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The Book Of Arda Viraf
A Pahlavi Student's 2012 Rendition, Transcription And Translation

B.A. in Linguistics

&

Middle Eastern Languages
&

Self-Student in Pahlavi Studies

Fredericksburg, 2012

VA

Copyright © 2012 Zeke Kassock All rights reserved. Kassock Pahlavi Reproductions of Kassock Bros. Publishing Co.

ISB~: 1477603409 ISB~-13: 978-1477603406

First Edition

Other works by author: Facsimile Of The Complete Text Of The Pahlavi Dinkard Volume 1: Books III - V (2012)

Author photograph courtesy of Ashleigh Buyers Photography And Design ©

Special Thanks To: Jeffrey Murdoc Anderson, Leila Bakhtiari, Koomal Chaudhry, Isaac Kassock, Mohammad Mesbahi, Mary & Thomas Wehman & Family & Friends

Dedicated To: Those who have contributed to the restoration and continuation of the Zoroastrian culture and heritage.

In Loving Memory Of: Leocadia & Alvin Janis

Kassock

Preface

The Book of Arda Viraf is an intriguing manuscript. It reads as if it is reminiscent of Dante's Divine Comedy, almost as if it inspired Dante. While its date of writing is beyond pinpointing to a given century, two things are certain. Firstly, Alexander the Great is specifically mentioned as the Accursed, from Rome. This would indicate that the Romans had control over Greece when the manuscript was originally written. Secondly, it was written in Pahlavi, and not poetic or Modern Persian. This narrows the window down some, but not by much. What does help a bit further are the few references to the Avesta; Davanos from the Spend Nask and a verse from Yasna 23, thus indicating familiarity with the Avesta. It was likely written between the
4th

and 9th centuries A.D.

The Book of Arda Viraf is about a man named Viraf, who had seven sisters. When the religion of the Persians was becoming weak after Alexander's invasion, the chief priests summoned the most holy people that could be found. Viraf was one of those individuals, and after lots were cast, chosen for a mission. He was put into a dream state with narcotics, and was told to report back truthfully as to what visions he sees. He saw varying aspects of the afterlife, and was guided by two angels through it all. He saw Heaven, Hell and Hammistagan (a Purgatory type state of being that does not lead to either Heaven or Hell).

11

The Book Of Arda Viraf

This text is not considered to be scripture, even though it is highly religious in nature. Its rewards and punishments were an aid to figuring out some of the social and cultural aspects of the Sassanian era, especially some of the sins that may seem strange. The now famous chest beatings in Iran, in remembrance of the Martyr Hussein, would have been considered a sin back then for mourning openly. Some aspects of the text have

been long forgotten for their exact meaning, such as the Tanapuhl, an earthly monetary punishment to be repaid, as well as the values of the weights the Righteous Sros uses to judge souls. The manuscript's references to the Avesta help strengthen the weakened and partially destroyed Avesta.

Books Used In Writing Most of the language and vocabulary of this manuscript is on the easier side of the spectrum of the Pahlavi language, especially when compared to something difficult, such as the Denkard. As an intermediate self-Pahlavi student, I found it appropriately challenging to have this as a project to translate.

The base manuscript that this book is read from is that of Dastur Kaikhusru Dastur Jamaspji Jamasp ASA, and his textArda VirafNameh: The Original Pahlavi Text (1902). I refer to this author in this book as simply 'Jamaspji', especially for his footnotes onvarying topics. There was another book that I had cross-referenced, that of Destur Hoshangji Jamaspji ASA, and his text The Book Of Arda Viral The Pahlavi Text (1872). I shall refer to his book as 'Hoshangji'. The two had differing spellings for some of the more difficult

Kassock

111

vocabulary, though most of the texts were either the same or similar. For large portions of text that were present in Hoshangji, and not in Jamaspji, they were put into this rendition. There was a Russian book that was also cross-referenced, IIAM5ITHHKH IIHCb1'v1EHHOCTH BOCTOKA: IIEXJIEBHHCKA5I EO)]{ECTBEHHA5I K01'v1E~lliI: KHHrA 0 IIPABE~OM BHPA3E (2001). It is exclusively in transliteration form, which

was a great aid to acquire the proper spelling in the raw Pahlavi form.

I hand wrote the entire book in Pahlavi script, using Jamaspji's text and the Russian book as a guide. Then afterwards, I used MacKenzie's A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary to find the proper modem and accepted spelling for each word. For the words updated in MacKenzie, I chose to use these styles. I chose this method for the beginner/lightintermediate Pahlavi student. This was meant to aid the student towards reading Arda Viraf in its raw and pure form. As for the transcription, I used MacKenzie's method for the most part. For the letters I c I and I s I, I chose to write I ch I and I sh I, for easier reading in case a Zoroastrian purchases this book for cultural purposes. For linguistic purposes, read I ch I and I sh I as their respective true renditions.

IV

The Book Of Arda Viraf

Methods Used I formatted the book for ease of reading, for many aspects. Should the reader desire to read only the English, only the bottom right needs to be paid attention to. If only the original Pahlavi, then only the left leaflet. This was done for both the scholar's and regular reader's purposes. For those who are learning Pahlavi, alternate translations are given in brackets []'s. If there was a problem looking up a word in MacKenzie's dictionary, it appears with these brackets with a question mark. Words in paranthesis ( )'S are words that help the English translation and understanding, but are not rendered in the Pahlavi original. I transcribed and translated this work myself, with Hoshangji as a crude guide.

The font used has its limitations, the Ham-Dibirih font. For example, ~~l'

is used

for the name of Sros. The / s / and the / r / do not connect very well, it would look like

either ~ ~~'"

or

4..) ~

,

which would be even more awkward. I took the font into

consideration when typing this book, as well as how real Pahlavi should look, and blended the two together.

Kassock

v

This book is far from a certified translation, if one could even exist. Many of the words have a second, or even third, possible translations. I have made my best effort to render this manuscript in an easy to follow product, by taking it fully apart and reassembling it with MacKenzie's dictionary for a modern version.

I can be contacted via email at the following address for any questions or concerns: zeke.kassock@gmail.com

What I present is my modern rendition and translation of The Book Of Arda Viraf. May it help the Zoroastrian community, as well as the Pahlavi scholarly community as an aid. It is not meant to replace any real manuscript, but be an aid to help read them. Zeke J. V. Kassock June 13, 2012 Fredericksburg, VA

The Book Of Arda Viraf

A Pahlavi Student's 2012 Rendition, Transcription And Translation

by Zeke J. V. Kassock

2

The Book Of Arda Viraf

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Chapter 1 Pad nam Tyazdan (1) Bdon gowend kii ekbar ahlaw Zarduxsht den padirift andar gehan rawag kard. (2) U d ta bowandagih 300 sal den andar abezagih I mardom andar abegiimanlh biid hend. (3) Ud pas gizistag Gannag Menog druwand gilman kardan I mardornan pad en den ray an gizistag Aleksandar I Hromayag 1 I Miijrayik ' I manishn wiyabanened I pad garan sezd ud nibard ud dayag 0 Eranshahr frestad. (4) U sh oy Bran dahibed ozad ud dar ud xwadayih wishuft ud aweran kard. (5) Ud en den chiyon hamag abestag ud zend abar gow postlha I wirastag I pad mesh I zarren nibishtag andar Stakhar Papagan pad diz nibast nihad estad. (6) Ud oy petyarag I wad baxt I ahlomoy I druwand I anag kardar Alaksakdar Hromayig Muzrayig manishn abar awurd ud be soxt.

Chapter 1 In the name of God (1) They say that at one time, the righteous Zoroaster received the religion and spread it in this world. (2) And until the completion of 300 years, the religion was in a state of purity, of which the people were without doubt. (3) And after the accursedly wicked Gannag Menog [Ahriman?], casting doubt to the peoples in this religion, deceived the accursed Alexander of Rome, who was staying in Egypt, sending him to the land of Bran with heavy struggles and warfare. (4) And he killed Bran's ruler, and destroyed the palace and empire, and made it desolate. (5) And this religion, namely all of the Avesta and Zend was arranged upon cow hides with golden lettering, and was laid to rest in a fortress [vault] in Stakhar Papagan. (6) And the ill fated, heretical and wicked adversary brought over Alexander the Roman, who was staying in Egypt, and he burned them. 1 Alexander is called a Roman, due to Greece being possibly owned by the Roman Empire as of the original writing of this book. 2 Mtijr is the predecessor to the modem Mesr, ~

4

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(7) Ud chand dastwaran ud dadwaran ud herbedan ud mowbedan ud denburdaran ud abzaromandan ud danagan I Eranshahr ray be kusht, ud masanjmayan"] ud kadagxwadayan I Eranshahr, ek abag did ken ud anashtih 0 mehan]"] abgand ud xwad shkast 0 dushox dwarist. (8) Pas az an, mardoman I Eranshahr ek abag did ashob ud pahikar bud chiyonshan xwaday ud dahibed ud salar ud dastwar I den-agah ne bud. (9) Ud pad tis I yazdan gilman bud hend ud was ewenag kesh ud wurroyishn jud rastagfh ud gumanlh ud jud dadestanih andar gehan be 0 paydagih amado (10) Ta an ka zad hufraward anoshag ruwan Adur yazd I Maraspandan ke padish pad saxt I pad Den-Kard roy widaxtag abar war rext. (11) Ud chand dadestan ud dadwarih abag jud keshan udjud wurroyishnan be kard ud en den andar Shaspigan mardornan andar giiman bud hend.

(7) And he killed several priests, judges, teachers, Mazdaean priests, religionbearers, the competent and knowledgable of Bran, and he threw hatred and destruction to the lords and house-holders of Iran, one with the other, destroyed himself and ran off to Hell. (8) After that, the people of Bran had confusion and struggle, one with another, for they did not have a lord, ruler, leader and scribes knowledgable in the religion. (9) And they had doubt in godly things, and many manners of faiths and beliefs, regression, doubt and disagreement came into sight in the world. (10) So then, when the blessed the angel Adur of the Immortal Soul of the Maraspandan was born, who in a story in the Denkard had melted brass poured over the (his) breast. (11) And several laws and judgements were made for different religions and creeds, and the people in Shaspigan were in doubt for this religion.

6

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(12) Ud pas mow-mardan ud dastwaran I den an ay bud hend. (13) Az an mar xwadayomand purr pim bud hend. (14) Ushan pad dar I perozgar Adur Farrobag hanjaman xwast. (15) Ud was ewenag saxwan ud uskard abar en bud, "ku-man charag xwastan abayed, ta-man esh-ew shawed az menogan agahIh awared kii mardom I andar en awam hend be danend kii en yazishn ud dron afrmishn ud nirang ud padyabih ud yojdahrih I ama pad kardag awarem 0 yazdan rased ayab 0 dewan ud 0 pardaxt I rowan I ama rased ayab ne." (16) U shan pas pad hamdadestanih I az den dastwaran hamag mardom 0 dar I Adur Farrobag xwand hend. (17) Ushan az aymanden]"] judag kard 7 mard ke pad yazdan ud den abegiimantar bud hend. (18) Ushan xwesh menishn ud gowishn ud kunishn wirastagtar ud frarontar ud guft kii "ashma xweshiha be nishined ud az ashma ek-ew ke pad en kar (I) weh ud awinahtar ud huswawtar be wizined."

(12) And then there were other priests and scribes of the law. (13) From that, there were a number of the [godly'], full of apprehension. (14) And an assembly of them was called at the gate of the victorious Farrobag Fire. (15) And there were many words and discussions on this: "It is necessary for us to acquire a means, that someone of us goes and brings back knowledge from the heavenly spirits, that the people who are in this time period may know that these offerings, ceremonies, prayers, ceremonial ablutions and sanctifications of our's, that we bring into action, arrive to the gods, or to the demons, and the freeing of our souls arrives or not." (16) And afterwards, in agreement from all the authorities of the religion, they called all the people to the gate of the Farrobag Fire. (17) And they separated from the numbers masses[?], seven men, who were more undoubtful in the gods and in the religion. (18) And whose thoughts, words and actions are more arranged and righteous, and said "Sit yourselves down, and choose someone from you all, who is best in this job and is most innocent and reputable."

1 Possibly 'God fearing' or 'God containing', from xwaday

+ omand

8

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(19) Pas aweshan haft mard be nishast hend ud az haft 3 ud az se ek-ew Vlraf nam be wizid ud ast ke Nishapur nam gowend. (20) Pas oy Vlraf chiyonih an saxwan ashniid, abar 0 pay estad ud dast pad kash kard ud guft kii "agar-tan sahed egam akamagomand mang rna dahed ta ashma Mazdesnan ud man nayizag abganed, ud agar nayizag 0 man rased kamagomandiha shawam 0 an gyag I ahlawan ud druwandan ud en paygam drustiha baram ud rastIha awaram." (21) Pas aweshan Mazdesnan ud man nayizag awurd. (22) Fradom bar pad hiimat ud dudigar bar pad hiixt ud sidigar bar pad huwarsht har se nayizag 0 Vlraf amado

(19) And then the seven men sat down, and from the seven, three were chosen, and from the three a certain one of which was named Viraf was chosen, and it is that some say his name is Nishapur. (20) Then as Viraf heard those words, stood up onto his feet, placed his hands under his armpits (in respect) and said, "If it sees you fit, then do not give me the unwanted drug until you cast lots [throw straw] for the Mazdayasnians and me, and if you draw me, I will willingly go to the place of the righteous and of the wicked, and rightly carry this message, and truthfully bring it back." (21) Then they drew lots for the Mazdayasnians and me. (22) The first time for 'good thought', the second time for 'good speech' and the third time for 'good deed', and all three lots arrived at Viraf.

10

The Book Of Arda Viraf

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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2 (1) Oy vr-sr ray 7 xwah bud, ud aweshan har 7 xwahan I vr-sr chiyon zan bud hend. (2) Ushan den warm ud yasht kard estad ud kashan ashniid egshan owon]"] garandom mad hend ud wirast hend ud wang kard hend ud andar I hanj am an I Mazdesnan pesh shud hend be estad hend ud namaz burd hend ud gowend kii "rna kuned ashma Mazdesnan en tIs! (3) Che ama haft xwah hem ud oy ek brad ud har haft xwah oy brad zanih hem. (4) Chiyon xanag-ew dar ke haft frasp ud stun -ew azer andar nih ad, ka an stiin be stanend, aweshan frasp be oftinend. Owdn]"] ama haft xwah ray brad en ek ast ke-man ziwishn ud frestishn. (5) Fraz az yazdan har nekIh az oy ast. (6) Ashma pesh az zaman az en shahr I zindagan be 0 an I miirdagan frested, abar ama stahmbon abechim kard bawed." Chapter 2 (1) Viraf had seven sisters, and all of the seven sisters were like wives to Viraf. (2) They had learned the religion by heart and recited prayers, and when they heard this, then they went there grievously, gathered and cried out, and went to the gathering of the Mazdayasnians, paid homage, and said, "Do not do this thing you Mazdayasnians! (3) For we are seven sisters and he is one brother and all seven sisters are (as) his wives. (4) Like a house's door that has seven beams and one column placed under it, and when that column is taken away, the beams fall. So we seven sisters have only one brother, who is our livelihood and sending 1. (5) All goodness [goods] from him is forth from the gods. (6) (If) You send him from the land of the living to that of the dead ahead of his time, you will commit oppression upon us without reason."

1 Possibly either godsend, or one who sends supplies.

12

The Book Of Arda Viraf

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Chapter 2

13

(7) Pas aweshan Mazdesnan chiyonshan an saxwan ashniid, haft xwaharan ray hunsandih dad ud guft kii ama Vlraf ta haft roz tan dmst be ashma abesparem ud en nam farroxih abar en mard be m and." (8) Pas aweshan hamdadestan bud hend. (9) Pas oy Vlraf pesh Mazdesnan dast pad kash kard ud 0 aweshan guft kii dastwarih ast ta ruwanigishn yazam ud xwarishn xwaram ud handarz kunam pas may ud mang be dahed. (10) Dastwaran framiid kii, "Hamgonag kun." (11) Pas aweshan den dastwaran andar man I menog sIh gam pad an I xub wizid. (12) Oy Vlrm sar ud tan be shust, ud paymoz I nog paymozan, pad boy xwash boyened. (13) Pad taxtiha I passazag wistarag I nog pak wistard. (14) 0 goo I wistarag pak be nishast ud dron yasht ud ruwanigjin ayadenld ud xwarishn xward.

(7) Then as the Mazdayasnians heard those words, they contented [gave contention] the seven sisters, and said "We will deliver Virafto you, (with) a healthy body in seven days, and the happiness of this fame will remain upon this man." (8) Then they were in agreement. (9) And then Viraf put his hands in his armpits (in respect) and said to them, "It is a custom for me to pray [celebrate] to the spirits, eat food, and make a testament [will], then give wine and narcotics to me." (10) The priests commanded, "Do likewise." (11) Then the priests of the religion chose, in the house of the spiritual beings, a place thirty steps from that which is good. (12) Viraf washed his head and body, put on new clothes, and scented himself with pleasant fragrance. (13) He spread a clean and new carpet in a suitable place. (14) He sat down on the place of the clean carpet, consecrated the dron, remembered the departed, and ate food.

14

The Book Of Arda Viraf

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15

(15) Pas aweshan den dastwaran may ud mang I Vishtaspan se j am zarren purr kard, ushan ek j am pad humat dudigar j am pad hiixt ud sidigar jam pad huwarsht fraz 0 Vlraf dad. (16) Ush an may ud mang be xward oshyarIha waz be guft ham pad wistarag xuft. (17) Aweshan den dastwaran ud haft xwahan haft yom shaban pad ataxsh hameshag-soz ud boy wizarag ud nerang I denlg Abestag ud Zend be gowend ud N ask yasht, ud Gahan sriid, pad tarlk pas dasht hend. (18) Aweshan haft xwahan pad peramon I wistarag oy Vlrm nishast hend. Ud haft roz-shaban Abestag yasht. (19) Aweshan haft xwahan abag hamag Mazdesnan den dastwaran ud herbedan ud mowbedan pad ech ewenag panaglh be ne hisht.

(15) Then the priests of the religion filled wine and narcotics of Vishtasp into three cups made out of gold, and gave to Viraf one cup for 'good thought', a second cup for 'good word' and a third cup for 'good deed'. (16) He drank that wine and narcotic, said prayer while still conscious, as well as fell asleep on the carpet. (17) The priests of the religion and the seven sisters recited the religious incantations for the Avesta and Zend for seven days and nights by the ever burning fire, recited the N asks, sung the Gathas and kept guard in the dark. (18) The seven sisters sat around Virafs carpet and recited the Avesta for seven days and nights. (19) The seven sisters with all scribes, teachers, priests of the Mazdayasnian religion did not abandon their protection in any manner.

16

The Book Of Arda Viraf

Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

17

Chapter 3 (1) Ruwan I ay VIraf az tan a chagad I shedIg [?] Chinvat Puhr shud. (2) Haftom rozshaban abaz frestad ud andar tan shud. (3) VIraf abar axist chiyon ka az an xwamn I xwash axezid Wahman menishn ud huram. (4) Aweshan xwahan abag den dastwaran Mazdesnan chiyonshan VIraf dId shad ud huram bud hend. (5) Ushan guft kii "drust amad hed ta VIrafI ama Mazdesnan paygambar az shahr murdagan a en shahr zindagan amad hed." (6) Aweshan herbedan ud den dastwaran pesh Viraf namaz burd ud pas a vr-sr chiyonih dId padirag amad ud namaz burd ud guft kii "ashma ray drod az Ohrmazd xwaday ud Amahrspandan, ud drod az ahlaw Zarduxsht Spitaman, ud drod az Sros ahlaw ud Adur yazd xwarrah I den I Mazdesnan, ud drod az abarig ahlawan, ud drod az nekIh ud asanIh abarig menogjin I wahisht." Chapter 3 (1) Viraf's soul went from the body to the peak of the Chinvat Bridge. (2) On the seventh of the days and nights, he was sent back and entered [went] into the body. (3) Virafwoke up, as ifhe woke up from that of a pleasant sleep, thinking of Wah man and was happy. (4) As the sisters, along with the Mazdayasnian priests, saw Viraf, they were joyful and happy. (5) And they said, "You are welcome, Viraf, of who is our Mazdayasnian messenger, you came from the land of the dead to this land of the living." (6) The teacher priests and religious priests bowed before Viraf, then as he saw them, came towards (them) and bowed, and said, "A blessing for you from the Lord Ohrmazd and the Amahrspand, a blessing from the Righteous Zoroaster son of Spitam, a blessing from the Righteous Sros and the angel Adur, the glorious religion of the Mazdayasnians, a blessing from the other righteous, a blessing from the good and at peace, the spirits of paradise."

18

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(7) Pas den dastwaran guft paygambar. Ut drod baxt td-Iz. VIraf guft kii, "fradom gowishn dadan pas pursishn azish kardan

kii "drust awar to VIrmI ama Mazdesnan Har chet did rastiha 0 oy gow." (8) Pas oy en kii gursagan ud tIhogan naxust xwarishn kar framiidan."

(9) Pas den dastwaran framiid kii xwash ' ud xwash. (10) Xwarishn hupoxt ud huboy xwardig ud sard ab ud may azurd". (11) Ushan dron yasht, ud VIrm waz kard, ud xwarishn xward, mezd ray enId, waz be guft, ud stayishn I Ohrmazd ud Amahrspandan ud spas I Hordad Amiirdad Amahrspandan hangard ud afrinagan guft. (12) Ush framiid kii awurd dibir I danag ud frazanag. (13) U shan awurd dibir I pardaxtag frazanag, ud pesh nishast. (14) Har che VIraf guft drust roshn ud gowizar nibisht.

(7) Then the priests of the religion said, "Peace come (to) you, Viraf, our Mazdayasnian messgenger. May your blessing (be) your fortune too. Everything that has been seen by you, tell it to them truthfully." (8) Then Viraf said, "The first thing is saying this, that first give food to the hungry and the thirsty, then ask of him and appoint him his task." (9) Then the priests of the religion commanded[commented?], "Good and well." (10) They brought" (to him) well cooked food, good smelling food, and cold water and wine. (11) The dron was concecrated by them, and Viraf said grace, ate the bread, arranged the offering, said grace, considered the praise of Ohrmazd and the Amahrspand, and the thanks of Hordad, Amurdad and the Amahrspand, and he said benedictions. (12) And he ordered that a wise and intelligent scribe be brought. (13) They brought an accomplished and intelligent scribe, and he sat down in front of him. (14) Everything that Viraf had said, he wrote down rightly, clearly and in detail.

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Chapter 4
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Chapter 4

21

Chapter 4 (1) Ush edon framiid, nipishtan kii pad an I fradom shab, man 0 padirag be mad Sros ahlaw ud Adur yazd. Ush 0 man namaz burd hend. Guft kii "drust amad he to Arda vnar, kat aniz amad zaman ne bud." (2) Man guft "paygambar ham." (3) Pas perozgar Sros ahlaw ud Adur yazd an I man dast fraz grift. (4) Fradom gam pad humat dudigar gam pad hiixt sidigar gam pad huwarsht fraz 0 Chinwad Puhr mad ham I was panag amawand Ohrmazd dad. (5) Ka 0 anoh fraz mad ham, um dId an widerdagan ruwan kashan andar an se shab I naxust ruwan pad balen I tan nishast ud an I Gahan gowishn guft. "ushta ahmai yahmai ushta kahmaicit'" kii "nek oy ke az an I oy nekIh kadarizew nekih." (6) Ush andar an se shab an and nekIh ud asanIh awish mad ested, chand hamag nekIh Ish pad getiy dId chiyon mardew ke ta pad getiy bud ush asantar ud xwashtar ud huramtar bud. Chapter 4 (1) He ordered thus, to write that on the first night, the Righteous Sros and the angel Adur came to meet me. They paid homage [bowed] to me. They said, "You are welcome, Arda Viraf, when (you) arrived, it was not your time." (2) I said, "I am a messenger." (3) Then the victorious Righteous Sros and the angel Adur took my hand. (4) The first step with 'good thought', the second with 'good word' and the third with 'good deed', I came to the Chinvat Bridge, which Ohrmazd created with lots of guardians 1 and very strong. (5) When I came forth to there and saw a departed soul, when in the first three nights, the first soul sat on the top of the body and chanted from the Gathas. "ushta ahmai yahmai ushta kahmiiicit'" which means "Salvation to this one, whoever he may be." (6) In the three nights, much goodness and peace came to him, as all of the goodness to him in the world, as a man who, was in this world, was more peaceful, more pleasant and more happy. 1 Also depicted as 'very wide'. 2 From Yasna 21.3:
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22

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Chapter 4

23

(7) Pad oshbam I sidigar oy ruwan I ahlawan andar urwar andar boy I xwash be yasht. (8) Ush xwashtar sahist, an boy chiyon harwisp boy xwash Ish pad zindagan pad wenig abar shud, ud an boy wad az rapiwintar ron az nemag I yazdan be amado (9) Ush an I xwesh den ud an I xwesh kunishn, kanig, kirb I nek pad didan I humst kii pad fraronIh mst estad, fraz pestan kush pestan abaz nishast I sar ud gyan dost, kesh kirb edon roshn, chiyon dId hudoshagtar nigerishn abayishnigtar. (l 0) Pursid an ahlawan ruwan az an kanig kii "to ke he? ud ke xwesh he? kern hagriz zindagan pad getiy, ech kanig nekogtar ud huchirtar kirb az an I to ne dId." (7) On the third dawn, the righteous soul worshipped in the trees, in the pleasant smell. (8) And it seemed more pleasant to him, that smell than all smells pleasant in his life that went into [under] his nose, and that fragrant wind came from the southern direction of God. (9) And that of his own religion and that of his own actions, a girl, with a good form grown (in a) well grown (manner), before him to see in righteousness, prominently forward were her breasts, which her breasts sat again on the head and soul of a friend 1, which her form was thus as shining, as seen as more pleasing observation, and more desireable [fitting]. (l0) The righteouos soul asked of that girl, "Who are you? And of whose (creation) are you? I have never seen one living in the world, any girl more beautiful and who has a more beautiful body than you do."

1 Perhaps the soul is kneeling, and she is hugging him and her breasts on him, thus guarding him?

24

The Book Of Arda Viraf

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25

(11) U sh passox dad "an I xwesh den ud an I xwesh kunishn kii man kunishn I to ham juwan xiib menishn I xiib gowishn I xiib kunishn I xiib den. (12) Kamag ud kunishn I to ray ka man edon meh ud weh ud huboy ud perozgar ud abebesh ham chiyon to sahist. (13) Che to pad getty Gahan snid ut ab I weh yasht ut ataxsh pahrext ut mard I ahlaw shnayenid ke az dagr fraz mad ke az nazdik. (14) Ka man frabih bud ham ut frabihtar! kard ham ud ka man nek bud ham ut nektar kard ham. Ud ka arzanig bud ham ut arzanigtar kard ham ud ka pad goo I chashmagan nishast ham ud chashmagahtar nishast ham ud ka burzishnig bud ham ut burzishnigtar kard ham pad en humat ud hiixt ud huwarsht I to warzid. (15) To, mardew ahlaw, pas az to yazend pad an I Ohrmazd dagr yazishnih hampursagih, ka dagr zaman Ohrmazd ray yazishn ud hampursagih I fraron kunih. Asanlh azash." (11) She answered, "that of the den [religion] and that of action, that I am your actions, youth of good thoughts, good words, good actions and good den. (12) On the account of your desire and action, I am thus great, good, good-smelling, victorious, and unharmed, as it seems to you. (13) For the Gathas in the material world is chanted by you, good water is concecrated by you, the fire is tended to by you, righteous people were honored, who came forth from far and near. (14) Though I was stout, I was made more stout by you, and though I was virtuous, I was made more virtuous by you. And though I was worthy, I was made more worthy by you, and though I sat in a renowned place, I was seated in a more public place by you, and though I was praise-worthy, I have been made more praise-worthy by you, begotten by these good thoughts, good words and good deeds of your's. (15) You, a righteous man, afterwards they honor you, in that long worship and communion with Ohrmazd, when for a long time, for Ohrmazd, righteous conduct of praise and communion. Peace (come) from it."?

1 Original has

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26

The Book Of Arda Viraf

Chapter 5
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Continued on next page

Chapter 5

27

Chapter 5 (1) Pas an Chinvat Puhr no nezag panag]"] abaz dad. (2) Man pad abagih I Sros ahlaw ud Adur yazd pad Chinvat Puhr xwariha ud fraxiha ud new dilerma ud perozgarIha be widard ham. (3) Was panagIh I Mihr yazd, Rashn I ristag, Way I weh, ud Wahram yazd amawand, ud Ashtad yazd frehdadar]"] I Gahan ud xwarrah den I weh Mazdesnan ud frawahr I ahlawan ud abarig menogan 0 man Arda VIraf mad. N amaz burd hend um dId man Arda VIraf Rashn I Rast ke taraziig I zard I zarren pad dast dasht ud ahlawan ud druwandan handazed. Chapter 5 (1) Then the Chinvat Bridge re-opened to nine spear lengths wide. (2) I, along with the company of the Righteous Sros and the angel Adur, crossed over the Chinvat Bridge, easily, successfully, bravely and victoriously. (3) Much protection of Mihr, Rashn the Just[?], Yay the Good and Wahram the Powerful, and Ashtad the world changing [?] and the glory of the religion of the Mazdayasnians, and the righteous fravahars, and the other spirits came to me, Arda Viraf. They chanted prayers, and I, Arda Viraf, saw Rashn the Just, who was measuring the righteous and the wicked with golden yellow scales that he had in his hand.

28

The Book Of Arda Viraf

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Chapter

5

29

(4) Pas Sros ahlaw ud Adur yazd dast I man fraz grift ud guft kii "be ay, ta to nimayem wahisht ud dushox; ud roshnih ud xwarih ud asanIh ud fraxih ud xwashih ud huramih ud ramishn ud shadIh ud huboyih I wahisht padashn 1 I ahlawan. (5) Ut nimayem tarIkIh, ud tangih, ud dushxwarih, ud wadih, ud besh, ud anagih, ud dard, ud wemarih, ud sahmgenih, bimgenfh, ud reshkenIh, ud gandagih, pad dushox padifrah I gonag gonag az dewart ud jadiigan ud bazakkaran kunend. (6) Ut nimayem gah I rastan ud an I drozan. (7) Ut nimayem padashn I xiib wurroyishn pad Ohrmazd ud Amahrspandan ud nekIh I pad wahisht ud anagih I pad dushox ud astih I yazdan ud Amahrspandan nestIh I Ahriman ud dewan biidan I ristaxez ud tan (I) pasen. (8) Ut nimayem padashn I ahlawan az Ohrmazd ud Amahrspandan pad andar wahisht. (9)Ut nimayem zaxm padifrah I gonag gonag 0 druwandan ud pad andar dushox az Ahriman ud dewan petyaragan." (4) Then the Sros the Righteous and the angel Adur took my hand and said, "Come, so we can show to you heaven and hell; light, happiness, peace, prosperity, pleasure, happiness, ease, joy and fragrance, that is the reward 1 of the righteous of heaven. (5) And we will show to you darkness, distress, difficulty, badness, sorrow, evil, pain, illness, terrors, fearfulness, harmfulness and stench, in the types of punishments of Hell, from demons and sorcerors and evil-doers do. (6) We will show to you the place of truths and that of falsities. (7) We will show to you the reward of the good belief, in Ohrmazd and the Amahrspandan and the good who are in Heaven and the evil that is in Hell and the existence of the gods and Am ahrsp and an, and the non -existence of Ahriman and the demons, and the being of the ressurection of the dead and the Final Body. (8) We will show to you the reward of the righteous from Ohrmazd and the Amahrspandan in the midst Heaven. (9) We will show to you the wounding and types of punishments the wicked and in the midst of Hell from Ahriman's and the demons' misfortune."

1 Originally '{}~e.J~e.J

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Chapter 4

21

Chapter 4 (1) Ush edon framiid, nipishtan kii pad an I fradom shab, man 0 padirag be mad Sros ahlaw ud Adur yazd. Ush 0 man namaz burd hend. Guft kii "drust amad he to Arda vnar, kat aniz amad zaman ne bud." (2) Man guft "paygambar ham." (3) Pas perozgar Sros ahlaw ud Adur yazd an I man dast fraz grift. (4) Fradom gam pad humat dudigar gam pad hiixt sidigar gam pad huwarsht fraz 0 Chinwad Puhr mad ham I was panag amawand Ohrmazd dad. (5) Ka 0 anoh fraz mad ham, um dId an widerdagan ruwan kashan andar an se shab I naxust ruwan pad balen I tan nishast ud an I Gahan gowishn guft. "ushta ahmai yahmai ushta kahmaicit'" kii "nek oy ke az an I oy nekIh kadarizew nekih." (6) Ush andar an se shab an and nekIh ud asanIh awish mad ested, chand hamag nekIh Ish pad getiy dId chiyon mardew ke ta pad getiy bud ush asantar ud xwashtar ud huramtar bud. Chapter 4 (1) He ordered thus, to write that on the first night, the Righteous Sros and the angel Adur came to meet me. They paid homage [bowed] to me. They said, "You are welcome, Arda Viraf, when (you) arrived, it was not your time." (2) I said, "I am a messenger." (3) Then the victorious Righteous Sros and the angel Adur took my hand. (4) The first step with 'good thought', the second with 'good word' and the third with 'good deed', I came to the Chinvat Bridge, which Ohrmazd created with lots of guardians 1 and very strong. (5) When I came forth to there and saw a departed soul, when in the first three nights, the first soul sat on the top of the body and chanted from the Gathas. "ushta ahmai yahmai ushta kahmiiicit'" which means "Salvation to this one, whoever he may be." (6) In the three nights, much goodness and peace came to him, as all of the goodness to him in the world, as a man who, was in this world, was more peaceful, more pleasant and more happy. 1 Also depicted as 'very wide'. 2 From Yasna 21.3:
• t\J}-'JJ..1JGO'JJ~ .JJ~-'U) ·JJ..1JGO'JJ~ .JJ..1JGO'JJ .JJ~-'U)

22

The Book Of Arda Viraf

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Chapter 4

23

(7) Pad oshbam I sidigar oy ruwan I ahlawan andar urwar andar boy I xwash be yasht. (8) Ush xwashtar sahist, an boy chiyon harwisp boy xwash Ish pad zindagan pad wenig abar shud, ud an boy wad az rapiwintar ron az nemag I yazdan be amado (9) Ush an I xwesh den ud an I xwesh kunishn, kanig, kirb I nek pad didan I humst kii pad fraronIh mst estad, fraz pestan kush pestan abaz nishast I sar ud gyan dost, kesh kirb edon roshn, chiyon dId hudoshagtar nigerishn abayishnigtar. (l 0) Pursid an ahlawan ruwan az an kanig kii "to ke he? ud ke xwesh he? kern hagriz zindagan pad getiy, ech kanig nekogtar ud huchirtar kirb az an I to ne dId." (7) On the third dawn, the righteous soul worshipped in the trees, in the pleasant smell. (8) And it seemed more pleasant to him, that smell than all smells pleasant in his life that went into [under] his nose, and that fragrant wind came from the southern direction of God. (9) And that of his own religion and that of his own actions, a girl, with a good form grown (in a) well grown (manner), before him to see in righteousness, prominently forward were her breasts, which her breasts sat again on the head and soul of a friend 1, which her form was thus as shining, as seen as more pleasing observation, and more desireable [fitting]. (l0) The righteouos soul asked of that girl, "Who are you? And of whose (creation) are you? I have never seen one living in the world, any girl more beautiful and who has a more beautiful body than you do."

1 Perhaps the soul is kneeling, and she is hugging him and her breasts on him, thus guarding him?

24

The Book Of Arda Viraf

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Chapter 4

25

(11) U sh passox dad "an I xwesh den ud an I xwesh kunishn kii man kunishn I to ham juwan xiib menishn I xiib gowishn I xiib kunishn I xiib den. (12) Kamag ud kunishn I to ray ka man edon meh ud weh ud huboy ud perozgar ud abebesh ham chiyon to sahist. (13) Che to pad getty Gahan snid ut ab I weh yasht ut ataxsh pahrext ut mard I ahlaw shnayenid ke az dagr fraz mad ke az nazdik. (14) Ka man frabih bud ham ut frabihtar! kard ham ud ka man nek bud ham ut nektar kard ham. Ud ka arzanig bud ham ut arzanigtar kard ham ud ka pad goo I chashmagan nishast ham ud chashmagahtar nishast ham ud ka burzishnig bud ham ut burzishnigtar kard ham pad en humat ud hiixt ud huwarsht I to warzid. (15) To, mardew ahlaw, pas az to yazend pad an I Ohrmazd dagr yazishnih hampursagih, ka dagr zaman Ohrmazd ray yazishn ud hampursagih I fraron kunih. Asanlh azash." (11) She answered, "that of the den [religion] and that of action, that I am your actions, youth of good thoughts, good words, good actions and good den. (12) On the account of your desire and action, I am thus great, good, good-smelling, victorious, and unharmed, as it seems to you. (13) For the Gathas in the material world is chanted by you, good water is concecrated by you, the fire is tended to by you, righteous people were honored, who came forth from far and near. (14) Though I was stout, I was made more stout by you, and though I was virtuous, I was made more virtuous by you. And though I was worthy, I was made more worthy by you, and though I sat in a renowned place, I was seated in a more public place by you, and though I was praise-worthy, I have been made more praise-worthy by you, begotten by these good thoughts, good words and good deeds of your's. (15) You, a righteous man, afterwards they honor you, in that long worship and communion with Ohrmazd, when for a long time, for Ohrmazd, righteous conduct of praise and communion. Peace (come) from it."?

1 Original has

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2 Sentence #15 is not present in Jamaspji's version, but is in Hoshangji's.

26

The Book Of Arda Viraf

Chapter 5
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Chapter 5

27

Chapter 5 (1) Pas an Chinvat Puhr no nezag panag]"] abaz dad. (2) Man pad abagih I Sros ahlaw ud Adur yazd pad Chinvat Puhr xwariha ud fraxiha ud new dilerma ud perozgarIha be widard ham. (3) Was panagIh I Mihr yazd, Rashn I ristag, Way I weh, ud Wahram yazd amawand, ud Ashtad yazd frehdadar]"] I Gahan ud xwarrah den I weh Mazdesnan ud frawahr I ahlawan ud abarig menogan 0 man Arda VIraf mad. N amaz burd hend um dId man Arda VIraf Rashn I Rast ke taraziig I zard I zarren pad dast dasht ud ahlawan ud druwandan handazed. Chapter 5 (1) Then the Chinvat Bridge re-opened to nine spear lengths wide. (2) I, along with the company of the Righteous Sros and the angel Adur, crossed over the Chinvat Bridge, easily, successfully, bravely and victoriously. (3) Much protection of Mihr, Rashn the Just[?], Yay the Good and Wahram the Powerful, and Ashtad the world changing [?] and the glory of the religion of the Mazdayasnians, and the righteous fravahars, and the other spirits came to me, Arda Viraf. They chanted prayers, and I, Arda Viraf, saw Rashn the Just, who was measuring the righteous and the wicked with golden yellow scales that he had in his hand.

28

The Book Of Arda Viraf

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Chapter

5

29

(4) Pas Sros ahlaw ud Adur yazd dast I man fraz grift ud guft kii "be ay, ta to nimayem wahisht ud dushox; ud roshnih ud xwarih ud asanIh ud fraxih ud xwashih ud huramih ud ramishn ud shadIh ud huboyih I wahisht padashn 1 I ahlawan. (5) Ut nimayem tarIkIh, ud tangih, ud dushxwarih, ud wadih, ud besh, ud anagih, ud dard, ud wemarih, ud sahmgenih, bimgenfh, ud reshkenIh, ud gandagih, pad dushox padifrah I gonag gonag az dewart ud jadiigan ud bazakkaran kunend. (6) Ut nimayem gah I rastan ud an I drozan. (7) Ut nimayem padashn I xiib wurroyishn pad Ohrmazd ud Amahrspandan ud nekIh I pad wahisht ud anagih I pad dushox ud astih I yazdan ud Amahrspandan nestIh I Ahriman ud dewan biidan I ristaxez ud tan (I) pasen. (8) Ut nimayem padashn I ahlawan az Ohrmazd ud Amahrspandan pad andar wahisht. (9)Ut nimayem zaxm padifrah I gonag gonag 0 druwandan ud pad andar dushox az Ahriman ud dewan petyaragan." (4) Then the Sros the Righteous and the angel Adur took my hand and said, "Come, so we can show to you heaven and hell; light, happiness, peace, prosperity, pleasure, happiness, ease, joy and fragrance, that is the reward 1 of the righteous of heaven. (5) And we will show to you darkness, distress, difficulty, badness, sorrow, evil, pain, illness, terrors, fearfulness, harmfulness and stench, in the types of punishments of Hell, from demons and sorcerors and evil-doers do. (6) We will show to you the place of truths and that of falsities. (7) We will show to you the reward of the good belief, in Ohrmazd and the Amahrspandan and the good who are in Heaven and the evil that is in Hell and the existence of the gods and Am ahrsp and an, and the non -existence of Ahriman and the demons, and the being of the ressurection of the dead and the Final Body. (8) We will show to you the reward of the righteous from Ohrmazd and the Amahrspandan in the midst Heaven. (9) We will show to you the wounding and types of punishments the wicked and in the midst of Hell from Ahriman's and the demons' misfortune."

1 Originally '{}~e.J~e.J

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=

'punishment' and must be a typo.

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