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NI DUNG & TR LI TM TT 1. Giao thc l g?

Ti sao phi phn tng giao thc Giao thc (protocol) l tp lut qui nh cch thc truyn thng gia cc h thng my tnh Phn tng giao thc: - n gin thit k - d dng thay i
2. M hnh OSI, chc nng c bn cc tng, lung d liu, n v d liu

M hnh OSI

Chc nng c bn cc tng: Tng Physical - Truyn bit - Tc truyn - Giao tip in/c - Phng tin truyn dn - Ch truyn dn (simplex, half-duplex, full-duplex) Tng Data Link - ng Frame - Ghi a ch (a ch vt l) - iu khin lung (my nhanh my chm c th giao tip ng b) - Kim sot li - iu khin truy nhp (dnh cho cc mng broadcast) Tng Network - To kt ni logic end-to-end - Ghi a ch - Dn ng Tng Transport - a ch dch v

Phn on d liu v gp li (segmentation & reassembly) - iu khin kt ni - iu khin lung - Kim sot li Tng Session - Thit lp, duy tr, ng b tng tc (dialog controller) Tng Presentation - nh dng (translation) - M ha - Nn Tng Application - ng dng
-

Lung d liu

App. Protocol Data Unit - APDU Pres. Protocol Data Unit - PPDU Ses. Protocol Data Unit - SPDU Tras. Protocol Data Unit - TPDU Packet Frame Bit

D liu c gi tun t tng tng - Thm header ti mi tng (qu trnh gi). Loi header trc khi gi ln tng trn (qu trnh nhn) - Giao thc, d liu tng no lm vic vi tng 3. M hnh TCP/IP. So snh OSI vi TCP/IP

OSI

TCP/IP

u da trn khi nim chng giao thc, chc nng cc tng tng i ging nhau Phn bit r: dch v, giao tip v giao Khng phn bit r rng dch v, giao thc tip v giao thc thay th d dng khi cng ngh thay i OSI c thit lp trc giao thc TCP/IP l m t ca giao thc giao mang tnh tng qut thc lun hp vi m hnh, nhng m hnh khng hp vi bt k chng giao thc no khc Tng mng cung cp hai dch v c kt ni v khng kt ni trong tng mng. Tng vn chuyn cung cp mt dch v c kt ni Tng mng ch cung cp 1 dch v khng kt ni Tng vn chuyn cung cp 2 dch v c kt ni v khng kt ni

4. Cu to, phn loi, c im cc loi cp mng

Cp ng trc Cu to

Phn loi v c im c bn: Thinnet: tc truyn 10Mbps, chiu di truyn dn: 185 m Thicknet: tc truyn 10Mbps, chiu di truyn dn: 500 m

Cp xon i Cu to Phn loi, c im:

Theo kh nng chng nhiu: - UTP: khng lp chng nhiu - STP: c lp chng nhiu Theo tc truyn dn: - CAT 1: < 1 Mbps - CAT 2: 4 Mbps - CAT 3: 10 Mbps - CAT 4: 16 Mbps - CAT 5: 100 Mbps Chiu di cp (tt c cc loi xon i): 100 m Cp quang Cu to

c im - Truyn nh sng - Truyn 1 chiu Phn loi - Multi mode: nhiu tia sng o Stepped index: ng ch s khc x (tia sng i thng) o Graded index: ch s khc x thay i (tia sng i theo dng sin) - Single mode (mono mode): 1 tia

5. Cc m hnh kt ni mng LAN c bn. u/nhc im ca cc m

hnh. M hnh bus

+ + + +

D dng ci t v m rng Ph hp trong iu kin cn nhanh chng thit lp mng tm thi L m hnh i hi chi ph thp nht Mt my hng khng lm nh hng n cc my khc. Kh qun tr v tm nguyn nhn li Gii hn chiu di cp v s lng my tnh Mt on cp b t s nh hng n ton mng Chi ph bo tr c th cao hn khi backbone di Hiu nng gim khi c my tnh c thm vo

M hnh star

+ D dng b sung hay loi b bt my tnh + D dng theo di v gii quyt s c + C th ph hp vi nhiu loi cp khc nhau M hnh ring Khi hub khng lm vic, ton mng cng s khng lm vic S dng nhiu cp

+ S pht trin ca h thng khng tc ng ng k n hiu nng + Tt c cc my tnh c quyn truy cp nh nhau khc Chi ph thc hin cao Phc tp Khi mt my c s c th c th nh hng n cc my tnh

6. Cc k thut truyn d liu (point-point v broadcast) B

Point topoint: im - im Boradcast: 1 tt c 7. Cc phng php truy nhp ng truyn (hot ng, u/nhc im) 8. Cc kin trc mng LAN c bn (tn, phn loi, cc c im chnh) Ethernet (CSMA/CD) Phng php truy nhp ng truyn: Thc hin kim tra knh trc khi gi frame Knh bn ch thi gian t ngu nhin ri kim tra li Knh ri gi. Nu va chm: o Dng gi frame ngay lp tc khi pht hin va chm o ch thi gian t ngu nhin ri thc hin gi li frame u: n gin, r Nhc: khng m bo truy nhp. Traffic tng, hiu nng gim Phn loi c, im:

Token ring Khng tht s broadcast. L mt tp hp cc lin kt point-to-point to thnh vng. Hot ng: token, l frame c bit, chy vng quanh mng. My nhn token mi c php gi trong khong thi gian xc nh Khi nhn token, my gi to frame bng cch gn d liu vo sau token v gi frame ti my ch My ch sao chp d liu v chuyn frame li my gi My gi, nu ht thi hn gi, s gii phng token chuyn n my k

u: m bo truy nhp. Traffic cao, hiu nng cao Nhc: chi ph cao

9. nh ngha v so snh Virtual Circuit v Datagram Datagram Thit lp mch a ch Thng tin trng thi nh tuyn Thch nghi vi s c trn mng Kim sot tc nghn Virtual Circuit (VC) Phi thc hin

Khng cn Gi tin mang a ch y (ngun, Gi tin ch mang s VC ngn ch) Cc router khng lu thng tin Gi tin i c lp Tt Kh

Cc router cn lu thng tin v tng VC Gi tin c gi theo 1 ng Tt c VC qua im c s c s b mt D, nu b nh

10. Giao thc IP (IP?, c ch phn mnh, a ch IP, IP header, nh

tuyn) Internet: kt ni cc mng cn nh dng gi tin chung: IP Cc mng khc nhau c kh nng vn chuyn gi tin c kch thc khc nhau phn mnh. Phn mnh: - Transparent (a) - Non-transparent (b)

Thng tin phn mnh: - Identification: xc nh nhng phn mnh no thuc cng gi ban u - Fragment offset: v tr ca phn mnh trong gi ban u

MF (More fragment): xc nh phn mnh l phn mnh cui cng trong gi ban u? DF (dont fragment): yu cu khng phn mnh.

a ch IP - Tnh subnet o n s bit lm a ch mng con o S mng con S=2n o S gia a ch mng con i = 28-n (n<8) - Cc biu din a ch : o Cch 1: IP/netmask VD: 192.168.10.5/255.255.255.0 o Cc 2:IP/s bit lm net VD: 192.168.10.100/27 - xc nh a ch mng ca a ch IP: o Cn c vo subnet mask. Phn a ch no ng vi cc octet (netmask) c gi tr 255 th l phn netID (khi netmask khng c octet no khc 255 hoc khc 0). o Nu netmask, octet no c gi tr khc 255 (v khc 0) i octet ra nh phn v xc nh s bit 1 (y l n. T n i v S) - xc nh dy a ch my ca mt mng o t a ch mng +1 n a ch mng k -2 (hay a ch broadcast ca mng -1) (tnh theo s nh phn) o S lng my/mng = 2m-2 (vi m l s bit hostID) - xc nh a ch broadcast ca mng: o cc bit hostID bng 1 - cho a ch mng, yu cu chia mng con o xc nh n tha mn s lng mng con cn to
o t n i v S

11.Giao thc ARP, RARP: vai tr, nguyn l hot ng Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Tm a ch vt l (MAC) ca my ch c IP xc nh no My ngun gi broadcast "Ai l ch ca IP?". My c a ch IP c hi s gi li a ch MAC ca n.

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Xin a ch IP (c a ch vt l- MAC) My ngun gi broadcast Ai cp i ch IP? DHCP/BOOTP server (my cung cp IP) s cp cho my hi 1 a ch IP
12. Giao thc TCP ()

(B KHNG THI)

13.Chc nng cc thit b mng c bn (tn, c im/vai tr, tng hot ng) Vai tr Hub/repeater Bridge Nhn & chuyn tn hiu Tng hot ng 1

Gim boardcast: 2 - t hc a ch vt l ca cc my xc nh thuc on mng no - Cc frame c gi gia cc on mng s c php qua bridge - Cc frame c gi trong cng mt on mng s KHNG c php qua bridge i nh dng frame (khi ni gia cc mng khc kin trc). Dn ng cc gi tin (da vo a ch IP) 3

Router/circuit gateway Application gateway

Chuyn i ng dng (giao thc tng ng App (4567) dng)

MAC-1 MAC-2

MAC-4 MAC-3 MAC-5