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Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers ANSI/TIA-942

Chris DiMinico cdiminico@ieee.org MC Communications

IEEE 802.3 HSSG

Data Center Standards
ANSI/TIA-942 Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers Co-chairs: Chris DiMinico & Jonathan Jew Published 2005 – available through TIA at www.tiaonline.org ANSI/NECA/BICSI-002 Data Center Design and Implementation Best Practices co-chairs: Jonathan Jew & John Kacperski best practices – complements TIA-942 – 2007 target
IEEE 802.3 HSSG

Who Developed TIA-942?
Developed by the TIA TR-42.1.1 Network Distribution Nodes subcommittee as Project No. 3-0092 Participants included: Architecture & Engineering Firms Consultants End Users Manufacturers

IEEE 802.3 HSSG

computer rooms. Close to half of the technical content deals with facility specifications.Purpose of TIA-942 Encourage early participation of telecom designers in data center design process Fill a void by providing standards for planning of data centers. server rooms. The standard encompasses much more than just telecommunications infrastructure.3 HSSG . IEEE 802. and similar spaces.

consoles) Accommodates current and future protocols (e. 10+ GbE ) Replaces unstructured point-to-point cabling that uses different cabling for different applications IEEE 802. channels. SAN.3 HSSG .g.. WAN.Purpose of TIA-942 Define a standard telecommunications infrastructure for data centers Structured cabling system for data centers using standardized architecture and media Accommodates a wide range of applications (LAN.

3 HSSG .Purpose of TIA-942 Specifications for data center telecommunications pathways and spaces Recommendations on media and distance for applications over structured cabling Establish a standard for data center tiers to replace several proprietary standards. The TIA data center tier standard is: • A tool to evaluate existing data centers • A tool to communicate design requirements IEEE 802.

A/C TABLE 247-7589 TABLE C D ROM SCANNER HP PRINTER AT &T DEFINIT Y UNIT CONS OLE CI SCO ROU TE R 3 4 5 6 7 8 N ETW OR K CABINET H8 NETWORK NETWOR K NETWOR K C ABINET I6 NE TWORK C ABINET I4 NE TWORK NE TWORK CABI NET I2 NETWORK CAB INE T NETWOR K CAB INE T I8 CABINET I7 CABI NET I3 CABI NET I1 N ETW OR K CABINET H7 NETWORK CABINET G7 N ETW ORK CABINET F6 N ETWORK CABINET E7 IBM CAB NETW OR K CABINET C6 NETWORK CABINET B7 N ETWOR K CABINET B6 N ETW OR K CABINET A6 N ETW OR K CABINET A5 NETWORK CABINET A4 N ETW OR K CABINET A3 N ETW OR K CABINET A2 HALON PANEL DESK NETWORK C ABINET E6 IBM 3746-900 IBM 3745 -A11 I5 N ETW OR K CABINET H6 N ETWOR K CABINET G6 NETWORK CABINET G5 N ETW ORK C ABINET F5 NETW OR K CABINET C5 NETW OR K CABINET C4 NETW OR K CABINET C3 NETWORK C ABINET E5 IBM IBM 3745-17A 3745-41D NETWORK CABIN ET H5 N ETW ORK C ABINET F4 N ETWOR K CABINET B5 N ETWOR K CABINET B4 N ETWOR K CABINET B3 NETWORK N ETWOR K CABINET B2 N ETWOR K CABINET B1 F/X 247-7543 HALON ABORT HALON RELEASE NETWORK C ABINET E4 NETWORK C ABINET E3 TAPE RACK TAPE RACK NETWORK CABIN ET H4 NETWORK CABIN ET H3 NETWORK CABIN ET G4 N ETW ORK C ABINET F3 N ETW ORK C ABINET F2 LAN CABINET F1 IBM 3745 -L13 SAA CABIN ET D2 NETW OR K CABINET C2 NETW OR K CABINET C1 PA C BELL POMONA A/C UNIT #8 9 10 11 12 G3 NETWORK CABIN ET G2 NETWORK C ABINET E2 NETWORK CABIN ET H2 SAA CABIN ET D1 NETWORK C ABINET E1 IBM DASD IBM DASD IBM S-390 R34 NETWORK CABIN ET H1 NETWORK CABIN ET G1 247-7538 13 14 TAPE RACK C ABI NE T A1 NETWORK CABIN ET 15 16 STORAGE C ABINE T IBM AS -400 IBM AS-400 INSTALL A CABLE WHEN YOU NEED IT (SINGLE-USE. UNORGANIZED CABLING) TABLE LOCKER STORAGE CABINET LIEBERT PDU -C 3174 CABINET STORAGE CABINET 3174 CABINET 3174 CABINET 3174 CABINET 3174 CABINET 3174 CABINET IEEE 802.Unstructured Cabling A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM AN AO AP AQ AR AS Heater .A/C POMONA A/C UNIT #6 1 DESK TABLE STORAGE CABINET F IL E CABI NET FI L E CABINET F IL E CABINET FIL E CABINET 2 He ater .A/C POMONA A/C UNIT #7 Heater .3 HSSG .A/C Heater .

A/C CD ROM SCANN ER HP PRINTER AT&T DEFINITY UNIT CISCO ROUTE R CON SOLE 3 4 5 6 7 8 NETWORK CABINET H8 NETWO K R CAB INE T I7 NE TWORK C ABINET I1 NE TWORK CABI NET I8 NE TWORK NETWORK NETWORK CABINET I3 NETWORK CABINET I2 NETWORK C ABI NET I5 CABIN ET I6 CAB IN ET I4 NETWORK C ABINET H7 NETWORK CABINET G7 NETWORK CABIN ET G6 N ETWOR K C ABINET G5 NETWORK CABIN ET G4 NETWORK CABIN ET G3 NETWORK CABIN ET G2 NETWORK CABIN ET G1 FIBER MDF COPPER & CORE MDF NETWORK C ABINET E7 NETWOR K C ABINET F6 NETWOR K C ABINET F5 N ETWORK CABINET E6 N ETWORK CABINET E5 N ETWORK CABINET E4 N ETWORK CABINET E3 N ETWORK CABINET E2 IBM 3745s IBM CAB NETWORK C ABINET C6 NETWORK CABINET B7 NETWORK CABINET B6 NETWOR K C ABINET A6 NETWOR K C ABINET A5 NETWOR K C ABINET A4 NETWOR K C ABINET A3 NETWOR K C ABINET A2 H ALON PANEL DESK IDF IBM 3746-900 IBM 3745-A11 NETWORK NETWORK C ABINET C5 NETWORK C ABINET C4 NETWORK C ABINET C3 IDF T APE RACK TAPE RACK C ABINET H6 N ETWOR K C ABINET H5 N ETWOR K C ABINET H4 N ETWOR K C ABINET H3 IBM IBM 3745 -17A 3745-41D NETWORK CABINET B5 NETWORK CABINET B4 NETWORK CABINET B3 F/X 247-7543 H ALON ABORT H ALON RELEASE NETWORK CABIN ET F4 NETWORK CABIN ET F3 NETWORK CABIN ET F2 LAN CABINET F1 IBM 3745-L13 SAA CABINET D2 POMONA A/C UNIT #8 9 10 11 12 NETWORK SAA C ABINET D1 C ABINET C1 Mainframe IBM DASD IBM DASD IBM S-390 R34 IDF IDF N ETWOR K C ABINET H2 N ETWOR K C ABINET H1 NETWORK CABINET B2 NETWORK CABINET B1 N ETWORK CABINET E1 IDF IDF IDF IDF IDF IDF 247-7538 13 14 TAPE RACK 15 16 S TOR AGE C AB IN ET IBM AS-400 IBM AS-400 STRUCTURED CABLING SYSTEM (ORGANIZED. FLEXIBLE CABLING) T ABLE STORAGE CABINET PAC B ELL C A BIN ET A1 NETWORK C ABINET C2 LOC KER LIEBERT PDU.A/C Heater .A/C POMONA A/C UNIT #6 1 DESK TABLE STORAGE CABINET TABLE 247-7589 TABLE FILE CABINET FIL E CABINET FIL E CABINET FIL E CABINET 2 Heater .C 3174 CABINET STORAGE CABINET 3174 CABINET 3174 CABINET 3174 CABINET 3174 CABINET 3174 CABINET IEEE 802.3 HSSG .A/C POMONA A/C UNIT #7 Heater . REUSABLE.Structured Cabling A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM AN AO AP AQ AR AS Heater .

Data center space considerations Annex F.Cabling Design Considerations Annex B.3 HSSG .Site selection IEEE 802.Telecommunications infrastructure administration Annex C-Access provider information Annex D.Design Elements Cabling Design Facility Design Network Design Informative annex’s: Provide best practices Annex A .Coordination of equipment plans with other engineers Annex E.

scalability. security.3 HSSG . cables. operations. and administration. reliability and space management IEEE 802.Design Elements Cabling Design: Copper and fiber cabling performance Connectors. distribution hardware Cabling distances Space management Facility Design: Data center sizing Power distribution methodologies Pathways and spaces HVAC. Flexibility.

IEEE 802.3 HSSG .Design Elements Network Design: Support of legacy systems Enable rapid deployment of new and emerging technologies such as 10 GbE and 10+ GbE copper and fiber applications.

3 HSSG .Relationship of Spaces BUILDING SITE BUILDING SHELL GENERAL OFFICE SPACE TELECOM ROOMS & EQUIPMENT ROOMS for spaces outside data center OFFICE BUILDING SUPPORT SPACE DATA CENTER SUPPORT STAFF OFFICES ENTRANCE ROOM(S) DATA CENTER ELECTRICAL & MECHANICAL ROOMS OPERATIONS CENTER TELECOM ROOM(S) for data center support spaces STORAGE ROOMS & LOADING DOCKS COMPUTER ROOM IEEE 802.

3 HSSG . Support Rooms Secondary Entrance Room Active Equip interconnect MC MC Active Equip interconnect Carriers Carriers Back bone Cabling HC IC HC IC Horizontal Cabling interconnect Active Equip Storage Area Devices interconnect Active Equip interconnect Active Equip Active Equip HC IC HC IC Zone Distribution interconnect Data Center IEEE 802.Data Center Topology Entrance Room Entrance Facility Carriers Active Equip interconnect Carriers Offices. Operations Center.

location of interface with campus and carrier entrance facilities Main Distribution Area (MDA) – location of main cross-connect (MC) Horizontal Distribution Area (HDA) – location of horizontal cross-connect (HC) Zone Distribution Area (ZDA) – location of zone outlet (ZO) or consolidation point (CP) Equipment Distribution Area (EDA) – location of equipment cabinets and racks IEEE 802.3 HSSG .TIA-942 Spaces Entrance Room (ER) .

Data Center Cabling MC MC Main Distribution Area Backbone Cabling Horizontal Cabling HC IC HC IC Horizontal Distribution Area Zone Distribution Area Equipment Distribution Area interconnect interconnect Active Equip interconnect Active Equip Active Equip Horizontal cabling is the cabling from the horizontal cross-connect (in the main distribution area or horizontal distribution area) to the outlet in the equipment distribution area or zone distribution area.3 HSSG . IEEE 802.

5/125 micron or 50/125 micron (ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.Horizontal and Backbone Cabling Recognized Cables: a) 100-ohm twisted-pair cable (ANSI/TIA/EIA-568B.3 HSSG .3) d) 75-ohm (734 and 735 type) coaxial cable (Telcordia Technologies GR-139-CORE) IEEE 802.2-1) b) multimode optical fiber cable. either 62. 50/125 micron 850 nm laser optimized multimode fiber is recommended (ANSI/TIA-568-3-1) c) singlemode optical fiber cable (ANSI/TIA/EIA568-B. category 6 recommended (ANSI/TIA/EIA568-B.3).2).

IEEE 802. 100 m for copper cabling including equipment cords. The maximum channel distance including equipment cords is 100 m.3 HSSG . The maximum cabling distance in a data center not containing a horizontal distribution area is: 300 m for an optical fiber channel including equipment cords.Horizontal cabling distances The maximum horizontal distance is 90 m independent of media type.

HDA Optional cabling between HDAs allowed Maximum backbone cable lengths depend on applications to be supported Centralized optical fiber cabling supported with interconnect.Backbone Cabling Includes cabling from MDA to ER. splice.3 HSSG . or pull-through at the HDA Star topology with no intermediate crossconnects Various topologies permit redundancy and flexibility to support various data center sizes IEEE 802.

5 ft Min door size 1m/3ft wide 2.13/7ft high Min dist floor loading 7.Computer Room & Entrance Room Requirements Min clear height of 2.2 kPA/150lbf/ft2.3 HSSG .6m/8. recommended min 12 kPA/250 lbf/ft2 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C 40% to 55% relative humidity (reduces ESD) Any sprinkler systems must be pre-action system Common bonding network (CBN) – equipotential ground reference IEEE 802.

and coaxial cable distribution IEEE 802. E-3s.3 HSSG . T-1s and T-3s) Install separate racks for Fiber. UTP. the central point of distribution for data center structured cabling system Centrally located to avoid exceeding maximum distance restrictions (typically for E1s.Main Distribution Area Location of Main Cross-Connect (MC).

Horizontal Distribution Area Location of Horizontal Cross-Connect (HC).3 HSSG . SAN. the distribution point for cabling to equipment distribution area Distribution LAN. KVM switches and console servers located in HDA MDA may also include an HC for nearby equipment distribution area Number of HDAs depends on the density of cabling and the size of the data center IEEE 802.

Horizontal Distribution Area The capacity of the cable tray system and the size of the cross-connect creates practical limits on the size of the HC Guideline is maximum of 2. and coax Locate switches and patch panels to minimize patch cord lengths IEEE 802.000 4-pair UTP or coax cable terminations per HDA Arrange patch bays to minimize patch cable lengths and to simplify cable management Separate racks for fiber.3 HSSG . UTP.

CP . or under floor enclosure that houses a zone outlet (ZO) or consolidation point (CP) ZO .g.intermediate termination point (e. cabling to areas where floor plan is uncertain or dynamic) No cross-connects within the ZDA No active equipment shall be located in the ZDA Maximum of 144 connections in a ZDA Maximum of one ZDA within a horizontal cable run IEEE 802.Zone Distribution Area Rack.3 HSSG .structured cabling termination for floor-standing equipment that cannot accept patch panels (e. mainframes and large servers). cabinet.g.

3 HSSG .Equipment Cabinets Front rails of cabinets must be recessed to provide adequate room for patch cables and wire managers Recommend 1-to-1 ratio of patching to cable management Arrange switches and patch panels to minimize patching between cabinets & racks Perforated tiles at front of cabinets One edge of cabinets placed at edge of tile IEEE 802.

3 HSSG . Allows higher power densities. better control of cooling. and more flexibility in location of cooling equipment Most stand-alone computer systems are designed for cabling from below Coordinate under floor cabling with mechanical & electrical engineers Recommend wire basket cable trays in hot aisles for telecom cabling IEEE 802.Raised Floor Better appearance than overhead cabling.

375" DIVIDER 18" 9" 4" 5" FIBER COPPER CABLING 1" SUPPORT STRUT 36" 12" 5" 4" 18" FIBER COPPER CABLING 1" SUPPORT STRUT Open Area 13.Example of Wire Basket Cable Trays For Cabling Under Raised Floor 24" RAISED FLOOR TILE 1.5" 24" On Center IEEE 802.3 HSSG .

3 HSSG distribution . overhead conduits. overhead power IEEE 802. ducts. Cable trays can be installed with several layers Coordinate location with lighting.Overhead Cable Trays Less expensive than raised floor systems Cable trays can be attached to the top of racks and cabinets (if they are uniform in height) Cable trays suspended from the ceiling provides more flexibility for supporting cabinets/racks of various heights and for adding and removing cabinets/racks.

3 HSSG .Overhead Cable Tray Example 3 Layer cable tray system: Bottom layer – signal Middle layer – power Top layer – fiber Signal Reference Grid in brackets attached to lower layer of trays Fiber patch cables may be in fiber duct attached to threaded rods IEEE 802.

3 HSSG . Labeling scheme extended for use in data centers Cabinets and racks labeled by location using tile grid or row/position identifiers All cabinets. cables.Infrastructure Administration Informative annex with TIA-606-A standards compliant labeling scheme for all components. and patch cords should be labeled IEEE 802. patch panels. racks.

3 HSSG .Labeling Example AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM AN AO AP AQ AR AS AT AU AV AW AX AY AZ BA "X" COORDINATE BB BC BD 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 Cat 6 x 24 RIGHT FRONT CORNER CABINET AJ05 CABINET AQ03 "Y" COORDINATE Patch Panel for 24 Cat 6 from 1st Panel in Cab AJ05 to 2nd Panel in Cab AQ03 AJ05-A to AQ03-B Ports 01-24 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 A A IEEE 802.

Site Selection Informative annex with guidelines for selection of a site for a data center Architectural Electrical Mechanical Telecommunications Security Other IEEE 802.3 HSSG .

electrical. mechanical. structural.Facilities Specifications & Tiers Informative annex with general architectural. mechanical. electrical.3 HSSG . security. and telecommunications recommendations requirements Annex includes detailed architectural. and telecommunications recommendations for each Tier Recommended specifications by tier are a uniform way to rate aspects of a data center design and are a starting point for initiating design requirements with qualified architects and engineers IEEE 802.

Data Center Tiers Tier 1 – basic data center no redundancy Tier 2 – redundant components Single distribution path with redundant components Tier 3 – concurrently maintainable Multiple distribution paths with only one active Tier 4 – fault tolerant Multiple active distribution paths IEEE 802.3 HSSG .

Redundant Topologies Carriers Carriers Carriers Carriers Primary Customer Maintenance Hole (Tier 1 and higher) Tie r3 2 Secondary Customer Maintenance Hole (Tier 2 and higher) Tier 3 Tier 1 Data Center Tier Primary Entrance Room (Tier 1 and higher) Tie r4 r3 Tier 3 Secondary Entrance Room (Tier 3 and higher) Tier 1 Tier 4 Offices.3 HSSG . Operations Center. Support Rooms Tie Telecom Room Main Dist Area (Tier 1 and higher) Tier 4 Secondary Dist Area (Optional for Tier 4) Computer Room Horiz Dist Area Optional Cabling Horiz Dist Area Zone Dist Area Horiz Dist Area Equip Dist Area Equip Dist Area Equip Dist Area IEEE 802.

electrical. but also have higher construction costs Data Center can have different tier ratings for different portions of its infrastructure (architectural. mechanical.Data Center Tiers Higher tiers correspond to higher availability. telecommunications) The overall rating for the data center is equal to the lowest tier rating Capacity of systems may need to be upgraded to maintain tier rating as data center load increases Human error and operating procedures have a major impact on availability IEEE 802. security.3 HSSG .

Builds on existing standards. but about half of the content deals with facility requirements.3 HSSG .Conclusion TIA-942 is the first standard to specifically addresses data center infrastructure. Primarily a telecom infrastructure standard. when applicable Guidelines on a wide range of subjects useful to someone designing or managing a data center. Provides a flexible and manageable structured cabling system using standard media. A way to objectively compare one center with another. IEEE 802. An official tiering standard for determining the quality of a center.

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