SAN JUAN MA Mathematics

The recent dimensions in curriculum development consist of a number of innovations relevant to the curriculum.
These are the new ideas designed to meet the changing needs and conditions made since the establishment of a modern formal educational system in the Philippines in the early 1900s.

These innovations are:
Integrative method of the 1950s and the conceptual and process approaches of today patterned after educational policies and practices in the US.
The other innovations are results of assessment of Philippine needs and problems such as the community school movement, bilingualism, and the use of the vernacular as the medium of instruction, the barrio high schools, and the work education program.

Directions in Curriculum Reform
1) Attention is drawn the learner 2) The emphasis is upon farther away from the teacher in the and only indirectly and secondarily direction of the learner. upon subjects, materials and activities.

3) Whatever is taught must be 4) The organization of the curriculum understood by the learner to be should begin with vital concerns of the in some definite manner vitally present and relate these concerns with related toas theachievement of as the past is recognized his the past essential to anpurpose. understanding of definite
concerns of the present.

5) The organization of the curriculum should lead the 6) Textbooks become source learner to project the broad next materials rather than ends in steps from the events of the themselves. present and immediate past.

7) The gradual elimination of the 8) The broad that set off one artificial barriersorganization of materials and activities into unit subject from another in present situation most likely to result in curriculum practice. significant learning experience on
the part of the pupil.

9) More thorough integration of the life of the school with that of 10) The recognition that the outside the home and the community. class activities of the school are
often more significant for learning than the traditionally recognized activities.

11) The experience approach requires the teacher to draw 12) Teachers, to contribute in upon wide range of varied maximaladegree to the education of the pupil, must know to meet the resources in order intimately the home and community situations environment different learning of the learner. arising in the normal life of the learner.

13)14) Teachers must have a muchin Teachers must be versatile themoreof adoption of different use rigorous background of training both in its extent and its methods to meet varied learning breadth. situations.

15) The teacher have have 16) Teachers mustmust a more experienced life broadly and practical internship experience deeply to be the physician similar to that ofa guide and to meet the demands of the new interpreter of life. curriculum.

17) Every teacher must be well 18) Primary emphasis is grounded in the broad area drawn from academic known as the social sciences.
scholarship to pedagogical and academic scholarship.

19) There is a move from the involvement of only academicscholars and teachers to the involvement of all levels of decision-makers in the schools, including parents, students and scholars, but with special emphasis on the teachers’ participation.

20) There is a move from child-, 21) There is a move from society-, or discipline-centered selling prepackaged programs curriculum to the total to truly experimental curriculum and humanistic programs. curriculum.

22) Focus is drawn from the 23) There is a move from the means of education to the ends, tendency to teach everything to aims,establishing priorities. objectives of education.

25) There isis a move from mere a 26) There is move from offering 24) Focus drawn from the one course at a time teachers to in-servicethe deprived students training of to higher gifted and education and adultdevelopment continuing career education as to all students. well. of teachers.

The phenomena of knowledge explosion, obsolescence, changing complex world, wide range of abilities in the classroom have led to the formulation of this approach in education.

This approach is a method of organizing the curriculum around basic concepts and generalization.

THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH Concept is the categorization or classification of things, events, or ideas.

THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH The relationship and interrelationship of concepts result into generalizations.

THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH Structure refers to the foundational concepts and generalizations of a discipline.

Since concepts and generalizations are abstractions that grow from one’s experiences, the process of conceptualizing is subjective; it is personal to the learner.

Conceptualizing means examining and reflecting on similar experiences in order to identify their common elements and build an orderly image of them.

The strategy preferred in the conceptual approach may be generally described as “inquiry” which is mainly premised on the idea that due to the fast turnover of knowledge, it is better to stress the “how to learn” rather than “what to learn.”

David Kellum affirms that the supreme accomplishment of the inquiry approach is that it trains students to think and it gets them to the habit of thinking.

Carpenter comments on the inquiry method in this way:
The inquiry approach views the learner as an active thinker – seeking, probing, processing data from his environment toward a variety of destinations along paths best suited to his own mental characteristics.

Carpenter comments on the inquiry method in this way:
It rejects passiveness as an ingredient of effective learning and the concept of mind as a reservoir for the storage of knowledge presented through expository instruction directed toward a pre-determined, close end.

Carpenter comments on the inquiry method in this way:
The inquiry method seeks to avoid the dangers of note memorization and verbalization as well as the hazard of fostering dependency in citizens as learners and thinkers.

The appropriateness of the inquiry method for the Filipinos according to Dr. Leonardo de la Cruz:
The inquiry mode of learning is probably even more imperative for Philippine schools, since only about 55.8% of Filipino youth stay in school up to the 6th grade, only about 25.3% manage to reach high school, and only about 11.5% complete college. Therefore, the sooner Filipino children are taught how to continue to think and learn by themselves, the more self-reliant Filipinos could be harnessed by our schools.

The conceptual approach concerns not merely cognitive but also the affective side.
It leads the learner into the realm of valuing and attitude formation and/or reformation.
It aims at the characterization level, the stage where learners can be said to have internalized the value and are not merely professing about the value they have chosen, but are behaving accordingly.

developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior in learning. This taxonomy contained three overlapping domains: the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.

Benjamin Bloom (1956)

Critical thinking involves logical thinking and reasoning including skills such as comparison, classification, sequencing, cause/effect, patterning, webbing, analogies, deductive and inductive reasoning, forecasting, planning, hypothesizing, and critiquing.

Creative thinking involves creating something new or original. It involves the skills of flexibility, originality, fluency, elaboration, brainstorming, modification, imagery, associative thinking, attribute listing, metaphorical thinking, forced relationships. The aim of creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence.

Bloom’s scheme

The experiential method in the conceptual approach is based on three basic educational principles, as stated by Pine and Horne.
Learning is change as a result of an experience which is personally meaningful and relevant to the individual. Learning is both an intellectual and an emotional process.

Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process.

Fritz Perls describes this process beautifully when he affirmed: Learning is discovery. There is no other means of effective learning. You can tell a child a thousand times that the stove is hot. It doesn’t help. The child has to discover for himself.

The conceptual approach aims at developing a thinking-feeling-acting man.

God bless.

Thank you.

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