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EHS is a set of interrelated elements which includes organizational structure and planning: activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources, used to manage its EHS aspects and to develop and implement its EHS policy and objectives.
5.1 Environmental impact assessment,
Defining EIA An environmental impact assessment is an assessment of the possible positive or negative, whole or partial impact that a proposed project or an element of an organization’s activities or products or services, may have on the environment, together consisting of the natural, social and economic aspects. It is an exercise to document the consequences of a proposed project in totality along with measures necessary to keep the environment clean and healthy. Why we need EIA? The need to foresee the problems of a development project is the primary objective of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Helps an organization to identify aspects and evaluate impacts on various components of environment and to determine the significance of the impact. Helps an organization to establish, implement, maintain and continuously improve its environmental policy and objectives and to improve environmental performance. Provides for sustainable development Helps policy makers to evaluate the project’s environmental consequences and make decisions: whether to go ahead with the project or to curb/restrain activities. Works as a tool for identifying applicable environmental legislation and comply with them (The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986) Works as a tool to enhance assurance and satisfaction of interested parties: investors, customers, employee, etc. EIA is an exercise to be carried out before any project or major activity is undertaken to ensure that it will not in any way harm the environment on a short term or long term basis. Any developmental endeavor requires not only the analysis of the need of such a project, the monetary costs and benefits involved but most important, it requires a consideration and detailed assessment of the effect of a proposed development on the environment. The environment impact process was introduced with the purpose of identifying /evaluating the potential beneficial and adverse impacts of development projects on the environment, taking in to account environmental, social, cultural and aesthetic considerations. All of these considerations are critical to determine the viability of a project and to decide if a project should be granted environmental clearance. An EIA concentrate on problems, conflicts and natural resource constraints which might affect the viability of a project. It also predicts how the project could harm to people, their homeland, their livelihoods, and the other nearby developmental activities. After predicting potential impacts, the EIA identifies measures to minimize the impacts and suggests ways to improve the project viability. The aim of an EIA is to ensure that potential impacts are identified and addressed at an early stage in the projects planning and design. To achieve this aim, the assessment finding are communicated to all
the relevant groups who will make decisions about the proposed projects, the project developers and their investors as well as regulators , planners and the politicians. Having read the conclusions of an environmental impact assessment, project planners and engineers can shape the project so that its benefits can be achieved and sustained with out causing adverse impacts. In recent years, major projects have encountered serious difficulties because insufficient account has been taken of their relationship with the surrounding environment. Some projects have been found to be unsustainable because of resource depletion. Others have been abandoned because of public opposition, financially encumbered by unforeseen costs, held liable for damages to natural resources and even been the cause of disastrous accidents. Given this experience, it is very risky to undertake finance, or approve a major project without first taking in to account its environmental consequences and then siting and designing the project so as to minimize adverse impacts. Due to public pressure on the government to accept accountability for the activities of its agencies the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was formed in USA during 1970. This was the basis for the development of a mechanism which came to be known as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Applications / Scope of the EIA As per EIA notification – 2006, eight categories of industries/projects require to conduct EIA and submit the EIS/EIA Report to get environmental clearance from MoEF, GOI and by state level environment impact assessment authority constituted by GOI. These 8 categories are further categorized into A & B. The A categories are large-scale industries in terms of production above the specified limit and require to get the clearance from MoEF. However, B categories are small-scale industries with or without specified minimum production threshold but with production threshold below that of class A category get the clearance from state level environment impact assessment authority constituted by GOI.
List of Projects Requiring Environmental Clearance from the Central Government 1. Nuclear Power and related projects such as Heavy Water Plants, nuclear fuel complex, Rare Earths. 2. River Valley projects including hydel power, major Irrigation & their combination including flood control. 3. Ports, Harbours, Airports (except minor ports and harbours). 4. Petroleum Refineries including crude and product pipelines. 5. Chemical Fertilizers (Nitrogenous and Phosphatic other than single superphosphate). 6. Pesticides (Technical). 7. Petrochemical complexes (Both Olefinic and Aromatic) and Petro-chemical intermediates such as DMT, Caprolactam, LAB etc. and production of basic plastics such as LLDPE, HDPE, PP, PVC. 8. Bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals. 9. Exploration for oil and gas and their production, transportation and storage. 10. Synthetic Rubber. 11. Asbestos and Asbestos products. 12. Hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives. 13 (a) Primary metallurgical industries (such as production of Iron and Steel, Aluminium, Copper, Zinc, Lead and Ferro Alloys). (b) Electric arc furnaces (Mini Steel Plants). 14. Chlor alkali industry. 15. Integrated paint complex including manufacture of resins and basic raw materials required in the manufacture of paints. 16. Viscose Staple fibre and filament yarn. 17. Storage batteries integrated with manufacture of oxides of lead and lead antimony alloys. 18. All tourism projects between 200m—500 metres of High Water Line and at locations with an elevation of more than 1000 metres with investment of more than Rs.5 crores. 19. Thermal Power Plants. 20. Mining projects *(major minerals)* with leases more than 5 hectares.
21. Highway Projects **except projects relating to improvement work including widening and strengthening of roads with marginal land acquisition along the existing alignments provided it does not pass through ecologically sensitive areas such as National Parks, Sanctuaries, Tiger Reserves, Reserve Forests** 22. Tarred Roads in the Himalayas and or Forest areas. 23. Distilleries. 24. Raw Skins and Hides 25. Pulp, paper and newsprint. 26. Dyes. 27. Cement. 28. Foundries (individual) 29. Electroplating 30. Meta amino phenol
Process of EIA There are two ‘tiers’ of assessment which should be applied to the project before proceeding with a full scale EIA, Screening and preliminary assessment. Where these first tiers of assessment are a regulatory requirement, the developer normally does the work and submits the results to the regulatory agency. The agency may then decide that either there is nothing to be concerned about or the evaluation should proceed to the next tier. The most important step in the process of obtaining environmental clearance under the EIA notification is for the project proponent to conduct an environmental impact assessment of the project. For this purpose the project proponent engages an environmental consultant to prepare an EIA report. The EIA report must be prepared by incorporation of data during all the four seasons of the year. Such an EIA is termed a “comprehensive EIA”. How ever, there is provision for a single season collection of data, but this should not be done during the monsoon season. Such an EIA reports is termed a “Rapid EIA”. There are two tiers of assessment which should be applied to the project before proceeding with a full scale EIA – Screening and Preliminary Assessment. Wherever these first tiers of assessment are a regulatory requirement, the developer normally does the work and submits the results to the regulatory agency. The agency may then decide whether there is anything to be concerned about or whether the evaluation should proceed to the next tier. The second tier includes development of an environmental planning. Steps Involved in an EIA • Screening • Scoping • Examination of Alternatives • Mitigating Measures • Preparation of the EIS • Review of the EIS • Decision Making • Follow-up 5.2 Environmental Law – Pollution Acts (Air, Water and Soil pollution), Forest and Wildlife Acts. In June 1972 an United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was organized in Stockholm, The theme of the conference was based on the world community and it was resolved to protect and enhance the environment quality. The decision of the conference was that it is necessary to enact a comprehensive law on the subject to implement. Accordingly the Environment (Protection) Bill was introduced in the parliament.
The basis of India’s EHS (Environmental Health & Safety) Legislation is “Right to Life”mentioned in our constitution, to provide better environment to every citizen. Various Environmental Legislations relevant to the environmental component are WATER The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, is an Act to provide for prevention and control of water pollution and maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water. Generation of Effluents is covered under this statute. No person shall establish or operate any industrial plant in any pollution control area, (entire Karnataka is declared as pollution control area), and shall discharge or cause or permit to be discharge the emission of any pollutant in excess of the standards laid down by the PCB. The emission shall be with prior consent of the PCB. Contraventions shall be penalized. To implement this act, states have enacted their relevant Rules (1975). To augment the resources of the pollution control Board water (P & C of pollution) cess Act 1977 been enacted. This Act provides the government to collect cess from water users, which is to be ultimately used for the pollution control activities and relevant R & Ds. AIR The Air (prevention & control of pollution) Act, 1981 is an Act to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution. Emissions of solid or liquid substances (including noise) are covered under this statute. No person shall establish or operate any industrial plant in any air pollution control area, (entire Karnataka is declared as air pollution control area), and shall discharge or cause or permit to be discharge the emission of any air pollutant in excess of the standards laid down by the PCB. The emission shall be with prior consent of the PCB. Contraventions shall be penalized. SOIL Basically soil pollution is being governed by Notification and Rules under the Provision of the environment (protection) Act 1986. This Act confirms powers to take all such measures as it deems necessary or expedient for the purpose of protection and improving the quality of the environment and preventing, controlling and abating environmental problems. This Act imposes a duty on every person to take steps to prevent or mitigate the environmental pollution – This Act also specifies Industry specific standards, equipments based standards and general standards for recipient environment. The Environmental Impact Assessment Notification-1994 & Coastal Regulation Zone-1991 regulate establishment of industries to certain locations where the soil pollution may be manageable. Further, there are pollution specific rules, viz. the Hazardous waste (Management & Handling) Rules – 1989, Hazardous Chemical Rules - 1992, Hazardous Micro-Organisms, Genetically engineered Microorganisms or Cells Rule – 1989, Bio-medical Waste Rule (1989) regulates handling of hazardous wastes, chemicals, Micro-organisms & biomedical waste respectively. All these statutory requirements are being regulated by Central & State Pollution Control Boards. FOREST LAWS: In 1878 the then British Government in India enacted the Indian Forest Act, relating to forests in British India. Later it was amended several times. All these amendments been consolidated as Indian Forest Act in 1927 to deal with forests (whether reserved/unreserved), the transit of forest produce & the duty levy-able on timber & other forest produce. In 1952, the National Forests Policy had recommended a national target of 1/3 of the geographical area of the country (100 m hectors) should be under forest from notified 74 m hectors. In view to implement the policy recommendation & to conserve forest, Government of India enacted Forest
(Conservation) Act 1980. This Act checks indiscriminate deforestation & diversion of forest land to non forest purposes. Under the provisions of the Act, The Government formulated the Forest (Conservation) Rules 2003, which necessitates prior approval of Government before any reserved forest is de-reserved or diverted to non forest purposes & the violations attract strict panel provision / prosecution. However over the years, forests, in the country have suffered serious depletion. This is attributable to relentless pressures arising from ever increasing demand for fuel wood, fodder and timber, inadequacy of protection measures, diversion of forest lands to non forest uses & the tendency to look upon forest as revenue earning resources, In order to reduce the illegal felling and strengthen efforts of state Government to ensure environmental stability & maintenance of ecological balance including atmospheric equilibrium which are vital for sustenance of all life forms, a comprehensive National Forest Policy been enacted in 1988. WILDLIFE LAWS: During 18th & 19th centuries, ruthless destruction of wild life for dreadful gains led to the extinction of 200 species and 250 species became endangered. In view to conserve this wildlife, India is probably the first country to enact a Wild Life (Protection) Act in 1887, later re-enacted in 1972. Under this act possession, trapping, shooting of wild animals alive or dead, serving their meat for eating houses, their transportation and export been controlled. The hunting of female, young once and threatened species are completely prohibited and others being provided protection according to their state of population size. The Wild Life (Protection) Rule, 1995 has also been enforced regarding setting up of Zoo authority, protection of rare and endangered species.
5.3 Environmental planning,
Environmental Planning is the process of facilitating decision making to carry out development with due consideration given to the natural environmental, social, political, economic and governance factors and provides a holistic frame work to achieve sustainable outcomes. Elements of environmental planning Environmental Planning concerns itself with the decision making processes where they are required for managing relationships that exist within and between natural systems and human systems. Environmental Planning endeavours to manage these processes in an effective, orderly, transparent and equitable manner for the benefit of all constituents within such systems for the present and for the future. Present day Environmental Planning practices are the result of continuous refinement and expansion of the scope of such decision making processes. Some of the main elements of present day environmental planning are: • Social & economic development • Urban development • Regional development • Natural resource management & integrated land use • Infrastructure systems • Governance frameworks The environmental planning assessments encompass areas such as land use, socio-economics, transportation, economic and housing characteristics, air pollution, noise pollution, the wetlands, habitat of the endangered species, flood zones susceptibility, coastal zones erosion, and visual studies among others, and is referred to as an Integrated environmental planning assessment. Comprehensive Environmental Planning:
5.4 Environmental management tools:
It is a system of continuous improvement in quality, technology, processes, company culture, productivity, safety and leadership. Kaizen was created in Japan following World War II. The word Kaizen means "continuous improvement". It comes from the Japanese words ("kai") which means "change" or "to correct" and ("zen") which means "good". Kaizen is a system that involves every employee - from upper management to the cleaning crew. Everyone is encouraged to come up with small improvement suggestions on a regular basis. This is not a once a month or once a year activity. It is continuous. Japanese companies, such as Toyota and Canon, a total of 60 to 70 suggestions per employee per year are written down, shared and implemented. In most cases these are not ideas for major changes. Kaizen is based on making little changes on a regular basis: always improving productivity, safety and effectiveness while reducing waste. Suggestions are not limited to a specific area such as production or marketing. Kaizen is based on making changes anywhere that improvements can be made. Western philosophy may be summarized as, "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." The Kaizen philosophy is to "do it better, make it better, improve it even if it isn't broken, because if we don't, we can't compete with those who do." Kaizen in Japan is a system of improvement that includes both home and business life. Kaizen even includes social activities. It is a concept that is applied in every aspect of a person's life.
In business Kaizen encompasses many of the components of Japanese businesses that have been seen as a part of their success. Quality circles, automation, suggestion systems, just-in-time delivery, Kanban and 5S are all included within the Kaizen system of running a business. Kaizen involves setting standards and then continually improving those standards. To support the higher standards Kaizen also involves providing the training, materials and supervision that is needed for employees to achieve the higher standards and maintain their ability to meet those standards on an on-going basis. The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as: • Standardize an operation and activities. • Measure the standardize operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory) • Gauge measurements against requirements • Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity • Standardize the new, improved operations • Continue cycle ad infinitum The five main elements of kaizen • Teamwork • Personal discipline • Improved morale • Quality circles • Suggestions for improvement
5.4.2 Lean manufacturing
Lean manufacturing, lean enterprise, or lean production, often simply, "Lean," is a production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination. Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a product or service, "value" is defined as any action or process that a customer would be willing to pay for. Essentially, lean is centered on preserving value with less work. Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) (hence the term Toyotism is also prevalent) and identified as "Lean" only in the 1990s. TPS is renowned for its focus on reduction of the original Toyota seven wastes to improve overall customer value, but there are varying perspectives on how this is best achieved. The steady growth of Toyota, from a small company to the world's largest automaker, has focused attention on how it has achieved this. Steps to achieve lean systems The following steps should be implemented to create the ideal lean manufacturing system:: Phase 0 - Adopt Lean Process The decision to change the organization’s operating philosophy to Lean. Phase 1 - Prepare Introduction – The preparation phase is where the strategy is defined and the support structure is put into place for the transformation to Lean. During this phase a cross functional group is established and given the authority, responsibility, and accountability for the transformation. Interfaces with other parts of the enterprise and key business systems are recognized and defined. Major issues such as workforce changes and culture attributes are surfaced and addressed. Knowledge of Lean principles and practices begin to be learned by key parts of the organization. Policies and guidelines are set into place as well as the metrics to measure implementation progress. A strategic plan for implementing Lean that addresses: A. Leadership and organizational support B. People and organization cultural issues C. Target objectives and metrics D. Training Phase 2 - Define Value Introduction – At this phase of implementation the focus is placed upon understanding value in the eyes of the customer and those processes most directly related to providing this value. The area of initial implementation may initially be very narrow such as a specific family of parts, sub-assemblies, or a particular manufacturing process.
A more ambitious and risky approach for an initial implementation may be for a large or complex assembly or for an entire manufacturing facility or site. The product, customer, and value all defined so as to allow the distinction between value added and non-value added operations.” Phase 3 - Identify Value Stream Introduction- Value stream mapping provides a means to easily recognize and communicate what is taking place thus allowing team members to more readily target waste elimination. Value stream mapping is an iterative step in the transition to Lean process and is an important part of the continuous improvement process. There are many simple and effective ways for recording the value stream, sophisticated computer simulations or mathematical models are not required. “Output - A value stream map that shows the entire information and production process as a system with measures of value added and waste for each process.” Phase 4 - Design Production System Introduction - The concept behind this phase is to do the high level design of the production system. This design must recognize that the implementation will take several stages (Phases 5 and 6). Therefore, the key point in this phase is to consider the system design in total and not to get mired in the details of the implementation. This phase involves less implementation and more planning. It is important to understand where and how the production system will evolve. Output - A production system design that is ready for incremental implementation Phase 5 - Implement Flow Introduction - This phase marks the conversion from a batch and queue type of operation to cellular type of operation. In this phase individual cells are established in the production system to implement flow within those cells. The principles of this phase are applicable to both fabrication and assembly. Process “Output - Areas within the production system have implemented processes to ensure that production flow has been achieved. In this state individual areas have managed to reduce a significant amount of waste.” Phase 6 - Implement Total System Pull Introduction - This phase links the various flow operations within the entire production system. This often equates to linking individual cells within the production system and suppliers with a pull type system. Successful completion of this phase results in a just-in-time type of pull production system that starts with suppliers and ends with the final customer. “Output - A production system that matches its production to what the customers demands at the rate, quantity and mix that is demanded.” Phase 7 - Strive for Perfection Introduction - This phase provides for continuous improvement and feedback . The various Lean techniques and tools implemented in earlier phases are repeated and refined taking the improvements to the next level. The organization matures from directive to collaborative to empowered. Metrics are reassessed and revised or replaced as necessary to ensure that they are meaningful indicators of the production processes and the overall health of the Lean implementation. The outputs from this phase may feed back into any and all other phases as the Lean transition improves the competitive position of the production operation and the enterprise. “Output - Just as the inputs to Phase 7 may take place at any and at numerous times concurrently with Phases 2 through 6, the outputs of Phase 7 are incremental, continuous, and generally supportive of the Lean transition process.” Design a simple manufacturing system • Recognize that there is always room for improvement • Continuously improve the lean manufacturing system design • Design a simple manufacturing system A fundamental principle of lean manufacturing is demand-based flow manufacturing. In this type of production setting, inventory is only pulled through each production center when it is needed to meet a customer's order. The benefits of this goal include: decreased cycle time
less inventory increased productivity increased capital equipment utilization There is always room for improvement The core of lean is founded on the concept of continuous product and process improvement and the elimination of non-value added activities. "The Value adding activities are simply only those things the customer is willing to pay for, everything else is waste, and should be eliminated, simplified, reduced, or integrated". Improving the flow of material through new ideal system layouts at the customer's required rate would reduce waste in material movement and inventory. Continuously improve A continuous improvement mindset is essential to reach a company's goals. The term "continuous improvement" means incremental improvement of products, processes, or services over time, with the goal of reducing waste to improve workplace functionality, customer service, or product performance.
5.4.3 What is an Environmental Management System? An Environmental Management System provides a framework for managing environmental responsibilities so they become more efficient and more integrated into overall business operations. A company's environmental performance can have a significant impact on its success Environmental Management Systems are based on standards, which specify a process of achieving continuously improved environmental performance and compliance with legislation. ISO 14001 is the internationally recognized standard for Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Environmental Management Systems offers registration to ISO 14001 which will help you achieve the standard and so enhance an organization's competitive advantage and reputation. Registration can: Remove uncertainty and inconsistency by managing disruption and waste Give competitive advantage to avoid international trade barriers Help companies stay compliant with regulatory requirements Improve overall performance Demonstrate high environmental standards Demonstrate compliance with legislation Reduce costs Improve efficiency What is ISO 14001? ISO 14001 is an international standard that specifies a process for controlling and improving a company's environmental performance. ISO 14001 consists of: • General requirements • Environmental policy • Planning • Implementation and operation • Checking and corrective action • Management review
This means you: • Identify elements of your business that impact on the environment and gain access to the relevant environmental legislation.
Produce objectives for improvement and a management program to achieve them, with regular reviews for continual improvement.
Implementing an EMS
There are key steps that every company implementing an EMS will need to consider: Purchase the Standard: Before you can begin preparing for your application, you will require a copy of the standard. You should read this and make yourself familiar with it. Review support literature: There are a wide range of environmental publications designed to help you understand, implement and become registered to a Environmental Management System. Gain commitment and backing of senior managers: You should begin the entire implementation process by gaining the commitment and backing of Senior Managers with top management. Consider Training: There are a range of workshops, seminars and training courses available to help you implement and assess your Environmental Management System. Review Consultancy Options: You can receive advice from independent consultants on how best to implement your environmental management system. They will have the experience in implementing an EMS and can ensure you avoid costly mistakes. Choose a registrar: The registrar is the 3rd party, like BSI, BVQI, TUV, etc. who come and assess the effectiveness of your environmental management system, and issue a certificate if it meets the requirements of the standard. Choosing a registrar can be a complex issue as there are so many operating in the market. Factors to consider include industry experience, geographic coverage, price and service level offered. The key is to find the registrar who can best meet your requirements. Develop your Environmental Policy: Your environmental policy will state your commitment to compliance with legal and regulatory demands, continual improvement and the prevention of pollution. You should make this policy available to your market and the public. Review and produce objectives: At this stage you should identify the elements of your business that impact on the environment, establish access to relevant environmental legislation and regulations and produce objectives and targets for environmental improvement and a management program to achieve them. Implementation and Operation: The key to implementation is communication and training of staff. During the implementation phase you should provide resources for personnel and clearly define the roles within your organization. At this stage, you will document and control your management system in controlling operations that may have an environmental impact. Gain registration: The initial registration to ISO 14001 involves a 2 stage assessment process, including a document review and a site visit. You should arrange the initial assessment with your registrar. It's often a good idea to include a pre-assessment designed to act as a practice assessment. Following the 2 stage initial assessment the assessor will determine whether you should be recommended for registration. Continual assessment: Once you have received registration and been awarded your certificate, you can begin to advertise your success and promote your business. To maintain your registration, you will need to ensure legislative compliance, record information on the operation of your EMS and demonstrate continual improvement, This will be periodically checked by your registrar to ensure that your Environmental Management System continues to meet the requirements of the standard.
5.5 What is an Occupational Health and Safety Management System?
An Occupational Health and Safety Management System provide a framework for managing OHS responsibilities so they become more efficient and more integrated into overall business operations. OHS Management systems are based on standards, which specify a process of achieving continuously improved OHS performance and complying with legislation. Registration can:
5.5.1 Health & Safety management tools:
What are OHSAS 18001 and OHSAS 18002?
OHSAS 18001 is an assessment specification for Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems. It was developed in response to the need for companies to meet their health and safety obligations in an efficient manner. To compliment OHSAS 18001, BSI published OHSAS 18002, which explains the requirements of the specification and shows you how to work toward implementation and registration. Together, this integrated package will provide your business with the practical means of registration: • Identify elements of your business that impact on health and safety and gain access to the relevant legislation • Produce objectives for improvement and a management program to achieve them, with regular reviews for continual improvement
Implementing an OHSMS
There are key steps that every organization implementing an Occupational Health and Safety Management System will need to consider: Purchase the Specification: Before you can begin preparing for your application, you will require a copy of the specification. Review support literature: There are a wide range of publications designed to help you understand and implement an Occupational Health & Safety Management System. Consider Training: There are a range of workshops, seminars and training courses available to help you implement and assess your Occupational Health & Safety Management System. Review Consultancy Options: You can receive advice from independent consultants on how best to implement your Occupational Health & Safety management system. They may have the experience in implementation that can help you avoid costly mistakes. Design the OHSAS 18001 Management System: The OHSAS 18001 Specification follows the Plan-Do-Check-Review cycle, with a concurrent emphasis on continual improvement. This model fits in neatly with the structure of other management system documents such as ISO 14001. This alignment of the management system documents helps in the facilitation of Integrated Management Systems. The following steps help form the basic structure of the management system and link into the structure of OHSAS 18001. Plan: During the planning stage you should:
• • • •
Ensure you have the commitment of top management. Define, with the authorization of top management, the company's occupational health and safety policy. Planning must be completed to establish a framework for identifying hazards, the assessment of risks and the implementation of necessary control measures. Legal obligations must be identified and understood, objectives set and a management programme for achieving them implemented. This entire process should be documented.
Implement your Health and Safety Management System: At this point you should: • Establish roles and responsibilities. • Develop procedures for the consultation and communication of OHS information to employees and other interested parties. • Document your processes and develop a system of document and data control. • Apply a system of operational control. • Establish plans and procedures for emergencies. Check your management system and take any necessary corrective action: You should aim to continually improve your management system by: • Introducing performance, measuring and monitoring practices. • Establishing and documenting responsibility and authority for accidents, incidents, non-conformities and corrective & preventative action. • Establishing a procedure for records and records management. • Auditing and assessing the performance of the management system. • Performing management reviews of the system at identified and defined intervals. Gain registration: Registration is a phased approach adding value and facilitating the development of the system. During registration your OHSAS 18001 management system will be reviewed. Continual assessment: Once you have received registration and been awarded your certificate, you can begin to advertise your success and promote your business. Your registrar will periodically check this to ensure that your system continues to meet the requirements of the Specification.
5.6 Social Accountability
SA8000 is a global social accountability standard for decent working conditions, developed and overseen by Social Accountability International (SAI). Significance Dominic A. Tarantino, Chairman of Price Waterhouse World Firm described SA8000 in 1998 as "the first ever universal standard for ethical sourcing... It provides a common framework for ethical sourcing for companies of any size and any type, anywhere in the world. SA8000 sets out provisions for issues such as trade union rights, the use of child labor, working hours, health and safety at work, and fair pay." However, it does not address broader issues of ecology or bribery or other issues which may require more consumer or executive restraint. Tarantino further argued the need for moral leadership: "Pricing, products and services are no longer the sole arbiters of commercial success... it is business that must take the lead in taming the global frontier. Business must take the lead in establishing rule of law in emerging markets. Business must take the lead in stopping bribery. Business must take the lead in bringing order to cyberspace. Business must take the lead in ensuring that technology does not split the world into haves and have nots."
SA8000 is an auditable certification standard based on the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Convention on the Rights of the Child and various International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions. SA8000 covers the following areas of accountability: • Child labor: No workers under the age of 15; minimum lowered to 14 for countries operating under the ILO Convention 138 developing-country exception; remediation of any child found to be working. • Forced labor: No forced labor, including prison or debt bondage labor; no lodging of deposits or identity papers by employers or outside recruiters. • Health and Safety: Provide a safe and healthy work environment; take steps to prevent injuries; regular health and safety worker training; system to detect threats to health and safety; access to bathrooms and potable water. • Freedom of Association and Right to Collective Bargaining: Respect the right to form and join trade unions and bargain collectively; where law prohibits these freedoms, facilitate parallel means of association and bargaining. • Discrimination: No discrimination based on race, caste, origin, religion, disability, gender, sexual orientation, union or political affiliation, or age; no sexual harassment. • Discipline: No corporal punishment, mental or physical coercion or verbal abuse • Working hours: Comply with the applicable law but, in any event, no more than 48 hours per week with at least one day off for every seven day period; voluntary overtime paid at a premium rate and not to exceed 12 hours per week on a regular basis; overtime may be mandatory if part of a collective bargaining agreement. • Compensation: Wages paid for a standard work week must meet the legal and industry standards and be sufficient to meet the basic need of workers and their families; no disciplinary deductions. • Management systems for Human Resources: Facilities seeking to gain and maintain certification must go beyond simple compliance to integrate the standard into their management systems and practices. Certification A facility wishing to seek certification to SA8000 must apply to a SAAS-accredited auditing firm, or certification body. Assessment of compliance to the SA8000 Standard and the issuance of accredited SA8000 certifications are available only through SAAS-accredited, independent organizations.
5.7 Sustainable development (SD)
Sustainable development (SD) is a pattern of resource use, that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come (sometimes taught as ELF-Environment, Local people, Future). The term was used by the Brundtland Commission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity. As early as the 1970s "sustainability" was employed to describe an economy "in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems." Ecologists have pointed to The Limits to Growth, and presented the alternative of a "steady state economy" in order to address environmental concerns. The field of sustainable development can be conceptually broken into three constituent parts: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and sociopolitical sustainability. In 1987, the United Nations released the Brundtland Report, which included what is now one of the most widely recognised definitions: "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:
the concept of 'needs', in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and • the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs." The United Nations 2005 World Summit Outcome Document refers to the "interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars" of sustainable development as economic development, social development, and environmental protection. Indigenous peoples have argued, through various international forums such as the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and the Convention on Biological Diversity, that there are four pillars of sustainable development, the fourth being cultural. The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (UNESCO, 2001) further elaborates the concept by stating that "...cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature”; it becomes “one of the roots of development understood not simply in terms of economic growth, but also as a means to achieve a more satisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence". In this vision, cultural diversity is the fourth policy area of sustainable development. Economic Sustainability: Agenda 21 clearly identified information, integration, and participation as key building blocks to help countries achieve development that recognises these interdependent pillars. It emphasises that in sustainable development everyone is a user and provider of information. It stresses the need to change from old sector-centred ways of doing business to new approaches that involve cross-sectoral co-ordination and the integration of environmental and social concerns into all development processes. Furthermore, Agenda 21 emphasises that broad public participation in decision making is a fundamental prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. According to Hasna Vancock, sustainability is a process which tells of a development of all aspects of human life affecting sustenance. It means resolving the conflict between the various competing goals, and involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity famously known as three dimensions (triple bottom line) with the resultant vector being technology, hence it is a continually evolving process; the 'journey' (the process of achieving sustainability) is of course vitally important, but only as a means of getting to the destination (the desired future state). However, the 'destination' of sustainability is not a fixed place in the normal sense that we understand destination. Instead, it is a set of wishful characteristics of a future system. Green development is generally differentiated from sustainable development in that Green development prioritizes what its proponents consider to be environmental sustainability over economic and cultural considerations. Proponents of Sustainable Development argue that it provides a context in which to improve overall sustainability where cutting edge Green development is unattainable. For example, a cutting edge treatment plant with extremely high maintenance costs may not be sustainable in regions of the world with fewer financial resources. An environmentally ideal plant that is shut down due to bankruptcy is obviously less sustainable than one that is maintainable by the community, even if it is somewhat less effective from an environmental standpoint. Some research activities start from this definition to argue that the environment is a combination of nature and culture. The Network of Excellence "Sustainable Development in a Diverse World", sponsored by the European Union, integrates multidisciplinary capacities and interprets cultural diversity as a key element of a new strategy for sustainable development. In fact, some researchers and institutions have even pointed out that a fourth dimension should be added to the three dimensions of sustainable development, since these three dimensions do not seem to be enough to reflect the complexity of contemporary society. In this context, the Agenda 21 for culture and the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) Executive Bureau lead the preparation of the policy statement “Culture: Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development”, passed on 17 November 2010, in the framework of the World Summit of Local and Regional Leaders – 3rd World Congress of UCLG, held in Mexico City. This document inaugurates a new perspective and points to the relation between culture and sustainable development through a dual approach: developing a solid cultural policy and advocating a cultural dimension in all public policies.
Still other researchers view environmental and social challenges as opportunities for development action. This is particularly true in the concept of sustainable enterprise that frames these global needs as opportunities for private enterprise to provide innovative and entrepreneurial solutions. This view is now being taught at many business schools including the Center for Sustainable Global Enterprise at Cornell University and the Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise at the University of Michigan. The United Nations Division for Sustainable Development lists the following areas as coming within the scope of sustainable development: Sustainable development is an eclectic concept, as a wide array of views fall under its umbrella. The concept has included notions of weak sustainability, strong sustainability and deep ecology. Different conceptions also reveal a strong tension between ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Many definitions and images (Visualizing Sustainability) of sustainable development coexist. Broadly defined, the sustainable development mantra enjoins current generations to take a systems approach to growth and development and to manage natural, produced, and social capital for the welfare of their own and future generations. During the last ten years, different organizations have tried to measure and monitor the proximity to what they consider sustainability by implementing what has been called sustainability metrics and indices. Sustainable development is said to set limits on the developing world. While current first world countries polluted significantly during their development, the same countries encourage third world countries to reduce pollution, which sometimes impedes growth. Some consider that the implementation of sustainable development would mean a reversion to pre-modern lifestyles. Others have criticized the overuse of the term: "[The] word sustainable has been used in too many situations today, and ecological sustainability is one of those terms that confuse a lot of people. You hear about sustainable development, sustainable growth, sustainable economies, sustainable societies, sustainable agriculture. Everything is sustainable (Temple, 1992)." Environmental sustainability: Environmental sustainability is the process of making sure current processes of interaction with the environment are pursued with the idea of keeping the environment as pristine as naturally possible based on ideal-seeking behavior. An "unsustainable situation" occurs when natural capital (the sum total of nature's resources) is used up faster than it can be replenished. Sustainability requires that human activity only uses nature's resources at a rate at which they can be replenished naturally. Inherently the concept of sustainable development is intertwined with the concept of carrying capacity. Theoretically, the long-term result of environmental degradation is the inability to sustain human life. Such degradation on a global scale could imply extinction for humanity. Consumption of renewable resources State of environment Sustainability More than nature's ability to replenish Environmental degradation Not sustainable Equal to nature's ability to replenish Environmental equilibrium Steady state economy Less than nature's ability to replenish Environmental renewal Environmentally sustainable Economic Sustainability: The Venn diagram of sustainable development shown above has many versions, but was first used by economist Edward Barbier (1987). However, Pearce, Barbier and Markandya (1989) criticized the Venn approach due to the intractability of operationalizing separate indices of economic, environmental, and social sustainability and somehow combining them. They also noted that the Venn approach was inconsistent with the Brundtland Commission Report, which emphasized the interlinkages between economic development, environmental degradation, and population pressure instead of three objectives. Economists have since focused on viewing the economy and the environment as a single interlinked system with a unified valuation methodology. Intergenerational equity can be incorporated into this approach, as has become common in economic valuations of climate change economics. Ruling out discrimination against future generations and allowing for the possibility of renewable alternatives to petro-chemicals and other non-renewable resources, efficient policies are compatible with increasing human welfare, eventually reaching a golden-rule steady state Thus the three pillars of sustainable development are interlinkages, intergenerational equity, and dynamic efficiency.
Three types of capital in sustainable development The sustainable development debate is based on the assumption that societies need to manage three types of capital (economic, social, and natural), which may be non-substitutable and whose consumption might be irreversible. Daly (1991), for example, points to the fact that natural capital can not necessarily be substituted by economic capital. While it is possible that we can find ways to replace some natural resources, it is much more unlikely that they will ever be able to replace eco-system services, such as the protection provided by the ozone layer, or the climate stabilizing function of the Amazonian forest. In fact natural capital, social capital and economic capital are often complementarities. A further obstacle to substitutability lies also in the multifunctionality of many natural resources. Forests, for example, not only provide the raw material for paper (which can be substituted quite easily), but they also maintain biodiversity, regulate water flow, and absorb CO2. Another problem of natural and social capital deterioration lies in their partial irreversibility. The loss in biodiversity, for example, is often definite. The same can be true for cultural diversity. For example with globalization advancing quickly the number of indigenous languages is dropping at alarming rates. Moreover, the depletion of natural and social capital may have non-linear consequences. Consumption of natural and social capital may have no observable impact until a certain threshold is reached. A lake can, for example, absorb nutrients for a long time while actually increasing its productivity. However, once a certain level of algae is reached lack of oxygen causes the lake’s ecosystem to break down suddenly.
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