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RIDERS TO THE SEA
[Edited with a Critical Introduction, Complete Paraphrase of the Text, Explanatory Notes, Questions and Answers]
RAMJI LALL, M.A. Formerly Principal Dyal Singh College (University of Delhi) New Delhi
Twenty-Sixth Edition 2009
RAMA BROTHERS INDIA PVT. LTD.
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His imagination was selective and given to what in modern painting is called “distortion” in the interests of aesthetic significance. The characters are symbolic or representative figures.PREFACE TO THE TWENTY-SIXTH EDITION For sheer literary artistry Synge had no superior during his time. the speech and setting are intensely local. The publishers feel perfectly satisfied with the response to this critical study of Riders to the Sea and are glad to bring out another edition of it. New Delhi July. whether in England or Ireland. and how to work them out in their fullness. Riders to the Sea is a marvel of simplification and elimination of the irrelevant and the literal. 2009 PUBLISHERS . but the tragic pattern. He knew how to produce his effects with an economy of words. the passion and philosophy of sorrow are universal experiences.
and important questions with complete answers have also been included in this book. This critical study of Synge’s tragic play has been designed to meet the examination requirements of advanced students of British Literature at Indian Universities. Not only the text of the play. too. Several chapters have been devoted to Synge’s life and his achievements in the field of drama. An intensely tragic effect has been produced through an utmost economy in the use of words.PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION Riders to the Sea is one of the best one-Act plays. The play has fully been discussed from all angles. New Delhi March. The portrayal of Maurya is especially successful. 1984 RAMJI LALL . have been made real and convincing. The characters. but a complete paraphrase of the play has been provided. It would be no exaggeration to describe this play as a tragic masterpiece.
Extracts from Synge’s Autobiographical Note-Books 4. Or Would you regard Maurya as a tragic character ? Give reasons for your answer. Critics on Riders to the Sea 12. What estimate have you formed of the character of Maurya from your reading of Riders to the Sea ? Or In what light does Synge depict the character of Maurya in Riders to the Sea ? Or Write a note on Synge’s portrayal of Maurya in Riders to the Sea. Synge’s Account of the Aran Islands 5. 1 9 14 17 25 29 39 44 50 58 62 66 70 79 106 130 146 146 149 . Riders to the Sea: Aspects of the Play 9. Or Analyze the plot-construction of Riders to the Sea. Q. Riders to the Sea: A Detailed Analysis 10. Riders to the Sea: A Summary 11. Synge as a Playwright 7. Cathleen. The Character of Maurya 13. and Bartley 14. RIDERS TO THE SEA [Text of the Play with Complete Paraphrase] 15. Explanations with Reference to the Context 17. 2. Examine the structure of Riders to the Sea. J. Important Questions with Answers Q. Synge’s View of Nature 6. The Irish Literary Background 2. Meanings and Explanatory Notes 16. Synge: His Life and Works 3.M. J. A Critical Survey of Synge’s Plays 8.CONTENTS 1. showing how a unity of effect has been achieved.M. Nora. 1.
Riders to the Sea. Or Bring out the symbolic elements. To what extent do the beliefs of these people contribute to the tragic atmosphere of the play ? Q. on the basis of your reading of Riders to the Sea. 5. Or Do you think that there are any supernatural elements in Riders to the Sea ? If so. Riders to the Sea. Bring out the role of destiny or fate in the play. Q. Bring out the supernatural elements in Synge’s play. Or What exactly does the sea in Riders to the Sea symbolize ? Has the author used any other symbols also in the play ? 151 155 158 160 . 3. Or Comment on the atmosphere of supernatural mystery and fear in Riders to the Sea. an account of the kind of life lived by the people of the islands which lie off the Irish coast. Riders to the Sea ? Or Examine the causes which operate to bring about the tragedy in the play. Or Fate or character: who is responsible for the tragedy in the play. Do you think this dictum is applicable to the play. 6. Q. Riders to the Sea. Write a note on the use of symbolism in the play. Riders to the Sea. What picture of the habits and beliefs of the poor seafaring people in the islands off Ireland coast does Synge give in Riders to the Sea ? Or Write. in the play. 4.(viii) Q. Riders to the Sea. said Novalis. Or “Character is Fate”. bring out their significance and justification. Riders to the Sea ? Give reasons for your answer. if any.
Riders to the Sea. Or Would you say that the play. Riders to the Sea ? 163 166 169 172 175 . Or How does Synge impart a universal quality to the theme and the characters whom he has chosen for treatment in the play. Riders to the Sea. 7. Do you agree with the view that Riders to the Sea is a local play which has a universal appeal ? Give reasons for your answer. Indicate the quality of dramatic art evident in Riders to the Sea. Or Comment on the view that the tragedy in Riders to the Sea attains a universal significance. Q. Riders to the Sea. Do you think that the tragedy in Riders to the Sea is made more lurid by being presented through the medium of the old mother. adequately been prepared by the hints and forebodings scattered throughout the play ? Q. showing the manner in which it leads up to the climax. Show how the play. Q. Or Show how Riders to the Sea transcends its regional character and acquires a universal significance. How far has the tragic climax in the play. Maurya ? Or Discuss the view that Maurya is an appropriate medium for conveying and precipitating the tragic sense that pervades Riders to the Sea.(ix) Q. produces in us a feeling of the hostility of fate towards human beings from its beginning to its end ? Or Bring out the dominant role which fate plays in Riders to the Sea. Q. although it deals with the fortunes of poor. Riders to the Sea. as evidence of Synge’s sense of drama. 9. 10. is pervaded by a sense of tragic doom. Or Examine the play. uncultured people living under rude and primitive conditions. 11. 8.
Or Some critics have found that the play. Riders to the Sea. Riders to the Sea. 14. Riders to the Sea. Riders to the Sea is unique in dramatic history. singly and collectively. Riders to the Sea. Riders to the Sea ? Is the effect one of bleak despair. and comment on this view of Synge’s play. What is your final impression of the play. Or Would you regard the plot of Riders to the Sea as too simple and its characterization as too sketchy to produce an impression of the play as a tragedy in the fullest sense ? Or Do you think that Riders to the Sea possesses the requisite elements of a truly tragic play ? Or Do you think that Riders to the Sea is a great tragic play ? Give reasons for your answer. for it is the only one-Act play that can be described as a tragedy in the fullest sense. Q. What are the essential characteristics of a one-Act play ? To what extent does Riders to the Sea give evidence of possessing these characteristics ? Or What are the tests or criteria by which a one-Act play is judged ? To what extent does Riders to the Sea fulfil those tests ? Or Write an assessment of Riders to the Sea as a one-Act play. Select Bibliography 179 182 185 188 193 . Discuss. How far does the play. What is your view in the matter ? Or Conflict is the essence of drama. meet this requirement ? Q.(x) Q. affords no scope for conflict.” Explain. or does it simply depress and dishearten you ? Q. 15. effect a catharsis of your feelings of pity and fear. 13. and kindred feelings. or one of calm resignation ? Or Does the play. 12. “The conflict is between the sea and humanity.
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