PHAST

Tutorial Manual

DNV SOFTWARE Palace House, 3 Cathedral Street, London SE19DE, UK http://www.dnv.com/software © Copyright Det Norske Veritas. All Rights Reserved. No reproduction or broadcast of this material is permitted without the express written consent of DNV. Contact software.risk@dnv.com for more information.

Contents
Chapter 1 An Introduction to PHAST 1

In the first chapter you open an example analysis provided with the program, explore its main features, and run the calculations and view the results – without having to enter or change any input data.

Chapter 2

Setting up your own Analysis

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The second chapter guides you through the process of setting up a Study Folder for performing consequence calculations for a range of common types of hazardous event. The tutorial supplies all of the input values that you will need to complete the analysis.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1 An Introduction to PHAST
What to Expect of this Tutorial
The aim of this tutorial is to make you familiar with the ideas and techniques involved in performing a consequence analysis with PHAST, and to give you practice in defining a range of common types of hazardous events. By the time you have finished the tutorial you should have a firm understanding of the issues involved, and be ready to start work on an analysis of your own. The tutorial is divided into two chapters. In this first chapter you will open an example analysis provided with the program, explore its main features, and run the calculations and view the results – without having to enter or change any input data. In the second chapter you will create a new analysis, defining a range of hazardous events and performing a consequence analysis for them. The tutorial should take 1-2 hours to complete. You do not have to complete it in a single sitting, and can take a break between chapters if you prefer.

Starting the Program Running
When you install the program, the installation process places a DNV Software folder under Programs in your Start menu, and also adds a PHAST shortcut to your Desktop. You can use either method to start the program running.

The Main Window
When you start the program running, the main window will open as shown.

The Main Window on Startup

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Chapter 1: Introduction The first line in the Message Log should state that the “Licence is valid”. but the default format is the *. and there is a pane with five tab sections at the left side of the window. the Study Folder you worked on most recently). you can change the Installation Preferences under the Options menu so that the program starts by automatically opening a Study Folder (e. as shown. choose Open Example… from the File menu. The pane is known as the “Study Tree” pane. and the PHAST Example Study file is in this format. If you wish.g. If the Message Log says that you do not have a valid license. which is used in this chapter to give a quick introduction to the terminology and approach used in the program. You must have a valid license for PHAST set up on your computer in order to be able to enter data and run the calculations. and you work in its various tab sections to set up the input data for the analysis. Opening the PHAST Example Study Folder The program is supplied with an example Study Folder called “PHAST Example Study”. The Main Window with a Study Folder Open 2 . and click on Open. The window will normally open with no Study Folder loaded – where a “Study Folder” is a file that contains the definition of a consequence analysis – and you must open or create a Study Folder file before you can perform any modelling work with the program. There are several file-formats available for Study Folder files. you should contact product support using the details given under Product Support in the Help menu. To open the Study Folder. Select the file.psu format. The appearance of the main window changes when a Study Folder is open: there are many more toolbars. A File Open dialog will appear as shown. displaying the contents of the Examples folder installed with the program files.

the third level contains several Folders. The icon represents an “instance” of that Model and will have its own set of values for the input data. so it would be more typical to say that the PHAST Example Study Study Folder contains eight Vessel/Pipe Source Models. The pane contains a number of tab sections. explosion and toxic calculations to obtain representative effect zones for the dispersing cloud. The Models Tab Section The term “Model” is used in two different ways in PHAST. You define a given hazardous event that you want to analyse by selecting the most suitable Model from the list of the eleven Models. When you select the Model from the list. the program will insert an icon for that Model into the Models tab section. with the name PHAST Example Study. this Model considers only the radiation effect zones from a fireball. though these different meanings are unlikely to cause you confusion. The top level represents the entire Study Folder. The Model icons are organised in a tree structure. through all the stages in its dispersion to a harmless concentration. the next level is the Study (named example). There is another Model known as the “Fireball Model” that has a red and yellow icon that represents a fireball flame. “Model”: a set of available calculations The program has several different sets of calculations available. and one instance of each of eight other kinds of Model. 3 . and it also performs fire. depending on how you want to organise your analysis. You can create any number of Studies or Folders. and you can define any number of instances of a given Model in your Study Folder. there is a Model known as the “Vessel/Pipe Source Model” that has a blue icon that represents a process vessel. and instead refer to the instance directly as a “Model”.Chapter 1: Introduction The Study Tree Pane The Study Tree pane allows you to organise and edit the input data for your consequence analysis. and does not perform any of the release and dispersion modelling performed by the Vessel/Pipe Source Model. this Model considers the release of material from its storage or process conditions in a vessel or pipe. For example. one Pool Fire Model and one Fireball Model. each of which covers a different type of input data. There are eleven different types of Model in total. and these tab sections are described below. and each of these sets is known as a separate Model and has its own icon. As shown in the illustration. the PHAST Example Study Study Folder contains ten instances of one Model (the Vessel/Pipe Source Model). and the fourth level contains the Models themselves. “Model”: one instance of a particular type of calculation Model In practice. people rarely use the term “instance” to refer to a given use of a particular Model. each with its own set of input data to represent a particular hazardous event.

Green border to icon: shows use of default values All of the icons in the Global Parameters folder have green borders. giving a set of results that are specific to that Weather.Chapter 1: Introduction Inserting a Model You cannot place a Model icon under the Study Folder itself. This allows you to see at a glance which aspects of an analysis are using alldefault values. In the Model tab section. 4 . The program uses this border to show that all of the Parameters under that icon are using the default values that are supplied with the program. or by selecting the icon for the Model from the toolbar. The program performs a separate run of the consequence calculations for each separate weather conditions. The Parameters Tab Section In PHAST. but only under a Study or Folder. there is a set of Global Parameters. whereas those in the Global Weathers folder are known as “Global Weathers”. for example. the values in this set will be used instead of the values for the global Explosion Parameters during the calculations for the Models in that Study. it will perform the calculations for every Global Weather and for any Local Weathers under the Study that contains the Model. select the Study or Folder.e. The Weather tab section also contains a Study icon called Example Cases. If you change the value of any of the Parameters then the green border around the icon will disappear. all of the Models have been placed inside the Example Cases Study. You can insert Weathers underneath a Study in the Weather tab section. Such Weathers are known as “Local Weathers”. As with the Weathers. and which are using changed values. the Local Weathers are specific to the Models in that particular Study. and then select the appropriate Model from the Insert menu as shown. and you can also define Local Parameters that are specific to a given Study. but you create and use any number of Studies in an analysis. The Weather Tab Section The Weather tab section contains a folder named Global Weathers with three definitions of weather conditions. You can also insert a Model by selecting the Model from the Insert cascade at the top of the right-click menu. When the program is processing the consequence calculations for a given Model. To add a Model at a particular point in the structure. If you define a local set of Explosion Parameters. Parameters are background inputs that are applied to all calculations and are not specific to a particular Model. i.

which shows that all of the input fields for the material have the values set for that material in the System Materials. All of the icons in the PHAST Example Study Study Folder are for pure materials that are supplied in the System Parameters. Each icon has a green border. and the same set of Materials data will be used in the calculations for all Model. However. using any combination of the materials in PHAST. Pink Icon: a Pesticide The six pink icons are all Pesticides. and in the PHAST Example Study Folder it represents the plume of hydrogen chloride. to enter different probit values for a toxic material – and if you make changes the green border will disappear. fire and explosion calculations. and are used to describe the contents of the warehouse for the Warehouse Fire Model. 5 . You can change the values if you wish .e. but the program also allows you to add your own materials. Yellow-and-Red Icon: a Mixture The yellow-and-red icon is a Mixture.Chapter 1: Introduction The Materials Tab Section The program is supplied with a set of System Materials that contains full property data for more than sixty materials. but you can also define your own Mixtures. or for materials that you have added yourself while working in the Material tab section. PHAST currently only allows you to define Global Materials. and select these Mixtures for use in the dispersion. There are three types of icon present in the Material tab section of the PHAST Example Study Study Folder: Green Icon: a Pure Material The eight green icons are all pure Materials.g. You cannot currently define Local Materials to be used only for the Models in a given Study. the Materials tab section does not show icons for all of these materials. Pesticides are only relevant to the Warehouse Fire Model and cannot be selected for any other type of modelling. but only for materials that have been selected in the input data for the various Models in the Study Folder. nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide produced by a fire in a pesticide warehouse – which is the situation modelled by the Warehouse Fire Model. This particular Mixture is generated automatically when you run the Warehouse Fire Model.

but there are several options that can make this easier: Changing the Size and Colour of the Dots Select Map from the Preferences cascade of the Options menu to open the Map Preferences dialog. The map image is defined by the powerstation raster image. and then select Labels from the View menu. then the dots will be easier to see on the powerstation Map. Displaying the Model Names on the Map If you move to the Models tab section.Chapter 1: Introduction The Map Tab Section The Map tab section allows you to set up map image and geographic data so that you can view the regions and features affected by consequence results. select any Model. These dots can sometimes be difficult to see and to relate to the individual Models. The Map Window will open in the area to the right of the Study Tree pane. although this will make it clear that there are multiple Models at the location. to move around in the Map Window. but if you change the colour to blue and the size to 10 pixels as shown. The Map tab section and the Map Window The Models are represented by dots on the Map. the names of all of the Models will be displayed on the Map. the right-click menu and the Map toolbar to zoom in and out. and to control the display of the features of the window such as the scale bar and the legend. and then move to the Model tab section. 6 . If there is more than one Model at a given location – as with the Chlorine Models and the Butadiene Models – then the names will be superimposed and may be difficult to read. and you view the image by selecting Map from the View menu. To hide the names. By default the colour is turquoise and the Point Size is 7 pixels. deselect the Labels option. and you can use the options in the Map menu.

which is useful if you cannot identify the name for that Model on the Map. This allows you to locate a specific Model. You can close the Map Window by selecting Close All from the Window menu. The Vessel/Pipe input dialog will open as shown below. Viewing Input Data The section above introduced the main types of input data and their organisation. The dialog contains a large number of input fields organised over sixteen tab sections. and this section describes how to work on the details of the input data.e. displayed in a light turquoise colour).Chapter 1: Introduction Pinpointing an Individual Model If you select a Model in the Study Tree and then select Pinpoint from the View menu (or press the F4 key). as you will see in the next chapter. for a sensitivity analysis). Opening the Input Dialog for the Chlorine Rupture Model Move to the Models tab section and double-click on the icon for the Model named Chlorine Rupture. and you will typically only need to supply a small set of input data when defining a Model for use in an analysis.g. the dot for that Model will become centred in the Map window and will also be highlighted (i. but many of these fields are relevant only to advanced modelling options (e. Input Dialog for the Chlorine Rupture Model 7 .

If you wish. but you can use the links inside the topic and the Contents. a popup window will appear over the field. so there may be references in the Help to features that are not currently relevant to you. Index and Search tabs to reach any topic in the Help system and gain a full understanding of the way that the input data will be used in the calculations and the appropriate values that you should set for the hazardous events that you want to model. click on Cancel to close the input dialog without saving any changes you might have made. you can move to the other tab sections and explore the input dialogs for other types of data. There are some tab sections that appear in the input dialog for more than one Model. 8 . the cursor will change to a question mark. If you click on this button. showing that you are in “What’s This Help” mode. describing the field and giving advice on setting values. the User-Defined Source Model and the Bleve Blast Model. Most dialogs also have a “What’s This Help” button in the form of a question mark at the right of the title bar. The Help Window The Help Window will be displaying a description of the current tab section. After you have finished exploring the input dialog. the online Help will appear in a separate window. as shown. but the program is supplied with comprehensive online Help. For example.Chapter 1: Introduction Getting Help on the Input Data This tutorial does not attempt to describe every item on input data. as shown. and if you then click on a field in the dialog. When you click on this button. The Help is written in order to give full guidance for either Model. the Material tab section is used for both the Vessel/Pipe Source Model. Every input dialog contains a Help button at the bottom right.

A dialog will appear as shown. This is the weather with the most stable conditions. The selection of Weathers in the Setup dialog will be used for all calculations. and then the Graph Window will open as shown in the space to the right of the Study Tree pane. You do not have to run the calculations for all Models and all Weathers. but the selection of Models will be used only when you select Batch Run from the Run menu. depending on the speed of your machine. When the calculations for a given Model have been completed for all three Weathers. or you can select Batch/Weather Setup from the Run menu to select Models across different folders or to select only specific Weathers. The calculations will take several minutes to complete. If you had selected a single Model rather than a folder with multiple Models. When you click on OK there will be a pause of a few seconds. The Graph Window 9 . then the graphs will have additional features that are not available when you are viewing the results for multiple Models or Weathers. and showing the progress through the calculations. For this example. from the right-click menu or the toolbars.5m/s Weather. If you select a single Model or folder.Chapter 1: Introduction Running the Calculations and Viewing the Results In the Models tab section. and you would be able to compare the results for several Weathers for that Model. and is likely to give the longest dispersion distances. then the dialog would have checkboxes next to the Weathers instead of radio buttons. performing the calculations for each of the three Global Weathers. and select the Models option from the Run menu. the name of that Model will change from black to blue. The program will process the calculations for each of the eighteen Models in turn. select the Example Cases Study. Viewing the Graphs for the Chlorine and Butadiene Releases Select the Vessels or Pipe Sources folder and then select Graph from the View menu. prompting you to chose the weather conditions whose results you want to view. select the F 1. which is the colour-coding that the program uses to show that a Model has run successfully and has a complete set of results. then you can run the calculations just for that Model or for the Models in that folder. If you choose a single Weather in this situation.

Chapter 1: Introduction The Graph Window will usually contain many tab sections. which occurs at a different time for each weather. This will be showing the results at the time at which the cloud footprint covers the greatest area. select Properties… from the right-click menu or the Graph menu to open the Plot Properties dialog. which allows you to view different types of effect zones superimposed on the map. for pool vaporisation. which is displayed in the legend for the graph. you must change the selection of averaging time to display. all of them have such a time defined. and the only results displayed will be for the Chlorine Rupture and Chlorine Liquid Leak Models. for jet fire. The concentration graphs always display results calculated with a specific averaging time. results for the Chlorine Vapour Leak Model will also appear in the plot. move to the Distance tab and set the Height to 10 m. reflecting the different time-scales that are relevant to each type of release. The default averaging time for this set of results is the Toxic averaging time.g. each with a different type of graph. Results Displayed on the Map After the six tab sections that show the results in terms of concentration. and if you select User Defined as the averaging time for the graphs. and then move to the Averaging Times tab section as shown. the graph will display results for all eight Models. The User Defined option will also be enabled.000 ppm for the Toxic averaging time. The graph will initially be showing results only for the four Chlorine Models. the program uses an averaging time that takes into account changes in wind direction over the course of the release. on the type of the materials (toxic or flammable). In fact. The Concentration Graphs The first graph is of centreline concentration.g. the graph will display the results for the four Butadiene Models only. To view the concentration results for the Butadiene Models. for toxic effects. The tab sections included for a particular combination of Model will depend on the type of the Models (e. whether or not liquid rainout occurs). If you change to the Flammable Averaging Time. The Chlorine and Butadiene Models have graphs for cloud concentration. 10 . To do this. the Map graph will be displaying Cloud Footprint results for a concentration of 10. and for explosion effects. which shows that some of the Models have a user-defined averaging time defined in the Location tab section. and it uses different averaging times for toxic and for flammable materials. and on the details of the dispersion and effect behaviour (e. the next tab section is the Map graph. to give an average concentration at a given location. fireball and flash fire effects. The other Chlorine Models don’t produce this concentration level at the default height of ground level – as you can see from the Sideview graph – but if you open the Plot Properties dialog. and the Butadiene Models were not modelled with that time so have no results to display. In the dispersion calculations. Vessel/Pipe Source Model or Fireball Model). When you first move to the Map tab section.

The list of types of effect will depend on the types of Models that are covered by the Graph. but the Event field in the Display tab section of the Plot Properties dialog allows you to change to a different form. or lethality for a toxic release). and by default the explosion is assumed to be centred at the cloud front. The Map graph initially shows the effect zone with a northerly wind.Chapter 1: Introduction The Footprint concentration results are the default form of results for the Map graph. and will be similar to the range of tab sections in the Graph window. you will see that the Chlorine Liquid Leak gives the greatest downwind effect distance for lethality. If you select Toxic effects.g. you will see that the greatest downwind effect distance is reached by the Late Explosion Worst Case for the Butadiene Rupture Model. The program calculates the results for such an explosion at regular intervals. which means that the explosion radius will reach beyond the flammable region of the cloud. If you view the Lethality footprint on the Map. but the Toxic graph and the various Fire and Explosion graphs all include footprint-results of the form shown on the map. probit and lethality results. The Rupture Model produces higher peak concentrations at any given downwind location. If you look through the Fire and Explosion graphs. then the Radiation/Toxic field will become enabled and you can choose between dose. The Pool Vaporisation graph does not show any hazardous effect distances. and most of them also include graphs that show the effect-level along the cloud centre-line as a function of distance downwind (e. 11 . A late explosion is one that occurs after the cloud has started dispersing away from the release point. radiation level for a jet fire. which reaches a distance of about 880 m downwind. but you can choose Wind Direction from the Graph menu or the right-click menu to change the wind direction. but the short duration of the rupture means that the total dose received is lower than for the leak. and the Worst Case graph displays the results for the ignition-time that gives the greatest downwind effect distance. as shown.

a report for all of the Chlorine and Butadiene Models – but if you want to compare the report-results for different Models it is easier to view separate reports for each Model and compare between two reports. The Audit tab section gives version details for the program. the Report Window will normally contain several types of results. the Report Window will open to the right of the Study Tree pane as shown. for parameters and materials. D 5m/s is the weather that gives the greatest distances. The Report Window will probably hide the Graph Window. 12 . which lists the input data. For the Butadiene Rupture Model.Chapter 1: Introduction Viewing the Reports for the Butadiene Rupture Model The program also presents results in the form of reports. the first tab section is the Input tab section. The Report Window As with the Graph Window.g. To view the reports for the Butadiene Rupture Model. but you can use the options in the Window menu to move between the windows. You can have any number of Graph Windows and Report Windows open at the same time. and gives a direct comparison between the different weather conditions. After a pause of a few seconds. although the difference between the three weathers is small. A given tab section will present the results for all of the weather conditions that have been processed for the Model. If you wish you can view a report that covers multiple Models – e. For the Butadiene Rupture. presented in different tab sections. select the Model and then select Report from the View menu or from the right-click menu or the toolbars. but all of the other tab sections give details of the consequence results that you saw summarised in the Graph window: The Summary Report This report summarises the maximum downwind distance to different types of effects.

The Dispersion Report This report contains a table which describes the location and state of the cloud at a series of time-steps during the dispersion. For the Butadiene Rupture these alternative times are the Flammable Averaging Time (whose value is set in the Flammable Parameters) and the User-Defined Averaging Time (whose value is set in the Location tab section for the Model). you would see results for the Toxic Averaging Time (whose value is set in the Toxic Parameters). This report and all the other results-reports give the results for each weather in turn. The Averaging Times report gives the centreline concentrations at a series of steps during the dispersion. then it gives the dimensions of the elliptical effect zones for up to five different radiation levels – where the levels are set in the Fireball tab section for the Model – and finally gives the radiation levels at a series of points downwind from the centreline of the release. The Jet Fire and Pool Fire reports have a similar form. and which has the default value of 600 s. 13 .). The Summary report is the only report which presents a direct comparison between the different weathers. and the condition of the release immediately after expansion to atmospheric pressure – which is the condition used for the start of the dispersion calculations. etc. giving the same three types of results. You might refer to this report if you wanted to understand a particular aspect of the dispersion behaviour in greater depth.Chapter 1: Introduction The Discharge Report This gives details of the discharge modelling.g. liftoff height. and allows you to see easily if and when differest types of behaviour occurred. e. The Commentary Report This report highlights the main events in the course of the dispersion.75 s so for all the Butadiene Models the Averaging Times report gives the same concentrations as the other reports. The report first gives a description of the fireball flame (emissive power. or the rainout of liquid droplets. if you viewed the report for one of the Chlorine Models. calculated using alternative averaging times. touch-down on the ground. In this analysis both of these times are also set to 18. The Averaging Times Report The centreline concentrations given in the Dispersion and Commentary reports are all calculated using a “core” averaging time that is set in the Dispersion Parameters and that has a default value of 18. However.75 s. The Fireball Report The Fireball report gives radiation results for a fireball resulting from immediate ignition of the released material.

Results for Two Time-Steps in the Late Explosion Report The ignition-time that gives the greatest downwind effect distance is the one presented in the Worst Case Late Explosion graph. and it is the default method. and the flammable mass in the cloud at the time of the explosion. the report gives the location of the cloud-centre.(TNT). probit and lethality results as a function of downwind distance. The range of reports presented for a particular Model will depend on the type of Model and on the behaviour of a release. For most of your work with the program you will probably refer mainly to the graphs. as described in the section above. requiring the smallest amount of input data. The Late Explosion Report This report gives the overpressure effect distances for late explosions occuring at a range of times during the dispersion. giving the dimensions of the circular effect zones for up to five explosion overpressures – where the overpressures are set in the Explosion Parameters – and also giving the overpressure levels at a series of points downwind from the centreline of the release. and there are additional reports that do not appear for the Butadiene Rupture Model. and this is because the explosion method selected for this Model is the TNT method. The report is similar in form to the Fireball report. the location of the centre of the explosion. and if the liquid in the release rains out to form a pool. the tab for the Early Explosion report is named Early Expl. since they present the results in the most direct form and allow easy comparison between different Models and Weathers. and you select between them in the Flammable tab section for the Model. For each ignition time. 14 . but you can change this setting in the Explosion Parameters. By default the centre of the explosion is taken as the cloud front to 50% of the LFL. you can use Close All from the Window menu to close the windows. the downwind distance to up to five overpressure levels. After you have finished examining the results. For example. The TNT method is the simplest. There are three methods available. then there will be reports describing the spreading and evaporation of the pool and describing the series of “dispersion segments” used to represent the vapour produced from the pool.Chapter 1: Introduction The Early Explosion Report For Butadiene Rupture. if the material is toxic then there will be a Toxic report with a table of dose.

which is 100 m in this case.Chapter 1: Introduction Viewing the Results for the Chimney Release and Long Pipeline Models The other two Vessel/Pipe Source Models in the PHAST Example Study Study Folder illustrate some of the special modelling features that are available. A flash fire in a plume 60 m in the air would not affect people on the ground. In some situations the plume may be pulled down low enough that all or part of the plume is entrained in the building wake. The program performs discharge modelling for the complex. The Sideview graph shows that the plumes never approach closer to the ground than about 58 m. and takes into account the effects of the building wake on the dispersion. and with the three plumes emerging from the chimney. time-dependent flow regime inside the ruptured pipeline and then performs dispersion modelling for a representative averaged discharge rate. but that has not occurred for any of the weathers for this Model. each of which shows the behaviour of a particular discharge variable against time. 15 . so you only need to view one weather if you are only interested in the discharge results. where the rupture occurs 100 m downstream from the pump. you will see Worst Case Late Explosion distances of over 900 m. The Chimney Release Model This models a release of methane from a chimney stack on top of a building.5m/s weather. the program can calculate the flammable footprint of the cloud either at the cloud centreline or at a specific height. and this pulls the plumes downwards. and Flash Fire distances of about 600 m to 50% of the LFL. When performing the modelling of late explosions and flash fires. you will see an outline of the building with the chimney on top. For this analysis the discharge calculations are the same for all weather conditions. The Long Pipeline Model This models the rupture of a 250 m propane pipeline that has a pumped flowrate of 10 kg/s. The model deals with this by adjusting the height at a specific downwind distance. but an explosion in such a plume might well produce significant overpressures at ground level. since this shows the behaviour of the most important variable. and view the graphs for the F 1. but you should check the Sideview graph and make a judgement about whether or not the effect zone would actually reach the areas of interest for your analysis. The first tab section in the Graph window will be the Long Pipeline tab. The building wake produces a zone of low pressure. If you view the graphs for the Model for all three Weathers and then move to the Sideview graph. This contains a large number of sub-tabs. Select the Model. The centreline method is selected by default in the Flammable Parameters since this will give the most conservative results. but if you look at the Explosion graphs and the Flash Fire graph. Move to the Flowrate sub-tab.

as the flash-front travels along each section at a similar speed. as you can see. the program stops the discharge calculations for Section A at this point which means that there are no results available to display on the graph after 9 s.Chapter 1: Introduction The Flowrate graph appears to show the flowrate dropping instantly from about 230 kg/s to about 10 kg/s. as shown. However. at 9 s the flash-front reaches the end of section A. There are five lines plotted on the graph. you must set the scale yourself. the orifice flowrates from both sides are almost identical. For the first nine seconds. If you want to hide any of these lines (e. The two A lines describe the 100 m pipe-section upstream of the rupture. The two Upstream lines show the pumped inflow into the section. With the changed scale. and proceed to model the depressurisation of the section until it has emptied completely at 45 s. you can see that the rate takes about 45 s to drop to a steady rate of 10 kg/s. To see the initial behaviour in more detail. then uncheck the option for Automatic Scaling and set the Maximum Time to 60 s. and their meaning may not be immediately obvious. it is difficult to tell whether or not the drop is instant because the default scale on the time axis goes up to nearly a million seconds. and the two Orifice lines show the flow from that section at the point of rupture. the two B lines describe the 150 m section downstream of the rupture. If you move to the Distance sub-tab. the calculations do not stop for Section B at this point.g. you can see that the flash-front reaches the end of Section B after 14 s. and the Total line is the sum of the rate released from the two sections. but the 10 kg/s flow from Section A is added in to the Total. However. and from this point onwards the pressure profile in that section is maintained at the profile produced by a pumped flowrate of 10 kg/s. However. which is 10 kg/s for Section A and zero for Section B. open the Plot Property dialog and deselect the lines in the Long Pipe tab section. the Upstream lines). which is the pump rate. Select Scale and Labels from the right-click menu or the Graph menu to open the Scale dialog. 16 . giving a similar flowregime.

Chapter 1: Introduction If you view the Discharge report for the Model. which takes you through the stages in setting up your own analysis. When you are ready you should proceed to Chapter 2. The BLEVE Blast Model calculates the overpressure levels produced by the rupture of a vessel under flame impingement. You have now seen the main features of PHAST. Multi-Energy and TNT Models perform the same type of vapour-cloud explosion modelling as that associated with a Source Model. The Four Explosion Models The Baker-Strehlow. which is a type of explosion modelling that is not performed for a Source Model. but they give you more control over the definition of the flammable cloud and of the results-locations. and the dispersion and effects of this plume are then modelled in the same way as for the toxic cloud for the four Chlorine Models. and you should find interpreting the graphs and reports very straightforward. but they give you more control over the definition of the flame and they also allow you to specify in more detail the locations for which you want to calculation the radiation levels. 17 . The Warehouse Fire Model This models a fire in a pesticide warehouse and you can define multiple scenarios for each warehouse. fire and explosion results for a Source Model. Viewing the Results for the Other Models The other eight Models in the Study Folder are not Source Models. Fireball and Jet Fire Models perform the same type of radiation modelling as that associated with a Source Model. where each fire scenario is defined by the surface area of pesticide involved and by the duration of the fire. The form of the results for all of these Models is similar to the corresponding dispersion. This may underestimate the hazard produced by the release.5 kg/s. Each models one specific type of behaviour and will produce a fixed set of graphs and reports. you will see that the average rate used to represent the behaviour is 10. The Three Flammable Models The Pool Fire. toxic. There are special calculations that determine the release rate and composition for the toxic plume produced by the fire. These options are described in more detail in the next chapter. taken over a time-scale of one hour. and there are options available for representing a time-varying release with more than one “release segment” so that you can investigate the significance of the type of short-term behaviour seen in this release.

A liquid leak from the body of the propane tank wagon. However. if you do this you will obtain results that are different from those that will be shown in this manual.psu. The types of hazardous event that are considered in the analysis are as follows: • • • • • • • A rupture of a vessel containing a toxic material A pipework leak from the liquid side of a vessel containing a toxic material A pipework leak from the gas side of a vessel containing a toxic material The equivalent three releases for a vessel containing a flammable material The rupture of a propane tank wagon under normal operating conditions. The program will close the PHAST Example Study Study Folder and a new Study Folder will open. use the Create New Folder option to create a folder with your name. A fireball or BLEVE of the propane tank wagon as a result of fire impingement. Saving the Study Folder You cannot save the Study Folder with the name “Untitled” and should save it with a real name immediately. or change the input values in order to define conditions that are more typical of your facility. 18 . with a name shown as “Untitled”. The tutorial supplies all of the input values that you will need to complete the analysis. you can omit events. and how to take into account the main variables. The Models Defined in the Analysis The main aim of the analysis is to show you how you can define Models to represent the most common types of hazardous event. select New from the File menu or the Toolbar. Select Save As… from the File menu. The File Save dialog will appear and you should locate the DNVuser folder (the default location for saving Study Folder files). and then save the new file to this folder with the name Tutorial and the default file format of *. define different events.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Chapter 2 Setting up your own Analysis The Form of the Analysis This chapter will guide you through the process of setting up a Study Folder for performing consequence calculations. If you wish. Creating a new Study Folder To create a new Study Folder.

then select Raster Image from the Insert menu. When you have selected a valid raster image file. *. The program can also display map data taken from a GIS Database.tif file is located in the Examples folder for the installation of the program (which is typically under Program Files\DNVS\PHAST_6_5).g. and most common image files are in this form.gif files. the Placement Mode fields will become enabled. you might prefer to use that instead. The tutorial. since the list of File types is not set to *. The process of inserting the raster images involves several stages. Some files contain georeference data or header data that you can use to set the co-ordinate data for the image. Inserting the Raster Image Image files that contain a description of each pixel in the image are known as raster images. and you have to insert raster images inside such a folder.bmp. The image for this map is supplied with the program the form of a *. 19 . all of which are using the default values.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis The Contents of a new Study Folder New Study Folder files are not empty but will have some default data set up: A Global Weather Folder containing three Weathers The weathers are the same as those in the PHAST Example Study Study Folder. and use the Insert menu to insert a Set. The process of inserting a raster image into a Study Folder is very different from the process of inserting a connection to a GIS Database. and you should refer to the online Help for details of working with GIS Databases.tif by default. in a country which has a national grid system. which is available for any raster image file. If you have an image file for the area around your facility. Setting up the Map Data The tutorial uses a map of an area near two rivers.tif. *. A Set of Default Parameters As with the PHAST Example Study Study Folder. This tutorial deals only with raster images. and you must browse to locate the image file.tif file. e. there is a set of Global Parameters. where an image is defined by describing the lines that form the image.tif file does not and the only option available is the Interactive option. A dialog will appear as shown. When you first browse to this folder you will not see any files. The Set is a folder for raster images. Insert a Raster Image inside the Set Select the Set. select the Tutorial icon at the top of the tab section. *. these are options for specifying the map co-ordinates covered by the image. Ensure that there is a Raster Image Set in the Map tab section If the Map tab section does not already contain a Raster Image Set icon. but the tutorial.

Click on OK to close the General Preferences dialog and return to the Map tab section. When you click on OK the image will probably disappear from the Map Window because it has moved to a location beyond the scope of the window. a dialog called the “Co-ordinate system wizard” will open. and this gives you a quick way of viewing an overview of the user and definition of co-ordinate systems in PHAST. if the menu bar does not include a Map option. Placing the Image in the Map Window When you click on Cancel in the Wizard dialog. this is the first step in selecting a co-ordinate system for the analysis. This sets the initial values for the map co-ordinates for the images. and with this setting you will find it difficult to be sure that you have entered the co-ordinates. input dialogs display only four significant figures of any number that you are editing. move to the Geometry tab section. and set the values shown. Select Fit > All from the Map menu. When you are using the Interactive Placement Mode and will not be connecting to a GIS database – which is the situation in this tutorial . you will be able to see that the values that you entered were stored in full. and the values are in the national co-ordinate system for the country. and the Map menu will appear in the menu bar. The cursor will be in the form of crosshairs. which you will set to the correct values in the next step. and you should make sure that this is set to six or more. By default. The Wizard dialog contains a Help button. If you open the dialog for the raster image again. It is only essential to select a system if the Placement Mode is set to Georeferenced or to By Header. and the values for the area covered by the map are six-digit numbers. 20 . Setting a Large Number of Significant Figures for Edit Dialogs The co-ordinate values for the image will be in the national co-ordinate system for the country.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Selecting a Co-ordinate System for the Map When you click on OK in the Place dialog.you can click on Cancel in the Wizard dialog and leave the co-ordinate system undefined. Setting the Co-ordinates and Size of the Image Double-click on the tutorial icon to open the input dialog for the image. The origin for a map image is the top-left corner. click on the Map Window to make sure it is selected. and you must drag and drop to place the image in the window. select Preferences > General from the Options menu and move to the Miscellaneous tab. The first field in the tab section is the Number of significant figures for edit windows. or if you want to use a GIS database in the analysis. To change the setting for the number of significant figures. and the Map Window will change to display the image covered by the image. there will be brief pause and the Map Window will then open to the right of the Study Tree pane.

In this tutorial you will insert the Models on the Map in approximately the correct location. select the option to Insert Models on Map. which is one of several Models dealing with a toxic material. Turn on the Option to Insert Models on the Map In the Options menu. The first Model you will define represents the rupture of a vessel containing a toxic material. Use Rename from the Edit menu or the right-click menu (or press the F2 key). You will place all of the Models that represent toxic releases in this folder. containing chlorine at saturation conditions and ambient temperature. the facility occupies the long. and give the folder the name “Toxic”. There is no bund surrounding the sphere. shown shaded yellow in the illustration. then select Folder from the Insert menu or the toolbar to insert a folder.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis The Location of the Site on the Map For the tutorial.psu Study Folder. and then correct the location as necessary in the input dialog. Insert a Folder to Group Toxic Releases Select the Study icon.37 m and volume of 120 m3 and a maximum fill-level of 85%. narrow section of land to the north and west of The Village. The sphere is located near the centre of the site and is elevated 4 m above the ground. The Location of the Facility on the Map Defining the First Model: for a Toxic Rupture In the Tutorial. between the east bank of the river and the road that runs parallel to the river. then the Model icon will not appear in the Study Tree until you have clicked on the Map to set the location for the Model. and when you insert a Model the icon will appear immediately in the Study Tree. If you turn the option on. The vessel is a sphere with a radius of 3. By default this option is turned off. move to the Models tab section. 21 .

and you should click at a point near the centre of the site as shown to place the Model. which is the state required for the start of the dispersion calculations. A field with a red border is a mandatory field: you must supply a value for such a field. This section describes each tab section in turn. but instead allows you to specify directly the state of the material after expansion to atmospheric pressure. as will be described below. The Material Tab Section To set the Discharge Material. You use the Vessel/Pipe Source Model when you want to perform dispersion and effects calculations for a release from containment and you want to use the program’s in-built discharge calculations to determine the state of the material after expansion to atmospheric pressure. You will not be able to run the consequence calculations for the Model until you have supplied values for all of the mandatory input fields. The icon will have a red border around it. which is 85%. The vessel is a sphere with a volume of 120 m3.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Insert a Vessel/Pipe Source Model Select the Toxic folder. This Model will represent the vessel with the maximum degree of filling. All of the fields in the first tab section are blank. You use it if you want greater control over the inputs to the dispersion and effect calculations. then select Vessel or Pipe Source from the Insert menu or the right-click menu. 22 . including those that are not relevant to this particular hazardous event. and select CHLORINE from the list that appears. The Map window will open if it is not already open and the cursor will turn to crosshairs. This Model does not perform discharge calculations. click on the button with three dots to the right of the Discharge Material field. an icon will be added to the Study Tree. Click on the Help button to open the online Help if you want further information at any point. After you have clicked. and a dot will appear on the Map to show the location of the Model. as will be described later in this chapter.. and you will not be able to run the calculations for a Model that has any mandatory fields unset. The list contains all of the materials that are defined in the System Materials. and those that are enabled have red borders . Select Volume as the method of specifying the Inventory. showing that it does not have a full set of input data. Setting the Input Data Double-click on the icon for the Model to open the input dialog. Rename the icon to Cl2 Rupture. The program contains a second Source Model which is called the “User Defined Source Model”. and enter a value of 102 m3.

When you move the cursor away from the Temperature field the program will calculate the saturation pressure for this temperature and display it in the Pressure field. so you can leave the Outdoor / In-Building fields with the default selection of Outdoor. The Pipe Tab Section All of the fields in this tab section are disabled when the scenario is set to Rupture. There is only one Scenario Type available for modelling the rupture of a pressurised vessel. this is Catastrophic Rupture. as you will see later. The other scenarios are either longer-duration releases. The vessel is out of doors. For all of the other scenarios. with the combination depending on the scenario as you will see later. The temperature will vary depending on the season and time of day. and set the Temperature to 10 degC. but for this Model a value of 10oC will be used as representative. The other fields in the tab section are not relevant to a rupture scenario. the program will model the build-up of concentration inside the building and the dispersion calculations will start with the state of the plume as it is released from the ventilation system. Relief Valve and Long Pipeline scenarios. To define the process conditions for a material that is not held under saturation conditions (e. 23 . some of the fields in the tab section will be enabled. They are relevant only to the Line Rupture. The Vessel Tab Section All of the fields in this tab section are disabled when the scenario is set to Rupture.g. If you select In-Building Release. as shown. you must select both Temperature and Pressure from the lists and give values for both. To set these Process Conditions. The range of types available will depend on the process conditions you have specified. a gas or a padded liquid). choose Saturated Liquid from the first dropdown list and Temperature from the second dropdown list.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis The chlorine is held under saturation conditions at atmospheric temperature. which is selected by default. The Scenario Tab Section You use this tab section to specify the type of hazardous event you want to model. You can take the default settings for all of the fields in this tab section. or applicable only to insulated tanks. Disc Rupture.

which means that the values may be different for each weather. The Location tab section allows you to select additional averaging times for which you want concentration values. If you make any selections in the final section of the tab. The calculations require information about the ventilation-rate for the building and about how long people remain in the building after the cloud has passed and the concentration is lower outdoors than indoors. Some of the fields are enabled for the longer-duration scenarios as you will see later. but you should set this to 7. or a minimum concentration. they allow you to choose between the three models for a vapour cloud explosion. you can check the Bund exists box and enter a description of the bund. the list allows you to choose the Toxic averaging time or the times associated with the ERPG. showing that it is mandatory. For a flammable release. or to specify a User-defined time. For a toxic release. Set the East co-ordinate to 198492 m. which is set in the Toxic Parameters and has a default value of 600 s.37 m. The Indoor/Outdoor Tab Section All of the fields in this tab section are disabled then the scenario is a catastrophic rupture outdoors. For this release. so you can leave the tab section with the default values. but for this tutorial you should change them to Selected. the Uses averaging time field below the concentration will acquire a red border.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis The Location Tab Section First. and the exposure of a person inside the building. but if you choose Wind Speed Dependent for the Ventilation Specification. while others are enabled for in-building releases. taken from the System Parameters. which is the elevation of the centre of the sphere above the ground. For this sphere there is no bund. 24 . Flammable Tab Section The fields in this tab section are disabled when the material is toxic only. The Bund Data Tab Section If there is a bund around the vessel and you want to take this into account in the modelling of pool-spreading and evaporation. By default. By default these values will be taken from the Toxic parameters tab section for the Model. The Elevation has a default value of 1 m. then the values will be taken from the data for the Weather.e. you must specify the averaging time to be used in the calculations for stopping the dispersion. select the Toxic averaging time. the results will be appear in the Averaging Times report. set the release coordinates. The program requires a criterion for stopping the dispersion calculations: either a maximum distance. as you saw in the previous chapter. The Toxic Parameters Tab Section The fields in this tab section are used in modelling the buildup of toxic concentration inside a building. IDLH or STEL measures of toxicity. these calculations are set to Unselected (i. For this tutorial. and the North co-ordinate to 435063 m. and to choose between two models for jet fires. they will not be performed). set the Concentration of interest to 100 ppm. When you set this concentration.

They are used in the discharge modelling for the Line Rupture. the input data for the Model are now complete. as shown in the table below: Tab Section Material Input Field Discharge Material Inventory Process Conditions Elevation East Co-ordinate North Co-ordinate Concentration of interest Uses averaging time Indoor Toxic Calculations Value Chlorine 102 m3 Saturated Liquid at 10oC. The Jet Fire. and you can click on OK to close the dialog. 7. 25 . but the number of values that you have to enter in order to complete the data for this Model is small. The TNT. leave the Ventilation Specification with the default value of Case Specified.37 m 198492 m 435063 m 100 ppm Toxic Selected Location Toxic parameters The default scenario for a Vessel/Pipe Source Model is a catastrophic rupture out of doors. these tab sections allow you to choose between options for modelling each type of flame. showing that it has a full set of input data. Pool Fire and Fireball Tab Sections For a flammable release.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis For this tutorial. Disc Rupture and Relief Valve scenarios. so there is no need to change any settings in the Scenario tab section for this particular Model. and take the default values for the Building exchange rate and the Tail time. If you have made all of these settings. A Summary of the Input Data The input process involves examining a large number of input fields. They are used in the modelling of a vapour cloud explosion. and take their default values from the System Parameters. The Discharge Parameters Tab Section The fields in this tab section are always enabled. so are not relevant to this Model. You should see that the icon no longer has a red border. Multi Energy and Baker Strehlow Tab Sections The fields in these tab section are disabled when the material is toxic only.

the rupture is assumed to occur just before the isolation valve. also in the Toxic folder.5 m/s weather outdoors. but this is only enabled for the disc rupture and relief valve scenarios. then 5 m horizontally to an isolation valve. and the discharge calculations take into account the effect of friction in the flow from the vessel to the point of rupture. The indoor effects for this weather reach about 2. you will be offered a choice of release-phase for the line rupture scenario: a vapour release from the top of the vessel. The Lethality graph shows that the greatest downwind effect distance is for the F 1. for modelling overfilling of the vessel. which reaches about 1. where the initial liquid head will be 4.3 km for a lethality level of 10%. The concentration graphs only ever show the outdoor concentration. When the vessel contains saturated liquid. but if you move to the Toxic tab section you will see that the Probit. Setting the Input Data Open the input dialog and set the input data as follows: Material Tab Section Leave this tab section with the same values as for the rupture. Scenario Tab Section Set the Scenario Type to Line Rupture. but the hazardous event is the rupture of a one-inch liquid line attached to the bottom of the sphere. Give the copy the name Cl2 Liquid Pipework. To model a release from the body of the vessel. with a distance of about 2. The line rupture scenario models the full-bore rupture of pipework attached to a vessel. 26 . Defining the Second Release: Toxic Liquid from Pipework The second release is from the same chlorine sphere. When the calculations are complete. if you want more information about the behaviour of the liquid droplets in the cloud. you should view either the Commentary Report or the Dispersion Report. so you can use copy and paste from the Edit menu or the right-click menu to create a copy of the Rupture Model. Copy the First Model Much of the input data for the vessel rupture is also applicable to the pipework failure. and the Phase to be Released to Liquid. or a liquid release from the bottom of the vessel.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Run the Calculations and View the Results Select the Model and select Run Model from either the Run menu or the toolbar. Lethality and Dose graphs display separate results for indoor and outdoor effects. and that there are separate Footprint graphs for outdoor and indoor effects. which means that the liquid in the release did not rain out. The list of phases includes “two-phase”. view the graphs for all of the weathers. The shortest downwind effect distances are for D 5 m/s indoors. you would choose the Leak scenario. You will see that there is no Pool Vaporisation tab in the Graph Window.5 km to a lethality level of 10%.25 km to 10% lethality. The line runs 4 m vertically downwards to 10 cm from the ground. with no frictional losses in the discharge.6 m. since the material and process conditions are the same as for the rupture.

depending on your selection for the Rates versus time. 27 . you will perform an initial run of the discharge calculations with the time-varying modelling selected. Leave the pipe roughness with the default value taken from the System Parameters.g. Vessel Tab Section For the line rupture scenario and most of the other scenarios that involve a continuous release. The discharge calculations will model the effect of the release on conditions in the vessel and the way that these conditions and the release rate change over time. You can then enter the diameter directly in inches. click on “mm” to the right of the field. To set the Internal Diameter to one inch. The number of valves is used in the modelling of frictional losses. and then select “in” from the list of units that appears as shown. then you must supply information about the dimensions of the vessel. and you should set it to 9 m as shown.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Pipe Tab Section The Pipe Length is the length of pipework between the vessel and the point of rupture. If you do not check this option. then examine the results and decide on the most appropriate way to represent the behaviour for the rest of the consequence analysis. For this release. The other fields in the tab section are relevant only to the long pipeline scenario. then the release will be modelled with the initial release rate. and will represent these time-varying results either with a single rate (e. or a rate at a particular time) or with a series of rates. the Time Varying Release option will be enabled in the Vessel tab section. and are all disabled for the line rupture scenario. This will normally give conservative results in the consequence calculations. and the duration will be the time required to drain the inventory at this initial rate. If you select the time-varying option. rather than having to perform the conversion yourself into the default unit of mm. and you can leave them as zero. an average rate.

the releaselocation would be offset by a few metres from the centre of the sphere but this difference is insignificant compared with the effect distances for chlorine and can be ignored Bund Data Tab Section Leave this unchanged. This completes the input data for this stage. the liquid droplets will probably not evaporate inside the cloud.6 m. In reality.1 m. If you decide that you want to use this average rate rather than the initial rate. so you can set the Frequency of Bends to 0. This will run the discharge calculations alone.74 m. so the time-varying behaviour can be ignored for this release. Running the Discharge Calculations Select the Model and then select Run Discharge from the Run menu. set the Tank Type to Spherical. then select Create Source from the Edit menu or the rightclick menu. without peforming the dispersion and effects calculations. the right-click menu or the toolbar. which will reduce the amount of air mixed into the jet during the initial stages.11 per m. With this setting. and you can click on OK to close the input dialog. select the Time Varying Release option. When the results are complete. Choose Horizontal from the list. There are two options for bypassing the time-varying discharge modelling in this situation: 1: Use the Averaged Discharge Results to Create a User-Defined Source Model When you performed the discharge calculations. and this is the representative rate given in the Discharge Report. and will probably rain out and form a vaporising pool. which is the correct setting for this type of unobstructed rupture of horizontal pipework. view the reports and move to the TV Discharge Report. you can return to make a final selection after you have viewed the discharge results. the program calculated the average rate over the first 3600 s. Indoor/Outdoor Tab Section For a continuous release scenario such as line rupture you must specify the Direction of the release. the Height of Discharge to zero. 28 . The calculations may take several minutes. you should select the Model. and the Diameter to 6. the program will reduce the momentum of the release.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Set the Liquid Head to 4. with no bund specified. The rate drops by less than 3% in two hours of release. Leave the Rates versus time set to the default selection of Average rate with an averaging time of 3600 s. Location Tab Section Set the Elevation to 0. Leave the other fields with the same values as for the rupture. Discharge Parameters There is one bend in the 9 m of pipework. The list of directions includes a second horizontal option: Horizontal Impingement. You should select this option if the release is in a congested area and the release is likely to impinge on a wall or other equipment. depending on the speed of your machine.

and this is the method that will be used for this tutorial. The User-Defined Source Model has many of the same tab sections as the Vessel/Pipe Model. In the Toxic Lethality graph. 2: Edit the Model and Deselect Time-Varying Release This is the simplest method for bypassing the time-varying discharge modelling if you decide that you want to use the initial rate to represent the entire release. with a distance of 900 m to a lethality level of 10%. When the calculations are complete. so there is no need to change any settings in the Indoor/Outdoor tab section for this particular Model. The least stable night-time condition. which is approximately a third of the distance reached by the catastrophic rupture. the final set of input data for this Model can be summarised as follows. but you can edit these values if you choose. You will see that there is a Pool Vaporisation tab in the Graph Window. since the UserDefined Source Model does not perform any discharge modelling itself. as shown.11 per m The default direction for a line rupture scenario is Horizontal. which means that the liquid in the release did rain out. and when you select one of these weathers the program will create a User-Defined Source Model with the name Calculated Discharge. 29 . Run the Consequence Calculations and View the Results Select the Model and select Run Model from either the Run menu or the toolbar. view the graphs for all of the weathers. If you view the reports and look at the Commentary Report. so the formation and behaviour of the pool will have little effect on the dispersion or toxic effects. but instead of the Scenario and Vessel tab sections it has a Discharge tab section in which you specify the discharge rate and conditions directly. you will see that rainout fraction is only about 1%. D 5 m/s.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis The program will show a list of the weather conditions for which you performed the discharge calculations and for which it has results.6 m 0. The discharge calculations for this Model will run much more quickly with the time-varying option turned off. not including the values that are the same as those for the rupture model: Tab Section Scenario Pipe Vessel Location Discharge Parameters Input Field Scenario Type Phase Released Pipe Length Internal Diameter Time-Varying Release? Tank Head Elevation Frequency of Bends Value Line Rupture Liquid 9m 1 inch Not selected 4. After this adjustment.1 m 0. the greatest effect distances are for the F 1. The Calculated Discharge Model will be created with Discharge data taken from the averaged results from the Liquid Pipework Model.5 m/s weather outdoors. reaches only 350 m for 10% lethality outdoors.

copy and paste it. The list of materials is arranged alphabetically. You must make this change for each of the three Models. The line runs 3. and change the input data as follows: Tab Section Scenario Pipe Location Indoor/Outdoor Discharge Parameters Input Field Phase Released Pipe Length Internal Diameter Elevation Direction Frequency of Bends Value Vapour 13 m 2 inch 1m Down – Impinging on the Ground 0. Changing the Material Selection Open the input dialog. The propane sphere has the same dimensions as the chlorine sphere and the same design of pipework. Create the Model as a copy of the Liquid Pipework Model. the Building Wake Effect fields will become enabled. and name the copy Flammable. Defining Three Flammable Releases There is a propane sphere at the far north of the site.08 per m When the phase is set to Vapour in the Scenario tab section. and the two pipework releases give very similar effect distances. which will take you to the first material with this initial letter. rename the copy to Cl2 Vapor Pipework. Setting the Input Data for the Models You can define the rupture and the two pipework failures by copying the three toxic Models and simply changing the selection of discharge material and the eastern coordinates.4 m horizontally. When you return to the Materials tab section you will see that the program has recalculated the saturation pressure at 10oC and also the mass for the inventory. In the name for each Model. 30 . The release rate from the two-inch vapour line is similar to that from the one-inch liquid line. click on the button with three dots to the right of the Discharge Material field. and you can leave these options unchecked. change Cl2 to C3. and the rupture is assumed to occur 1 m from the ground. and is also operating under saturation conditions at atmospheric temperature. then vertically downwards. and change the selection from CHLORINE to PROPANE.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Defining the Third Model: Toxic Vapour from Pipework The vapour release is the rupture of a two-inch pipe attached to the top of the sphere. and you can move quickly to PROPANE by clicking in the list and then typing “P”. The sphere is in an open area so building-wake effects are not relevant to this release. Copying the Models Select the Toxic folder.

For this tutorial you will set the lethality calculations to Selected and specify five levels of lethality – but you will do this in the Parameters instead of in the Model data. open the input dialog for the Pool Fire Parameters. 31 . Move to the Parameters tab in the Study Tree. so you would normally only select them if you know that you need them for a particular analysis or a particular Model. but that the calculations for radiation dose.000 ppm. By default the fraction is 50%. Setting the Input Data for the Fire Modelling If you move to the Jet Fire. You could set this concentration yourself. You must make this change for each of the three Models. and set the Radiation Lethality data as shown. and set the same values. For this tutorial. After you have clicked on OK to close the dialog you will see that the Jet Fire Parameters icon no longer has a green border. since this is the most efficient method if you want to set values that will be used by all Models. you will see that three levels of radiation intensity are specified. and the program is prompting you to make a different selection for the calculations of the stopping-concentration. probit and lethality are all unselected. Next. These calculations are not selected by default because they can be time-consuming. but for a flammable release you can also leave the Concentration of interest blank. Pool Fire or Fireball tab sections.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Changing the Location and Concentration of Interest When you move to the Location tab section. and set the East and North coordinates as shown above. open the input dialog for the Fireball and BLEVE Blast Parameters. delete the value for the Concentration of interest. The material is flammable only so the Toxic averaging time is not included in the list. and set the same values for Radiation Lethality. but you can change this in the Flammable Parameters if you prefer. and the program will automatically stop the dispersion calculations once the concentration has reached a given fraction of the LFL as calculated with the Flammable averaging time. which shows that not it is not using the values set in the System Parameters for all of the fields. For a flammable release you would not want to calculate the concentration to a value as low as 100 ppm. as shown. since the cloud will not pose a hazard once it has diluted below the lower flammable limit of 2% or 20. you will see that the Toxic averaging time is no longer set for Uses averaging time and that this field is now shown as unset and mandatory. open the input dialog for the Jet Fire Parameters. Finally.

The main features of the graphs are described below. which will be the lowest level set for that type of result (e. Jet Fire Graphs The Jet Fire tab section contains three graphs.lethality level of 1% is about 290 m. The maximum downwind effect distance is about 560 m. then you must view the graphs for a single Model and Weather. Select the Flammable folder and then select View Graphs. so the Weathers have radio buttons beside them.g.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis If you move to the Models tab of the Study Tree and look at the Jet Fire. which should give the greatest effect distances for dispersion. Fireball Graphs The Bleve (or Fireball) tab section also contains three graphs. which is the distance for 4 kW/m2 for the liquid release. whereas they have check boxes beside them when you are viewing results for a single Model. Select the 1. the second shows Intensity Radii to the lowest of the three radiation levels set in the Parameters (4 kW/m2). but it contains Jet Fire. so there are no Pool Fire tab sections. and the distance to a. The first graph shows radiation level versus distance. you will see that the lethality calculations are now selected. and the third graph shows Lethality Radii to a lethality level of 1%. or the lowest lethality level). Running the Consequence Calculations and viewing the Results Select the Flammable folder and use the Run Models option to run the calculations for all three Models. These are showing results only for the rupture. Pool Fire or Fireball tab sections for any of the flammable Models. If a given Fire Radii graph is showing results for more than one Model or more than one Weather. because the fireball does not produce the necessary radiation dose at the height of interest (set to ground level in the Flammable Parameters). The Graph Window contains tab sections for Concentration graphs. If you want to see results for all of the levels. then it will only plot a single level. prompting you for the Weather for which you want to view results. and this means that the two Radii graphs are able to show the results for more than one level. with the five levels set. as with the toxic Models. which are presenting results for the two pipework failures. When you are viewing results for multiple Models you can only choose a single Weather. You can also view the results for all three Models at once. to a radiation level of 4 kW/m2. The propane releases do not produce any liquid rainout. A Plot Setup dialog will appear. the lowest intensity level. There is no ellipse for a lethality level of 100%. Fireball and Flash Fire tab sections instead of the Toxic tab section.5/F Weather. 32 . which is the lowest of the five lethality levels that you set in the parameters. The maximum downwind effect distance shown in these graphs is just less than 25 m.

whereas for the two pipework releases this gives a distance of about 70 m to the same concentration. move to the Multi Energy tab section. Rename the original Model TNT. and choose TNO Multi-Energy as the Explosion Method. In this section you will create versions of the Rupture Model that use the other methods for modelling early explosions. Flash Fire Graph The Flash Fire Graph shows the zone for the cloud at the time that it covers the maximum area. which means that you are assuming that the explosion is sufficiently close to the ground that there will be reflection effects in the pressure waves. Setting the Inputs for the Multi-Energy Explosion Method Open the input dialog for the Multi-Energy Model. For the rupture. Setting the Inputs for the TNT Explosion Method For the TNT Model. You can leave the Explosion Efficiency with the default value.000 ppm. but for this Model you should set the location to Ground burst. The Late Explosion Worst Case graph shows the effect radii for the explosion-time which gives the greatest downwind distance for the lowest overpressure set in the Explosion Parameters (0. and name it Rupture. and the second copy Baker-Strehlow. which means that the early explosion for Rupture was modelled with the default method.2 s. where you can define up to seven regions of confinement within the cloud and also specify the strength of an explosion in the unconfined regions of the cloud.000 ppm is 50% of the LFL.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Explosion Graphs The two Early Explosion graphs contain results only for the Rupture. 33 . and compare the results. move to the TNT tab section to check the input data for the modelling.100 m. Drag the Rupture Model inside this folder and then create two copies of the Model. The greatest downwind effect distances is 1.02 bar). the Late Explosion graphs contain results for all three Models. However. this gives a maximum downwind effect distance of 350 m to 10. for the Rupture. since immediate explosions are assumed not to occur for continuous releases. Click on OK to close the dialog for the TNT Model. Next. move to the Flammable tab section. Creating the Model Icons Insert a folder inside the Flammable folder. name the first copy Multi-Energy. which is the fraction set by default in the Flammable Parameters as the boundary of the flash fire effect zone. Alternative Methods for Modelling Early Explosions When you were setting the input data for the flammable Models you left the Flammable tab section with the default settings. and the legend for the Late Explosion Time graph gives the time at which the worst-case explosion occurs. and it occurs at 11. which is the TNT method. 10.

02 barg. as shown. move to the Flammable tab section. Finally. and then view the graphs for the 1. the volume of the cloud assumed to be involved in the explosion is 500 m3. The TNT Model produces a peak pressure of 1 barg and the pressure declines less rapidly with distance. and with a range of confinement strengths between 6 and 8. the Baker-Strehlow Model has the highest peak overpressure. so you should set the Ground Reflection Factor to 1. as shown. so the pressure at 300 m is 0.6.02 barg. The strength of an explosion in the unconfined region of the cloud will be 2. each occupying 30% of the volume of the cloud. run the calculations.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis By default there are no confined regions selected. Click on OK to close the dialog for the Baker-Strehlow Model. For a propane release you should set the Material Reactivity to Medium. but the region around the propane sphere is relatively open. of about 1. Setting the Inputs for the Baker-Strehlow Explosion Method Open the input dialog for the Baker Strehlow Model.5/F Weather. as shown. the graph shows results only for the unconfined region of the cloud. and you must complete this tab section before you can run the Model. For this tutorial you will define three regions of confinement. For this tutorial. Next. Click on OK to close the dialog for the Multi-Energy Model. This tab section contains many mandatory fields. The release is relatively close to the ground and there is likely to be some reflection of the pressure-waves off the ground. Values of 8 and 9 are typically used for process units. 34 . for which the peak overpressure is only about 0. Running the Calculations and Viewing the Results Select the Rupture folder. In the Early Explosion Distance graph. and the Obstacle Density to Medium. use the option to have the program calculate the speed of the flame (rather than supplying it yourself). and there are effects out to 1.400 m. move to the Baker-Stehlow tab section.2 barg. For the Multi-Energy Model. and for this release you should set the number of dimensions for the Flame Expansion to 2. which means that there are no mandatory fields in the tab section and that the Model will run even if you do not set any values in the tab section – but it also means that by default the Model will not produce any explosion results. but the pressure declines rapidly with distance and there are no effects beyond about 300 m. and choose Baker Strehlow as the Explosion Method.

and are delivered with a fill-level of 80%. There are many hazardous events that could be modelled for the tank wagons.5 m Down – Impinging on the Ground 35 .5 m above the ground.2 m3 1. Defining the Rupture of the Wagon First. 2. and in this comparison the Multi-Energy Model gives the greatest effect distances of the three Models.6 m in length. a leak from the liquid side of a wagon. Name the Model Wagon Rupture. The deliveries take place once a week.5/F Weather. including leaks during the unloading process. and are always during the day and never at night. It seems reasonable – and simplest . the default TNT method gives results that are close to the multi-energy results with a medium strength of confinement (i. which you will use as the starting point for defining the release. are raised 0.95 m 0. These results show that the over-pressure levels close to the release are very strongly dependent on the value that you set for the strength of confinement. you will be able to see separate Early Explosion Distance results for each of the regions in the cloud. This analysis shows that.6 m in diameter with a volume of 54 m3. for this release.8 m 435581 m Defining the Leak from the Liquid Side of a Wagon Copy the Rupture Model and name the copy Wagon Liquid Leak. involving two tank wagons. If you view the graphs for the Multi-Energy Model on its own and select only the 1. and then copy the TNT Model from the Rupture folder.02 barg. This tutorial will consider only the rupture of a wagon under normal operating conditions. and a fireball produced by catastrophic rupture of a wagon under flame impingement. Open the input dialog and set the data as follows: Tab Section Material Location Input Field Inventory Elevation North co-ordinate Value 43. The propane is under the same conditions as in the sphere: under saturation conditions at atmospheric temperature (taken as 10oC). All events are assumed to occur while the wagons are at the unloading point 100 m south of the propane sphere. The wagons are 10.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis However.e. with a distance of about 2 km to 0.to take the default method as representative for this analysis. create a folder and name it Tank Wagon. Flammable Releases from a Rail Tank Wagon The propane is delivered to the facility by tank wagon from a marshalling yard 10 km to the north. with a strength of 7). and then open the input dialog and set the data as follows: Tab Section Scenario Vessel Location Indoor/Outdoor Input Field Scenario Type Hole Diameter Tank Head Elevation Direction Value Leak 1 inch 1. in the Early Explosion Radii graph the results shown for the Multi-Energy Model are those for the worst case.

which is the most conservative assumption for the tank head and the duration. The Fireball Shape tab section gives you the choice between using a correlation to obtain the radius.2e3 kg 0. you are using the correlation. This will give a larger discharge rate since there are no frictional losses during the flow to the leak-location. with a distance of about 460 m to 4 kW/m2 compared with 440 m.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis For a release from the body of a vessel rather than from attached pipework. For the leak scenario. duration and emissive power. you should set the Scenario Type to Leak. Running the Calculations and Viewing the Results Run the calculations for the Tank Wagon folder and then view the graphs for the 1. or entering your own values.57 barg 22. whereas the Rupture Model considers a rupture under normal operating conditions which then has a probability of igniting immediately and giving fireball effects. Defining the Fireball Failure under Flame Impingement The program allows you to model immediate-ignition effects from fireballs and poolfires on their own. This shows the effect of the higher vessel pressure used in the Fireball Model to model failure under flame impingement. The dialog also contains a Contour Data tab section that allows you to define a plane and up to three radiation levels for which you want contour results.5/F Weather. 36 . The Fireball Model gives slightly larger effect distances than the Rupture Model. then select the option to insert a Fireball Model. you specify the leak-size in the Scenario tab section. and you do this by using the Fireball Model or Poolfire Model rather than the Source Models. Name the Model Wagon Fireball. For this Model. then open the input dialog and set the data as follows: Tab Section Material Input Field Material East Location North Location Burst Pressure Released Mass Mass Vapour Fraction Radiation vs Distance Maximum Distance Angle from Wind Height above Origin Radiation Ellipse Incident Radiation Value PROPANE 197327 m 435581 m 8. and then examine the Bleve or fireball results. separated from any modelling of dispersion and delayedignition effects. Select the Tank Wagon folder. The leak is assumed to be at the bottom of the tank.25 Selected 500 m 0 degrees 0m Selected 4 kW/m2 Fireball Shape Radiation Data The Burst Pressure is 60% greater than the normal operating pressure and is used in calculating the surface emissive power of the fireball.

with the assistance of the online Help. the program will save the full set of consequence results and you will be able to view the results immediately the next time you open the Study Folder – although you should be aware that the file may be large. which means that the next time you open the Study Folder. you should contact product support using the details given under Product Support in the Help menu. If you need further details on any aspect of the program. By default. or if you need guidance on how to model a particular situation for your facility. However. 25 MB or more.Chapter 2:Setting up your own Analysis Saving the Study Folder with the Results You have now completed the tutorial. and you should save the Study Folder in order to save the changes you have made. e.g. the Save As dialog will contain an option to Save results as well as your input data. you will have to rerun the calculations in order to view the full results. the program will only save the input data. If you select this option. What Next? This tutorial has not covered every feature of the program. but you should now have enough of an understanding of the approach and methods used in the program to be able to explore the remaining features yourself. if you select the Save As… option from the File menu. 37 .

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