This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ERNEST BECKER, Ph.D.
to a variety of
has been increasingly evident
and, to some, has
become a matter
concern. Zen typifies an Eastern approach
to problem-solving that
at the opposite
pole from Western ideals: the
being, puppetlike, manipulates himself in
the hope of coercing his environment.
Steeped in a tradition of magical omnipotence, the Zennist seeks to bring other-
worldly power to bear on this-worldly
the question "Does Zen hold forth
something of value to the West?"
book makes an unremittingly negative
answer. Zen, Dr. Becker remarks., has
thus far escaped unscathed from traditional
Western skepticism about irrational
antirational approaches to
understanding. In this book, he provides
clarification of perspec-
He gives a fresh view of Zen's origins
(Continued on back flap)
3 1148 00019 1981
29^ B3952 61-2378J Becker Zen: a rational critique
Zen: A Rational Critique DATE OCT f .
INC .Zen: A Rational Critique By ERNEST BECKER. Ph. New York .D. State University of Upstate Medical Center W-W-NORTON & COMPANY. New YorL Department of Psychiatry.
61-7474 Printed in the United States of America for the Publishers by the Vail-Ballou Press 123456789 .Copyright 1961 by Ernest Becker First Edition Library of Congress Catalog Card No.
To Douglas G. ." 6123783 . spirit. . Haring the teacher imparts the ".
13 1 The Psychotherapeutic Personality Change. 23 Conversion. 43 2 The Zen Buddhist 3 The Zen Discipline as a Psychotherapeutic Process. 185 Index. 143 8 Psychotherapeutic Meeting of East and West. 133 7 The Thought Reform The Rebirth. 87 4 The Historical Background of Zen: An 5 Anthropological View. 155 9 Conclusion. 119 6 Zen Cosmology and Zen Values. 190 . 173 Bibliographic Notes and References. 102 The Central Psychological Role of the Trance in Zen.CONTENTS Introduction: The Appeal of Zen to the West.
." not merely that it should beis great enough. though that should become credulous. but that it W." and power. . in fact. the state of society it falls is of a piece. its apart into groups of fear is false.K. ."The man. BRONOWSKI "The danger lieve to society is wrong things. state of A society holds together by the respect which man gives to it fails mind. when concept of man J.CLIFFORD .
Zen: A Rational Critique .
and with an ever new spirit animating their strivings. but rather to show that Zen really & S^SSSLS^ life. The credulous new generations have to start again at the beginning and learn things all over. It is a trite observation that knowledge accumulates so quickly and voluminously that we are con- stantly forced to rediscover something long known which has been quietly buried under the silt of more up-to-date thought or more pressing research. it is inevitable that they should choose to delight themselves with the wrong things. The Westerner who finds some charm in Zen is often hard put to reconcile the antinomy. abnegation of the Western ethic of individuation and autonomy which was .sp Jaboripusly fashioned by Mediterfa"ilBM^iviIization and is still too precariously grasped. A dead man who lies down and does not sit! After all these are just dirty skeletons.INTRODUCTION The Appeal of Zen to the West A living man who sits and does not lie down. between its poignantly esthetic musings about man and nature and its blatant denial of life. Yet this is what seems to have happened to Zen. 13 . so foreign to his own traditions. The purpose of this book is not to effect reconciliation.
and among them Qf psychotherapists who possess a good deal over individuals. Curiously. This would be amusing if it were accepted only among a handful of gullible poets harmthe idea has inlessly dispersed in espresso shops. at least Buddhism's impotence to do something tanto aid suffering humanity judging by the cities gible and slums and rural misery of Asia.Zen. And even the idea that Marxism can actu- we seem 14 . we might view our imperfect of personal cannot give: a ready solution to the ponderous task and social adjustment and this without denial of is the exercise of reason! -yllhe as old mind is as old as Buddhism. Thought Reform. But fected some unimpeachable Western professionals." that to question content only in the case of Marxism. It has become so important for everyone to have a "personal belief" in our society. but simply to look at Zen "in the round" in the hope that if we can be purged of childish dependence upon magical achievements and impossible problems with a selfreliant adult realism. which is so mistrustful of "bad intentions. and Psychotherapy Of course "wrong things" is a highly relative phrase. Those who turn to Zen expect it to grant the most impossible of all the things that life omnipotence. purpose here is neither power to make light of Oriental esthetics. traditions. right and wrong depend on social this is the one area in which proponents of Zen to the West have been most remiss: they have without exception claimed that Zen is not only in harmony with Western tradition. but is in fact in essence more Western than the Western Greek and Christian-Judaic traditions themselves. nor to quench any My possible proselytizing by the Buddhist religion.
The Buddhist protest eternal mentally against life.The Appeal ally of Zen to the West be accepted as a religion in the it underdeveloped at all countries absolves of some evil. Life is not bad. logic is perverted. but simply that all religions do have a conceptual content. liberation from the fetters of existence is possible in the here and now. which nothing really "exists" except attachment and desire. into In Buddhist thought. to form attachments to things and loved ones and be separated remorselessly from them by an is not fundaimpersonal fate. Most expendable of all one which must be effaced in order for the Zen liberation to take place i^hgjitt^ * mind tojhou^^^ ^^ rom 15 . and the nonbeliever interested in certain facets of a creative ends needs religion for esthetic or artistically for its eschatology of salvaalso to know the premises Western psychotherapists however their professional understanding of the Zen negation of reason and understand it. at least do tion. not merely at death or in in some life to come. the world is a terrible place which one is reincarnated again and again through aeons of time. I do not mean to imply that one religion is better than any other. The Buddhist salvation is freedom from desire and hence from rebirth^he_Zen doctrine is that instantaneous freedom is achieved by uniting oneself with the eternal essence. in fact. Nothing this is important tfie Zen except tsafil^^ able to this end. it is the a from desired objectr ^RaTTFTfie gainful separation is an entirely impersonal flux in. thing.
and undoubtedly many of it. by branding this "conscious/' "fragmented/' and hopelessly "unspontaneous" treatment because as a typical example of its symbolism is "learned" the "error" of attachment they seek to eliminate. Thought Reform. is the and Zen which uses to proselytizel^Zen is basically a technique by to achieve a mental breakdown of people so that Its rethey can be made to accept a new ideology. There is which identity in the coercive and regressive processes Zen. and various Western psychotherapies use to achieve reform or conversion goals. We r. and Psychotherapy shall the very possibility of union with the cosmic. or remained in the special "scientific" dissection of a A province of ivy-overgrown inaccessibility. as well as its utter failure to creativity. Many in the West find Zen attractive because revolt both against reason's obviously majestic crea- tions for the good life. method appraisal of it. thought reform. but the Zennists themselves will be the most tranquil in a reappraisal of facts which have slipped from view. system of belief may be offensive to some. They will relay the burden of critical defense back to the source of attack. 16 But . solve problems of personal contentment and But less well known than fundamental to any the negation of mind. historical roots of this examine later the magical and idea.Zen.The negation of mind in Buddhist thought is rather Westerners generally known. Also not widely enough recognized is version and reform are that Zen's propensities for ideological conalso inherent in many forms of a basic psychotherapy practiced in the Wqst. semblance here to Chinese thought reform can be conclusively demonstrated.
Appropriately. the mystical position has been bolstered by the recruitment of many intellectuals here in the West: Jung logic is revitalist one of the foremost to have answered the "Who'll step out and declare" cry against rational analysis. and effect a considerable saving in the national budget. No purposeful argument c^be^^dwi&thQ^ the bankruptcy of "really mystic. a psychic bank which has been accumulated through untold generations of evolution.The Appeal of Zen to the West the examination of facts does not permit reduction to the same innocuous relativity as the assumption of emotionally validated stitute beliefs. Adler was 17 . One is hard-pressed to imagine a universal hereditary unconscious. we could sub- firecracker-propelled garbage cans for space rockets. the "universal unconscious" a vast repository of heal- ing symbols." Besides. and To is judge by his writings. If it did. he invokes thought process to arrive at what he mea^s. in the form of tranquilizing_mgndgZdg religious represen tationsoF universal harmony which have only to be seen or imagined in order for a mental reintegration to take place. and which lies at the disposal of mankind for healing purposes. becianoser inniltimat^^ untenable premise. and serious scholars have long since turned to more profitable preoccupations ever since the acteristics abandonment of the doctrine that char- acquired by the individual in his lifetime can be passed on to his progeny. the symbolic plasma of this bank seems to have been largely contributed by the East. Freud observed in the reticians early part of this century that psychoanalytic theowho form their own school bring their per- sonal faiths with them Jung is religious.
! Akin to the appeal of a philoobvious delight of the religious. gift Erich Fromm's gratitude for the precious Zen from the East (these are his directly traceable. the Buddhist metaphysics of universal becoming has long provided rich conceptual fare. More recently. to his conviction of the need for a greater spontaneity. and without subverting clar% of tHnking. Zen enjoys favor in the West on many different levels. and Zen is only one of many speculative schools^ In the more modern it spirit of East- West synthesis one is tempted to use the epigram is perhaps unfair Zen avows itself philosophically protean: in Japan Zen has been incorporated into Hegel. but this is not a new attraction. mystical temperament in the submersion of telluric values. or to apocalyptic psychoreflective Zen answers the esthetic and needs of a variety of temperaments without suBjectmg them to complete conversion by means oFiEsrebifth method. Of course Zen is not limited in its appeal to those who deny the value therapists. Thought Reform.Zen. and even the conceptual ablation of a sophical esoterics is tfee 18 . This is in the same spirit as Sri "pooled ignorance*' but Aurobindo's reconciliation of Indian spiritualism and European materialism. and Pragmatism. Existentialism. and Psychotherapy a socialist. The whole man to Fromm represents an original total potential which has been warped and channelized by the functional needs of a buying-and-selling society. a more words) is total expression of the inner man than a culture ani- mated by markets and Madison Avenue can give. of reason. and in the West it has been equated with Kierkegaard. Faust. as we shall see. and its appeal defies ready explanationjlf o the philosophically minded.
anyone can appreciate: real. one does not begrudge Zen a historical connection with the arts in Japan these arts may well turn out to be a lasting contribution to an asphaltharried eye's need for a restful line and a rapport with nature. Shinto is arts. There are those who continue to ence. One can be an excellent rock gardener and a Shintoist as well. Besides. long after the East itself has turned to the ented approaches. But again. As for Zen's reputed manifestait is not enough realized that its in- fluence on garden art. the impute to the East the ability to offer ready answers to the dilemma of man's existence. I West for more practically oriRomain Rolland's post-World War typical: poetic plaint is still 19 .The Appeal of Zen to the West universe of mind and matter. painting and poetry is more a post facto rationalization on the part of Zen adherents than something historically the mother of the In Japan. and there is no need to cavil at their proveni- The most unwarranted aspect of Zen's appeal to West is the one which highlights the West's own critical bankruptcy. upholds. the aesthetic response to creative forms need owe nothing to an understanding of Zen thought itself. It is possible too to understand the creative becoming of Zen cosmology in a purely humanist sense. A fallen flower Returning to the branch? It was a butterfly. but this requires overlooking the core idea of and the susjiuddhi^n^ tained affirmation!^ Western humanism tions in the arts.
. . and Psychotherapy Who.Zen. amid the disorder in which of the the chaotic conscience struggling. "When I was in the district of Ch'ing I 9 had a robe made that weighed seven chin! In one's late teens the directly home than felt profundity strikes more the nonaspiring fact. I'- jiMLMMirt"' '"' 1 new impetus by readers the paperbacks. ErCummingS. or simply in the uncomprehensible. but where is the One to be reduced?" Chaochou answered. has sought whether the fortycentury-old civilizations of India and China had not answers to offer to our griefs. regressive suspension of analytic ihi a 2(f preface to A. for our is West 1 aspirations? The unveiling of the Oriental mind initiated by excited nineteenth-century scholars is still not over. the accumulation of punctilipus knowledge by one's elders seems stiff or irrelevant/The koanjs really an aggresviolent revolt against intellect. it offers in ultimate : mdescension arTenigmatic koan A monk asked. 1924. so much in favor with college lias a poem wmcfi sive. Thought Reform.^. Besides. it may be. tractive because it saying nothing. "All things are said to be reducible to the One. the mysterious. youtfi. reveals that "feeling after the nature of is first/' and that he who inquires things "will never wholly kiss you/' has validated the poet's insight: in an Psychoanalysis activity like kissing. models. K. purports to explain everything by when pressed. shelves Power next life matter-of-factly to Joyce' Ulysses: the A new generation of The Way and Its power to manipulate magically resides in the vague. or. Coomaraswamy's The Dance of Siva. public translations oft esoteric texts have been given a i M _ _.
To ears "Zen" is a lovely word Mahayana word. a sullen. Is it an oedipally- infused blow that one strikes from his poetic retreat? "That's something you can't understand" is a defense against an overly-responsible world. not is to mask a shallow understanding. "Kalacakra. say. i or a harmless plaything for poets: it is a serious reform method with an uncompromising belief in the ultimate good of its world view. But all of life is in the service of ego-strong pernot a kiss. crisp yet musical. Zen prohis unusually vides the ultimate in lightly-resting armor: for the price of maintaining a silence infused with intensity.The Appeal self-consciousness is of Zen to the West formance. the "meaning of Zen/' he invariably deepened his reputation for profundity by responding with a painted smile an alternative to presenting a koan.iJTie expose his intellect to threatenZen smile has many uses. young Zen-inspired poet When who ma3e known thorough steeping in Zen prowas urged by his admiring agemates to divulge fundity. As a partial explanation for the quick sympathy for' Zen meaninglessness.Wor an understanding of the workings of 1 21 . One wonders how appealing Zen would be to the young artist or poet if this badge of tradition bore. To an animal jerked by invisible threads of symbolism and sound (one is inevitably reminded of Helen Keller's sensuous frolic with the newly-discovered word "water") the "What's in a name?" pre- accustomed to English. the idea has occurred to me that the word "Zen" itself is responsible for some of this attraction. the cept is overly general. one avoids having ing the least of which t<p critical scrutiny." vBut Zen is not merely a lovely sound.
The West and thought reform.Zen. we can profitably re-examine the more subtle psychological processes of the psychotherapeutic personality change. The urge for proach to problem solving makes it has given us psychotherapy. perative to assess these three approaches in 22 . the East. and Psychotherapy this method. Thought Reform. and the kinship of both these sys- tems to the outrightly coercive thought reform rebirth. Zen a world-wide apall the more imone work.
There is extreme diversity in psychotherapeutic technique.1 The Psychotherapeutic Personality Change POPULAR suspicion about "being hooked by a therapist" has its therapeutic process cure. this is no ordinary medical inter-individual stimulation is But therapeutic probably as old as man himself. so much so that it is lax to subsume psychoanalysis and. cure. and the kind of person who emerges from treatment differ qualitatively and sometimes radically between the various techniques. 23 . simply. Help. answer. and if all the methods did not share certain techniques as well as differ in emphasis. say. and the periodic rediscovery of quite sophisticated historical and "primitive" types of mind therapy attests to its usefulness. and how?" is no simple question. "What kind of a person does a particular psychotherapy turn out. foundation in the workings of the psychoitself. as. Freud's own magnificent creation. it would be an impossible question to Psychoanalysis. a sort of "after-education of the neurotic" which corrected educational blunders he suffered at the hands of his parents ( 1 ) was defined by him . supportive psychotherapy under the same rubric.
In therapy one is essentially deconditibrled aiid recdnditioned. reis the "transference" students of of the esoteric conceptual possession of a handful of man. Popular appreciation of the pervasive power of this phenomenon would transference change society or at least would hopefully have a serious effect on juke-box selections away from a masochistic preference for howling. new a new testing of the per- old mode of harmonizing. 24 . But this changes. or an inevitable one. and the intuitive property of leaders men. dependency whining love ballads. it tional working over which acts as a purge. not yet been adequately One phenomenon which fined. it is a normal phenomenon. the patient is disposed emotionally to relate to the therapist and others in a manner characteristic of his relation- ship to the first significant people in his life. to the accompaniment of a good deal of emocursory glance at the professional psychiatric journals reveals a persistent preoccupation with the basics of this educative process: defined. in short. is summarized. The ability to is manipulate people by means of at the basis of leadership. with each new meeting is identifications are formed. and most of the rest of human interaction. We we can only relate to others in the style in which have already learned to relate. In a sense. all matic reactions that constrict the range of choice. A has. and Psychotherapy But an therapies are basically such a reeducation of unconsciously autounlearning" 61 old responses. or expanded constantly reviewed. there gradually style or friendship. Thought Reform. and one's peculiarly sonal identity grows.Zen. In the transference relationship.
But the fundamental rule for the patient undertaking analysis is that he voluntarily suspend the function of his ego. see this in the transference We of pets to masters. transference the well-known reality principle. minisas a trial or substitute object. unconscious reference of each relationship to previous identifications does not tend only in the direction of growth. one is ing. Normally. In psychotherapy. a less controllable. we are actually rerelating to the significant figures in our own past. earliest ference represent the need to identify and fuse with another living creature. In the transter. and the new.Psychotherapeutic Personality Change But the new continual. in other words. we use an authoritative person teacher. comes afoul of the need to re-evalu- ate each situation anew. free rein is The analytic transference is given central control. without any no longer possible. Constantly bringing the past to bear upon new experience affects the quality of the experience. Thus. this situation is aggravated. This is complicated by the fact that the emotional 25 . doctor ference quality of our relationship to them. But transference relatedness is inherently antithetical to reality testing. Here the ego is in charge. In the face of trans- bound by his past learncomponents of and the primitive. therapeutic transference is characterized by a deeper regression. apposite solution as independently as possible of one's own needs or distortions. to devise a peculiar. growing as it learns and manipulates. attempting to tion win them over with proofs of devoand personal competence. its range. more irresponsible dependence of the patient on a figure from his Normal transference past transferred onto the analyst.
and depends on the patient's herent readiness to be hypnotized. To reduce external stimuli. Another factor. are naturally excepted. Thought Reform. the orthodox Freudian approach to the creation and utilization of transference has come under criticism because it is essentially authoritarian in the tradition of hypnosis. Freud at requested his patients to keep their eyes shut Reclining on the couch also contributes to the reduction of inner stimuli. position to be manipulated by transference is induced in a manner therapeutic 1 The com- inparable to hypnosis. Also. the transference creates a gradual submission. Regression to transference submission as the basis for the technique is well symbolized in the analytic couch. even in the presence of an authoritarian figure. depends on the dominant personality as well as on the patient's submissive predisanalyst a powerful figure. of person he is in short. one which stimulates fantasy be* the analyst Types of client-centered therapy. total infantile setting is The creation of a necessary. and in which the patient remained conscious. The object world has to be curtailed to a minimum. But one does not become a child merely by lying down. he partially excludes himself from the object world. of the cure. where the therapist echews firm guidance of the process. and Psychotherapy so necessary to rapport between analyst and patient. But instead of instant submission. There are many well-known techniques for bringing this about. 1 any 26 . first sits where the patient cannot see his reache keeps the patient in the dark about the kind tions.Zen. In fact. Freud's discovery was that of a technique where sub- mission could be induced without hypnosis.
is With the extensive use of silence as a technical aid. love. encouragement. He meets instead a constant. own "superficial verbalization/' which serves as a "powerful means" of precipitating him into a deeper level of trans- 27 . he must emotionally aloof. the help he expects is not forth- coming: the analyst remains objectively impersonal. sustaining constancy. past and present become mingled. much 1 same way as a patient with an organic disease consults his physician. immutable environment. is the constancy of the therapeutic environment the patient finds himself in a sustaining. unfluctuating infantile milieu. But the crux of the matter is that while the analytic situation creates this infantile role for the patient. a magic expectation and trusting dependence. The diminished sense of personal routine. help.Psychotherapeutic Personality Change cause ego-alertness is not necessary. passive. or criti- cism. and the help he expects. consequently the relationship must conin the tain a strong infantile element. After all. Any potential helper is a transference figure. ting. the analyst offers a o<m-like silence. The tient has to routine of the analytic situation to which the paconform is reminiscent of a strict infantile The patient is quite unprepared for this setIn the quiet. in place of replying to the patient's cries for answers. an responsibility is fed by the analyst's interpretations on infantile level. There is only one solution remaining to him. The patient is exposed to an infanwhich he is led to believe holds the perfect freedom. the patient enabled to hear his ference (2). the patient approaches the analyst in the first place in a help-seeking state of dependency. or. tile setting adapt by regression to infantile 1 levels of coping.
Inadmissible thoughts and behavior are banished from consciousness as the infant and child meet parental approval. This is one version of psychoanalysis. other therapeutic techniques dispense with its induced regression. also exploit Zen and a regrescreate. the patient withdraws to earlier and progressively more he flict is retraces his tested patterns of behavior. and Psychotherapy At this point. an instrument considered the most important stroke of Freud's scientific genius. The patient. see. the central therapeutic issue is but in them the "therapist" handles himself quite unrepression. re-enacts his life drama. the film is played backward under critical analytic scrutiny. But the 28 imitatively patterns himself into a figure which will exile to the uncon- . in effect. remains outside the play which the patient is enacting he observes the patient's reactions and attitudes in isolation. his con- reached. on the other hand. A unique instrument of investigation has thereby been created. Thought Reform. In his infantile reactions the patient represents himself at various levels of development. as we shall sive infantile situation differently. the analyst. As the regression becomes well-estab- lished under the constant pressure of analytic frustration. thought reform. which they themselves In psychoanalysis. The original uniqueness of psychoanalysis as a technique ness lies in the analyst's neutrality and aloof- he is a spectator and not a co-actor. Sooner or later. the purpose of the analytic technique has been achieved: the patient adapts to the infantile setting into which he has been placed by regressing.Zen. as whole mental development.
as well as learns intellecturole of a as if ally.Psychotherapeutic Personality Change scions of the inadmissible in his character continues to trouble him is in various ways. Ideally. The analyst. humiliating emotional drama. This agonizing emotional catharsis. is the irrationality of his outmoded patterns. It is pos- 29 . a benign authority figure and neutral spectator. Neurotic reactions are simply old reactions. In his inept struggles. feotm-tormented Zen disciple. one of the most difficult problems theory of psychoanalytic treatment is how to evaluate the role of the patient's intellectual insight. guides the patient into an examination of the behavior he is enacting in the transference. and to determine his behavior: he of his own unconscious. but a really painful. cold self-criticism. is victimized by the repressed contents The function of transference in unrepression simply that the patient relives his the cause of the repressions in the original conflicts first place in the analytic situation. abreaction is ac- companied by insight. is so central to the therapeutic cure that one can well understand the Western analyst's acceptance of the . this not a detached. but this time deal with them in a different manner. they not only do not fit but actually hinder adaptation to new situations. One cannot relate in the husband to one's wife if he continues to relate he were a son and the wife a mother. the patient engages in a kind of shadowboxing: the therapist is a new and different authority figure who allows the patient to face situations he once faced in the past. corresponding to now outmoded patterns. He feels. But in the curiously. or abreaction. and it is theoretically important for the patient to understand what is going on.
The on the other hand. relationship with the instinctual unis conscious. were a nuisance to psychobecause it was thought that no transference analysis could be established.Zen. Analysis. this became apparent particularly in dealing with is psychotics. the neurotic and the psychotic differ in this: the neurotic solves his conflict by severing the psychotic. According to the theoretical strucHistorically. Sometimes in psychotherapy the exact opposite of unrepression called for: in certain cases the lifting of repressions gives way to the creation of repressions. but the reality relationship preserved. Both the techniques and the goals of psychoanalytic 30 . like Zen Buddhism. But this clean picture is obscured when therapy be- comes responsive to the needs of individual cases. psychotics tural divisions of the psyche. can dispense with ratiocination. the analyst bears witness to the mis- carried personal and emotional lives of some outstanding intellects. for intellectual probing as a substitute for feeling is a principal defense of the compulsive personality^ Further Deviations from the Ideal Responsible maturation is ideally achieved only by a re-educative technique that also succeeds in imparting self-understanding and rational self-responsibility. Thought Reform. and the analytic technique could not be employed. And like the Zennist. and Psychotherapy sible to procure a lasting therapeutic effect with the corrective emotional experience alone. solves the conflict between the ego and the unconscious by severing the relationship to reality and yielding to his unconscious.
cannot take place. when this kind of re-repression of therapy. it becomes necessary to work with the patient's total This is called reality. counsellors. since unconscious contents are not wanted. and subsumes a host of special apsupport therapy. In the first place. responsible for forestalling on the part of the patient In the up the psychotic's weak ego. and not simply his repressions. This kind of helper is not outside the helping process: he is involved in it.Psycho therapeutic Personality Change practice must be radically revised in attempting to treat psychotics. the psychotic. Naturally. the psychotic's ego has been completely swamped by the contents of his unconscious there is too much unconscious material already brought up to consciousness." in the psychoanalytic sense of responsible self- aware maturation. "cure. and his ego is simply not strong enough to keep it in hand. the therapist must become a helper akin to other helpers in society priests. there is no longer any question If the aim of a cure. In struc- tural terms. The analytic technique of free asso- becomes positively dangerous. guidance people. The goal of analysis becomes the antithesis of Freud's well-known motto: ciation "Where there is id let there with psychotics is be ego/' The problem rather to return to the id what has is become the province of the ego. unable to cope with reality. certain awarenesses interests of building proaches with hypostatized marionette-like terms: "ego 31 . everything that is connected with the cause of the patient's troubles has to be banished from awareness. the transference becomes primarily a manipulative device. To treat the psychotic. cannot cope with the half-reality of the transference he confuses it with reality.
some conscious. and new terms as well as new arrange- ments of these terms are periodically advanced. and how how he can be manipulated by others. The layman is justifiably confused. the life drama is basically played in terms of what one does with. Thus. Therapy. from one point of view. On the other hand. this process has been called an internalized transference. The unrepression of the psycho- analytically-treated patient simply means that the overly-restrictive aspects of his superego are loosened On the other hand. and Psychotherapy transfusions/' "co-operative reality-testing/' like. There may even. The "thou shalt not" precepts instilled by society through parents into the child become the puppet strings by which he animates himself. 32 . a central ego and several subsidiary egos may exist. and the Superego and Ego Psychoanalytic structural terminology is far from immutable. and I do not intend here to is still detail a theory which itself is imperfect. others unconscious. re-repression is that which the ego is strengthened. centers solely around the superego. be more than one ego. for.Zen. Thought Reform. Most aptly. this is effected process by by creating or introjecting a new superego in the place or weakened. or against his superego. it seems. the super- ego-ego antithesis tion of the best shorthand explanaan individual manipulates himself. and against which animation he guiltily struggles. The imposition of shame and guilt over failure to meet standards set by others for our conduct is the basic social measure by which man is kept from running wild.
and which is restricting his reality testing and ability to freely devise new solutions to new problems. This is one reason psycho- analytic therapy takes so long. in this view. he contrives to have himself introjected by the ize that therapy uses precisely this manipulation. The final stage of the psychoanalytic cure not an easy one.Psychotherapeutic Personality Change of an overbearingly hostile one which crushed the old ego. the analyst reprenew authority that the patient must introject. The superego. is the prime manipulator of man. Psychoanalysis insists on weaning the patient in the final stage from the new therapist introjection he has formed. early On 33 . loss or failure of the parent to proother hand. it therefore becomes important to real- There no question but that the analyst is an auxiliary superego. This introjection is justifiable on the grounds that it is the old superego which is causing the patient to employ outmoded forms of coping. the analyst must be able to represent that figure at least provisionally. the in order for the emotional drama to begin. In the therapeutic shadow-boxing. and not as a trace his new authority figure. There are many approaches to the superego conflict. depending on the nature of the restraints it imposes on the patient If the patient's conflict is old and deep and centers around the parent figure. is patient as a new superego. but he must now be weaned from the superego of the analyst. He must is way out of childhood by gradually learning to respond to the analyst as a real person. but that contrasts all the same very markedly with the sents the archaic superego the patient originally came to the analysis with. The patient has been freed from the tyranny of an archaic superego.
and help the patient set up standards of conduct he normally would have had. a fundamental personality change can be effected by changing "the stance of the ego" toward the demands of the superego. Again. or by prohibitions The patient must accept these restricnecessary disciplines. the id. the therapist changes his role considerably. the aim is actually a modification of the values under which the patient had been performing prior to therapy. can be effected without meeting the absolute standard. a better functioning individual. tions as by simple reassurance. as long as the ego functions without crippling restrictions. It is almost impossible. The ego can appear stronger simply by bringing the claims of the superego into line with it This is the rationale for supportive therapy. in structural terms. He becomes a protective but authoritarian figure. self Thus. Thought Reform. not to tamper at least provisionally with the patient's values. A semblance of a cure. The suppression of conflicts is tantamount to a cure. he manipulates the patient's superego without the rational participation of the patient. he may alleviate the patient's guilt either When and 34 restrictions. Ego strengths and weaknesses are. relative and not absolute. in effecting a re-orientation of the patient to his conscience. and Psychotherapy vide a proper framework upon which the child could model his character means that the therapist must him- supply this pattern. even in the most rational psychotherapy. and external reality. and in his struggle with .Zen. But it needs repeating that this situation is ideal. after all. Any therapeutic system can effect this even in the complete absence of any cognitive participation by the individual.
on top." or a "breaking down" of the neurosis. Re-repression thus enjoys the illusory freedom of repression lack of ambiguity. psychoanalytic theory itself insists that a man chooses his profession to suit the rationalization of his unconscious surgeon has simply sublimated his desire to urges. hobbies. repressions and destroy the therapeutic relation- The therapist can counter this destruction by prescribing physical culture. It is not unfair to say that some therapists are predisposed by their own personality structures and value systems to the use of supportive therapy. These fact that after therapists refer almost proudly to the 35 . no question about who comes out The tension. but the real dynamics are not thereby obscured: re-repression is simply successful undertaken by a stronger. the neurosis "seems to break down" as the new superego is introjected. therapist-supwhich has accepted the therapist's superego ported ego sanctions as new authority upon which to pattern conduct. Those intherapists who use supportive methods are often genious in legitimizing descriptions of the mechanics and efficacy of re-repression. Support therapists call this a "catalyzation. and for our purposes it is instructive to take a closer look at is how power over others rationalized in the name of science. The patient willingly accepts the new and more clearly defined superego as a framework in which to act. and so on. hostility. indeed. A dismember bodies more than has a butcher. and frustration which but there is the patient experiences in this kind of give-and-take may actually be intense enough to break through the new ship. occupational therapies.Psychotherapeutic Personality Change the therapist.
when the therapist's superego joins the newly awakening ego strength of the patient. Of quality. In support therapy. The provision of a new superego at this stage serves both to replace the restrictive parental one. the first being on a childhood and the second on an adolescent level. The creation of unquestioning quiet fanatics is not the ideal aim of psychotherapy. and Psychotherapy therapy has ended. supportively-cured patients often say that for some time they carry the therapist around with them as part of their social relationships (3). and all the attributes of an which one must give unquestioning allegiance. and also to provide the goal- directed framework within which a new identity can be affirmed. Thought Reform. But this can hardly be used to justify the patient's assuming the conscience of the therapist and using it as a guide in his mature interrelationships. But it is not his own. nor is it formed by the therapist's superego has to infallibility self-awareness or self-knowledge. Some support therapists claim that there is a differ- ence between the introjection of the parent and the later introjection of the therapist. in adolescence there is a new striving for ego identity which unleashes a potential for new allegiances to replace those to the parents. The superego represented by the therapist thus has an ideal from the initial restraints of the archaic superego. But still prohibited conduct has to be re-repressed. a productive combination is formed. free course. In the same way that the Zennist joins himself to the fount of power of the "Great Doctrine/' the supportively-cured patient exercises a new-found omnipotence. self-knowledge When is sacrificed to a more ego-strong performance by mag- 36 .Zen.
in Mental Hospitals The therapeutic aim finds self-confident. and there best expression in group values here are frankly on the side is little attempt to seek access to the personality in depth. symbolically and less personally animated. The patient's initial desire for quick help and his transference dependence meet the same frusof individual therapy. But the techniques are similar to those employed in personal psychotherapy. for when a patient accepts the therapist as guiding authority with whom he must conform. the transference can last throughout life. With psychotics. the absence of any real selfknowledge or insight means that the patient must trations characteristic adapt by introjecting new standards of conduct in this technique those of the group into which he has come for treatment. its socially-ad- justed performance psychotherapy. the utter dependency of the patient is real if not apparent. the termination of the treatment may present great difficulties. since the therapist remains a necessary factor in the patient's continuing adjustment. the may not be so overtly debut his ego-strong performance.Psychotherapeutic Personality Change ically imbibing in another's omnipotence. Manipulation in Group Therapy and. The of social adjustment. while more pendent. Deep neurotics and borderline psychotics exhibit a life-long dependency on the attention and protective efforts of the analyst. This is perhaps a good point at which to indicate the incongruity between what the patient wants and what he actually will get is one of 37 . still reflects supportively-cured patient his induction into the therapist's value system. As in supportive psychotherapy.
the group leader's ^A use of the gradient approach good example of the Zen master's adeptness at the is found in Herrigel's account. Thought Reform. Gradually.) The group gradual. For the Zen disciple. Once caught up in transference. fitting his demands to the tolerance of the individual patients. occasional "flight into health'* a pretense of cure assumed for the purpose of escaping further therapeutic probings or any deep-seated personality (Anyone who has not undergone therapy can have no idea of the emotional investment change. it is particularly interpreted as a reflection of his "perfect understanding" of the "true nature" of his disciples. this adeptness appears as a peculiar wisdom on the part of the master. he speeds up his insistence on compliance. This reby the therapist to allow a peek inside the tent until the patient has bought his ticket is characteristic of most therapies. that the truly neurotic individual has in his defenses. infantilizaand the promise of help. the patient has recourse only to the familiar. Statements like these are obviously transference inspired. so that the patient cannot mobilize his defenses and reject the process. in his refusal to face painful materials from the unconscious. 38 . use of this gradient approach. then. to be examined in our discussion of Zen. the group is relentlessly pushed in the direction of new norms and by skillful values. He has no idea of the profound change which will be demanded of him after he enters the group. 1 Unlike individual therapy. as well as <of all other things in the universe. therapy leader is intentionally brief. The requirements for change are fusal revealed by the therapist only gradually. and unthreatening in his explanations of the requirements which the patient must meet. and Psychotherapy which he is not aware when he enters therapy. tion.Zen.
the patient is hard pressed to hasten his espousal of the new norms. Plunged into an alien group under constant pressure to adjust to its standards. 39 . The new reference group lays claim to the patient's loyalty. whether it therapies seek to effect the psychoanalytic weaning. His own values do not apply. any activity resisting this aim is "bad/' The new superego is unambiguous. Insistence on his personal values only brings condemna- when it tion from the group. despite the unquestionably coercive means. The therapy has been effected. or a therapeutic group with norms and values quite different from those of outer society.Psychotherapeutic Personality Change personality is less responsible for personality change than the group itself. which will only give him its support observes changes in him and his behavior. Under these pressures he comes to understand that only those acts are "good" which aim toward the goal of mental health. and not all setting. and his consequent sense of personal deflation combines with his inner tension and anxiety to drive him to the desire to be accepted. Nor can he test these new standards to which he is opposed. or discuss or reflect upon them with someone of differing persuasion. But the patient has learned a skill an increased capacity to relate to others which is probably the reason he enrolled in the group in the first place. so the patient's main concern becomes one of avoiding anticipated retaliation. All personality reintegration depends on isolating the individual in an artificial therapeutic be the analyst's private office. He tries to make himself less vulnerable by divining what the group expects of him. he is alone in the hostile group.
which the patient may attach a great value. a man may not be accustomed and going ways. and new. is dedicated to effecting some full time. often lackluster things are issued in their place. In the process of infantilization so familiar in most therapeutic techniques. He may have his head shaved. go here. the more totally latable the milieu into which the patient is set. go there. Army quite counter to the perspective existing barracks and ships share this quality. are taken away. they relentlessly mold the individual into a new morality. and Psychotherapy controllable and manipuNaturally. Nor are many used to being assigned tasks and given orders. aries. patient finds himself being treated "Do this. and which kind of change in those who come within its boundIn this sense.Zen. the better the chances of success in personality change. This is nowhere better illustrated than in the mental in fact. the mental hospital is akin to a jail. his entire sense of competence is discredited. why did you do this?" and so on. a new view of himself in relation to the mental world. Thought Reform. described even in a new lingo. a different allegiance. In our culto taking showers to the toilet in front of others. in which one lives hospital. barracks. do that. which represent his identifications with his former life. possesses unlimited coercive power. Objects to monasjails. The like an infant again. Any institution. his self-esteem and personal image may be degraded in any number of ture. or a concentration camp: it exists for the purpose of inculand this view often runs its own world view cating outside. His conwith orders of 40 . In some and disfiguring processes hospitals occur the initiation characteristic of other total institutions teries. a monastery.
Psychotherapeutic Personality Change
can't I go out?"
get this?" are met by unequivocal answers: "You are not ready for it," "You are not capable of it" (4).
Anxiety and isolation in the face of these stresses is the expected and therapeutically desired result. Relief can only be bought at the price of learning to operate
new value system. This is the indispensable condition for discharge. The patient has to learn to give proper responses, reflecting a more or less objecin the
tive appraisal of himself: neither too negative
the world's worst person/' nor too positive "I am not sick and don't belong here." To cap the entire
learning process, these self-evaluations must be phrased in the terminology of that particular mental institution.
Thus, in order to
relieve the stresses of a thor-
oughly controlled milieu, to adapt to the alienation and mortification of the mental hospital, the patient
converts himself by introjecting a superego. This new conscience is very often a strong immersion in psychiatric perspective.
"evil" are referred to
psychiatric textbook rubrics.
From one point
hinges upon sonal need which eventuates in the conversion
of view, the religious conversion too superego functions. The propelling per-
based upon an inner conflict and an unsupportable feeling of guilt. This guilt may be due to a sense of
failure to live
up to one's standards
of the inculcated archaic superego, the internal transference); the severity of the superego causes a con-
tinuous and mounting anxiety.
glimpse of a
Zen, Thought Reform, and Psychotherapy
and the espousal of a new
offer the possibility of relief from this stress. It is characteristic of the religious identification that parental
behind, and that the continually obtruding parental image from the past is replaced with a new, more permissive superego. Identification with a cause, with mankind at large,
more symbolic than was previously possible. In alliance with a more creative fount of power, the ego expands into a stronger, more unified self-domination. It seems
or with nature, refocuses strivings on a
characteristic of personality development that once action is frustrated and baffled by internal or outer constraints,
into a fragmented ineffectuality. "Ego," "self," "personality" are far from satisfactory terms. At best they refer to some type of
the individual bogs
integral action-orientation by an identifiable entity, but they are very imprecise terms. The most that can be
that for energy-converting organisms, conduct continue to go forward. Restraints in the form of
constricting allegiances or impossible standards create
an insurmountable tension. The most powerful resynthesizer in the service of a symbolically manipulatable
animal are symbols themselves; as a perfectly executed mathematical equation brings relaxation and peace, so does the patterning of action within a new idea frame-
the assumption of an interpersonal rhythm, the forming of a peculiar style of relating physically,
to others. If
it becomes conand the language of a
The Zen Buddhist
is either "learned" in the discipline and training of a monastery or Zendo, or it is approached through the inculcation of Zen skills archery, swordsmanship, and flower arrangement. These skills have been trans-
lated in poetic works of the
West, and one
times left with the impression that most of Japan practices and "understands" the meaning of Zen. But Zen is not a mass religion, and neither is it consistently esoteric. Zeri pries ts,iifce those of other sects, keep their members in the populace at large by holding memorial services, attending funerals, saying prayers to cure sickness, and preaching. Furthermore, compared to the over sixteen million adherents of Nembutsu, Zen's three million are hardly competitive. There are two main schools of Zen in Japan, but although one, the Soto, has more than twice the number of teachers and temples than the other, it is the Rinzai which has been chiefly emphasized in presentation to the West. The more numerous Soto sect lays greater stress on good conduct and morality; the Rinzai emphasizes "sudden enlightenment/' and employs the famous koan to achieve it. The preferences of Zen's exponents to the
Zen, Thought Reform, and Psychotherapy
are clearly for the Rinzai;
guished promoter, Dr. D. T. Suzuki, seems frankly prejudiced against the meditative, monastically inactive Soto.
Zen? First and foremost
there has never been any attempt to disguise the methodical nature of the Zen discipline. Zen experi-
ence can only be realized by going through a definite training. The koan exercise is a system set up with a
definite object in view.
The uniqueness of Zen lies in methodical preparation of the mind for satori
the "sudden enlightenment" in which all secrets are The advocates of Zen do not hedge on the revealed."^ aim SFThe method: it seeks to place the disciple in a
dilemma, out of which he must contrive to escape. function of the koan is to be instrumental in
posing this dilemma. The koan presents a mysterious question and answer, entirely alogical, supposedly with some profound significance. In order to solve the koan,
Zennists claim that one cannot use his
mind The koan monk, or
logic; instead, he must pass of a higher order!;
simply a dialogue between a master and a statement or question proffered by a
master. It appears illogical not only to the Western, but also to the Japanese, mind. Mondo means, literally, an "asking and answering" questions and answers be-
tween masters and pupils; it is the description of the master-pupil interaction which leads to satori. Satori, the aim of the Zen method, is another term for enlightenment, the state of intuitive looking-into, in contradistinction to intellectual or logical understanding.
Buddha nature in a dog?" the "Mu. "See the eastern mountains "No nonsense here". "Mu" the context itself. but impatient. the non sequitur is accepted precisely for the sake of the confusion it engenders. "Is there master said. or deliberately poke fun at the intimate and sacred. The koan is used for deliberate reality confusion." "Mu" means "no" or "none". chuckling delight of the possessor of a choice riddle. this "no" simply cannot be interpreted as referring to the question. flax. koan In answer to the question "Who or what is the Buddha?" koan answers are consistently nonsequiturs: "Your name is moving pounds of Joshu's over the waves". Another perplex- ing koan is the question. Since to the Buddhist Buddha nature exists a priori in all things. "What hand clapping?" is the sound of one The koan that does not discredit the most common- place logical correlation." Yecho". In answer to the question. the truths and values 45 . the avowed intention former way is to awaken him to the fact that his of looking at things. "Three is "Mu" a famous koan. When a koan is given to a novice. but considered quite divorced from a "no" or "none" to be considered by is in this answer.Zen Buddhist Conversion No doubt there is something basically appealing in the nonlogic of the koan. The Zen pupil is freed from the fetters of logical ratiocination by being presented with an insoluble dilemma. The koan is the sincere. Western adherents of Zen betray a restrained gleefulness in talking about the akin to the inward. may be a series of thoroughly nonsense repetitions or exclamations. intellectual's last laugh at himself.
S$ a concrete assertion in answer Or. are not necessarily true or helpful as an approach to Zen. or a "no" or "yes" answer. to the same question.. but logic is no aid in the How does one break the koan impasse? Prolonged only result in hesitation.Zen. or what' another master had previously stated. or. "How do you feel today?" The reply was "Sun-faced Buddha. the contradiction: of what one has said oneself. I will give "you one. when Baso Doichi was sick. First assertion: "If you have a staff there is the 5 to paradoxical . The koan is not a riddle to be puzzled over. the When question which is an obvious non sequitur: he said.. rub-a-dub!" such as. rub-a-dub. doubt.. the koan serves to provide the it attempts to solve and frustration. know how to play the drum. I will take it negation away from you. nor a comical remark. and Psychotherapy which he has always accepted. Thus. finally. it has the definite objective of raising doubt and pushing it to the limit The disciple is edged toward a mental precipice leap." Next. one of his disciples came and inquired about his condition. to a AffirmatiQn. personality impetus for regression which is necessary the refusal of change it holds out the promise and time. moonfaced Buddha!" Some pause tremely 46 is stressful necessary in order to grasp the exnature of these ostensibly lighthearted . "My master negation of an obvious truth. intera strong changeably. help at one and the same Zennists have enumerated the methods of reality frustration to which a disciple may be exposed. "I Kwazan was asked what the Buddha was. Thought Reform. and told to leap. If yoiiMve not. never said this" in response to a famous saying of his.
rub-a-dub. "What is the Buddha?" the answer may be "The Buddha. "Tao. "The Buddha. "What mately. Take the technique of repetition: to the question. rub-a-dub! know how to play the And this cannot convey the resulting stress. who. Is As we shall see. The disciple's earnest concern over his master's illness an anxiety the full intensity of perhaps exceeding that which he would feel about the is mocked illness of his own father by the nonsense reply. interchangeably. "What does this mean?" ulti- Then." or. nor are they rendered trifling by the repetitious answers." "Tao. the master-disciple relationship an extremely authoritarian one. and Dharma are far from trifling things to an earnestly seeking." is The Alice-in-Wonderland atmosphere unmistakably overpowering. when sincerely and ceremoniously approached about the aims of education. is "What is wrong with my question?" and wrong with me?" exclamatory utterance is attributed to the master Baso. Tao." and "Dharma.Zen Buddhist Conversion replies. This "Kwats" said to have 47 . Baso uttered "Kwats!" when Hyakujo his disciple The came up to the master for a second time to is be instructed in Zen. religious disciple. responded: "I 7' drum." This kind of answer produces extreme confusion on the part of the disciple first. "Sun-faced Buddha." or the "Dharma. and carries with it a degree of respectful submissiveness and awesome worship on the part of the disciple that one has difficulty imagining in the comparatively individuated West One fit parallel for a tual university-going Western intellecwould be a university chancellor." The point is that Buddha.
is all fair sport: ultimately the disciple sees the error of his attempts to pose logical questions and understands that the truth is not to be grasped by the mind. and Psychotherapy deafened Hyakujo's ear for three days." Apparently. without the hesitations and compromises of associative cerebration.Zen. or can. This distortion occurs in a controlled environment which does not offer him consensual validation. now he is met by a totally incomprehensible. The disciple's coming to the master a second time for instruction in Zen means that he has already been rebuffed once by some reality-confounding device. The one doing the distortion the master is a highly respected figure to whom the disciple has addressed himself for clarification of precisely those questions which now seem to be wrong or stupid. Cognitive reality confusion is not the only problem. he may have his question answered by a counter question that is again a non sequitur: "Who is the master of the triple world?" To which he may be answered: "Do you understand how to eat rice?" To this the Westerners who expound Zen to the West. get this response again and again. Thought Reform. Or. but has rather to be intuited by the "inner self and lived unstintingly. the disciple receives deliberate physical 48 . he will. "Kwats" is a nonsense cry it has no real meaning. "Kwats. and deafening. for along with the discrediting of his accustomed reality orientation. But ficial this super- and wishful explanation glosses over the essence what actually takes place: the disciple is subjected of to an extremely stressful distortion of meaning as he has been trained to conventionally understand it.
" With this another slap was given. sir. Hyakujo cried out. taking hold of Hyakujo's nose gave it a twist. Baso asked." same they have been here from the very This made Hyakujo's back wet with perspiration. but all the first. thirty blows on your head." Tokusan used to swing his big stick whenever he came out to preach in the hall. whereupon the disciple said. being pushed to the ground. just the same. "Here I have no time to consider for your sake what rudeness or politeness means. nose twistings." "Whither are they flying?" "They have flown away. again: The master gave him a slap in the face. abruptly. "How rude you are!" "Do you know where you are?" exclaimed the master. and the like. blows 49 . For example: when Hyakujo went out one day attending his master Baso they saw a flock of wild geese flying. You may now retire. In China. Or. The discipline was characterized by slaps in the face. if you utter not a word. "Oh! Oh!" Said Baso. Overcome with pain. "If you utter a word I will give you thirty blows." Baso. "What are they?" "They are wild geese." This was all he would say.Zen Buddhist Conversion punishment in many forms blows. "You say they have flown away. saying. in former times the physical coercions employed were extreme. Zen was known as Ch'an. Thirty blows seems to be a standard number: at the end of one exchange of non sequiturs. Ummon suddenly raised his voice and said. "I spare you thirty blows.
slap them. The Zennists call that by this this meditation. and harnessing novices with a heavy wooden neck collar and iron lock. do not permit . 11: At the time of the morning service. are . any egoistic Or. A disciple in the act of making a bow would be kicked to the ground. . When submitting to the warning stick. 4 states: . and Psychotherapy with the fists under the ribs. or given a deafening "Kwats!" followed immediately by a blow. kick them to the ground. the dozing ones to be severely dealt with the keisaku. the master deals with disciples in several ways: he can strike them. It is 7' Zen "straightforwardness that although its proponents do not insist on the more severe historical forms of physical force.Zen. courteously fold your hands and bow. Thought Reform. make scornful and even abusive remarks. . Rule No. thoughts to assert themselves. Rule No. the frustration of meaning via the koan combines with a quality of total institutional reform to produce a maximally coercive intensity. but records the rules governing monastic life. . the keisaku [warning stick] is to be used with discrimination on the monks. . laugh at them. though they admit term they do not mean the mental train- 50 . they make no attempt to disguise the extreme coercions to which the disciples may typical of be subject The Zendo In the Zendo (monastery). . whether they are dozing or not. . In the monastic spiritual exercises. The Zen literature not only contains these reports.
the Buddhist modern 51 . historically. The master or monastery. The Zendo. the novice is expected to show zeal: Hui k'o. since cultural norms dictated Buddhist revelations as the highest wisdom. After all. the second patriarch of Chinese Zen. as in any therapeutic reform process. the method is to reveal gradu- an expected achievement that far outstrips what the seeker had anticipated as the changes necessary to ally effect within himself.Zen Buddhist Conversion ing called meditation in the West While the zazen (meditation) is going on. they are said to have demonstrated. reputedly cut off his left arm as a demonstration ticular of his earnestness. In his application to a parinitiation. And. and a magical omnipotence derived from the knowledge he possesses and his own personal degree of spiritual perfection. with a program and a task to fulfill. The admission to the Zendo is in effect a selective extremely high degree of motivation on the part of novices seeking admission is attested to by the "proofs of sincerity" which. Self-selection for the training through high motivation is to be expected in the accounts of novices seek- ing monastery admission. a monk with a keisaku polices each end of the raised meditation platform. is a reform institution. seeking to effect a change in themselves to become different as a result of what they will learn within the Zendo. after all. The novice's expectations of the master coincide with a patient's expectations of a physician or therarelieve pist: the master has the presumed power to suffering. keeping a close watch on the monks. New arrivals are usually eager and enthusiastic.
Today this formal initiation milder than it was when hard treatments were merci- lessly dealt out. and all applicants are met with perfunctory rejections: they are told that there is no more room in the Zendo at present. origins. and his meals are supplied at proper hours. Everyone in authority in practice to engage in 1 There is every reason to believe that. He is. Thought Reform. Now. and so The forth. and so on. the novice sought also the pure magical power of the master. the novice's expectations may in a very real sense be concerned with a healing process 1 to be effected by the master. and Psychotherapy one that relieves human suffering by pointing to a way out. Thus.Zen. The zealous novice is not put off by such tactics. however. price to pay in order to learn the secrets of power. the an amiable tea drinking. 52 . admitted into the Zendo is at night during this period. historically. detachment from the fetters of painful human experience can be achieved by learning the secret is Buddhist way. They would be a small See Chapter 4. that the Zendo is poor. Once inside the Zendo. the novice is subject to a The total manipulation routine regulated with military severity and precision. novice must prove his zeal before being admitted. of a stressful environment may begin with the novice's first interview with his master in ancient times the confrontation with reality distortion began with is this interview. and desultory informational conversation about the novice's age. and the usual procedure is to let him sit outside over his baggage for at least two or three days before formally admitting him. This explains such demonstrations of earnestness as self-mutilations and amputations. however.
and whom totally different way. novice is the especially the master upon will insist on seeing reality in a dependent. he is given his koan in the the most important Zen view. This sanzen normally occurs twice a day. alternates Manual labor is set aside during several periods of the year. exclusively mental discipline. plus an extremely full schedule." in shin themselves seem to vary in intensity. The physical discomfort of the Zendo is not unusual by. but it undoubtedly contributes its part to the stress of the milieu. There is a shortage of clothing. punctuated by a "discriminating" use of the keisaku. and of time in which to sleep. In this atmos- phere of physical deprivation and strict routine. the sesshin. the monk between doing menial labor and meditation on his koan performed on his zazen tatami mat on the tan. Besides "lectures" remember Tokusan's "thirty blows" lecture technique the master for the presentation of the disciple's views on his koan. the novice undergoes a feverish round of meditations and consultations with the master. the raised floor of the Zendo.Zen Buddhist Conversion the Zendo. and lasts about a week each time. sesis Sesshin means extra severe literally "thought collecting". of food. Trappist standards. There an "Rohatsu memory of Sakya Buddha's enlightenment During the sesshin. feature in the Zendo life. say. the sesshin. which occurs a few times in summer and winter seasons. but during there is the visit to the period of thought collecting it takes place four 53 and even five times. The novice's anxiety begins with his real undertaking of the discipline. called the sanzen. . for a stepped-up.
and Psychotherapy Sanzen pline. under these conditions. was met with peated this remark. he does not have to do sanzen. In the Zennist's own words. the reply "Stuff and nonsense. during the Zendo year. and he is given no hint about the right thing to say. "sits quietly like Nor does strike the monk a crouching lion" awaiting the the lion hesitate to pounce: he may violently. or general sanzen which is enforced three times: the monk must see the master at these times whether not. furious. But." Hakuin reand was given a box on the ear. Whereupon the master offered the additional comment of. if a monk has no special views to present to the master. on presenting his views to his master. Normally. the master novice. he has views or The extreme physical and psychological coercion of the enforced sanzen is more like bullying than it is like an interview. "O you denizen of the dark cavern. is The monk must go quite in keeping with the coercive discito the master's room for a very formal and solemn interview all the more solemn because he has no idea at all of what is expected of him under the he Anything koan may be discredited. new says in explanation of the monk does not want to see the master.Zen. the master. that the strange reality system. Thought Reform." Another day. pushed him off the porch 54 a fall of several feet knocked him senseless . It is understandable. and thrown with the motion of the blow from the veranda into the mud and water. gave him several slaps. after an exhaustive contest with the master in sanzen. during the sesshin. there is the sosan. and chase him back out of the room. Hakuin.
and forced to face an obviously violent sion master. The Temple 1 See. or to tear him away from the post or the door to which he clings with fearful trembling. It is perhaps for this reason that the situation of the conveyed in the literature is as hopeless as his anxiety is overwhelming.Zen Buddhist Conversion and he was again cavern." told. and the Japanese. The usually quiet solemn meditation hall a scene of wrestling matches. like everyone else. for example. Some monks try to communicate in what they believe may be the exsensitive monk as pected manner returning a slap. Mishima's novel about of the Golden Pavilion. using koan techZen monks. Besides. any idea of what is expected of him in resolution of the is koan. they are already extremely reluctant to see the master: many of them have been staying away from sanzen because they naturally do not have any satisfactory solution to their koan dilemma. can be 1 ingenious in their logical contortions. until final breakdown. What hap- pens at this time in the Zendo resembles the activity in the padded cell wing of a backward psychiatric hospital: the senior novice monks use physical force to pull the down from the tan. The master's room novice's forcible ejection from the puts the monks who are waiting for their sanzen into an understandable state of apprehen- and confusion. the novice is in a critical impasse. The Zennist does not have. 55 . He does not realize that logic is of no use in solv- ing it. Exhausted by the endeavor to unravel the koan mystery. "O you denizen of the dark is The presentation of views clearly not an intellec- tual affair. 1959.
Satori: this is almost always discouraged. have their own rationale for the work discipline of the Zendo: they proclaim the need for muscular activity as a remedy for the dullness of mind that from the habit of meditating. However. the enlightenment or rebirth the passing and the emergence of the new. Hakuin The Rebirth average of fourteen years of this kind of unrelenting discipline before he is qualified to be a master. unambiguously clear thinker and doer. It is highly likely that total mental the long period of continued stress and was very discouraged/' breakdown during is avoided only by Zennists. Thought Reform. deluded mind. Undoubtedly. Satori is lative pressures of stress. and avow that may this dullness of mind is very apt to result from the Zen arise training. Most accounts of the attainment of satori begin with the statement: "He had spent many years trying to uncover Zen's secrets.Zen. and Psychotherapy niques in their own answers to the master. ex- the insistence on work and activity. was given a box on the ear after he had repeated his master's "stuff and nonsense/' and the literature is full of examples of this kind of discouragement. and so forth. the final critical collapse under the accumuThe Zennists understand it 56 . for reasons which will be explained in our discussion of therapeutic aspects of Zen. The effort spent during fourteen years of unceasing stress has but one aim: satori away of the old. The pectedly. the process The monk must undergo an would be considerably shorter if the disciple had an inkling of what was expected of him.
but it must be a new birth and not a disintegration. and the deprivations. my whole existence was wrapt up My . Severance adaptation effects his is in essence a resynthesis: the disciple conversion by adopting the symbolic framework of the master.Zen Buddhist Conversion as a mental catastrophe. The Zennists recognize that there can be either "too much" or "not enough" satori. whether I east from west. Satori is the new vista that one sees with his whole being after hav- ing exhausted all attempts to master the koan. Giving up the struggle brings own the first taste of peace and harmony to the tortured his novice. . nor morning from night talked or kept silent. 57 . the ego must yield. The mental upheaval must be complete. and did not distinguish . but only in the sense that a piling up of intellectual frustration leads to the crum- bling of the edifice of logical thought. The acquiring of a new viewpoint is actually a new religious from the old reality framework must be complete. Koho gives an account of mental strain in wres- tling with this question posed by his master Setsugan: "All things return to the One. The descriptions of pre-satori and satori states by the masters themselves show the psychotic states and sensations into which the novice is plunged by his koan dilemma. forgot to eat. which seems to testify to the fact that a lukewarm reform is as undesirable as total mental collapse. There is only one way to relieve such stress: when it becomes intolerable. The birth. the physical tortures. but where does this One return?" attention was so rigidly fixed on that that I neglected sleeping.
Having accepted and understood the new metaphysical values. . 1 into Hakuin. carries this lifeless corpse of yours?' burst upon I felt as if this boundless space were broken me." . this same old fellow moveth on for ever!"] This made me all of a sudden awake from the spell. the disciple no longer deems the koan worthy of preoccupation. Though sounded I like a discussion attended the lectures by the master. I were all by myself. There was no going forward. 58 . Though I was in the midst of a crowd or congregation I felt as if Like an idiot. no slipping backward. pieces. Thought Reform. . See discussion of Zen cosmology in Chapter Six. [One hundred years thirty-six thousand morns. . . I tried several koan in my mind and found them so transparently clear. six days and nights thus elapsed when I entered the Shrine with the rest. . . when quite abruptly a great mental 2 fixation took place. and the meaning of. . they going on somewhere in a dis- does the insurmountably puzzling koan suddenly become Probably because the attempt at logical solution is abandoned. like an imbecile. and there was nothing but "Joshu's Mu. . . the questions posed by the various koan reflect a petty *Why clear? a preoccupation limited to one life. I was like an idiot. and happened to raise my head and looked at the verse by Goso. .Zen. Viewed from the standpoint of transcendental Universal Becoming. it was like one mirror reflecting another. and Psychotherapy with the question "Where does this One return?" It was like being screwed up or glued. forgot both eating and lying down. I forgot the world. 'Who . . like an imbecile. . reciting the Sutras. This "great mental fixation" or tai-i is a state in which concentration is brought to the highest pitch. up and the great earth were altogether levelled away. . the Japanese master. recounts his struggle with the famous Joshu's "Mu" koan: I did not sleep days and nights. I forgot myself. to one moment in daily care eons of time. 2 Notice the additional food and sleep deprivation stresses prior to satori in these two accounts.
the disciple practices an art form under the tutelage of a disinterested master. . The harried Westerner is offered these disciplines as models for self-domination. for withdrawal from ulcerating mundane preoccupations. This is less so with the reputedly "artistic" disciplines of archery. when one evening a temple-bell struck which the whole thing. many yards away. "How wondrous! How wondrous!" There is no birth-and-death from which one has to escape. Ostensibly. Several days passed in this state.. .Zen Buddhist Conversion tant hall. swordsmanship. and by mastering the tech- admittedly arduous he emerges with the incommunicable secret of the ages.. no sustained milieu control or physical coercion. Sometimes my sensation was that of one flying in the air. It is even more wondrous that these psychotic episodes find such ready rationalization in the satorL Satori Without the Disciplines of Archery Koan: Rebirth Through the and Swordsmanship The Zendo is a forcing house of extreme persuasion: even Zen's promoters in the West have difficulty describing these coercive goings on in romantic terms. and perhaps even for contact with an undreamed-of source of spiritual strength and beauty. It was like upset pulling down a house made of jade . and flower arrangement. which are considered to reflect the ultimate in the Oriental sense of tranquil self-cultivation. In these disciplines there is no koan. but rather two-person dominance-submission 59 . . What is less apparent and needs closer examination is that these studies are not primarily vehicles for mystical contact with cosmic nique essence. nor is there any supreme knowledge [Bodhi] after which one has to strive. I called out loudly.
Once apprenticed to a master. In Confucian tradition. therefore literally load the master with spiritual demerits which he will have to work out as karma during this life and subse- quent reincarnations 60 one is reincarnated because . but only the teacher could impart his spirit." ticularly sacred relationship is felt to exist "appetite/' "attachment") of the pupil. The pupil's blunders. Eugen Herrigel's extremely sensitive and honest account of done ically his six-year training in Zen archery ( 1 ) has a good deal to distort critical perspective. good description of the technique and psychological undertones of a dominance-submission conversion a technique at which the Zen master is easily the equal of any scientificallytrained support therapist his readiness to figure of the Herrigel was idealistically eager to learn Zen. A between master and pupil. the novice expects that the highest good will accrue For the Japanese. and accord him unquestioning obedience. failure to progress in learning the Zen skill has an additional guilt factor. parto him. and his failure to learn. Thought Reform^ and Psychotherapy dramas. the father was con- sidered to have sired a man's body. bas- because of its poetic It also unwittingly provides a very and mysterious qualities. played out in terms of the most outrageously proselytizing authoritarian therapy. because the master becomes responsible for the karma (the Buddhist "error/' "illusion.Zen. and be impressed with the authoritarian master paralleled that of the Japanese Japanese tradition is to hold the master in higher respect than one's own father. Confucius has a saying that novice. The a student faced with the choice of saving his teacher or his father from a burning house must choose the teacher.
Zen Buddhist Conversion
unlike the parent's accepting the sins of the child in Judaism, before ritual assumption of adulthood at
thirteen.) The peculiar intensity of the pupil's anxiety as he fails to make progress is thus explained: he is
affecting the master adversely. It is small wonder that with this ideal indigenous dominance-submission defi-
nition of roles, the master did not at Herrigel a European as a pupil.
Zen archery the
Herrigel gives as his explanation for wanting to learn fact that even as a student he had been
preoccupied with mysticism, and longed to learn its secrets. He felt ready "to go to any length if only there were some hope of ... getting a bit nearer to Zen/' and he "begged" a colleague to enter his name with the colleague's former teacher, the celebrated master Kenzo
Herrigers high motivation was tested in a technique reminiscent of Zendo testing of a novice's zealousness
to undertake training: the master at
and accepted ultimately only when he was
convinced of Herrigel's genuine desire. The stress begins at the very start of the discipline: the usual method of holding and pulling the bow caused my hands to start trembling after a few moments, and my breathing became more and more
laboured. Nor did this get any better during the weeks that followed.
Herrigel's difficulty in drawing the bow was attributed by the master, after some weeks, to improper
I cannot think back to those days without recalling, over and over again, how difficult I found it, in the 61
Zen, Thought Reform, and Psychotherapy
beginning, to get my breathing to work out right. Though I breathed in technically the right way, whenever I tried to keep my arm and shoulder muscles relaxed while drawing the bow the muscles of my legs
stiffened all the
Occasionally, psychological stress was reinforced
Often the Master had no alternative but to pounce quick as lightning on one of my leg muscles and press
in a particularly sensitive spot.
Eventually, HerrigeFs breathing improved:
learned to lose myself so effortlessly in the breathing I sometimes had the feeling that I myself was not breathing but . being breathed.
Herrigel himself was curious as to why the master had looked "on so long at my futile efforts to draw the " bow 'spiritually' and had not insisted on the correct
breathing right at the
The answer came from
the formation of the domithe master alone
secret of proper
performance and success:
to suffer shipwreck through your
before you were ready to seize the lifebelt he threw you/'
drawing of the
a full year. 1
question will occur to the reader as to
what would happen
a craclc archer were to undertake the discipline he would obviously have no difficulty in drawing the bow and hitting the target. Perhaps not; but he would not get a chance to hit the target. At the
Zen Buddhist Conversion
The loosing of the arrow in the proper manner was the next step. This was the greatest, most anxiety-producing hurdle that Herrigel encountered:
could not open the right hand, and
particularly the finger gripping the thumb, without exertion. The result was a jerk at the moment of release,
so that the arrow wobbled. Still less was I capable of cushioning the suddenly freed hand. The Master continued undeterred to demonstrate the correct loose; undeterred I sought to do like him with the sole result that I grew more uncertain than ever.
to Herrigers surprise, the master appeared by his failure than he was himself. He
was simply counseled not to open his hand "on purpose/' to let the shot go off by itself.
There followed weeks and months of fruitless praccould take my standard again and again from the the Master shot, see with my own eyes the nature way of the correct loose; but not a single one succeeded. If,
waiting in vain for the shot, I gave way to the tension because it began to be unendurable, then my hands were slowly pulled together, and the shot came to nothing. If I grimly resisted the tension till I was gasping for breath, I could only do so by calling on the arm and shoulder muscles for aid. I then stood there immobilized
beginning of the training there is no target, and no aiming, only an the correctess of which insistence upon proper drawing of the bow only the master can judge. Thus, in Herrigers own words, the bow
are not the goal they are only pretexts for attaining the as resolution of the koan is only a vehicle, and not an
in itself. Hitting the target without undergoing the methodical master-discipline interaction would only be the work of a "trickster/' and not a Zen archer for the primacy of the method as a means to an end other than skill in archery is constantly insisted upon.
Zen, Thought Reform^ and Psychotherapy
like a statue,
mocked the Master but
1 relaxedness was gone.
Thus, an apparently simple process really ridiculously simple on appearance becomes an insurmountable obstacle that requires
months and years of
Herrigel once in a session with the master sought an explanation of his difficulties. The master insisted on the purposelessness of the process, the need for a
much too wilful will." 2
right art/' cried the Master, "is purposeless, aimWhat stands in your way is that you have a
Herrigel betrays his emotional investment in the
But you yourself have
often enough that arch-
not a pastime, not a purposeless game, but a
matter of life and death!
the master replies, mysteriously:
"I stand by that. master archers say: 'One shotone life/ What this means, you cannot yet understand/' "So I must become purposeless on purpose?" I heard
myself say. "No pupil has ever asked the right answer/'
that, so I don't
This conversation was the
intimate talk Herri-
1 Notice Herrigel's choice for the parent figure's verb.
Compare the thought reform technique: the emphasis shifts from the intellectual grasp of objective fact to the need for an emotional of the individual himself.
as a set a standard To HerrigeFs disappointment. As continued koan leads inability to make headway with the to ceaseless preoccupation with it. and there was no change in emphasis after his consultation with the master: . . . . . you come to the lessons in the future. us. . wobbling. like children. The master responded appropriately: "When warned here. The group and whole was ahead of Herrigel in which contributed to his training. and that it was for him best to remain in a stage of puzzlement so that he could see the futility and inapplicability of his present frame of reference for dealing with the ity new world. Precisely. botched. and not to clarify. . despite all my efforts every shot miscarried . so Herrigel's inability to loose a smooth shot plunged him deeper into an obsession with archery." he "you must collect yourselves on your way Walk past everything without noticing it. the training con- tinued. he was still too "unenlightened" to cope with the new world gradually being revealed to him. of backwardness and aloneness: feeling How often I had silently envied all those pupils of the Master who. and he puzzled him exceedingly. let him take them by the hand and lead them. as 65 . The &ocm-like quality of the above excerpts shows that the conversation was intended to puzzle. But this does not imply any intentional duplic- on the part of the master It merely means that he believed that in that stage of his pupil's training.Zen Buddhist Conversion gel had had since it remarks that commencing his training.
and success confirms the Tightness of the master's knowledge: For the performance of these exercises it is sufficient that the pupil should . in some cases merely guess.Zen. Hence there is no need to conceptualize the distinctions which are traditionally 1 expressed in images. (All the more shall see in the discussion of the trance is because one actually seems to be experiencing "selflessness" and mystic "unity" as adeptness at the selfinduced trance increases. after and to explain also his own Herrigel had to adopt the master's frame of reference. Thought Reform. To explain this contrast. When one's initial success much effort traditional reality one framework no longer explains what experiencing. so that condemnatory reactions are minimized* 66 . the only alternative is to adopt a new mode that seems to fit. the explanations offered by the master for one's successes must be the real basis for that success.. and Psychotherapy there were only one thing in the world that portant and real. One intuits what his conduct should be before the parental response. gradually brought the expected result.. 1 is An cultivated. plus the advanced showing of the majority of the group. what is demanded of him. One verifies the correctness of this new mode by the progress one makes as an archer. as contrasted passage of time and Herrigel's continued failwith the master's ever effortless demonstrations.) Approval by the master means success. and that is archery!" if is im- The ures. There is no attempt made to find a morel empirical is explanation for one's increasing adeptness tical SieTnys^ framework as so we uncritically accepted. acute sensitivity to interpersonal rather than external reality one regresses to infantile empathetic identifications with the parent figure.
right. The identification with the master is the beginning of the conversion. not released smoothly the continuity broken. "The earth". Herrigel had to get away from the domination of the master's reality he had to disengage from the activity both as action and as value commitment. he [the pupil on the move but mastery now beginning master] convinces by his mere presence. It is the only frame of reference which had meaning an explanation of the activity he was engaged in. the identification becomes progressively more complete the master possesses all the secrets. Successful execution of the discipline is the road to enlightenment. one actually becomes a 67 . is top of the bow touches heaven and the bottom..Zen Buddhist Conversion The unity: "If it images. the rebirth. Since it was adopted from the master. are phrasings of mystic contains the AH". and there is no turning back into the old value system. so forth. "The bow when drawn is uniformly." x This frame of reference is adopte5 as"a~relief the stress of subjection to an alien world of meaning.in-i-he primordial state. Thus.." and If the shot is to be loosed must now be continual the physical loosening in a mental and spiritual loosening. Often nothing keeps the his faith in his teacher. Indeed. in order to be able to consider the applicability of another set of for Herrigel as descriptive ideas. the master dominates the scene: Steep is the is way to mastery. one becomes "like an Awakened One from who lives^and w^orks. whose to dawn on him .
day >out. The shot did not still had to loose yet "falF of it own accord. may lose sight With a gratitude as great as the uncritical veneration of the beginner. that at this juncture Herrigel tried a trick a purposeful loosing of the shot by consciously easing the pressure of the 68 . and Psychotherapy devotee in a cause.Zen. though he of his teacher. Herrigel it on purpose: All this obstinate failure depressed me all the more since I had already passed my third year of instruction. ready for any sacrifice. the pupil. Thought Reform. and the failure be- came obsessive so obsessive. he concentrated on loosing the shot. 7 overly-cerebrated. day in and of experience. as strong as the saving faith of the artist. in fact. The discipline continued as before. he now takes his Master's place. can never forget him. which dering whether I could justify this waste seemed to bear no conceivable relationship to anything I had learned and experienced so self" far. the opening The of Buddha Nature to the beclouded. still was not yet dead: Herrigel was comparisons with his former modes making But the obsession deepened. for it is a crusade: the service of Enlightenment. Continued frustration despite the most intense of efforts leads to mounting anxiety. This. take him. Wherever his way may devotion may outweigh gratitude of personal the more philosophical aspects of the crusade. a koanagain. and over-individuated world. using the introject of the master as an embodiment of the value system to be emulated. I will not deny that I spent many gloomy hours wonof time. shows that the koan is not necessary for The "former critical like result to be attained.
but he was not yet confident of his performance. He now wanted to confide in the master: Several times I made up my mind to confide in the Master. internalization of the new norms is part of a process that aims toward a minimization of condemnatory responses the "trainee" tries to make himself less 2 As in vulnerable to anticipated retaliation. watching. Herrigel thus arrived at the stage of total. . the Master's behavior would certainly have done so. Only fingers after considerable pleading. did the master consent to continue the lessons. was not taken in by this "purposeful effortlessness/' and the result was that Herrigel was dismissed as a pupil. done with Herrigers friend Komachiya as intermediary. Herrigel's If comment is revealing: profound shame had not cured me. but when I stood before him I lost courage: I was convinced that I should never hear anything but the monotonous answer: "Don't ask. practice!"2 1 Shame and all guilt are felt toward the parental figure. whether I found the way to Zen or notall this sud. since the master had not given him final approval. His own account bears this out: the passage sion of of weeks with I still no advance no longer troubled him: discovered that this did not disturb me in the least. subjection to a new value system. The master. He did not mention the incident by so much as a word. so indifferent. that it no longer troubled me. 1 His pleading for re-admission and his frank expresshame attest to the beginning of his final submission. . denly seemed to have become so remote. 69 .Zen Buddhist Conversion on the thumb. Herrigel seems to have submitted. Whether I learned the art or not. and in part to have internalized the new norms. carefree dependence. whether I experienced what the Master meant by "It" or not.
Given a reasonably submissive conduct on the part of the pupil. since ostensibly. the pupil stopped asking. Rather. And. one day. as expected. except for the fact that. But in fact. Thought Reform. the Master held me Inexorably in his grip/' The submission approached I completeness: from one day to the next.Zen. Japanese . the off Master made a deep the lesson. to stop practicing too. a remarkable insight into the nature of things is the goal of all Zen training. This is moment he master Hakuin's 70 strikingly illustrated by the account of his own satori. it is the moment of conversion. as I stared at him bewildered. Here was HerrigeFs first brief satori. and one might expect that he should have been aware of it. And when I at last understood what he meant I couldn't suppress a sudden whoop of delight. and would have liked . and in the end ceased to bemoan the fact that all efforts of the last few years had lived my work my become meaningless. submission to the authority figure and the new reality system brings the first sign of rebirth: Then. "Just then It shot!" he cried. as Herrigel candidly admits: ". or any immediate change in functioning. a cessation of struggle against the master and his beliefs. the culminating point in the internalization of a new value system. and Psychotherapy So. the master chose as a signal could probably use any of satori. the satori rebirth is not a new insight. . bow and broke after a shot. did professional as best I might.
His complete obliviousness to this after over three years of unrelenting. in town which opened his eyes to Zen truth. Of course. Herrigel himself was ap71 own . Come right brought home today? The extreme and apparently simple submissiveness of the disciple. "You have it now. after Hakuin's previous treatment. the pupil effects a shot in perfect. Herrigers failure to suspect his own satori follows from the loosing of the arrow a smooth shot had to go off. recognized that something had happened. Then. it is possible too that the need for tenderness. unconscious form. and the patent paternalism of the master are striking in this account. he saw something leaving successive sanzen. quick!" Hakuin then told him all about what he had gone through during the day. The master spotted his joy upon entering the gate. was obvious to the master an encouragement necessary to continue his hold on the pupil. The master tenderly stroked him on the back and said. anxiety-producing effort aimed at precisely this limited goal suggests that he was in a his upon some kind state of limited sensory awareness consequent of self-induced trance. There is no other way to interpret the master's communication to his pupil to the effect that he has satori except as a response to an evidently total submissiveness. Also. you have it at last!" in. and called to Hakuin: "What good news have you be quick. By dimming purposeful striving.Zen Buddhist Conversion After Hakuin had been soundly roughed up in two he grew desperate and thought of the master altogether.
" The new understand obstacle. then. But how it happens that the outer goal. inner goal which ought to be hit. and that the hits are only outward confirmations of inner events that correspondence is beyond me. was his attempt to and failure to do so how. . is hit without the archer's taking aim. as usual. the master succeeds in hitting the target: I think I understand what you mean by the real. and Psychotherapy causal factors at propriately oblivious to the possible work: how it came about that my tightly closed right hand suddenly flew back wide open. . like logical attempts to unravel the koan.Zen. in mystical. Explanations of Herrigel's failure to get the arrows up to the target are given by the master. The occurrence of satori. without really aiming. . . . spiritual terms: 'Tour arrows do not carry . is a combination of two interdependent factors: termination of the strug- gle against the new reality framework. because they do not reach far enough spiritually. the master. of the particular Success in loosing the arrow led to the next step in training. and with half-closed eyes. the disc of paper. introduced for the first time into the process: the attempt to hit a target. I could not explain then and I can not explain to-day. and enough adeptness at a self-induced trance to permit effortless and unself-conscious manipulation Zen skill being learned. Thought Reform. HerrigeFs attempts at causal understanding. for the pupil. do To 72 .
I do stand facing the goal in such a way . frustration. This culmination of the mechanics of a total conversion came after five years of continuous effort. to his "tiresome questions. : after a short silence) . The sequence leading to Herrigers ultimate and total satori follows this preoccupation. although you do not consciously take aim when drawing it." as Herrigel puts it. like a koan. subsequently. 73 . wherein Herrigel recounted what proved to final be.Zen Buddhist Conversion framework which depends on ference. "long accustomed. These are processes which are beyond the reach of understanding/' "You are under an 7 illusion/ And again. The conversion began with a conversation with the master. . his final reservation: Is it not at least conceivable that after all your years of practice you involuntarily raise the bow and arrow with the certainty of a sleepwalker. .. the master's explanations do not admit of logical comprehension: Much as this ." answers (again. I could not of course think it to a satisfactory conclusion.. that there may be something in "I do not deny what you say. so that. and anxiety. you must hit the target simply cannot fail to hit it? To which the master. occupied my thoughts . "if you imagine that even a rough understanding of these dark connections would help you. . imagery and analogy: not fit a belief and in- said the Master after a while [evidently Herrigel was given time within which to hear the echo of his own "superficial verbalization"].
The position of the target was roughly marked at the master's request with only one thin taper: was so dark that I could not even see its [the target's] and if the tiny flame of the taper had not been there." at the master's That evening. . loosed two arrows from the bright side of the practice hall in the direction of the dimly lit target. that the first arrow was lodged full in the middle of the black. Thought Reform. 74 . ally turn I know that this seeing is not enough. and Psychotherapy that I the other hand. gaze in that direction. in perfect form. though I could not have made it out with any It outlines. while the second arrow had splintered the butt of the first and ploughed through the shaft before . both of which cover. they drank tea demon- by the master in the practice hall. Herrigel was told to fetch the The master. even if I do not intention- On 'Then you ought jerked out. then followed a ceremonious home. for I see the goal as though I did not see I it. to be able to hit it blindfolded/' The see master turned on me a glance which made said: me to fear that I had insulted him and then "Come me this evening. explains nothing. only to dis- ." am bound my to see it. decides nothing. embedding itself beside it. I might perhaps have guessed the position of the target. precision. but carried them back together with the target. stration in total silence. I did not dare pull the arrows out separately.Zen. arrows. to his sounded amazement: like hits.
The sequence begins with the Herrigel statement. it was said with a certain awesome. But the second arrow which hit the first what do you make of that? I at any rate know that it is not who must be given credit for this T shot It' shot and It' made the hit. into total. "Then you ought to be able to hit it blindfolded. the demonstration could not have been more natural. "was no great feat. and I won't try to pretend otherwise. That may be. no longer to the temptation of worrying about what happened to them. once and for all. you will think." which he admits he "jerked out. hopeful enthusiasm about the master's potential power. that we may be permitted a more rational interpretation of this seemingly astounding proof of the co-operation of a spiritual power in an archery exercise. I think. with both I arrows: suc- though transformed over night. because after all these years I am so familiar my target-stand that I must know even in pitch darkness where the target is. uncritical acceptance of the new as reality framework: evidently hit The Master had cumbed and me too." In other words." The convincing power of this demonstration had the expected effect on the pupil. mystical one. the demonstration so convincingly follows from the master's habitual verbalizations that the only logical explanation seems in fact to be the spiritual. The quick glance which the master turned on him demon75 .Zen Buddhist Conversion For the master. He surveyed the arrows critically: "The with first shot/' he then said. however. Herrigel was plunged. my arrows Indeed.
Thought Reform. but my long experience still does not explain it". and of the ever present Occidental inability to "read" the Oriental quick glance very likely betrayed the quick idea which crossed the master's mind. the fact that the master was not blindfolded seems to have been compensated for by the single taper in the magical dark hall. face. if it did not produce final safari. by addressing itself to Herrigel's would particular susceptibility would overcome his last doubt. The must have been a combined with trust. and Psychotherapy a Zen master lie was. to make a deep impression on Herrigel an impression which. there certain premeditation On impressed by his hitting the target at all. serve. would at least have been an- other sound step in that direction. which he had already admitted he could do. the interest of "all-encompassing Truth" over fragmented consciousness. which is indicative both of the pupil's extreme susceptibility to the master's authoritarian disapproval. "You see. or. he could use the same kind of "on the 76 . This need not imply any "cunning" on the part of the master but simply a belief that any strates how competent for the slightest clue demonstration that. But he already knew that Herrigel would be the part of the master. The master had only. to put two shots in the black. ever alert about the most decisive way to wean the disciple from his last doubts about the new value system. The master might then have said something like. "blindfolded.Zen." For Herrigel. He could not possibly have foreseen the two arrows merging on target. really. they are both in the black. Herrigel interpreted the master's glance as a possible expression of affront at his comment. in Buddhist terminology.
now he paid no attention to where his arrows went. in the event that he himself (and not nificant "It") failed: a less spectacular demonstration by "It" would simply necessitate a less spectacular explanation by him. Just as.Zen Buddhist Conversion other hand" statement that he first made when Herrigel broached the subject. But. in practicing breathing. HerrigeFs "transformation" meant that he no longer worried about his arrows hitting the target. one arrow in the black represented any special feat of skill and so there human to any superguidance to two arrows. after his years of practice." Undoubtedly. he was prepared. why did both arrows lodge in the black. he was content to perform with complete trust in the master. however. Finally. Aided by a practiced detachment achieved by breath77 . and "It" hits and. it his "mind's maturity" that is. if he himself were properly spiritual. he had ceased worrying about loosing the shot. As a practicing Zennist master. unless one chooses is no special reason to attribute do so. his premeditations must have been combined with trust he must have trusted that something sig- would happen that would provide an unusually convincing demonstration. the perfect shots would be shot by "It. The demonstration had to be staged because of HerrigeFs particular "jerked out" enthusiasm. one hitting the butt of the other? The master himself did of the not pretend that. he believed that "It" shoots. HerrigeFs readiness to "drop like a ripe fruit" if he was faced with a final convincing demonstration was tailored to the stage of new value system in action.
It is at this point that the relationship takes on a marked new master-disciple and explanation take place enquality: conversation in the terms of the new communication system. more understandingly. More can be revealed to the initiate.e. rigeFs account indicates it was a particularly trying 78 . the training on in terms of "immediate communication/ i. transference of the spirit of the art from the master directly 7 to his pupils: There was another form of help which the Master communicated to us at that time. The improvement was starthe bow let itself be drawn differently. there remained one important hurdle. the new-found ego strength must be free of self-satisfied smugness so that the individual functions as part of a value system. rather than an experience. and not as a liberated but autonomous agent. the master can now speak more directly about the esoterics of spirituand mystic oneness. tling: it was as if more willingly. tirely no longer any reservation about the disciple's "dark connections" he has been ability to understand reborn into the new world view. Zennists place special emand Herphasis on this crucial point in the training. But HerrigeTs training was not quite over. the Master gave a few shots with my bow. Thought Reform. Thus.Zen. and which he likewise If I spoke of as immediate transference of the spirit. Approved performality ance in the new value system carries with it the danger of self-assertion.. and perfect underThere is is now carried standing is now his. had been continually shooting badly. and Psychotherapy satori is really an acceptance ing and concentration.
or is it the bow that draws me into the state of highest tension? Do "I" hit the goal. so that I can no longer separate them. And even the need to separate has gone.Zen Buddhist Conversion time. the attainments of the the values of the cepts sult of absorbed into ego acre- new belief: the strength of is the demands of superego. "the bowstring has cut right through you. in face the Master turned ness. . after a particularly good shot. so clear and straightforward and so ridiculously simple.. the master if One asked his pupil he now understood what was meant by "It shoots/' and "It hits/' Herrigel's reply is informative less as a description of his understanding. his hard Any demonstration by Herrigel of satisfaction in won skill and correct performance was fiercely if censured by the master: . . day. goal. on me my with unwonted fierce- "What are you thinking of?" he would "You know already that you should not grieve over bad shots. everything becomes . This the crucial any reform or therapy.." self are Thus. and ego. too." 79 . Is it "I" who draws the bow. The master has fashioned not only a convert but also a peer: "Now at last/' the master broke in. arrow. you must practice unceasingly you cannot con. than as a profession of faith demonstrating full of the symbolism of the new value system: command I'm afraid I don't understand anything more at all. . ceive how important it is. learn now not to rejoice over the good ones. . . This. For as soon as I take the bow and shoot. . . or does the goal hit me? Bow. ever the least flicker of satisfaction showed cry. all melt into one another. even the simplest things have got in a muddle.
will now set him off from others: I must only warn you of one thing. In sum. and to adapt it to the stage we From then on had reached. the meagrest hints were sufficient 1 for us to understand what it was about. . Although he dealt in mysterious images and dark comparisons. Herrigel is cautioned by the master that his view of reality. the entire society has not been reformed. At the end of the training. The rebirth has been into a special value system. By his own admission. . Thought Reform. and Psychotherapy lic test ended with the passing of a puband the awarding of a diploma. communication was now on a full peer Herrigel's training basis: the lessons assumed a new face. It has happened to us too. you when you meet your friends and acquaintances again in your own country: things will no longer harmonize as before. Commonly experienced contexts of meaning in secretive and close ingroups gives rise not only to extreme sensitivity to comties tinued closeness and intense emotional municated meanings. 80 . You have a different person in the course of these years become . and not into the one of the world at large. the Master tenting went on to expound the "Great Doctrine" in relation to the art of archery. his conversion. Conhimself with a few practice shots. Swordsmanship is identical in essentials with arch1 This communication via the merest hints testifies to the long-con- of the master-disciple experience. but even to new sublanguages and argots. But the esoteric view of reality so painfully acquired in the master-disciple relationship is the property only of initiates. and it happens to all who are touched by the spirit of this art.Zen. You will see with will feel it very strongly other eyes and measure with other measures.
Flower Arrangement: Variations on the Same Theme "Flower arrangement" releases such a flood of sweet. innocuous sentiment that it would seem churlish to but bring this esthetic Zen technique up for review. he loses whatever ease of perany worse off formance he had to begin with. using the sword quite naturally. The beginner. Again. He is made self-conscious about it. so the pupil loses his self-confidence. but making him "stop" at drawing the bow. and he must starts lose his self-confidence as soon as he the lessons. simply parries when his opponent thrusts. After many years of practice he eventually regains the confidence and naturalness appropriate to proper performance. and instead of gaining disciple naturalness initially.Zen Buddhist Conversion ery. the than before. The cure is supplied with the disease. he is free of the "stopping" attitude of arrest his attention at some the tendency to particular point in the mind sword play. But the return to his former self-confidence is bought at a price: submission to the master's psychological dominance. But the disciple does not long remain free of this "stopping" attitude. 81 . In Zen terms. One of the first steps in the discipline is to inculcate it. The beginner must also be made self-conscious. the methodical technique of instilling self-consciousness replaces the function of the koan as a challenge to the novice's composure. This is the equivalent in archery of not allowing the beginner to shoot at any target. The function of the koan is fulfilled at this point. is After losing his confidence. and the acceptance of his value system in order to explain the frustrations which the master himself brings about.
the secondary nature of the is skill apparent throughout. Gusty. he considered it attentively. Herrigel had already practiced flower ar- rangement. Herrigers wife. he took the branches from the vase. and instead. and Psychotherapy there is little in it that is different from the basic domi- nance-submission theme of archery. too. then. Mrs. Her floral first and most simple was thoroughly unsatisfactory. the initial aim of her master was to do away with his pupil's composure and self-confidence. but what the master-pupil relationship does to the pupil. without saying a word. Thought Reform. Here. As in archery. the master seems not to hear tions. rather than to delight him with change a heart-catching arrangement of flowers. When attempt the moment came for the master to examine her work. but. The process aims to the individual. and inscrutably. and looked forward to learning the skill in just a few lessons. her questions. she is given certain "instructions" on which to meditate.Zen. the achievement of self-abnegation precedes the adoption of the new value system. As in archery and swordsmanship. The use that important technical aid in inducing regression begins with the very first lesson. This direct and thorough 82 initial disapproval had its . everything the master demonstrates seems so ridiculously simple. The patient is allowed to hear her own superficial verbalizaof silence and is denied answers to precisely those questions she seeks to clarify: the entire lesson passes with hardly the use of a word. as in every Zen skill. wrote an account of her training that again demonstrates the Zen process (2): it is not what the pupil does to the flowers that counts.
as my intention was to attain the proceedings. to reduce herself to zero. but the master didn't even tell her what he expected of her. Not only was her first composition totally unsatisfactory. in in the face of these strange But. desired effect. she felt it was necessary to render herself as small as possible. Nevertheless.) The abrupt 83 . a perfect device for manipulating the pupil. Mrs. (The lessons were of variable length at the master's discretion. but The the lesson ended before she realized it. and in the face of the master's assurance and superiority. Again there is the gradient nature of therapy. But through several lessons her work was not really appreciated.Zen Buddhist Conversion pupil comments on her feeling of an interesting revelation of her chaestrangement grin at not being treated in an adult manner. this way of acting. she came more and more to doubt the value of her actions. pupil then decided to observe as attentively as possible the secret of a successful arrangement. without giving any explanation seemed to contradict the marked politeness of the Master. Herrigel applied herself in anticipation of the still To next lesson. deepest understanding I simply nodded my head in silence. avoid a duplication of this sharp disapproval. first I The At was dumbfounded Because she had uncritically accepted the master's "deepest understanding/' the apparent contradiction between his actions and his polite manner could mean only one thing: she herself was gravely at fault. In her own words. the gradual revelation of an entirely unconventional ethic to which the student must coniform.
The master examines the work brought to him. spiritual terms. the master has sole power of approval or disapproval of the pupil's arrangement. and Psychotherapy termination had the same effect as the pupil's ejection from the master's room during the monastic sanzen: not only has he obviously done wrong in his views on the koan. When the pupil considers her arrangement she presents her work to the master. There finished. 84 The student must . He may make a gesture of disapproval. according to standards of which the disciple is totally ignorant. and goes back to her place. remains for the pupil to decode this nonverbal communication. the abrupt ending left Mrs. more often than not without saying a word. or he may arrange the whole composition all over again. shift a stem. is no question about who is the parent and who is the approval-seeking child. the latter's The study of the arrangement will never reveal the error. petulant or noncommittal. which are never revealed to the student. the pupil thanks him. master's explanations of arranging are never in terms of the physical arrangement of the flowers. Thought Reform. but always in mystical. Whatever his judgment of the work. censorious parent Since the master alone possesses the criteria. or to try again. In flower arranging. or otherwise correct a detail. bowing. Herrigel no chance to set the situation aright. but he is left in anxiety because he has no clue as to why. Furthermore. She had to retire and carry with her the master's disapproval until the next lesson.Zen. in the same way that the dependent child must attune in order to minimize condemnaIt tory responses and gain approval and even survival to the merest hint of the mood of his erratic.
then even the most simple realizations are approved by the master. is omnipotent: conveyed by the calm a new com- What an impression of beauty is and ease of the Master's movements. when position born within his hands." If this condition of total submission is is not met. When the reason for the pupil does get approval of a design. sees all. when the pupil has acquired the correct "mental disposition/' When this condition has been met. There is nothing equivocal in Gusty Herrigel's understanding of the quid pro quo: the pupil consents to "begin like an infant and recognize that all ambition." and the pupil who wishes initiation into this secret world power must accept his conditions. . which is the apprenticeship in this art is never over. selfless by the "proper use of visible form." and so on.Zen Buddhist Conversion depend why entirely upon the master's judgment. and allowed the inner The master is indeed infallible." He is the "paternal friend as well as the counsellor in whom one has entire confidence. the its success is of course in terms of explained new reality framework: one has "become self to find expression". . all personal initiative is an obstacle that forbids One entry. Approval can come only after years of exercise. to renounce his Self. one has penetrated to its invisible essence." The master's power derives from of his possession of the "ultimate knowledge." "The Master "Nothing escapes him. . even after years of exercise. must decide to make himself very small and modest. 85 everything the pupil undertakes wrong in the mas- .
swordsman- 86 . As in archery. complete. and flower arrangement are interchangeable. 7 rebirth into a new view of reality. but one may justifiably wonder whether a samurai Zen swordsman was actually superior to a non-Zen trained swordsman or if. the pupil must not be troubled by the slightest intention to perform well. indeed. Thought Reform. Herrigers acceptance of the master's reality framework led to adeptness at explanations in his vocabulary. and masterful action in flower arrangement. Mrs. And this "intuition" can only a distinction between be achieved by total submission to the master. and the rebirth is archery.Zen. As with her husband. The Zennists make mere "manual adeptness" at an and the "artistic intuition" which results from art. Ego-striving and self-consciousness are effaced in a trusting submission to the magical omnipotence of the master. without it even the manually adept remain "ignorant/' Thus. his only superiority consisted in his greater detachment and willingness to die in the service of authority. not only is the Zen skill seemingly unimportant in itself. In uniting "with the heart of the flowers" one unites with "the heart of the AIL" The proper spiritual attitude brings spontaneous. method and result. the Zen training alone. unconscious. In ship. and Psychotherapy Only if the pupil accepts this necessary sub' mission can he enter "creatively into the discipline. The Zen technique or skill is only subsidiary to a ter's eyes. His criteria for performance as well as his symbolic vocabu- lary are unquestioningly accepted.
Zen has acquired a good deal of respectability from having been equated with tech- niques derived from Western scientific rationalism. 87 . are these comparisons valid? It is worth examining the similarity between the Zen method and certain important psychoanalytic techniques and aims. However. some Western professionals. the resolution of ambivalence to persons in authority. In this chapter we will discuss Zen in terms of these analytic ideas: the frustration in the patient-therapist relationship. The question is. have seized upon certain Zen features and equated them with therapeutically authenticated phenomena like psychoanalytic "spontaneity/' or with less empirically based ideas like existential dasein.The Zen Discipline as a Psychotherapeutic Process THE fatal surrender of individuality is so patent in Zen that there should be little reason to have to dwell on the matter. simply. the objectivity of the analyst. intent on bolstering favored therapeutic orientations or deeply held personal values. necessary to regression and ultimate cure.
the basis for any therapy is a twoperson relationship. new authoritarian person has his 88 . but it falls far short of meeting the value neutral standards of psychoanalysis. and the final freedom of analyst's the patient from a constricting life style. in which a delicate balance must How In the first be maintained which will encourage the patient's as well as to keep up the tempo of frusparticipation. the therapeutic creates regression in the face of The individual tries to adapt to the authority figure as he did to the parent. As rationale we it behind stress. Thus. and Psychotherapy and the weaning of the patient from any taint of the influence or values. tration required for continual self-examination. which was. place. if Even a only the forbidding figure can some- how be pleased.Zen. to find out what he wants. Attempting to win new by trying him over in the face of insuperable frustration. In psychoanalysis. this is that saw. meant to please the master and not really to trick him. patterns which were successful in the past trick will do. however. the patient (disciple) runs through his gamut of time-tested reactions. for instance. even though it makes him increasingly be- wildered and frustrated. tried a trick release of the bow. but with a new and that this figure. the patient soon finds that he in effect is not dealing with his parent. do psychoanalysis and Zen treat these salient features of the therapeutic problem? There can be no doubt that Zen qualifies as a supportive psychotherapy. Thought Reform. Herrigel. the psychoanalyst sees in the koan exercise a perfect analytic device: the pupil cannot tear himself away from it. and from a distorted way of viewing life.
and he is helped by the therapist to develop a new. In Zen's mondos. is The dug up origin of his neurotic. persons who have achieved satori are described. of course. The psy- chotic flavor of reports of satori attests to a complete abandonment of ego integrity. constricting behavior from the past. with impunity. more mature relatedness. and the submission complete as all defenses are abandoned.irresponsible. mocks or even hits the master. acts to frustrate the very possibility of is communication. The newborn infant is an outtotally helpless and dependent for survival on if side source of security and sustenance. a fundamental phenomenon of human existence. in fact. The koan. that he devise some means of ma- 89 .Zen "Discipline as Psychotherapy own set of demands and expectations. It is imperative. But the implied similarities do not end here. The patient finds that his old patterns do not work. The psy- choanalytically-trained eye sees in this change of functioning and new conduct the achievement of one of the goals of psychoanalytic therapy: a resolution of the patient's ambivalence. Ambivalence is. It is obvious. It is immediately obvious that the koan cannot be used in this way. and their conduct is often alarmingly arbitrary and. he is to survive. It may create the frustra- tion necessary for regression. In some of these accounts the novice. therefore. Re- thereby unrestrained. and by free association the analyst helps the patient analyze the tyranny of his unconscious. that any similarity between psychoanalytic frustration is and koan entirely superficial. but the one thing that master and disciple do not do in Zen is communicate on the gression is basis of symbols.
Zen. Thus. and a sense of childish impotence is accentuated by outbursts of hostility and aggression that he cannot control. coring figure. But dependence for survival also carries a certain chagrin at any curb on freedom. which ingratiation alternates with a certain hostility. The cycle tends to perpetuate itself: the basic rhythm of the infantile ambivalence toward authority often adult so still constricts the adult. and Psychotherapy nipulating this authority so it will cater to his needs. the assumption of a winning manner. The infant identifies with the sucingratiating and develops techniques aimed at keeping the mood of pleasurable sustenance and carefree safety as constant as possible. the adjustment to the other rhythm stifle his spontaneity. and he with it wants to summon the moon by crooking his finger. An still bound will find his mature relationships depend on the old unconscious habits. individuation. Thought Reform. He feels less than himself somehow. There is a precariousness in his utter dependence that the adult can only recapture in occasional moments of extreme despair. so that the possibly destructive spontaneous attitudes of others no longer pattern his own conduct. The infant is immersed in a controllable universe. Only by This freedom to relate to each person anew 90 is the goal . the infantile instantaneous probing for ingratiation. full realization of self is inexor- resolving it can he attain any degree of action. The cycle between unconscious ingratiation and protest against dependperson's ence upon others for able. Any anger or abandon evidenced by the authoritarian figure is a threat of failure and death. cannot be long-lived and must give way to attempts at conciliation. or felt omnipotence.
and all of its sacred symbols with In purging himself. If you say this stick is not I will strike real. The necessity of shock in effecting personality change is generally recognized. burning a statue of the Buddha. (1) and secure with it. you with it. restraints. the new materials which previously were "shocking" that the ego can incorporate are culturally defined. the entire past becomes a utters target for the patient. For the Oriental. In Freud's culture. the disciple can very easily seize the stick which the Zen master might accept. In revolt against superego his analyst. the patient often ideas. or a koan reply that the Buddha is only "three pounds of flax" 91 . and perhaps natural that some psychotherapists should see in Zen irresponsibility the achievement of this goal. lewd and sometimes blasphemous The utterance of shocking and blasphemous ideas in the Zen training convinces some psychoanalysts that a similar psychological process is at work. If you don't say anything I will strike you with it/' To resolve this crushing frusa tration.Zen Discipline as Psychotherapy it is of the psychoanalytic resolution of ambivalence. The response ambivalence would thus be resolved with a spontaneously shocking solution. psychoanalysis itself is a kind of shock treatment. the pupil's head and says. In some ter. mondo accounts the student slaps the mas- and both laugh naturally and easily. "If you say this stick is I will strike you with it. when oedipal feelings and latent homosexuality were confronted and admitted. One mondo which is held to reflect a perfect resolution of ambivais lence the following: the master holds a stick over real. the individual achieved a sense of self-mastery. Obviously.
Zen was condemned by other sects as its nese culture just because of dangerous to Japaiconoclastic teachings. the 92 . and Psychotherapy are conceivably equally contrary to childhood ideals." with the patient's dependence on the therapist conwould expect that the extinuing indefinitely. as was mentioned earlier. it may simply "drag on. clear-cut ending. In therapy the real problem is whether the aggressive revolt of the patient against symbols of authority means that also free of the authority of the analyst himself. with the patient turning aggres- sively against the analyst.Zen.) Also. Some disciples never reach satori. more broadly permissive superego. But there are which the broken off many other ways in can terminate. indeed this seems to be the case. The ability to incorporate this blasphemy into the ego is a signal of adult maturity and freedom a relief of previous superego restraints. It is one of the axioms of Zen that only an elite few attain satori. Does this ambivalence in Zen as psychological shock treatment resolve it does in psychoanalysis? The question cannot be considered alone. especially in psychoanalysis. of the chief problems of therapy is he is One the resolution of the transference artificially created in the analysis. It can either be analysis violently. (In fact. We tremely authoritarian aspect of the the apparently deep transference Zen master. and would make for marked And difficulties ending the novice's dependence. and a marks a successful cure. Thought Reform. as well as freedom to refocus strivings on a wider horizon than the one imparted by the parents. Or. religious conversion as a psychological process is characterized by a new. historically.
was very anxious about how he would get on without the master when he returned to Europe. and the gift of the special. The master. as Psychotherapy most of the novices and trainees in the skills of Zen.Zen Discipline rest. and yet not in farewell. is to create a sense of awe by unusually striking stimuli. in releasing Herrigel from his personal for example. created a strong symbolic tie: In farewell. "When you shoot with this bow you will feel the spirit of the Master near you. Herrigel. are condemned to a continued dependency rela- tionship that may extend over a lifetime." Thus there is no real weaning of the pupil. any more than any other gift from a dear friend. a fit of a piece with the master-disciple gift to cap a conversion rebirth. is One is never a process of constant applicaperfect. there is absolutely no indication in Zen of any equalitarian camaraderie between the pupil and the master after attainment of satorL Neither is 93 . so that nothing remains but a heap of ashes/" handed The bow represents the master's continued presence: always be with you when you practice what you have learned. for example. hold. magical bow is all manipulation. the Master me his best bow. I shall ence itself is sustained. Obviously. mysterious. the gift of the bow io need not have undue binding force. One of the surest means of inducing regression. or of maintaining a level of childish relatedness. his dependif "Even broad seas lie between us. Give it not into the hands of the curious! And when you have passed beyond it. Furthermore. But this bow is personal. do not lay it up in remembrance! Destroy it. perfectibility tion under the master or under his symbol.
it represents an aggressive acting out. he might well him to the ground. With both the Herrigels. on the other hand. plus full accept- ance of the master's Zen values. His choice of respond by kicking what to do would undoubtedly depend on whether the disciple understood what was implied in his gesture of seizing: the futility of logical analysis. the psychoanalyst is justified in seeing in Zen a problem which he faces in analysis. There is nothing to indicate that the disciple by his own mature decision frees himself from the master. When the disciple seizes threatened. or when he slaps the master in answer to a question. the ending of their training was very formal. But the important difference between Zen and psychoanalysis lies not in the patient's or disciple's 94 . and they were awarded a diploma testifying to their skill. an exercise of released impulses quite independent of any understanding of what they mean or should mean. Thought Reform^ and Psychotherapy there any indication that the master will accept any aggressive disobedience on the part of the pupil. direct. they had to pass a test in public. The master might permit portable frustration. Again. uninhibited action in place of cerebration or whether. it is evidently up the stick with which he is to the master to determine whether this represents a true grasp of the new value system that is. The masters themselves decided at which point their disciples were ready to receive their socially recognized bond fides.Zen. The patient must not be allowed to interpret bits of acting out as real resolutions of his problems. the disciple's seizing of the stick to stand as a resolution of a thoroughly insup- On the other hand.
Again. The social benefits of reform therapy were made evident in the fearless performance him and warrior ethics of the samurai class. make flower arrangement training available to their employees. One may be introjecting the free from the domination of a particular mortal person the master but one has nonetheless become a convert to his value system. As we less shall see more vividly later on. in terms of a religious conversion. any more than the termination of HerrigeFs training meant the end. This is crucial. They are even more evident in the present-day practice of flower arrangement. what the disciple's relationship is going to be to the propounder of that viewpoint even after he has correctly understood and related himself to it. Zen vaunts itself on the straightforward spontaneity that results from its training. but rather. one simply replaces a more personally constraining superego by a more permissive. resolution of the ambivalence to authority bought at the price of superego of that authority. or of the aggressive act of the disciple does not mean the end of the master's authority. there was an obvious emphasis on social morality. In Gusty HerrigeFs group. Zen is much fitting concerned with the individual than it is with neatly into society. banks. But is at best. flower arrangeart for women. In Zen. Pupils were enjoined to adapt voluntarily to daily existence. the acceptance of the slap. Once an today an ment is art of the samurai. more symbolic one.Zen Discipline as Psychotherapy understanding of the new viewpoint. Corporations. This does not mean that flower arrangement has deteriorated from its stature as a once industries 95 . There is no danger of social isolation when one learns this skill.
this! I draw water. the constant intrusion of self is "narcissism. Zen insists on its pure perception of the beautifully bare moment: How wondrously supernatural. in the simple buzzing the pulse of wings. Herrigel's simply means that to authority and to parents. finally. cure often leads the individual to forsake all the for- and not The psychoanalytically lution of ambivalence.Zen. credited with therapeutic achieveambitious than the resoments less most attractive Zen for the West is its reputed ability to rid the individual of excessive self-preoccupation. chiefly because in it is psychoanalysis to the individual himself that analy- psychoanalytic society. Thought Reform. and I carry fuel! the In psychoanalytic terms." The equate sis is be the last to psychoanalyst should probably Zen and his own therapy. and Psychotherapy noble art of the It virile yet its somehow esthetic samurai. even parents. responsible. is one of Zen's claims. dominance-submission function is just as socially valuable today in taming the individual as it was in traditional Japan. the removal of the constant of a fly's in every perception. one question that 96 . the individual seizes the ability to forget oneeternity. friends." and its ablation is certainly a valid therapeutic aim. One of the features of merly significant figures in his social world: employer. Zen is. Curiously. in even the most simple tasks. In the timelessness of the moment. and how miraculous. One of the master was: "Be submissive precepts of Mrs. The achievement of intrusion of the self self.
the self and the real world are only separable in imagination. so is desirable. in Buddhist thinking. Some psychothink that the basic aim of the Zen training analysts to banish such illusion is similar to the aim of psychoanalysis to correct parataxic distortions of reality. Unless one applies the Buddhist criterion that total negation of the self is a worthwhile life goal. and instead distorts it to conform to his own past. the individual is prevented from judging each situation anew. The koan discipline seems it is necessary. a normal degree of self-esteem cissistic identity. to eliminate all traces of nar- that there may be a pathological breakdown of the self and of normal ego boundaries. defensive understanding. in fact. ideas. obscuring the nature of the real. The universe. Fromm's flirtation with Zen seems serious. and refrains from any interference in the life. the master has no personal axe to grind. Zen feels justified in effecting this negation because. is basically an illusion. The best way to appraise the compatibility and distortion is of the illu- aims of Zen and psychoanalysis in relation to sion to take a closer look at the appeal of Zen to one Western analyst Erich Fromm. and seems to believe that the disciple is free to leave training at any time that the master really wants no hold on the novice. Because he uses outmoded patterns of behavior from the past. but he has quite failed to understand the essential dominance- submission nature of the master-disciple relationship.Zen Discipline never seems to be asked is as Psychotherapy whether the Zen pupil had first an abnormal degree of narcissism in the place. or rather in the illusion of thought. like the analyst. or aims of the 97 . in fact. He believes that.
for the values that the master these objections. He main- For Fromm developed. Herrigel.. Therefore. cannot be formulated in words. The gradient nature of Zen therapy of his is in itself a firm hold. in fact. This equation comes easily to the psychoanalyst. The psychoanalytic insight. Granted the primacy of thinking way. because there is general recognition that the emotional catharsis in analysis has understanding by the patient. in other words. to re-orient to that part is of oneself sis is which functioning illogically. the mind is still used in the accustomed logical. The cathar- reinforced by self-understanding and self-aware- 98 . the liberated disciple. of course. has inculcated. And at the conclusion Zen therapy. discovered that effective insight was an experianalysts ence of something new. Thought Reform. even though it sis produces a changed person. Even the subversion of logical might thought by means of the koan he considers not a departure from psychoanalytic practice (2). causal primacy over any "intellectual" Fromm seems to distinction. that as psychoanalysis itself something new. says: With a gratitude as great as the uncritical veneration of the beginner . rather than merely thinking tains. be trifling. ready for any The sacrifice is. But disregard a vital the emotional catharsis in any effective therapeutic unrepression. Neither of these observations has any basis in like that of any reality. even though true.Zen. sacrifice. psychoanalyand Zen are one in their basic indifference to con- scious thought. he now takes his Master's place. and Psychotherapy pupil..
for external reality would be a constant threat to the special view he had adopted.Zen Discipline ness. not by reorienting oneself to a new view of external reality. by understanding one's repressions and self-constraints. the because it is working through is rendered profitable punctuated with insights that are purely cognitive that appeal to the patient's logic as his defenses crumble: "You are acting this way because I am your father. the novice not simply trying to own functioning. causal view of reality is not absolute. There a logic that insists on the equation of is also a paleologic predicates rather than of subject. Herrigel was enjoined to re-enact the meditation and the bow-pulling daily. and one can take his choice. supportive clarify his methods. Repression is lifted and self-understanding created by examining unconscious materials. what reality is one obscuring with what distortion? After all. 1 The psychoanalytic reorientation is a new orientation to one's own superego. 1 In Zen too. In psychoanalysis. in terms which he can underHe has only to unlearn the distorted part of his 2 reality apprehension. so as not to lose what he had learned. in order to establish an identity 99 . A belief inculcated in is Zen by use is of authoritarian. and the individual is being communicated you think stand. an alternative reality This point will of the trance in become clearer in the discussion of the central role Zen (see Chapter 5). it can well be argued that the psychoanalyst sees parataxic distortion where the Zennist sees illusion. In other words. in part at least. a logical. 2 Now. effected. with." The analyst appeals to the logic already possessed by the healthy part of the patient. optimally. The sensations of the trance become points of orientation in the new view of reality. is as Psychotherapy The dispelling of rationalizations about oneself not the same as using the koan to abolish a way of relating to the entire world of external reality.
But the goal experience. the logic of self-directed necessity.Zen. "You cannot More aware than most fagade of what is hidden behind the that is presented to the world. In his analytic process of replacing id by ego. Here. 100 ." But the difference is obvious and vital: Zen imposes a view of reality which for the individual to accept requires a total change in his logical. and not intellectual Freud's aim. clarity on the difference between intellectual insight still it have not abandoned and the total experience which occurs is in working insight. the psychoanalyst has reason to question the high-geared intellectualism of the compulsive personality. the equation of predicates. ises is to The provide relief from function of emotionally determined premstress they are not the best means for gaining knowledge. Insisting on the priority " 'intellectual' insight/' of "total experience" over Fromm points out that Freud first believed that giving the patient the proper information was enough to cure him. the sector of the unconscious to be uncovered is only a small (3). through. causal apprehension of the world. and Psychotherapy is offered to explain the novice's emotional frustrations: good shot because you have too much will. apparently. Freud. The stubbornness to change is "will. and Fromm bemoans the fact that some analysts this concept of intellection. never expressed himself with full seems. "The Virgin Mary was a virgin." in the Buddhist sense of attachment to get off a reality. claims of psychoanalysis just this total Fromm. This is fundamentally the logic of emotionally determined premises. I am a virgin: therefore I am the Virgin Mary" is paleologic. rather than the discrimination between possessors of that property. was not ambitious enough. Thought Reform. the qualities of the shared property become important.
Growing a good deal of repression pression. a possible program for reform. The immediate task of recovery curing a specific illness would give way to an analysis aimed at awakening the total experience of the total would replace man. but ungives fortunately it is to be done. repressing the "wrong things" mature sex. according to experience. Fromm this limited goal by a sort of complete of the unconscious. there is no is How way obliged to of releasing something that is not repressed one work on the repressions that are causing trouble. understandably. in effect. 101 . but the vision is not. This is indeed a challenging program. Fromm has simply gone abroad to reinforce with Oriental wisdom his own platform of reform through "humanistic psychoanalysis/' The name is new. a fearless.Zen Discipline as Psychotherapy proportion of the total personality. determined by the therapeutic need to cure a particular symptom. the society in which one lives is values. willing co-operation with one's fellows. others. Fromm no indication of exactly how does one. some societies repress by remore than dif- and each society banishes from awareness If. suspicionless one's ferent facets of human own attitude toward experience there is room just for protest and then. such a protest that has led some sincere Western humanists to champion Zen a radical. make the entire unconscious conscious? Logically. allIt is embracing approach to personality change. into adulthood in any society values are formed means Of course.
and unglamorous facts are kept from public view.) So long as the king could claim divine ancestry. as in India. or secure possession of the divine mandate. as well as in India Polynesia. or achieve proper ritual rebirth into divinity.4 The Historical Background of Zen: An Anthropological View TO GAIN a proper perspective on Zen. the gross superstition. This security was no simple 102 . was centered on the belief of divine kingship. the fortunes of the kingdom were secure. on the derivation of the king's powers from Heaven. (In 1941 America was abruptly jolted by the durability of this belief held by the infallible descendants of the Sun Goddess. The presenZen to the West has been undertaken by those intent on a philosophical or religious promotion of Zen cosmology. understand tation of and . The less appealing aspects of Zen's ancestry the purely magical backgrounds of Buddhism. as in China. we must fully its tradition and background. as in Japan.Ancient religion in the Orient. and the mundane preoccupations tend to be glossed over.
nor yet a scientific smugness over a properly manipulated eugenics: the king's power was real. and by carrying out the proper ceremonies of commemoration and honor at the ancestral shrines. The spirits were all about. When an individual died. and other attentions. mean. formulas. and there was no guarantee that the meekest of the living would not profit by promotion to the rank of spirit. the did their part by continuing the ancestral line. they policed the other world on behalf of the living. The world was a two-part. evil. Their unusual power was not used chiefly to harass the living. usually a more powerful life: powerful individuals in this world became more powerful in the spirit world. and had to be placated by incalculable numbers of special observances. It derived from his knowledge and proper manipulation of the royal helpers in the other world.The Historical Background trust in symbolic bona fides. spiteful creatures could become even meaner. men in this world. and from his Otherworldliness was as tangible as this-worldiness. and assume an unwonted bravado. ritual. spirits in and bountiful and sent them healthy harvests. but to help them. offerings. In this familiar religion of ancestor worship. and protection from the other world protected Powerful good the living in this one by vanquishing powerful evil spirits. his assumed a new life in the other world. and was based on the idea that living beings were trans- muted soul into dead spirits. living by bringing glory to the ancestral name. creation: the otherworldly beings watched over the fortunes of offspring. by making symbolic offerings of food. 103 .
Yang and Yin. powerful divine spirits. manifested divine powers. but naturally. their powers directly to bear on the everyday affairs of the world. the royal ritual. they were almost immediately worshipped these newer. and Psychotherapy Individuals possessing unusual gifts and great personal power were transmuted at death into awesome for spirits. His power was so great that he even promoted and de104 . but also the mandate of their newfound power as spirits in the other half of the universe. By swaying the balance between them. by proper observance of ritual. But this emi- nence was not without its weighty responsibilities. Their direct descendants inherited not only their worldly f ortunes. he effected the alternation of the seasons. Royal lineages could be based on extraordinary worldly achievements translated into eternal otherworldly power. which provided unusual control over already supremely level of society was held responsible for regulating the universe and insuring the welfare of the kingdom. The royal ritual generated power into the other world: it also to use it and bring provided the living with a way to control the spirits. even more terrible abilities. Proper ritual observance at any was capable of generating power for use in the spirit world. Thus. the emperor could draw on sources not avail- able to those with less puissant ancestors. This is the familiar system of "cosmic government/' The Chinese emperor. the emperor had for the benefit of the living.Zen. Thought Reform. He regulated the dualities of light and darkness. Since he possessed more power in an interdependent universe of living beings and dead spirits. which are locked in eternal struggle.
plague. and the living adhered to strict codes of conduct in order not to weaken that control. difficulty comprehending moral and material. to commit adultery not only without personal misgivings. If the moral code were flouted. Failure in daily moral and ethical duties to one's family. in fact. a temple. or famine.The Historical Background ear moted gods according to whether they had given or been deaf to petitions. The family home was. The dead spirits occupied a prominent place in every hope and in every fear. Men believed they could control nature by obeying a moral code. The dead controlled order. away from the The common belief was Modern Westerners have this fusion of deadweight of village constraint and the constrictions of a thatched-roof world view. And to offend the dead meant to incur their wrath. any departure rigid standards of moral excellence were offenses against the dead. In this system. from outrages to community propriety. Living in urban conditions. the individual may find it possible. the proper balance of the universe would be upset. and the disastrous result could be floods. say. no man is exempt from obligations. and the that there existed one moral which included everything. daily duties of individuals were basically religious in nature. the material prosperity of the living. but also without suffering any adverse effects in his worldly fortunes. and thus provoke the unleashing of countrywide disasters. Basing action on the empirical determination of cause and effect provides a toughness and bravado that no powerful 105 . largely because in the West the historical trend has been to deny the connection.
After this form of Indian Buddhism had been introduced into China. Thought Reform. Mahayana Buddhism was no exception to these prevailing magical concepts. and magic. Taoists believed the unity could in other words. and not Its temporary manifestations in the world of reality. who saw an unchanging unity the Tao underlying all phenomena. The Taoists were Quietist mystics. but even with this different orientation it 106 . it underwent extensive changes. During its flowering in the sixth to the eighth centuries. monks. and Psychotherapy otherworldly ancestor could ever Impart plus the added liberation from the constraint of silent burial urns. The Mahayana that developed in the north was a religion of idolatry and coarse magic. all of whom wielded power over souls in the other world.Zen. and nuns. Nonmagical Confucianism was a secular. who catered to the Chinese faith in the magical garden. In China. yana had gods. The self-realized Mahayana saint pos- sessed superhuman powers and magic. rational philosophy. The be influenced by proper magical manipulation. that made the world into a huge its monastic form. Mahayana was an organization of magic-practicing monks merely (bonzes). In supernatural. Mahayana offered a super- natural package to the Chinese which bears no re- semblance to the highly digested philosophical Zen morsels offered to the modern Western reader. Mahapantheon. a hells. heavens and and gorgeously appareled priests. the magical system par excellence was Taoism. they were actually an organization of magicians. It was this timeless unity that was all-important.
he need not fear the spirits for only lack of virtue gave the spirits power over him. probably in order to dignify the indisputably magical Taoist ideas with more respectable Buddhist metaphysic. in brief. Actually. To live correctly in an interdependent moral and material universe of living and dead was correct observance of three ritual man's fate. But let us not be mistaken about Confucian 'Virtue". This. this was not virtue we understand the word today. If a man lived a classical life. Promoters of Zen to the West record its ancestry. was the historical background out of which Zen emerged. and it did not mean an abandonment of the belief in magic manipulation. the mark of a true gentleman. But the "marvelous person" that is supposed to result from Zen exhibits more Chinese prache possesses magical ticality than Indian speculation and can use them to order. as To the Confucian. there was little difference between the two the bonzes were no more metaphysical than a magician has to be. Confucianism had its own magic in the idea that virtue had power. deem 107 . Propriety was synonymous with ritual observance. "virtue" simply meant mastery and hundred major rules of and three thousand minor ones. and recognize that Zen grew out of a combination of Taoism and Indian Mahayana Buddhism.nature and to repowers. The Ch'an (Zen) sect souls. Zen owes more to Chinese Quietism than it does to Mahayana Buddhism. But in the Chinese mind.The Historical Background could not escape from the ethos of a cosmic government. decisive for Proponents of Zen to the West emphasize disproportionately the amount of Mahayana Buddhism in Zen.
One of its features attractive to the West is its irreverence for tradition and dogma and One patriarch is supposed to have relegated sacred scriptures for use in an outhouse. But this is not the spirit of self-reliant freedom of action for sacred texts. was the insistence on the relativity of the external world. and stillness could be effected. Reality is considered not only irrelevant to the acquisition of higher knowl- edge. In fact. and the ideas that language and things perceived by consciousness were poor substitutes indeed for immediate perception by pure. peace. simply that as in all good mysticisms books. The truth the Eternal Truth is not transmittable by words. the enjoinder to put aside desires and perturbations so that a return a union with the Infito purity. but a positive handicap. the nite. for which the Westerner mistakes It is in Taoist tradition surface of experience. Zen maintains that cognitive things are only the surface of experience. and Psychotherapy its metaphysic from Mahayana. So. indwelling spirit: the opposition of pure consciousness to ratiocinating consciousness. This is well eviits psychology denced by the Quietist doctrines carried over in Zen: the idea of the inward turning of thought. with the Tao antipathy to outward ceremonies hailed by modern may have derived exponents as so uniquely characteristic of the "direct thinking" Zennist was a feature of Taoism. too. or any other manifestations that belong to the normal state of consciousness are considered only the it.Zen. but was pure early Taoist. Thought Reform. words. The technique of reality confusion the use of paradox and riddles to shake the mind's grip on reality 108 originated with fourth and .
only the ruling elite was ever concerned with a king- dom-wide ordering of nature: popular religion aimed more personal benefits from magical powers. the mystic in Asia did not long remain in isolated contemplation. Thus. The early anchorite masters attracted disciples because of their presumed ability to perform miracles. and proposed instead a more mature. It is koan is not important for an understanding of Zen to realize that the esoteric preoccupations of the select few cannot be the doctrine of the common man. But this esoteric doctrine was lost in the shuffle to acquire special powers. In the supernatural atmosphere of cosmic government. in fact. As the Zen literature reveals. he was called out into the world to exercise his powers. Exponents of Zen often insist that very early Zen doctrine opposed the rampant supernaturalism of China. less credulous view of the universe. personal salvation being achieved when the mystical recluse united with tic divine essence. In support of this. Chinese Quietism: the basically a new device. to magically influence the world of spirits in the same way that the divine emperor mani- fested his power. as soon as an early Zen master attained fame in seclusion.C. The anchorite strove. stories from the early literature are cited to show that Zen 109 . the Mahayana metaphysic of mystical union for salvation was distilled down to a bare self-seeking. and for this reason.The Historical Background third century B. And witness the haste with which this is only natural modern man gobbles the latest "wonder drug/' Early Chinese anchoritism was theoretically aimed at a mysat pantheist union with the divine.
There being no bridge. and praised him as a true Mahayanist. Thereupon Hwang Pah said: "If I knew thou art an Arhat. When that monk came down and approached him with a respectful salutation. and met unexpectedly with Minor Shakya. I would have doubled you up before thou got over there!" The monk then understood the spiritual attainment of . one day going up Mount Tien Tai which was believed to have been inhabited by Arhats with supernatural powers. Hwang Pah. he asked: "Where art thou from?" "Early this morning. "yet thou must give back the Spirit of Buddha to me. (1) still A second tale shows more clearly the kind of powers a truly spiritual monk could possess: On one occasion Yang Shan (Kyo-zan) saw a stranger monk flying through the air." and after giving the master some palm leaves he brought from India.Zen. But actually these accounts reveal the supernatural powers that the masters were in fact supposed to possess. "I set out from India. met with a monk whose eyes emitted strange light. as well as the extreme degree of popular credulity: Hwang Pah (O baku)." said the teacher. "art thou so late?" "I stopped/ re7 sponded the man." Then the monk praised Yang Shan saying: "I have come over to China in order to worship Manjucri. and Psychotherapy attacks the idea of supernatural power." "Why." replied the other. . the master had to stop at the shore. (2) 110 . . Thought Reform. but his companion crossed the river walking on the water and beckoned to Hwang Pah to follow him. They went along the pass talking with each other for a short while until they came to a river roaring with torrent. "several times to look at beautiful sceneries/' "Thou mayst have supernatural powers. went back through the air." exclaimed Yang Shan.
This is the world of "multiplicities" for the Zennist. Totl^^ in ^ erf rice to the ' spiritual beings. to accept the idea of poly- theistic gods. But this revelation is not embarrassing to the ZenFor him. this to you. Zen has two forms: a "pure form and 7' an "affirmative" form. spirits. I now offer and may this food fill up the ten quarters of the world and all the demons and other spiritual you. Ch'an (Zen) was no exception to the ideas of coarse magic that dominated. this magical inheritance from Taoism and is is Zen. A closer look at modem Zen still reveals many Zen magical carryovers that are part of popular attitudes. O beings be fed therewith. This picture of extreme selfis difficult to reconcile with such Zendo formulas as: demons and other spiritual beings. an inconsequential apparition. highly pragmatic nature of the Zen belief scriptures are burned to make fire. It is easy therefore.'^ Modem Zen presen- tation toTKF*WHFlnsiSs on the anti-authoritarian. ancestor worship. Maha111 . prayers for prosperity. a world of appearances. What the Zennist does not say The that for the average Zennist.The Historical Background In the popular Chinese mind. and all kinds of rituals and forms of exorcism. action is based on direct selfconfidence. and quite harmless. the idea of a spirit otherworld. a false world. and reliant individuation so on. (3) nist. The affirmative form is that part of Zen which simply accepts everything that goes on in this world.
and is best attested. after satori. . perhaps. The idea of special magical powers is an integral part of modern Zen. Chinese ritual. Bare-chested and bare-footed. (4) ral Thus. showing a monk in the final stage. and Chinese ceremony. the idea of direct transmission of supernatupowers has never disappeared from Zen. For he touches. Magical redemption is a part of modern Zen thought. . and Psychotherapy yanism remains unbroken. he and they are all converted into Buddhas. government by the 112 exercise of ritual power. is entitled "Entering the City with Bliss-Bestowing Hands/' caption reads: The He is found in company with wine-bibbers and butchers. The tenth picture. was particularly welcome. he comes out into marketplace. and lo! The dead trees come into full bloom. but the true glory of relationship initially like the The China. by the famous "Ten Cow-Herding Pictures/' which show the ten stages of a monk's "spiritual" progress.Zen. They leave little doubt about the aim of Zen monastic training. Japanese delight over the artistic and cultural ideas imported from China was natural. The Appeal of Zen to the Samurai between China and Japan was one between a parent and child. to Japan's eyes was the magical power of Chinese texts. Thought Reform. There is no need for the miraculous power of the gods. Their contact with the enlightened monk converts the wine- bibber and the butcher into Buddhas. Cos- mic government. . for the concept of .
But these observations. The with the quality of the fulfillment of samurai duties re- quired neither special esthetic sensitivity nor subtle intellect. Oriental Zennists understand the attractiveness of for the samurai better than Zen's Zen Western proponents. They are especially difficult to reconcile samurai mind. for instance. Zen's insistence on simplicity. Zen has been called that only a "doctrine of chivalry in a certain sense/' as well as a "spiritual exercise." as well as being a set of ideals to guide "the better class of warrior." Some have noted that its mystical idea of being above life or death might have taken some of the sting out of real death in battle. The infusion of Chinese rites and formulas was accomplished by a number of famous rnystagogues who came to Japan from the mainland. while each undoubtedly contains some truth. disand concentration are thought to have some cipline. Japan found Zen so immensely Their quick acceptance of this creed has always been a puzzle to many students of Buddhism. states that the samurai's task was 113 . idea of among them masters of Zen." It is considered to impart a "broad vision" to "the mental life. Suzuki. are wide of the mark. The explanations that have been offered are almost always in terms of Zen's uniqueness a sort of special qualitative something Zen has. qualities to which modern Zen appeals. connection with samurai ideals. One of the knottiest problems scholarship is why the in Japanese historical samurai in twelfth-century attractive.The special Historical Background magic appeared in the Japanese culture as the kami or mana. and thus have made Zen attractive to a samurai warrior.
and which he likewise spoke of as immediate transference of the spirit. and Psychotherapy merely one of going straight forward to cnisli the enemy. The real basis of Zen's ability to handle the problem of death for the samurai. . He was. The improvement was startling. The twelfth-century samurai was a poor candidate in fact. with- for esoterics. emotional. and to do this he could not be encumbered in any possible way. replete with the idea of the direct transference of spiritual powers. (5) There can be little doubt of the appeal of the idea of immediate communication of powers to the illiterate and superstitious samurai. Even the imagery in the modern masterdisciple relationship is. joining in his elite crusade by undergoing training in a Zen skill. Rather. illiterate. Thought Reform.Zen. as we saw in Herrigel. And Zen's so-called "spiritual training" meant submission to the master's dominance. physical. lay neither in achieving a mystical frame of mind nor in a Spartan ethic of simplicity and self-discipline. His readiness to face death meant he had to master death. a readiness to make any sacrifice. . . the Master gave a few shots with my bow. and this was best achieved by an unquestioning devotion to a cause. uncultured. and profoundly superstitious. or intellectual. if it was so obviously 114 . If I had been continually shooting badly. it resided in the fact that in Zen spiritual power can be derived by direct contact in a person-to-person relationship. out appeal either to learning or to moral training. Remember that: There was another form of help which the Master communicated to us at that time.
this is the satori of Zen: the awakening of miraculous gifts that are either already present but dormant. a new soul It was characteristic of these special powers powers. it is meant for ''specially gifted minds. that they could not be taught or acquired by training. This is. the awakening of charisma was simply an effort by sorcerers and warrior heroes to aid the novice to to be reborn into special acquire. toric Either they existed as a purely personal gift of grace. or are attainable through a magical rebirth. In essence. a more esoteric understanding of Zen than the popular idea of the direct transmission of magical powers. It sought to awaken charisma special heroic or magical gifts. or they were awakened through a miraculous rebirth. In the Zennist's own words. The comes a vehicle perfectly selfless soul who realizes satori befor the expression of what modern Zen 115 . especially Historical Background when one considers the hisaim of education widespread among the warrior classes. There is no question about the elite nature of the satori experience: it is not reserved for everyone. literally. The master has been compared to the psychoanalyst specifically on the count of his non- meddlesome that magical leave the student objectivity. Zen effects the rebirth by cutting the fetters which hold mind and thought to the illusory world of external appearances.The real to Herrigel. and not for the masses'* (6). but actually he may very well on his own for the simple reason power cannot be imparted. The great warrior was one qualities who possessed divine power against which no enemy could stand. of course. but must be awakened. In hero trials and ancient magical asceticism.
Christopher statues atop the dashboards of modem chariots attests to a lingering lack of faith in the purely mechanical of fashioned materials. the draftsman's success whether he was carpenter. forging a sword.Zen. The self-reliance represented by a return to the drawing board. confined to the individual. ancient idea of magic was not. since it is one of the historical aims of education widespread among warrior classes. whether it was building a house. The objects intercession of a divine patron guaranteed success for a project. The Master's first act on Her- rigeFs initial achievement of 'Just first satori the target: " then "It" hit shot!' was to bow before he cried.less-an ar have viewed it in uioTligRtrThe awakening of special powers would be a fit aim for a samurai. on HerrigeFs on down to the goal!' " target: "It is there! Bow Zen jrchervjs ceremony. or brewing liquor. Man's control of nature via prosthetic devices was. all the early crafts any activity upon which survival in a hostile world depended were immersed in supernaturalism. 116 . In the interdependent world of striving humans and divine spirits. after all. inseparable cal from magi- and religious support. initially. and the presence of St. The samurai must also ." Or again. and Psychotherapy calls this the "nameless power. Thought Reform. powers In the magical world of cosmic government. it extended also to the special The he employed." HerrigeFs account makes unmistakably clear. and Zen offered a unique method for unleashing such powers. historically. is quite a new phenomenon. after the test-ran crash of a new model jet.
or Historical Background cere- swimmer was assured by moniously uniting his "inner essence" with the "inner essence" of the medium in which he worked. modern Zen archery. is a which one never afterwards forgets when one has . the sword was endowed with spirit power. In samurai days. songs. which the master demonstrates at the very first lesson: it "sharp crack mingled with a deep thrumming. (7) Thus. power-charged Zen monks imported from the Middle Kingdom. a method very apt to 117 . so thrillingly does it grip the heart. as is the bow with which Zen archers practice today. heard it only a few times: so strange is it. The tools of modern Zen express in the manufactured object the "nameless power" that comes with perfect unity of maker and divine. correct prayers.The butcher. like ancient samurai swordsmanship." . Remember that Gusty Herrigel could only attain perfect flower arrangements by uniting herself with the "heart of the flowers" and thence with the "heart of the All. and a unique method of achieving rebirth. Herrigel remarks on the sound of the bowstring. From ancient times it has been credited with the secret power of banishing evil spirits. archer. but was such formulas was not merely the head of also a priest engaged in the sacra- mental act. The appeal of Zen to the samurai involved: "kami- charged magic weapons. and ceremonies had to be employed. . so that a man who was especially skilled in his guild. is bathed in an aura of awesomeness and supernatural power." In the ancient crafts. and I can well believe that this interpretation has struck root in the whole Japanese people.
of trusting. The appeal of Zen to the twentieth-century practitioner still involves this same omnipotence. Thought Reform.Zen. child-like dependence on an outside source of protection and sustenance. But this quiet heroism is unadvertised: it occurs neither on a warrior's nor on a submissive Zennist's field of battle. and Psychotherapy awaken a warrior's ultimate power and enable him to show maximum heroism. The achievement of an adult self-reliance is not flavor of guaranteed by historical distance: each individual must win it for himself anew. 118 .
it is apT* ro] e $iat the trance plays in the basic psychological focus of the converdiscipline is training.5 The Central Psychological Role of the Trance in Zen magical origins give insight not into its historical appeal. the integrated parts of function in perfect complementarity to secure 119 . an authoritarian master. milieu control. and a self- induced trance into a system. The many supernatural aspects in Zendo observances. Trance induction has always been important to Buddhist contemplation generally. which is fundamental to the Zen rebirth into a new world view. reality confusion. But there has never beSTany sion. to which the "koan rebirth The Zen method combines only contributory. but also into the meonly chanics of the satori rebirth. and Zen's frankly super- ZEN'S unmistakable may be sobering. but they are of less than the archaic but still contemporary significance method of self-hypnotic transport. and no one has ever stitious appeal attempted to disguise the fact that the trance of the is part Zen Zen.
As the mind became concentrated. which are used as experiential confirmation of the symbolism of the pounded by the master. and the ear like the nose. there are peculiar selfless sensations. the bones and flesh all 120 . the individual may feel that much of his behavior occurs without his volition. Mystical unity is a kind of narcissism. The trance. Through may meditation. and the nose like the mouth.Zen. In depersonalization. the ego expands self-absorption. -: experiences of psychotic states parallel those of the meditative trance. serves to provide experiences of reality distortion and withdrawal of the self. The psychoanalytic view of a trance is that it induces an extreme state of regression in which the momentum of individuation turns to a womblike state. and the self fuses with the world. new value system pro- There has long been general recognition of the presence of a trance in Buddhism. and may have tjie feeling he is being manipulated by outside forcesC In Many" of the hypnosis. The attainment of the prominent "selfless frame of mind" of scttori is at the same time a degradation of the ego's functions. j is and no longer in no doubt that these phenomena are also Zen experiences. via its to include surroundings. a breakdown is There in of normal body boundaries: In and out. Thought Reform. and then it was that the eye became the ear. in effect. the form dissolved. and there was nothing that was not identified. the ego control. and Psychotherapy the desired conversion. for example. changesjn body boundaries. I was thoroughly transformed. the individual attain a sense of boundlessness.
(1) The Zennists in insist on the importance of meditation training. and walking around periodically. to 10 in an almost frenzied attempt to secure "mental p. or where my feet were treading. but they are vague about exactly what role this plays in the attainment of satori.. I was unconscious whether I was riding on the wind. like a leaf of the tree detached from its stem. or the wind riding on me. And in the Zendo." is the proof the novices to fall asleep instead of going pensity into a trance. and are advised to use various devices such as keeping the eyes open. 1 In a revelation of submissiveness that has a masochistic tinge. She interprets the meditation-hall fatigue as resulting from meditation.m. Even laymen generally practice meditation for about two hours a day. Those refreshes who have tion is experienced [the keisaku] agree that the ensuing sensa- a most pleasant relaxation of the nerves. I just moved along with the wind. Alexandra David-Neel idealizes the use of the "warning stick" as salutary. and points out that the superintendent monk "is skilled in detecting [sic] when a monk is overcome by fatigue. east or west." (2) 121 .The Role of the Trance in Zen thawed away. I did not know upon what my frame was supported. He it energy by striking them the fainting and revives thenon one shoulder with a heavy stick. The disciples are cautioned against doing One of the difficulties in this meditation this.m. during the sesshin or periods of "collecting the mind/' zazen or meditation is kept up almost continuously from 3:30 a. One of the main uses of the keisaku or "warning stick" is to keep the monks awake during 1 their long periods of meditation. calmness. rather than as an alternative to trance induction. XhSLJJSX of Zen meditation ~is~to-igo and an unusual amount of time is devoted to it.
. and Psychotherapy The Zennist insistence on the trance reveals its cen- tral role in the Zen conversion. is This detachment from stimuli an essential condi- tion for effortless performance of the Zen skill.. and the tip of the nose or the notorious navel are just as effective as the koan. How does the swordsman maintain this olympian detachment in the midst of a life and death situation? The Zennist is appropriately noncommital on this point. In due course one even grows immune to larger stimuli. concentration was limited to carefully practised breathing exercises. They sink away in a kind of muffled roar which one hears with only half an ear at first. Herrigel.Zen. the more the external One stimuli fade into the background. does not have to wait long for results. for example. The more one concentrates on breathing. Thought Reform.execution is to be conscious/' In swordsmanship. The much-vaunted koan and its logic-defying function play a truly minor part in the Zen rebirth: concentration is all-important. is not empty of meaning for him who stands within it" 122 . for example. this means that the swordsman. In HerrigeFs training. calls the desired state the "primordial state/' and says that its symbol "the empty circle. and simply strikes him down.. and them becomes easier at the same time detachment from and quicker. no longer worries about how to strike the opponent. and prefers to dress the achievement of trance detachment in the poetic metaphor of mystical union. The proper -mejrtal state f o^ mastjeirfui. he forgets that he has a sword in his hand.
significant is he became more practiced his actual description of his feelin achieving the I found myself slipping more easily into the which sets forth the "Great Doctrine" of ceremony archery. the subject sways gently back and forth. Day by day feeling myself being carried through Thus far it as in a dream. one day. discovered We practised in the manner prescribed and the we accustomed ourselves to dancing ceremony without bow and arrow when we began 123 . This postural sway is similar to the rhythmic "dancing" movements which lend a poetic flavor to descriptions of the Zen I skill: do not know .The Role of the Trance in Zen More ings as trance. . the Master's predictions were confirmed. . the Master made a deep bow and broke off the lesson. to be more precise. When he and the master had to indicate it: Then. The Master "danced" that hardly had the ceremony. after a shot. But he was not yet Yet I perfectly adept at this detachment: could not prevent my concentration from flagging at the very moment when finally the shot ought to come. how far I succeeded in "dancing" the ceremony. "Just then If shot!" he cried. as I stared at him bewildered. In one method of inducing hypnosis. carrying it out effortlessly or. Herrigel was unable to reap the satisfaction of overcoming years of frustration: he was totally unconscious of the fact. did loose a perfect shot.
and consider the satori itself as all-important Zennists. especially the Rinzai. he becomes convinced that he has achieved the ability to release the power of "It" of the cosmic will. tend to underplay moment of But than acceptance of the new nothing more value system.Zen. in for the expression of Universal Will. handling of the trance. This submis- 124 . And when. and thus themselves unwittingly pinpoint how closed is the circle of the Zen world view. submissive adaptation to his authoritarian pressures. at lesson time. Thought Reform. He himself was surprised at his easy command of the state of "presence of mind/' The security that this gives is unmistakable. adeptness at becoming a vehicle or. the role of the trance. fearlessness is nothing more When than perfect performance in the master's presence. we again practised with bow and to feel arrow. in short. an introjecsatori is tion of the master's superego in a final. For. and Psychotherapy uncommonly concentrated after the first steps. This feeling increased the more care we took to facilitate the process of concentration by relaxing our bodies. a student has adopted the master's values. these home exercises were able to of mind." slip effortlessly into proved so fruitful that we the state of "presence Adeptness at the self-induced trance is in fact the chief skill that Herrigel learned. Adeptness at trance induction equals adeptness at magical manipulations by modern the philosophical terms preferred Zennists. is the The most disciple's direct ex- pression of his belief in the symbolic explanations of the Zen cosmology proffered by the master. The Zennists use terms like "fearlessness" and "power" in referring to the achievement of the trance.
The trance experience is the convincing "reality" around which the novice reorients himself in accepting the Zen relate to these ideas world view. Once adept at allowing "It" to take over. Increased adeptness at inducing the trance leads to increasing acceptance of the new value system. the real world must suffer This explains the most perplexing of all dilemmas for the serious. confidence depends on the ability to manipulate the trance easily. until he performs the skill in a trancelike stupor. objective. The Buddhist meta- physic of unity the abolition of will. Abruptly awakened from the trance and plunged into the real world.The Role sion is of the Trance in Zen cognitively facilitated by the sensations of depersonalization. pleasurable submission to the master ceases. one is assured that all will go well. and diffuse ego boundaries: the mysterious experiences of the self-hypnotized adept serve as the empirical basis for confirmation of the symbols of the new value system. and "unshakable fearlessness" is attained. non-Zennist student of Zen. The Zen pupil makes no real progress until he becomes so adept at inducing the trance that "It" can take over that is. In correct performance. narcissism. When the trance which serves to confirm the symbols of the new value system by comparison. is broken. and the attainment of selflessness fits perfectly the sensations of the trance experience. unconscious performance of the art is interrupted. Herrigel could finally induce it after "dancing" a few steps. There is no more direct way to than to experience them. and consciousness brings cares. Promoters of Zen to the West are unanimously de125 .
to a mind of a higher order. he becomes the perfect vehicle for the continued expression of the "nameless power/' The ideal goal for the Zennist is But this. Atiially 7 the to d fpH<*r JUfo the mysterious. of course. the modern Zennist makes common cause with the ancient Taoist. the koan and indeed of life becomes crystal clear in (uncommuni cable) mean- ing. the goal of ritual rebirth into special powers remains unchanged. only to be eventually re- turned to the banalities of the lackluster everyday world. psychotic-like experiences of the trance. can be truly self-realized. and they insist that in order to solve these riddles. and the trance cannot be a twenty-four hour event. simply does not count in comparison to the revelations one has experienced. If one were perfectly according to Zen. the experiences of unity would be all of experience. thus. Only the anchorite master. and Psychotherapy lighted with the koan. One is attuned to the pulsations of cosmic essence for a time. one becomes "Awakened" and lives suffused in 126 . who has no commitments to the outer world of reality. but ordinarily one can selfless only strive to be worthy of a sustained visitation by "It" Thus. in the Zen meaning of this word." permeated by Zen that he is to be so continually sustained in everything he does. In the joining of one's "Primal Stuff" to the "Primal Stuff" of the universe. as part of this world. it becomes "clear.Zen. The koan. In other words. the Zen symbolism is lived. Once having arrived at this all deeper understanding. is quite impossible. one must go beyond thought. the experiences of the trance do not carry over into all the waking hours. Thought Reform.
All methods of contemplation which aimed at the attainment of ecstasy were based on the theoretical principle the Historically. of the Trance in Zen He creative life process being given into his experiences the hands by a higher power: everything is done. It was necessary to establish the significance of the emotional trance states. The modern Zen trance is a perfect demonstration of these reinforc- ing and complementary approaches: the metaphysics of mysticism are proved psychologically and experientially by the trance. the durability of this archaic technique for establishing and justifying mystical speculations might seem surprising. In China. and the emotional states resulting from it have been valued as holy. these psychological experiences were taken to "prove" that the philosophical holy teachings were correct. But man's inner experiences have been the longest to enjoy the status of extraneurological significance. At first. and the experiences of the states of the self-induced trance are explained by an esoteric metaphysics of Universal Oneness. By a process of circular reason the experiences of the self-hypnotic state were woven into a self-consistent scheme. At the same time. before the individual himself knows it. this was easily accom- plished by speculations about the metaphysical virtues of unity and selflessness. have generally attributed to autohypnosis a magical quality. men Quakers formulated: "God only speaks in the soul when the creature is silent/' The ecstatic bliss con- sequent upon correctly executed self-hypnotic contemplation was thought to be derived from a union with the divine achieved by suppressing the self. spirits were at first considered 127 .The Role the power of the primordial state. claims the Zennist.
who themselves may have borrowed it from the 1 Buddhists. and the general primitive practices of mediumistic trances possession. and mystic experience on the other. First. Thought Reform. for serving as a vehicle for spirits. "sitting with blank mind/' In Japan it was called Zen. They too lived in antisocial isolation until shaman's practice of wandering the notoriety attendant upon their performance of magical feats led them back nomena of into society to exercise their powers. There is a basic parallel between the Quietist mystic technique of making oneself an abode of cosmic power. Doesn't the and cure illnesses and especially shaman is tic spirit shaman have the power to manipulate spirits and evils by means of that possession? Indeed. instead of merely coming and going. with "mediumistic hysterias" lying somewhere between. it was necessary to quiet all outward activities. Linton places phespirit manipulation in one class. The problem was to make the body a fit abode. The aim of this self-hypnosis was to travel 1 There is really no need to search for origins. the withdrawal from outside impressions was called Tso-wang. The technique of bringing it about was invented by the Chinese Quietist precursors of Zen. the off into long isolation before acquiring power to serve as a vehicle for the spirits is reminiscent of the Taoist and Zen patriarchs. are widespread. and emotions. Techniques for in- corporating spirits. all the perturbations and activities of daily life had to be left behind which thus came to be con- upon the pure core of being.Zen. he defines a continuum with regular possession by spirits on one end. sidered accretions In China. Then this idea changed into the belief that they could permanently inhabit a man's body. The creature had to become still and silent Then. The business of self-perfection was to work one's way back through this morass of doing to man's primally perfect condition. (3) 128 . appetites. two-part cleansing A operation was devised to achieve this. and Psychotherapy external to man.
it silencing the Zen continues the ancient technique of self so that the divine can become maniclothes the method in a gossamer of metaphor. Zen's otherworldly values are in part directed to ethical action in this world. and a cloak of respectable modernity averts Besides. so that the practicality of the end overshadows the avowed otherworldliness of the the source of Rinzai sect displeasure with the Soto: indulgence in the otherworldly values means. obviously. For many. The whole is rationalized by a highly refined symbolic terminology expressed in positive philosophical terms. But the primitiveness of the trance method is ontological there is a psychological return to infantile omnipotence and magical manipulations. we shall see in the next chapter. This is not attenuated by a rigorous work routine that aims to effect action in the present world. this The attainment of power by means of the self-induced trance was the principal rationale of Zen. One has only to leave the accretions of matter behind to attain to ultimate power over matter. but also confers undreamed of power by the union with the divine essence.The Role of the Trance in Zen back to "pure consciousness" the fount of power. as critical scrutiny by hopeful devotees. the inner essence whose attainment conferred an absolute joy greater than any earthly pleasure. of the trance is 129 . the ability actively to bring about an increase in one's power is preferable to a trusting inactivity and dependence upon divine grace. The trance not only produces the unbounded ecstatic joy of the primal state. and also over all Modem fest. over the physical world living things.
. one will have the greatest joy which has never before been experienced in his forty years. In such a situation. but simply by abandoning himself to the experiences of the trance. and Psychotherapy The trance partakes of an escape. nor explain it to others. This done by mechanically repeating a monotonous sound that isolates the mind from outside stimuli. dispense altogether with the famous koan. too all- embracing. and the Soto sect has many of its own formulas. dream. the environment. and throw off all feeling or ideations. . At this time one realizes that life and death or nirvana are all like a forgotten. if one rushes forth at a stretch. is The Soto use Nembuisu the repetition of the formula Narnu Amidd Butsu. How can the Great Doubt present itself? One should concentrate oneself on of Joshu. . 130 .." Enlightenment can be attained by plunging Doubt" this is all-important: into the "Great When All is the Great Doubt presents itself. without fear or reflection.. throwing off all the cumbrances of the ego. attaining the glorious enlighten- ment. if students proceed earnestly. This is called the period "reaching the bottom of ourselves. These achievements can be reached in only 3 to 5 days. . . . Soto seekers of enlightenment. cannot tell it to others." One . . Mu . "Hail Amida Buddha. in fact. There are no feelings . . any more. . ... Then almost anyone of them can have the Great Doubt present itself to him. it is empty and boundless on all sides. . it is beyond life and death. too central. . . in spite of . . The koan is nowhere better understood than in the Soto sect as simply a device fit for inducing a trance. and only one Mu prevails. It is not by logic that the Soto Zennist goes beyond thought. . Thought Reform. One should expect some difficulties in the process of .Zen.
nosis. from the perfive occupy four of the plexing profundity of an answer of "No" to the pupil's question to Joshu as to whether a dog has Buddha Nature. famous masters offer special courses for attaining these precious inner experiences some the intensive course. an entire group practices this cry. In Soto Mu trance-inducing "No Yogi. (4) In present-day Japan. the famous call. a sound like the braintwisting "Om" calm The Mu practice may begin used by call as a and as a vigorous cry. Obviously. this drone may ing. The Mu cry.The Role all of the Trance in Zen to attaining such a precious inner experience common the Buddhas. Over a five-day period. turns into a "Mu-mvtf" sound. this is very far from preoccupation with the koan as an intellectual dilemma. as it builds to an intense pitch. Adepts at the trance know when and speak of big satoris and little satoris. Soto emphasis on the induced trance state and the most rapid means of attaining it is an example of archaic Buddhist and Taoist self-hypnotic methods. Trance induction is still the central preoccupation of Zen. but this hardly means that this koan is used as an intellectual device. days in the intensive session. "is merely a practice. In may be urged to con- centrate on Joshu's koan. Without the 131 . the student of these courses are as short as five days. they have satori. in a loud monotonous chant- end which may well be an effective form of self-hypSometimes the master enjoins the students "to see into their own natures" with shouts like "For your life!" "With all your might!" ("Isshokemmei! Issho kemmei!").
and Psychotherapy trance. mundane strength. and confused with the benefits of the Zen trance-inducing dis- But if cipline were confined to periodic withdrawals into unusual feeling states. or an intimate relatedness to power. the ability to face trying. A not infrequent result of becoming adept at trance induction is that the disciple feels a new immunity to social pressures. . there could view it. Thought Reform. an achievement that conveys a new sense of power. a new distance from urgent personal problems. The Buddhist world experienced in the trance. ligious affairs with the illusion of a newfound The trance. in sum. like all supernatural reis experiences valued by one's fellows. Nor would it be as socially desirable as it is.Zen. is be no salon. it would perhaps not be so historically durable. This is the "fearlessness" that Herrigel experienced.
charismatic powers. The ecstatic experiences attained self-hypnosis were at first quickly characterized as a rebirth into magical. Pabulum illusions are as necessary to man as is eter- nally disappointing reality. Man invests emotionally in his flimsy and draws comfort from them as if symbolic were sound real estate." 133 regular in . but "Why?" must be answered with a ready explanation of even the eternally threatening. Belief is the spur to higher creativity. futile The childish unexplainable. Zen terminology its is monotonously conveyance of this idea: "Everything is "Creative force of nature/' "Universal life is living. to the creation of a human universe. knowledge of the real permits successful adaptation and survival without A sharp-tipped arrows no amount of magical incantation can bring down prey. the unexplained is not only irksome. then more imaginative minds turned this primitive concept into a philosophy of universal becoming of the all-pervad- by ing Cosmic Will.6 Zen Cosmology and Zen Values FOR man. ever touch the ground. as Sapir remarked. It is in the nature of things for lackluster reality eternally to ran a lagging second. But very few of these they edifices edifices.
Zen. an import from India." "The earth is the glorious creation of Universal Spirit. they had to reconcile themselves with their since they own anti-Buddha denunciations. had abated. the end of the reform signalled a new day. A a dried piece of dung" is no braintwisting mystery to a revolutionary iconoclast. sayings of the great masters come into clearer koan reply like perspective against this background. Non-Zennists. Typical is Han Yu's diatribe against Buddhism's useless monks in monastic retreats: "Restore its people human living. This turnabout posed no real problem. for example. Buddhism was. may be nothing more than a necessary adaptation to the rigorous post-persecution atmosphere of ninth-century China. after all. and in eighth- and ninth-century China it fell from favor. and Psychotherapy universal spirit" "Buddha dwelling in the individual mind. the reformers had to Furthermore. man the living altar of Buddha is himself/' naturally easier An objective view of things Zen to a non-Zennist. Inevitably. a foreign religion. however "the Buddha is incomprehensible it seems without any appreciation of the reform setting in which it was coined. understand that the growth of Zen in eighth-century China was an unmistakable reformation or revolution within Buddhism. The extremely iconoclastic." The "no work. Convert its buildings to human dwellings. Thought Reform. sometimes profane. had to officiate at state and private rituals and were no longer free to slander the Buddha. no food" Zendo principle. to proudly cited by the Rinzai sect as an example of Zen realism. As Buddhism became respectable once again after the reform zeal change their tune. What had previ134 .
If there is anything to take hold of. the practical genius of the Chinese mind applied to the metaphysical speculations of India. Get enlightened by yourself. unmistakably reformist counsels seem. out of touch with the practical 1S5 . expecting to get something out of nothing. To the Zennist. "Why do you wander about. and what truth of Buddhism do you desire to find in my monastery? There is nothing. The lutionary technique of reality confusion is actually as old as illogical and Taoism. ciple "Why do you seek such a thing here?" answered the master. do not remain standing so. I have nothing here to demonstrate. In the Zen view. when divorced from their historical context. Rather. Zen in its true is own precious treasure at home? I have nothing to give you. Indian mysticism was too speculative. therefore. Zen can in no way be understood as a historical reform within Buddhism. For example. it had to grow into Zen. absolutely nothing.Zen Cosmology and Values ously been said so outspokenly now came to be interpreted in a subtle new way: the Zen method's mad techniques were evolved to convert revocalumnies into an educational device. profoundly "I illogical: to seek the truth of Buddhism. neglecting your come here A master would sometimes say: "I do not understand Zen. in order for Buddhism to develop in form the Far East. but presumably the Zen reform added much new material." Buddhism. if you will." ( 1 ) But the objectivity of the non-Zennist historian seems blind stupidity to the Zen believer. take it by yourself." a disasked a master.
Thought Reform. at the same time." This life is the universal becoming. This truth is by a sprinkling of great spiritual selfless and unattached that anyone who is properly of the abandonment of selfish. the vehicular nature of his role is J36 . it is "Everything that interferes with is destined to be crucial in this cosmology.. the question phasis. because it means freedom for the Cosmic Will to ex- "all that is good and press its inner life force. from the life force. practical and simple relationship is with everyday affairs. (in the Buddhist sense covetous striving) can become a vehicle for the expression of Cosmic Will acting in and upon the everyday world. For the Zennist.e. the ineluctable defeated/' Enlightenment impulse of the universe. but the newer development was a response to the peculiar needs of the Far Eastern people. and trusts to a direct. and Psychotherapy world. therefore. the individual has a part to play. His co-operation in making possible the but expression of this powerful life force is essential. to create beautiful.Zen. to obtain Enlightenment "is to realize in one's inner consciousness the ultimate truth of the world which for ever is." In this absolute explanation for the uni- verse. effected masters. Buddhism's ideas were the basis for Zen. The one mere historical reform really true Buddhist religion it must be the gradual evolu- one of emcannot be a tion and revelation of the truth to mankind. The individual concentrates his spiritual efforts in the work of selfemancipation. The absolute reason of the universe is Enlightenment. personal confirma- tion or transmission from "the Buddhas" i. and brought Bud- dhism into a direct.
word. however. was a most practical one. "fracexcellence of the fulfilled tured" cerebration was dispensed with. and individuaeven reversed. no mistaking which the stronger in the universal urge to become: Ignorance prevails as long as the will remains cheated by its own offspring or its own image. served as an expression par Cosmic Will. the mil -wishes to be enlightened. An enlightened individual's "creative" act. was arrested was no longer prevented from being known to Itself. consciousness. "virile" mean- ing unweakened and untainted by philosophical esoter- To be to be saintly it stupid in the was necessary to forgo intellection. to be by itself. (2) The early masters. however. the One tion. ways of the world was to be wise it in the way of universal becoming. The masters of old were in Zen's ics. prided himself on his stupidity: him to elude worldly wisdom. Most important. in which the knower always stands distinguished from the known. cannot last. The cheating. The refined spiritual humanism of the philosopher is not the coarse belief of the popular mind. affirming his sanctity. There force is is. to be free. Chinese mysticism was a practical mysticism which ordered the universe via magical ritual and special powers. enabled But the modern Zennist is wrong in imagining that the intellectual's esoteric understanding of universal becoming is the same as that of the average man's. combining exemplary life with their vision of the truth. Lao-tse. 157 .Zen Cosmology and Values unmistakable. they the requisite condition without which Enlightenment cannot come about: conscious. therefore. under a cosmic government.
that the manifestation of this power is the one object of life's inner force can be understood by everyone in his "Self-realized souls transmit spirit power" is essentially identical with "Perfect virtue enables the own way. Individuation. after all. the individual abstains from any self-ish actions that would prevent the expression of Cosmic Will. is a negative quality. the same doctrine appeals to both intellectual and masses alike. but the philosophically and the superstitiously credulous intersophisticated pret these remarks differently. as separation. in cosmic government the inferior ritual of the lowborn could not properly order the spirit forces: the essential point is commoner abstained from the process of governing. an essential sameness in the Mahayana doctrine of Enlightenment as creative Cosmic Will working through souls who have resolved the dichotomy between Will and Consciousness by Right Conduct and Right Mind. this remains unchanged: universal becoming by selfless best effected noninterference. Within the same cultural ethos. Thought Reform^ and Psychotherapy There is. Cosmic Will". and in the popular doctrine of cosmic government as the ritual purity that allows a mantf-charged elite to order the spirit powers. The idea that "eternal Enlightenment" or the "Buddhas" can transmit spirit power indeed. In Mahayana philosophy. both master and pupil co-operate in the achievement of the proper conditions necessary to 138 . expression of Mahayana is really the refined systematization of the philosophy of cosmic government into an esoteric doctrine.Zen. Understood in this way. In Zen. In a uni- verse of becoming. Furthermore. is The extra- individual nature of the values identical.
says the Zennist. Suprarational world. things were better than now but even then Enlightenment was not general. During the Sung dynasty. "heart-to-heart" communication and transmission of powers. the decline of Zen began. Enlightenment worked through them as a result of their perfect naturalness: they did not use their consciousness for dichotomous "fracturing" of experience and the perpetuation of error in the illusion of separateness of man from Cos- mic Will. The first patriarchs had satori because of their pure. If beauty and Suprarational good would then work. But it has never been so. the ordering forces of nature strivings. unattached. and spontaneously good lives. which is the source of evil in the Not only mankind would only abandon acquisitive in the Zen view. At the time of the first Zen patriarchs. is individuation a negative quality: it is the of individuals. In fact.Zen Cosmology and Values effect the workings of Cosmic Becoming. and 139 . in the Zennist view." and "waves of sordid materialism/' even the East and with it the last remaining sanctuary island the Zendo may be engulfed in evil. The golden age of Zen was at that time the during the Tang dynasty. consciousless. "It" shot. with the "merciless tides of modern commercialism and mechanization. especially their self-seeking. "uncerebrated understanding" of the truth. through man. final koan had not received form as a systematic technique. strivings acquisitive strivings. and "It" made the hit after joint negotiation by master and pupil of self-less. would reveal themselves at their highest. in unhindered creativity here on earth. however. and because of their perfect.
there has been a good deal of misgiving about the use of the koan on the part of Zennists themcoercive aspect of the discipline which surrounds koan usage in the Zendo is painful to the more selves. power of Enlightenment. In the Zennist view. One Zennist recently criticized the koan as not really integral to Zen. it has even been adjudged a "deterioration/' but one which has been very hard to do away with. mankind as composed of a lump of individuals is but a part of cosmic pulsation. coercive." In the Buddhist metaphysics. and 140 . then. The sensitive believers. It has been called "largely artificial'* and accused of harboring "grave pitfalls". any means become the so to speak. and Psychotherapy some method had to be devised to maintain its vitality. The individual can well grist. and the hope of effecting the highest expression of the powers of nature were to be kept alive. some means had to be If the belief in the found to divest mankind of the error of attachment some means of changing its erroneous way of viewing reality. the koan exercise was established for the benefit of the subsequent generations. wonder. for his own mill of "Becoming. Curiously. The missionary quality of this religion is un- mistakable. that with the primacy of superindividual values even on the highest philosophiIt is small Zen recognizes and is wholly prepared to accept the fact that the Zen method is unmitigatedly cal level. In order to achieve Enlightenment the mar- velous unleashing of blessed spirit powers which will work within the world and transform it into a won- drous paradise wherein all are Buddhas are sanctioned. Thought Reform.Zen.
(3) On the part of believers creation. The interference is some- times helpful. whenever there is a chance to put his The mind may grow by itself he sure to . Even if the koan system led to only a small expression of inner creativity. still. welcome human interference when more is to be gained than lost and call it improvement and progress. (4) value option of the true believer is uncompromising. we call We it retrogression. coercive the Zennist says. left to their own ignorant ways. As a rule it works two ways. is do so. But a rationale for the continued use of the kocm technique is not hard to find: since the possessor of a cosmic truth has a supernatural mandate to see that it is revealed. but when it turns out otherwise. who is to judge? . . . who but man cannot always wait for her. disciples to the unknown beauties of satori which. possess the "Truth" of cannot be wrong. most artificial of means err. is sanc- tioned. Besides. . . He is never patient. he likes to meddle for better or worse. inspired vision of the virile patriarchs of old. It after all.Zen Cosmology and Values certainly not a necessary part of Zen for the interested Westerner. even the is. they would never when come upon. sometimes decidedly not. says the ficial 141 . finger in. out of love that one reveals the highest It wisdom to blinded creatures who was of course quite human on the part of the Zen His motherly instinct made him think of some way to open or even to coerce the minds of his master. meddling with utmost candor. even if it were an arti- The system that could not replace the direct.
mankind could never be shown the way out of its error by a gifted elite. In a world of acquisitive meddlers. Cosmic Will can l>e given. from which to work. the highest possible value is attached to the Zen revelation of Truth. but the Soto do not seem to insist that the koan has to be "solved. 1 Had this doctrine of direct enlight- enment been lost." The Rinzai champion undoubtedly feels that the &ocm-mstrumented conversion which utilizes total pressures creates the more ideal Zen man: more puritan. since not everyone can attain satori. which is the accomplishment of an elite. Cosmic Will works through souls to order the universe to the highest degree of spiritual power. so to speak. 142 . granted too. that in itself it is a highly uncertain device: all this counts for naught In his opinion. a toehold. more spartan. Granted that the koan is an artificial system. Thus. the koan system is justified because it saved Zen from dissipation during the Sung dynasty. "even a semblance pushed to its extreme. that it is not a sure means of attaining satori. even by the artificial koan system. granted finally. Thought Reform^ and Psychotherapy would be a blessing/' This be pregnant with possibilities: that semblance might is. who dares question the thoroughly coercive reform method that effects the expression of these spiritual powers by effacing individual thoughts in individual 1 minds? This is the view of the Rinzai sect The use of the koan as a trance- inducing aid cuts across sect lines.Zen. less oriented to a self-indulgent escape into a trance routine unrelieved by rigorous work obligations in this world. that the koan system is replete with abuses and dangers. The koan system thus has been adopted and Zennist. says the Zennist.
cially so in critical analysis. Proper. And 1 if responsible psychotherapy. and this seems espe- not the Orient. since there are more similarities than differences between them. If the Zendo conversion program were taken out astery of the mon- and applied to society at large. there would be nothing to choose between Zen and thought reform. A discussion of thought reform fits readily into a work on Zen and psychotherapy. sociallyresponsible performance according to rigid codes of conduct is an ideal that dies hard. and were animated by a more mundane ethic. Chinese "brainwashing" or reform.7 The Thought Reform Rebirth A TRADITION of meddling with reality whether is it be by means of the the mind's grip on koan or the Cominform easily given up. is a conversion method familiar to thought 1 everyone. The phrase itself is so felicitous that It has stormed into general usage. represented chiefly of Chinese "hsi nao" "wash brain. usually to refer to any "evil" influence that isn't easily amenable to detached." The program undertaken as a vast national policy of ideological remolding is called "Szu Hsiang Kai Tsao" which means "thought reform/* direct translation A 14$ .
As in psychotherapy and Zen. attain the stature of a proselytizing social cure all. and values. none of its techniques hold any The essence of its approach is to gain complete mystery. but the entire reform group. This is the famous conditioned reflex. Many think that a unique feature of thought reform employs an almost pure form of Pavlovian conditioning on a broad societal scale. and in their place new relationships are substituted. Pavlov discovered that an animal that was rewarded with food when it was shown a circle of light would salivate upon being shown the circle alone. Thought Reform.Zen. especially those parts which sustain the individual's attitudes. Thought reform involves not only an interrogator and a prisoner. Thought reform operates very simply.. 1 Conflict was created in the animal is that it 1 In an interesting testimonial to the spread of sophistication in the twentieth century. relinquished its self-conscious watchfulness of the therit also would apist's values and manipulatory powers. the individual is isolated from his usual environment and exposed to a close contact with someone whose beliefs differ from his. At the same time. to the reader come this far. the contacts and emotional bonds which support the old beliefs who and values are broken down. and all of Chinese society as well. 144 . This allows the probability of the adoption of a new world view. and Psychotherapy by the psychoanalytic and patient-centered approaches. The alternately hot and cold dealings with the Western allies was said to be causing Americans to salivate anxiously in the manner of Pavlov's dogs. This patently facile view is as far short of the mark in explaining our contemporary anxieties as is a purely Pavlovian explanation of Chinese thought reform. beliefs. has control over the physical and social environment. the carried New York Times Magazine not long ago an article accusing Russian propagandists of using an en bloc Pavlovian technique in their dealings with America.
or even to understand. for example. produce much shame and guilt anxiety of one's peers. the familiar depressions occasionally occur. but the psychological pressures are from within. but in 145 . the thought reform milieu is an alien world. there is internal conflict between his think- ing and his resolve this motor and speech inner conflict and is activities. of induced regression through the creation of picture We an infantile setting. too. If he does not at first believe his is statements. Like the mental hospital. controlled rigidly. In the new value system. As in the Zendo. In order to adapt to the pressures. pressures are often so great that psychotic breaks and see. initial failures to adapt. in order to allay the consequent anxiety. since his own hands are in chains something his mother did years ago. instead of being shown either a clear-cut circle or clear-cut eclipse of light. the process basically similar. to avoid isolation and death. question about the stressful methods employed.Thought Reform Birth when. he is then given small positive rewards. it was shown less easily discriminated patterns. shame in the sense of humili- ation. the prisoner The milieu is forced to change his thinking. and the regressive nature of the adaptation is little There that the prisoner must make to sustained coercion. The prisoner. when he has to urinate. the prisoner must meet the demands of the interrogator. In thought reform. a feeling of failure to live up to the standards with accompanying fears of being pun- ished and cast out. the "patient" must bring himself into line by adopting the new beliefs and values. may have to have someone help him. A prisoner is forced to make certain statements in favor of his captors.
and led away. Thought Reform. for he is then denounced by his fellow cellmates and reproved chief. these are not in a psychiatric perspective. the individual is subject to a concentration of emotional assaults which must eventuate in his total surrender. and the prisoner develops an increasing need to discover a means of satisfying him. when the pris- blindfolded. led by an appointed cell took place during the session. Continued denial of guilt brings handcuffs and chains.Zen." The cellmates are an "advanced" reform group. the prisoner is set upon by his Chinese cellmates. Their attack on the prisoner is called a "struggle. Following the interrogation. This group does not sustain him. who demand to know what for his stubbornness in not confessing. lengthy interrogation begins which may continue for several consecutive days and nights. These begin immediately upon oner is arrest. who have adopted the "correct standpoint" and are gaining "merits" toward 146 . the new authoritarian figure must be won over. the fatigue and discomfort consequent upon lack of sleep are reinforced with the frustration of not being able to communicate ideas to the inquisitor. In the first stage. The prisoner's A protestations of innocence are met with the interrogator's demands that he confess his known crimes. As in psychotherapy. (The entire thought-reform process has recently been described by a Western psychiatrist (1 ) ) The Chinese technique for attaining the thought reform rebirth reduces chance to a minimum Zen masters must smart with envy. and Psychotherapy thought reform. The demands of the interrogator must somehow be met. handcuffed.
Inevitably he comes to the breaking a condition of utter hopelessness in which he is guilt-ridden. as a dog does. this The and punch him in the stomach. The confess and reform. but also insults and even physical violence: cellmates may walk around the prisoner. Sometimes "help" is offered by a "sympathetic person" who is placed in the cell deliberately for that purpose. obviously. Idealistic interpretations of the Zen discipline say this indicates the objective neutrality of the process. spit in his face. First-hand reports by prisoners re- count humiliations: the chained prisoner is treated as an enemy and has to eat with mouth and teeth. At the breaking point or just beyond. C. and depressed. unconscious in their effect: "In the W.Thought Reform Birth their own release. neutrality does not exist where the milieu is coercive. there is a dramatic change in attitude on the part of the authorities. This treatment lasts two or three months. 1 "help" offered by the cellmates includes not only persuasion. he cannot 1 depend on anyone else. frequently to the point of experiencing auditory hallucinations and being suicidal. demoralized. and promise to make things better if the prisoner will only Brainwashing shares this feature with psychotherapeutic methods: the individual must himself take his reform in hand. and there are inducements to regression. someone opens your trousers clean you/' his guilt is and after is you are finished they and constantly impressed upon him: he must prisoner called a reactionary. 147 . They apologize for the harsh treatment. at the same time the prisoner is fed poor food in an amount just ade- quate for point survival.
Zen, Thought Reform, and Psychotherapy
The prisoner is impressed with the idea not being coerced, that he can choose to that he take the road that leads to life by reforming and reeducating himself, rather than continuing upon the
2 road to death by persisting in his obstinacy. This change in tactics has tremendous effect. Prisoners have
glimmer of hope
way of defeating the frustration and the hopelessness of isolation. However, the confusion, clamor for confession continues on all sides it is the way
of every interrogation, every "struggle," and all the informal "help" sessions on the part of one's cellis
the incessant refrain:
Be sincere! Recognize your crimes!" As might be expected, the eventual
and denunciations of others which
were not even demanded. In his "selfish zeal" to escape isolation, the prisoner may even embellish his confession with denunciations of his friends.
sion assumes a reality of its contradicts the truth as the prisoner understood it before his internment. It has become impossible for
The confesown, no matter how much
the prisoner to maintain objective criteria concerning the relationship of his confession to actual events.
Once the confession is over, the process of "re-education" begins. In study group sessions with cellmates,
placed on "thought problems."
There are a few accounts of satori in Zen which have occurred a sudden leniency or after changing to a more lenient master. As in psychotherapy, there must be some encouragement to become committed to the process. 2 This idea, in less severe symbolism, but with essentially the same
Thought Reform Birth
and could not be cured unless we came 'thought out with wrong thoughts/' There must be full emotional participation in the reform, full devotion to the
periods set aside for a more intense effort to cleansing 1 oneself of polluted ideas.
In addition to the group approach to reform, there "an "individual approach/' in which an instructor specifically responsible for a prisoner works with him,
gains a considerable under-
standing of the prisoner's psychological surprisingly, he is called the "analyst."
make up: not
Gradually the prisoner becomes a new person, with a new view of reality. The idea that the old man must
and a new one be born is frequently spelled out the officials in just these terms; and this is how by the prisoner comes to' perceive his experience. The pressures brought to bear upon him are so severe that
an understandable adaptation.
After his identity as an individual, as well as a member of a group, has been destroyed, the prisoner is
reduced to a subhuman
him by interrogators and cellmates, makes he deserves punishment. He is plunged into a condition of complete discord with his environment: his reality standards and his behavior bear no relationhim
ship to the
demands of external reality. He is a lost immersed in a culture in which he cannot
comparable period is the Zen Sesshin. It takes place sevduring the monastic year, and is characterized by intensified efforts to achieve Satori.
Zen, Thought Reform, and Psychotherapy
communicate, to which he cannot
him cues that he cannot understand. Furthermore, it is made quite clear that it is the prisoner and his the government's infallireality that must change
stage of the reform process allows the prisoner an opportunity to be born anew. The impasse
broken, the psychological pressures eased, and the environmental assaults eased somewhat. The prisoner glimpses the chance to achieve some harmony with his
means that he himself must give way that he must change and reform. In fact, the prisoner
seeks to maintain the possibility of solution at all
identifying with his aggressor, the prisoner motivated to help the official achieve his own
confession and reform.
the standpoint of the prison group, the
to see reality in a new way. His guilt channeled into a pseudo logical system, and he views past events as an outgrowth of personal evil and error.
final confession is an atonement and submission, the only adaptation possible to the summation of pressures. In his adoption of alien reality standards, the
prisoner does himself
no conceptual violence. Like learning a skill, and adopting the masmystic explanations for successful hits on target,
the prisoner's confession
distortions are logical,
violence to facts, but and they seem to be docu-
mented by reality.
Thus, the bridge into life is crossed, and the prisoner reborn. In his new identity he comes to see that his entire former life has been in the service of evil, and
Thought Reform Birth
he welcomes a thorough reform. The new
successful adaptation to pressures, also lifts the need for continued regression. The prisoner now experiences the tangible benefits of reform, and they are considerable: the personal confession has been, in effect, a therapeutic catharsis; in his new view of reality, all
questions have been answered or are answerable; with self-surrender, there is a merging with the omnipotent
and a sharing of
level this last benefit
a psychological strength. as the satisfaction of perceived
personal redemption, the joining with a great crusade. The feeling of righteousness in the new omnipotence
all of mankind in a "struggle and "human brotherhood." As in Zen, the new world view becomes a missionary cause for which no sacrifice is too great
spreads to encompass
can understand better the sincere strivings of disciples or Chinese prisoners to find their place
them by looking at the Chinese themselves, rather than at the Western prisoners. Young Chinese and Zen pupils react positively and ambitiously to the imperatives of their own culture, and do not consider them imposed from outside. Furthermore, since he is brought up in these doctrines,
in the doctrines held
may not value
another world view, even
he can imagine one.
complete milieu control
its elimination of the possibility of receiving alternative ideas. Westerners who had undergone thought
reform as prisoners, and who were then released into a different value system quickly invalidated the groupsustained world view. But the Chinese have no such
Zen, Thought Reform, and Psychotherapy
opportunity to experience other systems. Most of the Chinese youth who attend the revolutionary colleges
for a thought reform enclosure endo so on a voluntary basis, to try to fit in 1 with the regime, and find out what it expects of them. The strong motivation of these young Chinese to
successfully into their society
a Pavlovian interpretation of the reform process. The human animal is not a thought dog: total striving contains complex cognitive as well
of the revolutionary college students were post-adolescents or young adults, normally times of identity crisis, when the individual
most susceptible to in fact, most eager for conversion to a new ideology. Thought reform shifted the young Chinese identity from filial son to responsible
participant in an adult crusade, and thus utilized posi2 Frustration at the Revolutionary College is not so immediate as in the prison milieu, nor do
group pressures seem so overtly coercive.
Douglas G. Haring observes that "Characteristically, the normal commoners in East Asian nations is not to influence the government, but to try to find out "what the government expects of them.* This was evident in Japan under the occupation everyone asked what the Americans expected of them." (Personal communiattitude of
cation.) 2 One striking detail of the thought reform confessions of young Chinese is that almost in every case the central feature is a personal
and symbolic denunciation of the
ploiting classes as well as personally evil.
a symbol of the exstudent finds this
denunciation to be the most painful part of his entire thought reform, but in the end he almost invariably complies. Religious conversion also demands precisely this catharsis of the parental superego,
and the embracing of a wider, less constrictive, conscience upon which to predicate one's behavior.
Thought Reform Birth
students approach the reform course with from apprehension to enthusiasm.
impressions are usually favorable, and high. Lectures and discussions are held in which students and leaders criticize the old society,
and describe diseased thought and politics. There is formal course work in dialectics, Leninism, and so on, and group leaders, called "cadres," encourage spirited
exchanges of views in small group sessions. After some weeks, a pervasive change occurs. There
a shift in emphasis from intellectual and ideological analyses to personal criticism. The way the Zen archer
not his intellectual approach to the wrong, but his personal shortcomings, so the student finds that it is not Communist doctrine he must study, but his personal attitudes. He discovers that even without physical coercion, environment can
manipulate and control him completely. He is isolated from any alternate conception of reality: there are no external contradictory communications or ideas, no
opportunity for objective appraisal or
Only he meets group standards will he receive psychological support from his environment. If he fails to meet them, the environment will do aU it can to undermine him.
The kinship of the thought reform conversion to other "therapeutic cures" is obvious. Infantilization, regression, the digging up of past errors, self-examination via painstaking analysis and insight into problems these are all capped, after the emotional catharsis of confession
and rebirth, by the new
reform has special techniques, such as a suggestive,
Zen, Thought Reform,
facilitates the remolding. All of these ingredients are combined and here it departs radically from self-conscious, responsible psychotherapy
hypnotic aspect which
successful result of
program of proselytizing deliberateness, the which is practically guaranteed by the thoroughly controlled and manipulated environinto a
The thought reform
Thought reform manipulates both the individual's motivation to conform, as well as his need to find acceptance within his group. "Man does not live by
bread alone"; but sustained by common identification with his fellows, he can almost live without it. Conversion-oriented therapies, whether they be Chinese, Zennist, or others, attain their maximum effectiveness not
merely by manipulating the individual in a closed environment, but by inducing him to manipulate himself. A man's inability to tolerate social isolation, his
urge for identity, and his allegiance to symbols all are puppet strings which he drags in full view. There is no
reason, then, to believe that the Chinese, Machiavellian
have launched themselves on an
the contrary, they are human, grand design. naturally and unconsciously responding to inner urges that are specifically human. Their genius lies in the
perfection of method.
Meeting of East and West
ZEN'S appeal to a few philosophical Western minds never attracted unusual attention, nor did the young artist's or poet's death grip on a fresh source of enigmatic profundity. The West has long since accepted the Orient as a provisioner of ideas for philosopher
and artist. The appeal of Zen to Western professional psychotherapists is quite another matter, and has made many serious students go back to Zen to see if they
have missed something. Minds which have been responsible for a good deal of recent intellectual history among them, Jung's have intimated sympathy for Zen. Homey, reputedly, was a serious student of Zen.
recent effort to spread Zen's inspirational potential into the public domain was made during a seminar on Zen at Fromm's Cuernavaca home, to
which contributions were made by Western psychotherapists as well as Dr. D. T. Suzuki. have already discussed how easily psychoanalytic phenomena like "spontaneity," "narcissism," and "ambivalence" are confused with the Zen "cure/' This confusion does not, unfortunately, exhaust an attraction to Zen that goes much deeper than matters of
Zen's usefulness. Wu fallacy. It is empty preoccupations to which just these "empty spaces" that are considered by this therapist to have high productive value in effecting cure. this kind of reasoning is also a perfect example of the post hoc ergo propter hoc . Equating these spaces with the Wei Doctrine of No-Mind. is in the interpretations of psychotherapeu- claims that depressed patients and schizophrenics are frustrated in their attempts to adjust to reality because they fight the "empty spaces" One therapist the driftings and they are prone. as in Oriental philosophy. seems to to the point of serving as a framework for extend even Western therapeutic analysis. an equation which is at least not professionally unsound. and Psychotherapy mere technique. for instance. that the empty space is a fertile void: exploring it is a turning point toward therapeutic change for his patients ( 1 ) Besides being a testimonial to the vitality of the Wei Doctrine.Zen. An even more curious professional use of Oriental mysticism tic events. for some. He finds." this therapist "Wu urges his patients to go down "and explore" them. has been equated with shock therapy. The results are often curious. after which they could return to "vitalize" and "profoundly awaken" our culture. The satori experience. That B occurs after A does not necessarily caused B: the cure consequent upon of the "fertile void" need not have derived exploration from the exploration at least not from that specific that 156 mean A . But one ought to keep a sharp eye on those transactional psychologists who might follow the suggestion of one of their number to study under a Zen master until they experience satori. Thought Reform.
One has only to attempt to decipher the claims of irrational therapists in order to uncover some skillful scientific smuggling. abolished in order to effect a cure. the possibilities The denial for the patient's being led astray are ominous. this therapy embodies all the Zen world view. Therapeutic jargon shares a quality with poetic metaphor: in skillful hands it beclouds critical appraisal. "Exploring the fertile void" together with the patient thus permits him to take a step away from complete antisocial isolation. Because the world view and the rationale are clothed in respectable scientific garb. and the appeal communication of powers may be personal predilections that can produce amusing error.Psychotherapy in East and West symbolic interpretation of pists find that it. More sober-minded theracan be obtained is good results if com- munication with the patient peculiar antireality distortions established while his and preoccupations are The private character of a psychosis must be respected. anticonsciousness nature and accent on unconscious communication essentials of the are close to Zen. In fact. But when the adherent to these views manipuof a logical view of reality to direct unconscious lates another's reality in a therapeutic situation. just as a poetic metaphor can make an unat- tractive idea appealing. and the analyst must participate in the psychotic edifice to deprive it of its wholly "private" character. as well as the basic Zen rationale for furthering that world view by any means. our uneasiness is all the more justified. Professional psychotherapists have already sounded their own alarm against "irrational psycho- therapy/' whose candidly anti-insight. Their mini157 .
After all. But the irrational therapist implies something quite different when he downgrades the Understanding is unimportant. are at the surface in full view. is the same as the psychoanalytic view that the emotional catharsis is is primary in therapy. it is then that the unconscious functions best. to let his unconscious guide him without his being aware of it.Zen. they claim. the reflected. He the irrational therapist this seems irrafeels the best course would be to let the To individual alone. of course. he claims. uppermost. it seems paradoxiinsight? cal that the psychiatrist treats the neurotic by breaking To through repressions. tional. The goal 158 . while at the same time he refuses to treat the psychotic because all of his repressions are already broken through the psychotic's unconscious fantasies. instead of being repressed. his understanding of what is taking place unimportant. and that intellectual understanding may itself be a defense mechanism against emotional involvement. because the first task of therapy is to enable the indiintellect. This. Since therapy is an art. This view of therapy treads hard on the heels of the Zen master. the to the Zennist these are all a fracturing of The individual's own direct feelings are experience. and Psychotherapy is the process which takes whenever one person interacts with another and place mal definition of therapy thereby increases his integrative? adaptive capacity. vidual to function adequately within himself surroundings. Thought Reform. he claims. cerebrated The deliberated. and his How is this to be brought about in the absence of the irrational therapist. no amount of description can transform this technique into a science.
"technical" means are of any to avail. Another crucial fact is that these are "techniques" which include administering punishment necessarily followed by insight therapy. exactly." These procrustean manipulations of mysticism some i Attempts to rehabilitate otherwise incurable psychotics by form of therapy must naturally rely on methods which depart radiit is questionable whether.Psychotherapy in East and West of therapy to different in him is rerepression meaning from new term quite "repression/' The irrational a therapist is. An "unconscious relatedness" appears to be necessary and results. not 159 . the therapeutic process basically one of unconscious exchange he calls the relationship of the therapist's unconscious to 1 the patient's unconscious an exchange of "unconscious dynamics. For the itself is irrational therapist. cally from orthodox practice. not quite sure what. are calling attention here. the for the champions of rerepression. in the treatment of schizophrenia. But techniques like bottle feeding and rocking produce good the patient which apply and seem to work well in the treatment of chronic psychotic patients should not be generalized into standards of just this generalization to which It is the of we possibility therapy. ticipation there more level. For example. except that fear. it is characteristic of these unconscious powers that they can be felt and even communicated. The more unconscious is is. Therefore. rerepression it does not occur because of guilt or but seems instead designed to raise the level of is functioning of the individual in the most economical possible way. to function personally and socially on an adequate Expectedly. likely he parin the individual's functioning. for him therapy should have as its primary aim the restoration of "unconscious functions" which seem to work best vidual is when the indi- unaware of them.
Zen. the irrational therapist makes plain the goal of rerepression: [Submission to the cultural structure] demands a rerepression of certain aspects of fantasy existence. The patient carries repression is the introject of the infallible irrational therapist for a long time after therapy has ended. The irrational therapist leaves no doubt that to him a tidy fit into the larger society is the chief good. In this way. often a virtue of those with deeply-held convictions. The irrational therapist and the Zen master have in common with him employment of personal dominance and rerepression in the transmutation of the "patient" into a new value system. Re- nothing more mysterious than effective on the basis of newly-acquired ego strength suppression within a new superego framework. The critical difference is that now i he individual accepts these cultural restrictions for their 160 . Thought Reform. ... the cultural pressures which operated initially to bring about repression also operate in the Post-Interview patient to bring about re-repression. but they are a bridge between East and West. Talk of the primacy of the interpersonal their relationship and unconscious communication. and Psychotherapy within a scientific framework owe nothing to the East. and the acceptance of the need for a certain amount of conformity and realism. In a statement of desired adjustment that neither the Zennist nor the thought reformer would disavow. and not the furtherance of individual rationality. and attempts to "scientifically" delineate the subtleties of rerepression as a "homeostatic" aid do not disguise a dominance-submission relationship which terminates in the introjection by the patient is Open avowal of aim of a new superego.
Once this "fantasy" of seZf-ishness is done away with by rerepression in the service of a new value system.Psychotherapy in East and West positive value. then this catharsis would be a culture-wide value. If enough individuals could be converted to the new values. "a certain amount of conformity and is achieved. the irrationallycured patient can better adjust to the larger society by periodically refreshing himself in the special. The elimination of "certain aspects of fantasy existence" could be translated directly into Zennist termiat- nology: the uprooting of the error of self-seeking tachment. and only to the extent that they do not interfere with his vital needs and with his new-found image of himself as a unique individual who has a more profound than that which the culture can provide him. rejuvenating. Just as in Zen. wistfully complains the irrational therapist. But. But the individual is not denuded: not only does he accept "cultural restrictions for their positive value/' he also has a "new-found realism" image of himself as a unique individual who has a even more profound than that which the culture can provide him/' This status and this new-found image derive from the value system inculcated by the status therapist: the vitality and the mystical profundity of unconscious powers. the responsibility for the development of "social therapists" on any planned basis has not been accepted by our society. (2) status even Exactly: the individual has been brainwashed. and esoteric values of his conversion cure. Rerepression combines with ego-strengthening for a more compulsive handling of a limited segment of reality. then. 161 .
and Psychotherapy therapeutic utopia would have no ideological disputes with the Zen utopia. reality cannot be apprehended must be experienced directly. Thought Reform. and unUnconscious communications exist in consciously. it the therapeutic situation. The theory of irrational therapy derives from an "understanding" emand nonverbal compathetic personal experiences munications are termed proof of direct communication of the workings of the therapeutic situation: 162 . to describe the experiences of the trance state. In scientific guise. The "Unconscious dynamics" like the "nameless power" would work through all citizens for the creation of a suprarational world. while using the symbolism of that philosophy. In the magical isolation of cognitively. it is easy to impute to these signifi- nonverbal communications an extraindividual cance. In a society constructed on a mystical value system. Personal dissatis"fantasy existence" would be effaced in factions periodic rejuvenation sessions with one's favorite therapist (master). even if he is justified in assuming that we are gullible. Curiously. all citizens would do their share in inculcating the creative values of the unconscious. the psychotherapies of the twentieth century are utilizable in the same way that Buddhists utilized the psychological experiences of the trance state: to generalize a religious philosophy. the mystic presents his personal vision of a reform. especially if one personally inclines to such a world view. To the mystic. every human relationship.Zen. But we cannot say that he is dis- honest. and in maintaining selfless submission to the society at large. in a resteeping in transcendental powers and a rerepression of personal values. in turn.
and nobody "knows what he is living for. due to his "schizoid inability to experience affect" Life is aimless. nor need it so cavalierly dismiss the patient's need for fullest possible individuation. The psychotherapeutic meeting of East and West need not be so unqualifiedly mystical. The the surface of human misery. but they extend to the many who fall experiences. Western man is anxious and desperate." The source "why not 163 . depending on one's own view of the plight of modern man. The question why some people become insane." the situation of is Glimpsed through an individual psychotherapy. In turn. says Fromm.Psychotherapy in East and West from "unconscious to unconscious" in a mystical value system. has expressed his gratitude "for but he is well aware of the methodological differences between Zen and psychoanalysis. This within the professionally legitimized grasp of the irrational psychotherapist. by mysticism would mean gift from the East perhaps seems precious. mankind seems serious. the symbolisms of speculative mysticism serve to confirm and account for the felt example of the durability of circular would be less upsetting if the mutually reinreasoning forcing extrapolations were confined to the actions of one individual. The Western should know professional knows or that the infiltration of his scientific. Fromm this precious gift of the East". but rather most people do not become insane. The analyst who deftly treats the torments of a few chosen souls nears the end of his professional career with the sobering and perhaps haunting realization that he has barely scratched rational therapeutic process the end of psychoanalysis.
Blake. powerlessness. and distortion that plague mod- ern can be overcome: the humanist therapist's to make the entire unconscious conscious. humanistic the prophets. The ease with which this psychotherapeutic mind takes to a proselytizing program suggests that the psychotherapeutic technique offers a tempting tool for the messianically-prone. Whitman. outstrip the possiFromm's beliefs. Bucke. too hostile who has a right to expect it to be warm. Therapeutic change takes 164 . the possible. Jesus." The unethical. too mechanical world has become too cold and and impersonal. The new therapy would create the new man by unconscious/' replacing the conscious with the "cosmic in sum. For man. The already a statement of alienation. this new therapeutic orientation would be nourished by the soil of a tradition represented by Buddha. In Fromm's view. The ideal tool for this creation would be a blending of Zen and psychoanalytic techniques. is a more radical aim is man of psychoanalysis. he proposes a "humanistic psychoanalysis. aloneness. of making him part of a wider." Traditional psychoanalytic practice would be out- man into a producstripped in the aim of integrating tive whole. admits Fromm. and Psychotherapy of man's unhappiness is his "separateness. to man and fair. as Goethe pointed out. The therapist has his join own vision of the good society.Zen. a vision of the desirable is separation. Master Eckhart. program than that This. Thought Reform. for full recovery of the unconscious. bilities personal of his own discipline. spiritual. friendly. humanistic frame of reference. and would hands with the Zennist in the creation of a utopia to match this vision.
after all. there is no necessary connection between the correctness of a theory and its success in producing "cures. it is a basic human process.Psychotherapy in East and West place as a result of an interpersonal emotional involvement. and more than a minimum of interference. who may be allowed to keep the remainder of his fanThe definition of psychoanalysis itself can be made very broad. from supportive therapy. And in the treatment of schizo- phrenics. in which a new superego may be introjected in a way that the individual will function better. and any "cures" can be due to any combination of factors. An enormous gulf separates insight therapy. The theory of cure and the actual success of a given psychotherapeutic treatment have yet to be satisfactorily correlated. as well as help him de165 . attempts to bring the patient into a satisfactory adjustment with his environment. Even the res- toration of full reality testing is not an absolute goal: the therapist may attempt to limit disorganization simply to those conscious processes which do not collide with reality to the detriment of the patient. so that it covers any therapy which tasies. The gamut of therapies is. But lines between therapies are often very thin. the gaining of ego strength is far more vital than the achievement of self-knowledge." The multifold effects of one individual on another has yet to be exhaustively tallied one reason why therapy is still an "art" as much as a science. Even in a rational approach to therapy there may be a minimum of unrepression. Occasionally even an orthodox analyst may admit the therapeutic value of losing his temper with a patient. in which the patient becomes self-aware and self-responsible. infinitely broad.
but he may find he is hurt by the patient's quick inde- pendence of him after cure. as well as certain shamanistic cures. should carve his destiny for him. and even into loose definitions of psychoanalysis. Perhaps the most telling indication of the psychoanalytic ethic of rational. but acter. However even the most orthodox psychoanalysis carries the seeds of proselytization. The ana- 166 . never co- The ther- apist wishes to have an extremely individuated patient. force our own ideals upon him. and with the arrogance of a Creator form him in our own image and see that it was good.Zen. Freud himself formu- lated in no uncertain terms a credo for his powerful therapeutic method: We refected most emphatically the view that we should convert into our own property the patient who puts himself into our hands in seek of help. Brainwashing and Zen. and Psychotherapy velop his capacities. the desire to achieve strictly objective neutrality as a spectator. is an ambitious ideal of the therapist. helper. Thought Reform. The avoidance of countertransference. The patient's interests are always paramount in this ethic. the nature of the psychoanalytic cure is such that it often serves to alienate the individual from his family and community. which Freud counselled should be renewed at five-year intervals. neutral therapy is the therapist's own psychoanalysis. ( 3) Not only is the patient to be protected against the influence of the analyst. In his strictly neutral role as sympathetic shadow-boxer. the analyst must use the powerful transference in the patient's interest. fit without embarrassment the terms of the strictest definitions of psychotherapy.
Society. is what it is really all about) Freud. Freud made responsible social standards and this quite clear. (4) Because positive therapeutic results may be socially dysfunctional. precisely because they did not attempt . the psychoanalytic liberation is effected by calling into question everything that might hobble the patient. and considers treasonous to the patient because he seeks a recovery in terms of an adjustment to society. and even international politics. criticized his disciples apparently ignoring who 167 broke with him. are parents. but restrictive and self-defeating obedience to the superego introject Thus. to draw a sharp line between individual neurosis. rather than in terms of the patient's own needs. How can he permit himself to split man and society? It is impossible. helping the patient.Psychotherapy in East and West in lyst's task. but also the "internal the patient's automatic and unquestransference" tioning. including its surrogates in the home. cultural ethos. it is easy to understand the dilemma into which the analyst is placed. It is here that the psy- him choanalyst takes to task the psychiatrist. to (The last thing a science finds out. this. social structure. so the community relentless exposure cannot respond with sympathy to a of its injurious effects and deficiencies. according Whitehead. The goal of treatment is individual freedom. for repressions and illness. Just as we make any is covering what single person our enemy by disrepressed in him. is to resolve not only the therapeutic transference. in the present state of knowledge. not an adjustment to not even to family group. economic influences.
analytic aloofness And and neutrality suffer..Zen. when personal politics appear. in the former for their attitude to psychoanalysis than element in that of Adler for the line of ( less significant is the socialistic development 5 ) The effect of this tic orientations was to blend lie blending of personal and therapeusocial values of the therapist with the emerging values of the patient. In character analysis. The importance of theological tradition history of so many Swiss [i. social. he thinks the "market value" orientation in our culture leads individuals to manipulate and maneuver. 168 . Adler. tion away from unrepression was necessary in many cases where the entire character of the patient had to A be analyzed before he could be cured. in essence. and Psychotherapy to draw lines between their beliefs about society and the changes they sought to effect in their patients. is said to have once "bedevilled" a patient in order to cut through his erroneous "life style." But the personal and the social were not so easily shift in analytic orientaseparable as Freud thought. For example. for example. Jung] is no taken by his psychology.e. the psychoanalyst may see something quite different from what appears in neurosis. Thought Reform. the individual has distorted perceptions that are. One of Fromm's major contributions was in this general area: he attempted to define the cultural temper that was responsible for certain character orientations. Instead of the superego being repressive in a personality maladaptive sense. Social values as such are inseparable from the analytic scene when the analyst considers that the individual's socially-formed character is working against his happiness and adjustment.
But society was to be condemned in any event." There was really no need to wait for the recognition of ''character disorders" in order to know where to hope the real change would take place. sensitive to the "injurious effects and deficiencies" of the community. the choice was clear duty lay in eliminating the neurosis. there is little in his zeal that was not anticipated in the mature reflections of the master: Not Freud. actually criticized society long before the "Neo-Freudians. the analyst must take a place beside the philosopher and religious leader. The question of course then arises: "What is the purpose of human existence and what should man's it. perhaps the only thing that kept the focus of attention on the individual patient was . He can no longer be a neutral participant in a value-free thera- goals be?" To answer peutic relationship. character analysis relates them to the most objectively conceived analytic orientation. the neurotic character has not been radical enough. surprisingly. But Fromm finds that even the results of character analysis have been because the aim for cure of relatively disappointing. Is there one of you who has not at some time caught a glimpse behind the scenes in the causation of a neurosis and had to allow that it was the least of the evils possible in the circumstances? And should one really require such sacrifices in order to exterminate the neuroses while the world is all the same full of other inextinguish- able miseries? (6) For Freud.Psychotherapy in East and West rather than live out other facets of their inner potential. When social values are inseparable from therapeutic need. After all.
ments draws that its scientific inspiration from the West. The modern East. but Freud himself. For a culture where group-centered roles predominate. in this Eastern psychotherapy.. in unguarded mo- of aspiration. a cultural tradition that places social adjustment and family authority over the expression of individuality is motivated to a peculiar use of psychoanalysis: to free the individual. . the most orthodox psychoanalysis leans to meet the East.. in turn. for it the family. apy to numbers will compel us to undercurrent of total social reform inheres in a therapeutic method that seeks to enable man to function better as a An member of society. . and finds can do so without departing from its own ideals. In brief.Zen.. The criticism of society once the evil is recognized as re- turns easily into a crusade if enough siding there forces are marshalled. via therapy. for conformity to the culture pattern. . Insight techniques and objectivity and neutrality are regarded as antithetical to seem 170 therapeutic goals. Expectedly. It was no Neo-Freudian or support therapist. and Psychotherapy the lack of sufficient therapeutic resources to enable effective action to be taken against society itself. freeing the individual from family ties and community morality is an entirely negative value. for example. fitting the patient back into society so that he exhibits the proper expected cultural behavior does not need the service of unrepression. Thought Reform. suppression and conformity to be the dominant theme in this Eastern therapy. (7) It is very probable . In Japan. who observed: that the application of our theralloy the pure gold of analysis plentifully with the copper of direct suggestion .
discovered the therapy accident": he found that losing his temper and "by striking one of his patients led to her sudden cure. and as in Zen. who died in 1938. Morita." Yale Review. which is a direct outgrowth of Zen principles. 171 . more individuated Japanese. even words or verbal expressions are discouraged. The Morita therapist assumes an authoritative atti- tude and eschews any use of insight Self-knowledge has little place. which is rooted in the more authoritarian social climate of about forty years ago. but rather of the duly elected public officials. It may simply be that to work for the freer individual and the good society at one and the same time may not be the province of the psychotherapist. Dr. and where political and social controls no longer join to support the process. G. Psychoanalyand History.Psychotherapy in East and West This is failed to not to say that the Japanese therapists have understand Freud (especially when his West- ern counterpart claims the need to go beyond Freud in a socially-oriented use of his technique). Haring. and in 1 Coercive reform techniques work less well in an atmosphere where personality types are more diverse. and Morita elaborated his technique to fit Zen ideas. See D. sis ''Japanese National Character: Cultural Anthropology. If the Western therapist wants to see Zen therapy in action. 1 For Morita logic is. for the effects of three centuries of Tokugawa dictatorship on the Japanese character. XLII (Spring) 1953. To analyze with insight Morita and Zen terminology: "to cut wound on sound flesh/' Japanese critics have remarked that this therapy. will not be effective with the younger. This kind of psychotherapy is in perfect harmony with the ideas of Zen. he need look no further than modern Morita therapy.
evidently. 172 . and Psychotherapy is no ordinary supportive therapy it employs timehonored Zen devices for instance. the keisaku or "warning stick" of the Zendo. Thought Reform. Morita therapy should warn the Western analyst who flirts with the East that the Easterner may have no qualms about using shock treatments to create his traditionally inspired Utopias.Zen. the thundering "Kwats" cry. and.
after all. Perhaps if the Chinese had called this technique "classical therapy" or "culturally directed therapy.9 Conclusion MORITA therapy carries out the Zen imperative: less selfis submission to the interests of group harmony the paramount value. 175 . except those that even on cursory examination offend our sensitivities." they might have avoided a good deal of the average Western citizen's dislike. illusion. Brainwashing offends aesthetic sensitivities by the introjected idea of running a soapy scrub brush over the brain cells." and the dispersal of inner powers. as a unique Japanese healing device for the "unintegrated" man. separation. Zen's respectability comes from being looked at in this light. The core of the problem seems to be that there has not been enough critical rigor in the appraisal of reform techniques. The attainment of harmony itself is therapeutic and uplifting. After all. attachment. individuation is. and even provoked a sympathetic nod from a few psychotherapists. An identical philosophy ani- mates the Chinese "hsi nao" technique a concern with harmonizing oneself and adapting to one's surroundings. and of far greater value than defending some "selfish" view of the universe that is not shared by others. "fracturing.
in its form. and even serve as a catalyst in accomplishing the task at which the West has failed so mightily the integration of religion. and science. for Zen does not contradict these achievements. It can be apposite to any scientific development. Suzuki insists that Zen philosophy offers neither idol is paradoxically. independent of doctrine and dogma a purely neutral affirmation of universal becoming that serves human dignity as no other credo can* 174 . In Fromm's view. He finds. Zen has two aspects. creative essence. it has an "affirmative aspect" which accepts everything that is going on in the "world of multiplicities. example. of life's readily separable discrete. Zen "immedi- ateness." object that he does not use Zen he aims instead to in the service of a messianic faith The humanist may use Zen philosophy to support and affirm the universal nature of the West's finest achievements: individua- and freedom. In its pure it is "acosmistic". and capable of being maintained as depending on the recipe desired. Certainly." "creative unity with the source of life" these are all adjudged "good. popular form. that Eastern religious thought congenial to Western rational thought than nor predetermined authority.Zen." Seemingly. tion. the exponents of Zen have done nothing to discourage this view. Thought Reform." "direct experience/' revelation of the "inner man. Nor need its to the credulous or the superstitious appeal of Zen many magical aspects trouble the sophisticated Westerner. and Psychotherapy Thus brainwashing is adjudged "bad". rationalism. Zen is a basic affirmation of positive living. philosophy. is more Western religious thought.
"Intuitive teachall-important. extremely flexible to adapt itself almost to any philosophy and moral doctrine as long as its intuitive teaching is not interfered with. or any political and eco- nomic dogmatism. In fact. master-pupil relationship is a reform method.Conclusion This is a hopeful and naive view." by Universal Mind manifesting through him. Zen puts the individual in the service of a new superego. But this is using Zen in the "world of multiplicities". atheism or idealism. It is precisely here that Zen's "morality" shows its spurious nature: the "egoless" convert's conduct is dictated ostensibly by his "Real Self. because it accents the "egoless. refuted. to the philosophically pure whatever takes place in this world has ing" with. is cosmic significance.. Actually. a Zennist has done nothing more than initself 175 . the otherworldliness of "intuitive teaching" has no other referent than this-worldly action : dividual But Zen is no more successful from society than was at separating the in- the dominance-submission.. rather. and this must not be interfered little early psychoanalytic theory. by the West's ultimate authority on Zen: Zen . as a result of the dominance-submission conversion of the master-disciple relationship." there is nothing to oppose to the master's dominant reality.. is . unfailingly. (1) militaristic Of Zen course: modern Japan acknowledged as the ideal doctrine for her rising generation. Or. communism or democracy. However much it would accent the "egoless" aspect of existence. It may be found wedded to anarchism or fascism..
the ad hoc morality of the social group.Zen y Thought Reform. the elite principles in which animated Zen were less fuzzy. an for the Zennist firmly believes that Zen is meant for elite. "The world of multiplicities" provides the framework for the everyday "practical" conduct ones does what one must do according to the contemporary cultural imperative. Universal self leaves. was there any rational Zen canon against Pearl Harbor. Meanwhile. and not for the masses. the was composed of charismatic leaders. in a more earthly vein. In olden days. as Mind working through egoless the only guide for conduct. since the "nameless power" is also the highest force. souls gifted divine spirit power. Nor. No Zennist would have gone to the lions as a principled objection to the imperatives of Rome. But nothing essential has changed. In consequence. It is. a morality capable of being under- stood anew at any moment in time. those that are permeated with it are the highest humans and unquestioning allegiance to 176 . or of the Zen pupil group. the value system which has been introjected reaches no further than the interpersonal social group of master and fel- low Zennists. and Psychotherapy ternalize the superego of the master and the Zendo. In a hierarchy of divinely given natural excellence. the most the masses can hope for is that spirit power will manifest its presence by a minor satori. Not only is the individual a "vehicle" for the expression of cosmic will: he is also a vehicle for the expression of any conduct dictated by the group's morality. There are not many graduates of the Zendo life. in the very nature of Zen for the mass of Zennists to be amorally submissive to the chosen few. after all.
but merely an imagined awareness of the facts misleads one into with? It naivet6: rationality and independence are the last qualities that can result from such an antilogical. In the eternal tug of war between the ideal and the real. or a euphemism for imparting to the patient the analyst's own deeply-held 177 To . For the Western humanist the ultimate kind of question must be. master-disciple relationship. the most sincere intention is no guarantee against imbalance. or a fancied ultimate therapy that will release the full creative powers of the individual? An honest appraisal might help him avoid many errors. domi- nance-submission. A therapist cannot. statesmen who then urged the adoption of Zen knew that the existing order had nothing to lose and everything to gain. strict neutrality on the part of the advocate that the therapist "uncover the whole unconscious" is either poetry. does the Zen discipline turn out the man that he would people his humanist world is easy to be dazzled by the surface reflection of one's ideals in an Oriental religion. for instance. Historically. It may very well be that religion is superior to psychother- apy in allowing for the affiliative need in human nature (2). But the question which the Western psychotherapist must answer is what exactly is he advocating in opting for Zen: interrelatedness and religious conversion. Zen was the perfect reinforcement for unquestioningly obedient samurai loyalties.Conclusion these chosen few is the obvious guide to conduct and the highest value. abolish the terminological distinction between conscious and unconscious terized and by still retain a therapeutic method characanalyst.
1959) cites Kubie's vigorous attack on the thesis that the unconscious is is the source of creativity. But besides having dubious professional value. 178 . p. this point of view produces some egregious logic. who sees beneath the surface of compulsive intellectualism.Zen. and doctors are periodically astounded by demonstrations of the the fascinated vitality of the life force. that the rational them in awe? 1 If one frankly posits the creative powers of the unconscious as an extraindividual value. says of Zen enlightenment that it is "a repe1 John Sullivan. S. for example. symbols of his A great deal of fuss has been made over the scious. It is all more understandable that the analyst should be by the healing powers that often emerge to heal the anguished neurotic. 1959). Saturday Review (July 11. But how unlimited are the healer should hold creative powers of the unconscious. Fromm. and Psychotherapy beliefs. 31. A credo which stresses the primacy of unconscious powers in creating the good life on earth. Nor can the therapist use the therapeutic interview both as a proving ground and as a source for the own preferred value sytem. Kubie's Neurotic Distortion of the Creative Process (University of Kansas. he is getting further away from a humanism. Sullivan agrees that this thesis a "ridiculous" doctrine. some of it unconunderstandable. an experimental psychologist. Even internal medi- cine cannot do without the recreative powers of the individual. and which advocates the elimination of the need and the desire to achieve critical discernment via cerebration has an rational understandable appeal to the psychotherapist. in a review of L. Thought Reform. Extrapolation into the psychotherapeutic interview of hoped-for ideals is a duplication of Zen usage of the trance.
that of the full development child. The separa- between the "me" and the "not me" began over a billion years ago when irritability was attained in a single cell. it seems. made clearer than in the contention that man should and the same time live without intellectual reflection and with intellectual reflection: "Man must at one The early Taoists used the symbol of the infant as an expression of Primal Unity underlying apparent multiplicity. This was a condition closest to undifferentiated Tao. since they occasionally evidence a rudimentary ego. tition of the pie-intellectual. Even our primate cousins don't qualify. One may justifiably wonder whether evolution is to be reversed to "happy" Oligocene times." A deeply-held conviction and the world of reality are sometimes difficult to tally. has an "im- mediate. when there was only "direct" experience and as yet no complex cerebration. and the universe acquired an "inside" as well as an "outside. of man's reason. total grasp of the world before the power of education changes this form of experience. (4) 1 179 . and this is nowhere tion. lectual" experience. or show some object attachment by hoarding tokens which they can exchange for bananas. The child. gropingly ingesting organic matter in silent harmony. but the child in the womb. the unacknowledged lords of the earth are crawling things. For the new-born infant there is as yet no separation between the me and the not me. direct." 1 By this criterion. But the logically inevitable occurred: to the later Taoists the ideal was no longer the infant.Conclusion immediate grasp of the but on a new level. in fact. . ." (3) As well saddle oneself with a koan as deduce how reason can relive a "pre-intel.
And. 1 and emotional balance of the cerebral hemispheres in ance: overdevelopment of the Recognition of this need has led some to consider the development man's brain an evolutionary imbal- memory storing. in all awareness. music. architecture. artistic. subjective outlook on the real world. and the equation of disparities can be accepted without question. entire be predisposed to an analogic. Emotionally determined premises can easily give rise to false reasoning when religious. Thought Reform. as analysts ob- serve and as anthropologists cultures can have long known. literature. associative areas is thought to have undermined man's prior organic "unity" at a time 180 . except where intellectual reflection is wanted or necessary.Zen. as in science and tions in practical occupations/' (5) Practical occupafill the waking day of about two and a half billion people. elastic meanings. and Psychotherapy be trained to drop his repressedness [says Fromm] to experience reality fully. clearly. and science enlists the services of more people with each generation. They also seem to form an essential part of the individual's esthetic 1 own nervous experience. A full contribution to human culture includes those endeavors in which emotionally determined premises predominate: art. as are and eager college students. the scientist daily cerebrating the "fractured" symbolisms of his mathematical formulas and chemical analyses is hopelessly doomed to parataxic distortion also attentive babysitters and separation. Of course. a necessary to analytic thinking. Evidently. Aristotelian logic is not the whole of life nor even the whole of thought. and philosophical values are at stake. with the result that contradictions. and that it it would be laughable to claim should be. and and yet without intellectual reflection.
L. and evolution put a premium on it seventy million years before man's appearance on ing. Humanist freedom depends on the ulate the real world ability to manip- a world known through under- standing. cerebric creature created first by evolution and more recently by historical insistence on analytic think- See Trigant Burrow. Thus. for instance. Insistence for the world's 181 . natural calamities. The Neurosis of Man. "Direct" experiencing of the real world often entails "unfractured" approaches. analytical separation from rate The symbolisms man that is. it is mediated via symbols. L. Not of Burrow and surprising. One of the conditions of this understanding of the real world is that it is bought at the price of reflective. Whyte conceived of "unitary" man to replace what he con- when Burrow spoke of siders the progressively pathetic. The Next Development in Man. are the "group-experiments" his followers.Conclusion But the more practical 'endeavors which involve techto master disease. and L. a more cerebrated approach to problem solving. who seek to overcome "dissassociation" by shifting attention from the cortex to the old brain by "cotensive" behavior. learning behavior and the development of the forebrain lie in the very nature of the mammalian mother-offspring relationship. through intellect and not on the willingness to be manipulated by an unconscious world ap- prehended by the merest hints and intuitions. of language or mathematics may sepafrom the direct. But. earth. L. 1949. require. the concept of mana in a nobility or the practice of ritual cannibalism. "unfractured" experiencing it of the "real". therefore. "dissassociation" in his "phylobiological" theories. but the artificiality of these symbolisms is in the nature of a tool. Whyte. and even niques governmental tyranny. only by means of which phylic behavior depended more on the hind-brain. on man's intellectual overindividuation as the basis woes brushes closely against the Zen rationale for a noncerebral rebirth. no matter how "scientific" its inspirations. 1950. inevitably.
a glimpse of the possible in a single therapeutic reform transmutes easily into a megalomania of philanthropy. and it is in this way that man increases his freedom by purposeful action upon natural forces. probings into man By the physical and chemical properties of matter enable to coax the physical universe to do his bidding. nothing new in these propositions: they are as old as the Greeks and were pretested by Australopithecus africanus. In the modem literature they are used to explain man's ascendance in the animal There is kingdom. is Even the coldest symbolic term an expression of human 1 Freud's disquiet has been justified: "I only want to feel assured that the therapy does not destroy the science. 1 It offers to a frustratingly brief ity of relief from the uncertainty. there is no really "objective" fact. chemistry enables us to get higher crop yields.Zen. Thought Reform." (6) 182 . The psyis ries innocent: the therapeutic method carchotherapist within itself an antagonism to restraint. But the long view of historical inevitability seems bungling in terms of the all-embracing vision. and Psychotherapy can be acted upon. To paraphrase Goethe somewhat violently. human life span the possibilhistory's burden of plodding Of course. man permits himself to have the greater experience of fashioning the real world to his own use. his very symbolic separation from "direct" experience. for the scientist has the unique power to act upon reality the real through symbolic analytic separation from it. Mathematical formulas are the basis for the conquest of space. Ulti- mately the reality principle gives more "pleasure'' than the pleasure principle. The crux of the matter is here.
with their coercive induction of the individual into a view of else. But the crux of the matter is this: man's aspiration for power over things gives him self-indulgent room to flaunt his directive belief. And in the eternal unfinished state of knowledge. It becomes essential to allow for the emotional basis of his aspiration and. The individual never knows will exactly the extent be required of him until and kind of changes which he is already involved in the therapeutic reform. a creative interplay. the self-directed nature of his belief. besides being 183 . revision. Where humans interact. on the basis of the gradient nature of the therapy. Most forms of psychotherapy imply immense coercive power. or negation of inherited data. up.Conclusion intent: axe. incompleteness and directive belief are inseparable. Restraint in enveloping others with one's tive beliefs is own direc- most psychotherapists. consequently. space. Only a strict insistence on the analyst's neutrality and the ob- jectivity of insight therapy seem to allow the patient to maintain integrity and develop the possibility of greater freedom. reality a view implanted in new him by someone quite apart from his volition. The therapeutic situation. The shadings of suggestive therapy blend inexorably into thought reform and Zen. invention or coined map. the most objective of facts subserves the process of becoming. as in psychotherapy. His possession of power in dealing with another human being changes this. The that a systematic science of slowly unfolding promise man will develop permits the expression of creativity possible for in conscientious expansion. The most matter-of-fact word is an infusion of purpose into nature.
reflects an appreciation of the ultimate value it is of individuation and autonomy. Modern history furthers in effect. Thought Reform. 184 . already undermining our pet vision of tomorrow. the surge for greater individuavalue. the spread of a tradi- tion radically antagonistic to Zen. The nature of directive beliefs is such that they are fed from without as much as from within. To function creatively within this Western tradition is to accept the fact that neither corps of Zennists nor of psychotherapists will or can create tomorrow's Utopia. and the ease with which he can rotate them as they become superannuated its own is astonishing. But the need for restraint is not due alone to the promise of a comprehensive science of man. The passing of time saps the vitality of man's most impassioned ideas. and Psychotherapy curative. is also a research device to obtain knowledge about intrapsychic and interpersonal processes. Japanese criticism of Morita therapy.Zen. tion not only subverts the splendid modus Vivendi of yesterday. for instance.
" Psychiatry. Thought Reform. 1960." Psychoanalysis. CHAPTER Bibliographic Notes I The sion aggregate of factors in the psychotherapeutic ses- of the Transference/' Psychoanalytic Quarterly. and Benjamin Weininger. "The Dynamics of Croup Psychotherapy as Seen by a Sociologist. 2." Conference on Group Processes. 98-128. Beck. Part 1. Foundation. "The Interpersonal Factor in the Religious Experience.BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES AND REFERENCES Specific acknowledgments for bibliographic sources have been made in a longer dissertation work. 185 which induce regression by the creation of an infantile setting was assembled by Ida Macalpine. 27-44. For the discussion of the superego in religious and ideological conversion. B. on file at Syracuse University. III (1955). "The Develop- ment . No. and Various Psycho therapies. . XVI (1953). XIX (1950). see Leon Salzman. Part 2. No. Only those works are listed here upon which the author leaned most heavily. Schaffner. Macy. Zen Buddhism. 177-87. New York: Josiah B. 180-97 ( 1958) Erving Coffman underlined the "total institution" nature of the mental hospital in "Interpersonal Persuasion. 3. 501-39. XXI. Third Conference. "The Psychology of Religious and Ideological Conversion." Sociometry. ed. Jr. April. XXI. The coercive factors in group psychotherapy have been analyzed from a sociological point of view by Dorothy F. References are to specific quotations. The detailing here is based" on that valuable work..
New York: Norton. "The Moral Career of the Mental Patient/' XXII." Psychologia. Hull with a Foreword by D. and the separate accounts of the Herrigels. Sigmund Freud." Psychiatry. 67. (2). (1). Malone. Japan). Herrigel. References (1). 1953. "References An Outline of Psychoanalysis. (3). F. No. Eugen Zen in the Art of Archery.. Transfrom the German by R. Suzuki. 123-42. Suzuki. New York: Blakiston and Co. The Roots of Psychotherapy. Thought Reform. Ibid. 419-31. ErvingGoffman. T. France: Derain. 1949. Gusty L.Zen. 145 jf. Translated from the German by Cabire. 1957. Whitaker and T. (4). 2 (1959). Erich Fromm's discussion of Zen appeared in "Psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism. P. with a Fore- Emma word by D. 221. Inc. Psychiatry. a (1951). Lyon. No. (2). 79-99 (Kyoto. La Voie des fleurs: le Zen dans fart Japonais des compositions ftorales. 1959). Carl A. I. New York: Pantheon Herrigel. CHAPTER Bibliographic Notes 2 This chapter is based on the many published writings of D. C. Suzuki. lated Books. It also appeared later in 186 . T. 1953. 2 (June. T. 1957* CHAPTER Bibliographic Notes 3 XTV Albert Stunkard first detailed those aspects of Zen which have a counterpart in therapeutic practice in "Some Interpersonal Aspects of an Oriental Religion. 117-93. and Psychotherapy 1957.
London: Allen and Unwin.p. D. T.Notes Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis. D. 31. and to Max Weber. 111.. 1956.: Free Press. W. Herrigel. His Religion. Kaiten Nukariya." among others. 1952. 194. 1951. trans. (6). 1927. New York: Harper. Haring: "Religion. Ibid. Glencoe. Suzuki. Essays in Zen Buddhism. Appendix. 1946. The Religion of the Samurai: Study of Zen Philosophy and Discipline in China and Japan. (2). is bor- rowed from Douglas G. 1960 (with D. (3). G. A (2). Allport. and The Analects of Confucius. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1934. T. 1950. Silvano Arieti.. London: Luzac and Co. The Individual and New York: Macmillan. The Way and Its Power.I6id. Haring. (4). "Psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism/' (3). New York: Houghton Mifflin. H. Gerth. Herrigel. New CHAPTER Bibliographic Notes 4 This chapter and the one following owe much to Arthur Waley. London: Luzac and Co. and to Langdon Warner. E. 187 .. New York: Grove Press. Fromm. ( 5) . 84. 1955. References (1). Interpretation of Schizophrenia. Zen in Archery. 1942. 83-84. and ed. T. (7) E. by H. ed. The Training of the Zen Buddhist Monk. References (1). Suzuki and Richard De Martino). The Religion of China. The Enduring Art of Japan. 1913. . Zen in Archery.l95. 31L % First Series. York: Brunner. 83-84. The idea of "cosmic government.. Suzuki. Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Society. Douglas G. Magic and Morale/* Japan's Prospect.
Introduction to Zen Buddhism. Magic and Mystery in Tibet. C. Also. 2 (1959). 120. 151. T. W. Training. 173-95. 111. (4). and Psychotherapy CHAPTER . Ralph Linton. "Thought Reform' of Chinese Intellectuals a Psychiatric Evaluation/' Journal of Asian Studies. II. Nomind and the Fertile Void in Psychotherapy/' Psychologia. Suzuki. T. Essays. 1956. Alexandra David-Neel. 75-88. (4). Its "How to Get Zen Enlightenment On Master Ishiguro's Five Days' Intensive Course for Attainment. 1961. D. 30.: C. Edited by George Devereux. (2). Thomas. 1933.. . New York: Claude Kendall Co. Norton. Culture and Mental Disorders. Suzuki.T. 253-256. Ibid* 111-12 (emphasis added). (3). CHAPTER Bibliographic Notes articles 7 This chapter is based entirely on Robert J. No. I. XVI. 107-13. Lifton's on thought reform. 8 W. (2) . No. Training.Zen. Suzuki. T. "Wu Wei. which have appeared in several publications: "'Thought Reform' of Western Civilians in Chinese Communist Prisons/' Psychiatry. in Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism. 112-13. CHAPTER References (1). XIX (1956). (1958). 6 (3). ( D. 1 (1956). CHAPTER References 1) D. 1934. 5 References 1 D. Thought Reform." Psychologia. Koji Sato. Kyoto: ) ( Eastern Buddhist Society. No. Suzuki. Springfield. New York: W. 4 188 . Van Dusen.
II. Sigmund Freud. (4). Allport. Zen Buddhism and ciety. (7). Vol. C. V. Gordon W. (6). P. Fromm. ( 3) . (5). Suzuki. Psychoanalysis and Zen. CHAPTER Bibliographic Notes 9 i. 1959. The Individual and His ReligionA Psychological Interpretation. Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist So- (2)." Lay 189 . 209. Sigmund Freud. I. Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis and Zen. . T. Vol. The Roots of Psychotherapy. logic based on emotional premises paleologic see Arieti's discussion of Von Domarus' principle. 94. New York: Basic Books. The Way and Its Power. II of 5 vols.. Whitaker and T. 82. Waley. 55n. A. "The Future Prospects/' 295. 292. "Turnings in the Ways/' 402. 1959. D. 95. Malone. (4) ( 5) . 36. in Interpretation of Schizophrenia. "On the History of the Psychoanalytic Movement/' Collected Papers. Sigmund Freud. "Postscript to a Discussion of Collected Papers. Sigmund Freud. For a discussion of References (1). Analysis. 398.e.Notes (2). 117-18 (emphasis added). 'Turnings in the Ways of Psychoanalytic Therapy/' Collected Papers. 1938. Fromm. Vol. (6). "The Future Prospects of Psychoanalytic Therapy/' Collected Papers. 352. 1950. Its Influence on Japanese Culture. Sigmund Freud. (3). New York: Macmillan. Vol.
12 In Disciple-master relationship. Sigmund. Archery. 18 dassein. 136 Cosmology of Zen. Sakya. 29 Adler. Cosmic Will. 97-98. 18 Exclamatory utterance. 46 67-68. 46. 95-96 dominance submission function. 49-50 Christian-Judaic tradition. 182 190 . 17. 43. 18 Australopithecus africanus. 49 Bonzes. psychotherapeutic process. 19 73 Coomaraswamy. Alfred. 23-24. 49-50 China. 164. Discipline. 143 80 Confucianism.169. 100 Mahayana. 43 80 dominance-submission 60 59-80 training. Zen in. 82. 47. 87 Buddha. 31. 100- 101. 143. Garden art. A. 18 Flower arrangement.. Cominform. 106 negation of life. 19 Cummings.. 181n Faust. 19 Dominance-submission theme: archery. 20n Coethe.163 Frustration. 35 Ch'an. 82-86 master's of pupil's "Catalyzation" of neurosis. 76. 60 flower arrangement. 60 Confidence. 60- 46 89-91 Ambivalence. 36 Affirmation. 60-80 theme. 9 1-92 European materialism.INDEX Abreaction. 174 Buddha. 51-52. 166. Zen. 59. 18. 32-37 Baso Doichi. 26. 14. 87101 Art. 17. 82 1 Aurobindo. Johann Wolfgang von. 91. 20 David-Neel. koan compared. 167. Alexandra. Sri. 96 approval work. garden. 49-50 rebirth through disciplines of. 107 Brainwashing. 14 Freud. 100401. 8185. 168 Adolescence. of. Trigant. 53 Buddhism. resolution of patient's. 84-86 training in. loss of.170 Fromm.155. 19 Burrow. Erich. E. 82 Ego and superego. 28. 70 K. E. psychoanalytic and Contradiction. 106-107 Confucius. 88-89 Conversion beginning final. 47 Existentialism. 106.
20 Jung. Dr.140. 97 frustrations Poetry. manipulation. 152n. 71 Haring. negation Zen Zen in. 19 Paradoxical assertion. 43 92 Mu teachings." 36. 36 46 dilemma. 57 discipline. 82 Mental hospitals. 53-55. 132 Herrigel. 155 nao" technique. 51 "hsi Humanism. 57 Komachiya. 120 Negation of mind. 99n. 54.126. 29.142 definition. Joshu's "mu" koan. 43. 27 Koho. 88- 89 Pragmatism. 181n of 144 Man. Western. 98. 16 Karma.. 37-39 in mental hospitals. 58-59 Joyce. 37-39 attempts 72-73 Amida Buddha/' 130 Georg Wilhelm 18 Hakuin. 21 Kenzo Awa. 44. function of. 45. 60 Kierkegaard.310. 116. 19 of. 131 58-59. 46 Herrigel. 60-61 Keisaku (warning stick). 19 Hyakujo. Soren Aabye. Parents. 94. Douglas G. 17. 14-15 Master. 89. 95-96. 125. 181n New York Times Magazine. 170 Neurosis of Man. Eugen. Helen. The. 60 flower arrangement. 43-44. silence. 40 Marxism. 69 "Kwats"cry. 44-46 Painting. 130 130 Narcissism. 47-48. identification with. 19 produced by. 49 Ideological conversion.. 171n Hegel. 111-112 Mandalas. Friedrich. 40 Insight. 45.92-93 dominance. 20-21. 155 Namu Amida Butsu. Nembutsu. 18. 93. 60- Homey. Koan. 117 Mahayanism.Index "Great Doctrine. 97-98 Master-pupil relationship. 173 Huik'o. 53 Keller. 18 "Primal Stuff/' 126 191 . 82-86. 1 8 Infantilization.. 171. 98 Japan. 38n. 18 "Neo-Freudians/' 169. 41-42 Indian spiritualism.173 Mind. Karen. 80 "Great Doubt/ 130 7 Koan ( Continued ) to unravel. 16 Moncfo. G. C. manipulation. 81 logical Group "Hail therapy. koan. Gusty L. 91 Morita. 119. 60-80. psychoanalytic. 17 Manipulation: in group therapy. 50-51. Next Development The. 58. 95. 40-41 80. Joshu's. 67-68 Master-disciple relationship. James. 172 Kwazan.. 96-97.
154 novices to." 156 Yang and Yin. 34-37 Suzuki. Romain. 19 Shock. 19 Superego. 23-24 Taoist. 80-81 rebirth through disciplines of. 37 internalized.L. 89. 119. 99n Transference. 32-37 Supportive therapy. mental discipline. patient's relationship with. 116 Samurai. Value system. Reincarnation. 53-55. 31." 17 Universal Will. D. 129. 87-101 Psychotics.120 occurrence. 127 Rebirth. Sosan. 4386 Zen Buddhism. 43 Zen Buddhist conversion. 84 Satori. 20 Western Greek tradition. 25-26 g. 43. Training. 53 Zen: definition. 14 Whyte. 4 skills. 71 44 manifestations in the arts. 128 Universal Oneness. 104 Zazen. 145. 95-96 Mind. 24-29. 70 therapeutic. membership. 60-61 Religious conversion. 71. 54 Soio sect. 94-9 5 Trance. 81 140.. The. 49 Quakers. role in Zen. 44. 179n "Ten Cow-Herding Pictures. 127 "Universal unconscious. 15. 44." terminology. 56-59. 43-44.115. T. 59 Sesshin. 82 92-93. 32-37 Tokusan. 41-42 Superego and ego.Index Psychoanalysis. use of. 57 Shinto. 91-92 Silence. 43-44. 130 Submissiveness. Dr. 121. Taoism. in religious and ideological conversion. 72 pre-satori state. 30-31. 41-42. 139. 30 Zen Sesshin. 51-52 rules. 23-29 definition. Zen: end of. 142 Rolland. 149n Zendo (monastery). 78. 113. 181 without the koan. 70-72. 124 Christopher statues. 114 Sanzen. 155 Swordsmanship. 19-20 St. 32 Psychoanalytic techniques: 112 Therapist. 50-56. 82 Social benefits of Zen. 113. use of effecting personality changes.L. 53 Zen discipline compared with. 32 67-68. 111-112 50 192 . beginning of. 143. 78-79 adoption of new. 57 Way and Its Power. 92 Rimzai sect. 37 Punishment. 53 "Wu Wei Doctrine of No- Setsugan. 78-79 acceptance of. 49.
which some have comis pared to psychoanalysis. at is a cultural anthro- present doing research and teaching in the Department of Psychiatry. to the coercive in fact closer psychological conversion method of Chinese "thought reform. More broadly. but also alongside Western "scientific" methods of conversion. Dr. His book will have a all strong appeal to lap those interested in the oversocial between the sciences and psychiatry. State University of New York. of He shows that Zen's psycho- logical workings.in magical Taoism md BiiJci^^^ its deep reliance on an Eastern tradition esotericism." Dr. Becker views Zen against a background not only of Eastern psychology and values. Ernest Becker pologist. . College of Medicine.
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