look up at him. King Hsiang mounted his horse and rode off. 4. Conditional relationship.
i.

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Now why is it that kindness is sufficient to extend to birds and beasts, but merits not enough to get as far as the hundred families? If such is the case, then ----- the reason why the hundred families are not protected is that you do not use your kindness.

72 ii.

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a. F~ ~-?p ~ jL ~ \~
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form: vl.)'';

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It was the Duke of P'ei's Left Master of the Horse, Ts'ao Wu-shang, who said this. Otherwise, how could I, Chi, have come to such a conclusion! b.•
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Strike Duke P' ei in his seat and kill him. going to be taken prisoner.

Otherwise your followers are all

INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS (Page numbers 1 Stroke
-{1fT

underlined

include explanatory k~ .i!'Rt ;r,lft/f,.i!'*' .i!':W1
(!}J

material) 28. 22. 22. 72. 63. 31. 35. 38.

36. 2 Strokes

23. 52. 26 38. 36. 67.

l!J X

35. 59. 62. 63. 71. 47. 63. 3 Strokes

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5 Strokes 17. 32. 45. 55. 25. 35. 46. 60. 26. 36. 47. 64. 27. 37. 48. 66. li "'lili '" li""
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"'2- itI. til. (~. tJ,)
IV

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14. 16. 28. 30. 39. 43. 49. 54. 67. 68. 33. 36. 33. 36. 49. 50. 3. 34., 71. 17. 33. 34. 5

53. 70. 37. 41. 42. 47. 55. 64. etc. 35. 67

'""-if

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28. 18. 18. 5. 25. 43. 10.

-

72. 63 31. 35. 36. 41 42. 47. 50. 52. 56. 64.

27. 28. 31. 33. 34. 37. 38. 43. 48. 53. 54. 55. 57. 60. 64. 69. 70.

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4 Strokes 2. 12. 13. 18. 19. 21. 22 23. 24. 25. 26.28.30. 32. 34. 38. 48. 49. 52. 53. 54. 57. 58. 60. 64. 66. 67. 71. 72. 43 25. 26. 27. 53. 54. 57. 64. 66. 69. 70. 26. 52 38. 56. 63 31. 37. 48. 57 30. 72. 63. 63. 20. 24. 49. 54. 67. 22 22. 25. 63. 64.

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8. 56. 62. 9. 41. 16. 19. 25. 26. 43. 48. 52. 27. 28. 54. 65. 22. 30. 64. 19. 21. 33. 21. 21. 22. -6 Strokes 61. 30 43. 62. 30. 17. 44. 48. 49. 44. 50 40

71.

27. 35. 42. 53. 69. 65 60. 64. 65.

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52. 63. 68. 71. 37. 43. 49. 51. 61 48. 49. 66. 50. 54. 53. 54. 57 67. 55.

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tull;ffl-tlIJ -

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10. 33. 60. 42 12. 46. 69. 18. 48. 60. 68. 63. 63. 64. 33. 61. 34. 68.

II. 12. 13. 15. 21. 37. 42. 46. 52. 53. 61. 63. 64. 67. 69. 30. 50. 70. 27. 50. 61. 69. 32. 35. 37. 44. 62. 64. 65. 66.

~n
~frrT 11: till
Pff

72.

34. 41. 42. 46. 52. 56. 57. 59. 64. 65. 66. 67.

PJT~j ~

471

35. 44. 19. 43. 14. 43. 14.

62. 48. 30. 64. 16. 47.

66. 67. 71. 54. 69. 31. 36. 17. 23. 35. 38.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 12. 36. 38. 46. 47. 53. 54. 64. 65. 71. 72.

72.

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34. 62. 35. 42 50.

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31. 34. 35. 23. 24. 34. 42. 46. 60. 66. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 29. 9 Strokes

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13. 30. 31. 33. 34. 36.
39. 46. 48. 51. 67. 7. 71. 20. 31. 34. 55. 71. 4. 42

64. 13 36. 50. 47 50. 40. 44. 44. 36. 44. 44. 28 47 43 72 13 43

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37. 44. 46. 47. 49. --53. 54. 66. 69. 71.

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41. 49. 54. 72. 48 37 51. 47. 49. 50. 54. 55

71. 3: 4.
17. 46. 63. 70. 70. 44. 17. 15 13. 67. 41.

33. 46. 35. 53. 62.

34. 56. 36. 54.

35. 60. 47. 55.

37. 62. 49. 63.

38. 43. 66. 51. 52. 67. 69.

N:

25. 32. 33. 47. 71 31. 32. 34~ 37. 43. 47. 49. 52. 53. 56. 69. 70.

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71.
54 34. 58 . 67. 15. 27. 29. 61. 63. 71. 72. 42.

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17. 18.
66. 67. 10 Strokes

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10, 43. 57. 62. 67. 70. 38 2. 15. 18. 31. 42. 46. 54. 55. 60. 66. 68. 70.

m
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40 37 63 44. 46. 49. 50. 54. --40. 41

75


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41. 43. 52. 17. 45. 49. 70.

13 strokes ~ ~
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29. 29. 44. 45. 22 19. 37.

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45. 53. 46. 20. 24. 25. 40. 44. 50. 55 ---

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37. 37. 37. 68. 69. 19. 30. 37. 49. 58. 14 Strokes 31. 21.


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11. 21. 55. 71.

44. 46. 53. 68. --16 Strokes

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41. 42. 43. 52. 39. 43. 63.

12 Strokes

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37. 69. 71. 17 Strokes

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16. 50.
51. 44. 22. 19. 70 21. 19. 23. 12.

44. 50. 51. 51. 28. 53. 28. 30 68. 69. 34. 42. 52. 54. 68. 69. 13. 18 Strokes 41. 31. 36 . 19 Strokes Ifff

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51. 55. 56. 23. 54. 55. 52. 39. 47. 48. 66. II. 12. 13. 26. 27. 39. 43. 46. 54. 58. 60. 63. 66. 67. 70. 71. 52. 62. 60. 60. 30. 71. 61 7. 44. 46. 71. 8. 29. 72. 37. 46. 52 . 31. 46.

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INDEX OF JAPANESE (Page numbersunderlined
7

READINGS.

include explanatory material)

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37. 20. 24. 51. 55. 17. 34. 19. 23. 52. 22. 23. 23. 24. 60. 66. 10. 11. 37. 42. 60. 63. 44. 48. 44. 48. 54. 69. 51. 16. 50. 44. 51. 37. 44. 50. 50. 55. 40. 44. 45. 45. 46. 44. 51. 64. 34. 42. 19. 21. 21. 66. 67. 19. 20. 22. 25. 40. 35. 40. 8. 56. 17. 71 5." 65.

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49. 54. 67. 67. 58. 67. 54. 55 52. 34. 41. 42. 46. 12. 13. 21. 33. 45. 49. 52. 53. 64. 67. 69. 54. 57.

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21. 31. 22. 70. 12. 71 30. 71. 31. 63. 39 . 39. 61 13. 36. 42. 52. 60. 67. 42.

35. 36. 29. 30. 64. 71. 30. 61. 66. 72. 37. 43. 49. 51. 66. 34. 39. 46. 47. 50. 64. 65.

17. 37. 43. 53. 61. 68.

21. 38. 46. 54. 62. 69.

30. 39. 47. 55. 63. 70.

32. 40. 48. 56. 64. 71.

35. 41. 49. 57. 65.

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26. 57. 63. 63. 37. 57. 72. 30. 60. 64. 61. 60. 15 10. 10.

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56. 60. 71. 71. 62.

77 33. 34. 35. 37. 38. 43. 46. 48. 49. 55. 56. 59. 60. 62. 63. 66. 71. 19. 20. ~ ls.- 31. 46. 54. 55. 60. 70. 71. 43.
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17. 30. 39. 49. 67. 53. 67.

25. 32. 43. 53. 68. 70.

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