Chapter 11

Multinational Capital Budgeting
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Objectives
This chapter identifies additional considerations in multinational capital budgeting versus domestic capital budgeting. The specific objectives are: • to compare the capital budgeting analysis of an MNC’s subsidiary with that of its parent; • to demonstrate how multinational capital budgeting can be applied to determine whether an international project should be implemented; and • to explain how the risk of international projects can be assessed.
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Subsidiary versus Parent Perspective
• Should the capital budgeting for a multi-national project be conducted from the viewpoint of the subsidiary that will administer the project, or the parent that will provide most of the financing? • The results may vary with the perspective taken because the net after-tax cash inflows to the parent can differ substantially from those to the subsidiary.
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Subsidiary versus Parent Perspective
The difference in cash inflows is due to : • Tax differentials
– What is the tax rate on remitted funds?

• Regulations that restrict remittances • Excessive remittances
– The parent may charge its subsidiary very high administrative fees.

• Exchange rate movements Summary of factors: Exhibit 11.1
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Exhibit 11.1 Process of Remitting Subsidiary Earnings to the Parent
Cash Flows Generated by Subsidiary After-Tax Cash Flows to Subsidiary

Corporate Taxes paid to Host Government

Cash Flows remitted
by Subsidiary After-Tax Cash Flows Remitted by Subsidiary Conversion of Funds to Parent’s Currency

Retained Earnings by Subsidiary Withholding Tax Paid to Host Government

Cash Flows to Parent
Parent
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Subsidiary versus Parent Perspective
• A parent’s perspective is appropriate when evaluating a project, since any project that can create a positive net present value for the parent should enhance the firm’s value. • However, one exception to this rule may occur when the foreign subsidiary is not wholly owned by the parent.
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Input for Multinational Capital Budgeting
The following forecasts are usually required: 1. Initial investment 2. Consumer demand 3. Product price 4. Variable cost 5. Fixed cost 6. Project lifetime 7. Salvage (liquidation) value
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Input for Multinational Capital Budgeting
The following forecasts are usually required: 8. Fund-transfer restrictions 9. Tax laws 10. Exchange rates 11. Required rate of return

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Multinational Capital Budgeting
• Capital budgeting is necessary for all longterm projects that deserve consideration. • One common method of performing the analysis is to estimate the cash flows and salvage value to be received by the parent, and compute the net present value (NPV) of the project.
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Multinational Capital Budgeting
• NPV =
+

– initial outlay

S
t =1

n

cash flow in period t
(1 + k )t

(1 + k ) k = the required rate of return on the project n = project lifetime in terms of periods

+ salvage value n

• If NPV > 0, the project can be accepted.

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Capital Budgeting Analysis: Example
• Spartan, Inc., is considering the development of a subsidiary in Singapore that would manufacture and sell tennis rackets locally. Spartan’s management has asked various departments to supply relevant information for a capital budgeting analysis. (P287-289) The capital budgeting analysis to determine whether Spartan, Inc., should establish the subsidiary is provided in Exhibit 11.2 (P289).
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Capital Budgeting Analysis: Example
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Demand (1) Price per unit (2) Total revenue (1)(2)=(3) Variable cost per unit (4) Total variable cost (1)(4)=(5) Annual lease expense (6) Other fixed periodic expenses (7) Noncash expense (depreciation) (8) Total expenses (5)+(6)+(7)+(8)=(9) Before-tax earnings of subsidiary (3)–(9)=(10) Host government tax tax rate(10)=(11) After-tax earnings of subsidiary (10)–(11)=(12)

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Capital Budgeting Analysis: Example
13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Net cash flow to subsidiary (12)+(8)=(13) Remittance to parent (14) Tax on remitted funds tax rate(14)=(15) Remittance after withheld tax (14)–(15)=(16) Salvage value (17) Exchange rate (18) Cash flow to parent (16)(18)+(17)(18)=(19) PV of cash flow to parent (20) Initial investment (21) Cumulative NPV (22)
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Factors to Consider in Multinational Capital Budgeting
* Exchange rate fluctuations. Different scenarios should be considered together with their probability of occurrence. ( Example: P292 Exhibit 11.3) * Inflation. Although price/cost forecasting implicitly considers inflation, inflation can be quite volatile from year to year for some countries.
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Factors to Consider in Multinational Capital Budgeting
* Financing arrangement. Financing costs are usually captured by the discount rate. However, many foreign projects are partially financed by foreign subsidiaries. So, a more accurate approach is to separate the investment made by the subsidiary from the investment made by the parent, with the focuses put on the parent’s perspective. (P293 –P296) * Blocked funds. Some countries may require that the earnings be reinvested locally for a certain period of time before they can be remitted to the parent. (P297 Exhibit 11.6)
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Factors to Consider in Multinational Capital Budgeting
* Uncertain

salvage value. The salvage value typically has a significant impact on the project’s NPV, and the MNC may want to compute the break-even salvage value. (298) * Impact of project on prevailing cash flows. The new investment may compete with the existing business for the same customers. (P299 Exhibit11.7) * Host government incentives. These should also be considered in the analysis. * Real Options Some capital budgeting projects contain real options, which can enhance the value of a project. (P299)

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Adjusting Project Assessment for Risk
• If an MNC is unsure of the cash flows of a proposed project, it needs to adjust its assessment for this risk. • One method is to use a risk-adjusted discount rate . The greater the uncertainty, the larger the discount rate that is applied. • Many computer software packages are also available to perform sensitivity analysis and simulation. (P300-301)
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Questions and Applications
*1. Why should capital budgeting for subsidiary projects be assessed from the parent’s perspective? What additional factors that normally are not relevant for a purely domestic project deserve consideration in multinational capital budgeting? *2. What is the limitation of using point estimates of exchange rates in the capital budgeting analysis? List the various techniques for adjusting risk in multinational capital budgeting. Describe any advantages or disadvantages of each technique.
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Questions and Applications
3. Huskie Industries, a U.S.-based MNC, considers purchasing a small manufacturing company in France that sells products only within France. Huskie has no other existing business in France and no cash flows in euros. Would the proposed acquisition likely be more feasible if the euro is expected to appreciate or depreciate over the long run? Explain. 4. Flagstaff Corp. is a U.S.-based firm with a subsidiary in Mexico. It plans to reinvest its earnings in Mexican government securities for the next ten years since the interest rate earned on these securities is so high. Then, after ten years, it will remit all accumulated earnings to the United States. What is a drawback of using this approach? Assume the securities have no default or interest rate risk.

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Questions and Applications
5. When Walt Disney World considered establishing a theme park in France, were the forecasted revenues and costs associated with the French park sufficient to assess the feasibility of this project? Were there any other “relevant cash flows” that deserve to be considered? 6. Ventura Corp., a U.S.-based MNC, plans to establish a subsidiary in Japan. It is very confident that the Japanese yen will appreciate against the dollar over time. The subsidiary will retain only enough revenue to cover expenses and will remit the rest to the parent each year. Will Ventura benefit more from exchange rate effects if its parent provides equity financing for the subsidiary or if the subsidiary is financed by local banks in Japan? Explain.

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Questions and Applications
7. PepsiCo recently decided to invest more than $300 million for expansion in Brazil. Brazil offers considerable potential because it has 150 million people and their demand for soft drinks is increasing. However, the soft drink consumption is still only about one-fifth of the soft drink consumption in the United States. PepsiCo’s initial outlay was used to purchase three production plants and a distribution network of almost 1,000 trucks to distribute its products to retail stores in Brazil. The expansion in Brazil was expected to make PepsiCo’s products more accessible to Brazilian consumers.
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Questions and Applications
a. Given that PepsiCo’s investment in Brazil was entirely in dollars, describe its exposure to exchange rate risk resulting from the project. Explain how the size of the parent’s initial investment and the exchange rate risk would have been affected if PepsiCo had financed much of the investment with loans from banks in Brazil. b. Describe the factors that PepsiCo likely considered when estimating the future cash flows of the project in Brazil. c. What factors did PepsiCo likely consider in deriving its required rate of return on the project in Brazil?
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Questions and Applications
d. Describe the uncertainty that surrounds the estimate of future cash flows from the perspective of the U.S. parent. e. PepsiCo’s parent was responsible for assessing the expansion in Brazil. Yet, PepsiCo already had some existing operations in Brazil. When capital budgeting analysis was used to determine the feasibility of this project, should the project have been assessed from a Brazilian perspective or a U.S. perspective? Explain.

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