This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
It is semi-circular, square or elongated in
shape. Temperature, humidity, ventilation of air are controlled by the equipments fixed in the polyhouse. Crops grown in the polyhouse are protected from intense heat, bright sunlight, strong winds, hailstones and cold waves. Polyhouses are used in floriculture and nurseries. Besides from this polyhouses are also used for horticulture, though the primary and best is floriculture when considering the investment. A prime example would be the ability to grow vegetables/fruits when its usually off season. In a place like India, the inability to grow tomato during rainy season allows its price to soar during the monsoon. This is spotted as an ideal time to grow tomato in poly houses. This is because the poly house is designed in such a way to provide ideal climate to the crop of your choice. Every factor influencing a crop can be controlled in a poly house. For eg. If you have your poly house in a tropical zone, temperatures are prone to soar above all normal levels. In such cases, foggers/misters are used to reduce the temperature. This does not enhance the humidity levels in the poly house as the evaporated droplets are almost immediately ventilated to open air. High tech poly houses even have heating systems as well as soil heating systems to purify the soil of unwanted viruses, bacteria etc.The recent Indo-Israel colaboration at Gharunda, near karnal is excellent example of the Polyhouse farming taking place in a developing country. POLY HOUSE The crops grown in open field are exposed to vivid environmental conditions, attack of insects and pests, whereas the polyhouse provides a more stable environment. Polyhouse can be divided in to two types-
carbon-dioxide level and nature of root medium. humidity. The drier works on the principle of greenhouse effect where it traps the solar radiation and maintains the temperature inside between 55-69o C.a) Naturally ventilated polyhouse These polyhouse do not have any environmental control system except for the provision of adequate ventilation and fogger system to prevent basically the damage from weather aberrations and other natural agents. apple. Leh has designed and developed a low cost non-conventional zero energy based solar polyhouse drier for scientific and hygienic dehydration of surplus fruits and vegetables like apricot. tomato. cauliflower. temperature.. etc. cabbage. b) Environmental controlled polyhouse This type of polyhouse helps to extend the growing season or permits off-season production by way of controlling light. Other type isSolar Polyhouse Drier: Field Research Laboratory (DRDO). Provision has also been made for removal of hot and moist . when there is a glut in the market and to facilitate its availability during the snow bound winter.
veranda. It reduces drying period by 40 – 50 % as compared to sun drying. balconies etc.air from the chamber. These are available in elegent and attractive designs and different shapes & sizes. plant growing and display available in elegant and attractive designs with different shapes & size. Features durable. Hobby Polyhouse We offer a wide range of hobby polyhouses which are compact. court yard.light weight hence can be moved easily. Hobby polyhouse gives controlled environment to the plants. sturdy. tubular steel structure compact and easy to assemble.easy to assemble. Shade house Shadehouses are used for the production of plants in warm climates or during summer . ideal for seed propagation. no tools required removable cover with zipped front panel for easy access and ventilation light weight hence can be moved easily ideal for any sheltered place including terrace.
or of a quality that can not be obtained outdoors. These shade structures make excellent holding areas for field-grown stock while it is being prepared for shipping to retail outlets. covering/glazing and temperature control systems need proper design for healthy growth of plants. The T-Lock of L-Lock should be used for fastening the sheet at structure.months. Nurserymen use these structures for the growth of hydrangeas and azaleas during the summer months. Controlled environment plant production systems are used widely throughout the world to produce plant materials and products at a time or place. E. Apart from nursery. Shadehouses are most often constructed as a pole-supported structure and covered with either lath (lathhouses) or polypropylene shade fabric. ORIENTATION OF GREENHOUSE / POLYHOUSE The design of greenhouse should be based upon sound scientific principles which facilitates controlled environment for the plant growth. It should not be nailed or screwed to the structure as it gives the chance for tearing. because of its low cost and ease of fabrication. flowers and foliages which require shade can also be grown in shadehouses. Polypropylene shadenets with various percentages of ventilations are used. Controlled environment agriculture requires far more capital investment per unit area than field agriculture and thus must essentially be correspondingly more intensive to justify investment costs.g. Ultra violet resistant low density polyethylene (UVLDPE) single film cladding of 200 micron thickness is sufficient for Naturally Ventilated ( NV) greenhouse and fan and pad (FP) greenhouses. Quonset type. Under Indian conditions. . and white coloured nets are used. as this does not tear the sheet and sheet replacement is easy. The main components of greenhouse like structure. Orchids. green. while black colours are the most preferred as it retains heat outside. Black. The greenhouse is a structure covered with a transparent material for admitting natural light for plant growth. This should be fully tightened by stretching on the structure to avoid fluter and tearing. multispan greenhouse is most suitable.
The vertical poles should also be covered to the height of 60 cm by PCC with a thickness of 5cm. b) Live load: weights superimposed by use (include hanging baskets. This orientation permits the movement of shadow of the gutter across the green house. Single greenhouses with latitude above 40°N should have ridge running east to west to allow low angle light to enter from side rather than ends. latitude of location and type of temperature control. d) Snow load: These are to be taken as per the average snowfall of the location The greenhouse should be able to take dead load plus live load or dead load plus wind load plus half the live load. . shelves and persons working on roof). since the angle of sun is much higher. cladding. Below 40°N the ridge of single greenhouses should be oriented from north to south. the wind direction and latitude are also to be considered. The greenhouses are to be fabricated out of Galvanized Iron Pipes. heating and cooling equipment. The foundation can be 60cmx60cmx60cm or 30 cm diameter and one meter depth in PCC of 1:4:8 ratio. c) Wind load: The structure should be able to withstand winds of 110 kilometer per hour and at least 50 kg per square meter of wind pressure. a) Dead load: weight of all permanent construction. The greenhouse has to be designed for a maximum of 15 kg per square meter live load. The location and orientation of the greenhouse should avoid falling of shadow on the adjacent greenhouses. However. Orientation Orientation of the greenhouse is a compromise for wind direction.Design The structure has to carry the following loads and is to be designed accordingly. To avoid the shading effect from one green house to another greenhouse these should be oriented East to West. This avoids the rusting of the poles. Each member of roof should be capable of supporting 45 kg of concentrated load when applied at its centre. water pipes and all fixed service equipments to the frame.
general structural integrity and suitability. live. more will be the temperature build up due to poor ventilation. The length of evaporatively cooled greenhouse should not be more than 60m. The greenhouse structures are to be designed to take up the loads as per design loads prescribed by the National Greenhouse Manufactures Association (NGMA of USA) standards –1994.Wind effects If the greenhouse is naturally ventilated. serviceability. CONSTRUCTION OF A POLYHOUSE The polyhouses are constructed with the help of ultraviolet plastic sheets. wind and snow loads. The maximum dimension (length) of greenhouse should be perpendicular to the wind direction especially in summer. For fan and pad greenhouse the natural wind direction should be same as the air blown by fan. Higher is the greenhouse more is the wind load for structure and glazing. Structural design The greenhouses are to be designed for necessary safety. The structure is covered with 1501 m thick plastic . the advantage of natural wind direction has to be taken to the maximum possible. Height of greenhouse The maximum height can be up to 5m for 50m x 50m green house and this can be reduced as per the reduced size of the green house. Size of the greenhouse The dimension of NAV GH should not be more than 50m x 50m. so that they may last for more than 5 years. Bigger the greenhouse. The foundation. The structure should be able to take all the necessary dead. Spacing between greenhouses The spacing between naturally ventilated green house should be 10 to 15 m so that the exhaust from one greenhouse should not enter the adjacent greenhouse. The side ventilation can be of 2 m width and roof ventilation is 1m in width. columns and trusses are to be designed accordingly.
Generally the length of the polyhouse is 25-30 feet and width 4-5 feet. 2. fruits and flower crop. 4. tight. because temperature and humidity can easily be controlled in Polyhouses. Iron pipe structure is costly but more durable than bamboo. cheap and flexible polythene. The polyhouse can be made of transparent. the polyhouses are constructed with the help of ultraviolet plastic sheets. . The polyhouses are kept cold or hot depending upon the season. The house should not be constructed in shade. Polythene presents the thermal radiation. 3. MATERIAL USED 1. so that the maximum sunshine is available. It is well established that for the production of energy vegetable. which increases the temperature and energy and thus helps in the process of photosynthesis.sheet. Polyhouse is the construction under controlled environment. The size of polyhouse may differ depending on the necessity. In these houses vegetables and other crops can be grown in any season of the year depending upon their requirement. so that they may last for more than 5 years. The direction of polyhouse is always East to West. The structure is prepared with the bamboos or iron pipes.
Cold storage chain Cold storage structure Exhaust fan Fan (for circulation of air) Aluminium network 4. Iron pipe structure is costly but more durable than bamboo.5.L Baroda (Gujarat) made 200 microns or 800 gauge thickness ultraviolet protective film is considered as a better for polyhouse use. Framework Framework Wooden plank G. wire 2. polycarbonate and polyethylene film can be used for the roof purpose. At present among the available polyfilm. vinyl.P. For the construction of polyhouse following equipments are required: 1.C. The framework of polyhouse should be made of G. acralyc. use of I. nylon. Covering Plastic sheet Nylon net 80 mesh/white 3. The structure is prepared with the bamboos or iron pipes. Water management structure Automatic filtration Sprinkler system . pipe. Roof of Polyhouse In case of construction of polyhouse plastic film.I.I. The structure is covered with 1501-micron thick plastic sheet. 6.
4. The house should bot be constructed in shade. 5. so that the maximum sunshine is available. water meter Electric conductivity meter 6. Equipments Automatic operated equipment such as: pH meter. 2. Drip irrigation system Mechanism providing fertilizers along with water 5. Generally the length of the polyhouse is 25-30 feet and width 4-5 feet. Electric pump ECONOMIC SIZE 1. In case of permanent polyhouse structure steel and fiber made glass are galvanised hallow pipe-having glass or transparent polythene sheet structure is needed. The size of polyhouse may differ depending on the necessity. Building structure Bore well. Electric equipments 7. For small . Installment Framework. The direction of poly house is always East to West. The poly houses are kept cold or hot depending upon the season. 3. film Installing equipments 8.
000 5.75. Covering Plastic sheet Nylon net 80 mesh/white 15. wire 2.000 2.000 3.00.56.000 25.000 25.000 35. electric pump Construction expenses 9.000 7.62. film Installing equipments 8. In case of polyhouse designing and construction for an acre of area following capital investment is required. Framework Framework Wooden plank G.000 60. pH meter.000 1.000 2.000 83.00.000 4.I.00.000 2.00.01.00.000 3.33.00. Water management structure Automatic filtration Sprinkler system Drip irrigation system Mechanism providing fertilizers along with water 5.00.farmers they can build up the polyhouse they require bamboo structure on which polythene sheet is used for cover purpose. Other miscellaneous work Total 15.000 28.07. 1.000 8. Equipments Automatic operated equipment e.27. Building structure Land development Related to water management Bore well.000 30.000 1.20.000 .000 12. For irrigation facility sprinkler irrigation unit is needed. Installment Framework. Cold storage chain Cold storage structure Exhaust fan Fan (for circulation of air) Aluminium network 4. while for controlling the air temperature ventilators are required.000 10. Electric work 5.000 25.00.000 1. water meter Electric conductivity meter 6.03.g.000 25.00.00.
In limited area of polyhouse.USE OF POLYHOUSES From the point of view of earning more profit only such off-season crops should be grown. insects and pests control is also easy and less expensive. For this few methods are as follows: i. the difference in the demand and supply of off-season vegetables and fruits etc. can be minimised. the construction of polyhouses is more lucrative and is a must. In such areas and also in the hill and remote regions where fresh vegetables are required regularly for meeting out the requirements of security forces. This facilitates in maintaining the quality of the product also. the solar energy is sufficient to maintain inner temperature of polyhouse but some times more temperature is required to be supplied to some crops. which are being sold at higher prices in the market. Big hotels in cities are mostly in the need of off-season vegetables and so is the case with some prosperous people in big cities. Constructing a tunnel below the earth of poly house. Covering whole of the polyhouse with jute cloth during night Fitting solar energy driven device in polyhouse. iv. Crops of the polyhouse can be saved from birds and other wild animals. Generally. The crops grown under the polyhouse are safe from unfavourable environment and hailstorm. ii. Heating of Polyhouse Heating is required in winter season. The humidity of polyhouse is not adversely affected by evaporation resulting in less requirement of water. etc. iii. heavy rains or scorching sunshine. . By adopting the modern technology of polyhouse. Covering the northern wall of the house by jute clothing.
Running water-misting machine can control the temperature of the polyhouse. Removing the internal air or polyhouse out of it in a natural manner. when ambient temperature rises above 400C during day time the cooling of polyhouse is required by the following measures. iv. since labour is not very expensive. lack of expertise is a major problem for Indian farmers and it would get enhanced if a fully automated system is to be installed. Some commercial polyhouse systems automatically monitor and control several environmental parameters including inside air temperature. POLYHOUSE AUTOMATION Polyhouses have reached a high level of automation. ii.to mediumcost polyhouse could cost between Rs. not only the temperature but also relative humidity of polyhouse can also be kept within limit. A farmer can set reference values and then the system maintains these values automatically. Most Indian farmers cannot afford such high costs.000 per square meter.Cooling of Polyhouse In summer season. iii. 500 per square meter in India. whereas a high-cost. relativity humidity. On the other hand. soil pH value and electrical conductivity. 2. automation is not a major problem in Indian polyhouses. Installation of cooler on eastern or Western Wall not only keeps temperature low but maintains proper humidity also. . Changing the internal air into external air by putting the fan on. However such systems are very expensive. i. Moreover. A low. 125 to Rs. fully-automated polyhouse costs Rs.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.