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PWM l ci g m sao n c ng dng nhiu trong iu khin. Ly in hnh nht m chng ta thng hay gp l iu khin ng c v cc b bm xung p, iu p...

S dng PWM iu khin nhanh chm ca ng c hay cao hn na n cn c dng iu khin n nh tc ng c. Ngoi lnh vc iu khin hay n nh ti th PWM n cn tham gia v iu ch cc mch ngun nh l : boot, buck, nghch lu 1 pha v 3 pha...PWM chng ta cn gp nhiu trong thc t v cc mch in iu khin. iu c bit l PWM chuyn dng iu khin cc phn t in t cng sut c ng c tnh l tuyn tnh khi c sn 1 ngun 1 chiu c nh .Nh vy PWM n c ng dng rt nhiu trong cc thit b in in t. iu m dn in in t d dng nhn ra l PWM chnh nhn t m cc i Robocon s dng iu khin ng c hay n nh tc ng c.Bi vit ny s ni ln phng php iu khin PWM v cc thng s c bn ca PWM. 1 ) PWM l g? Trc khi tm hiu su chng ta hy tm hiu nh ngha ca PWM l g? Nh vy Phng php iu ch PWM c tn ting anh l Pulse Width Modulation l phng php iu chnh in p ra ti hay ni cch khc l phng php iu ch da trn s thay i rng ca chui xung vung dm m s thay i in p ra Cc PWM khi bin i th c cng 1 tn s v khc nhau v rng ca sn dng hay hoc l sn m

- S nguyn tc iu khin ti dng PWM

Trn l th dng xung khi iu khin bng PWM. Vi rng xung u ra tng ng v c tnh bng %. Ty thch do chng ta iu khin. 2 ) Nguyn l ca PWM. y l phng php c thc hin theo nguyn tc ng ngt ngun ci ti v mt cch c chu k theo lut iu chnh thi gian ng ct. Phn t thc hin nhin v trong mch cc van bn dn. Xt hot ng ng ct ca mt van bn dn. Dng van ng ct bng Mosfet

Gin xung

Trn l mch nguyn l iu khin ti bng PWM v gin xung ca chn iu khin v dng in p u ra khi dng PWM. * Nguyn l : Trong khong thi gian 0 - to ta cho van G m ton b in p ngun Ud c a ra ti. Cn trong khong thi gian to - T cho van G kha, ct ngun cung cp cho ti. V vy vi to thay i t 0 cho n T ta s cung cp ton b , mt phn hay kha hon ton in p cung cp cho ti. + Cng thc tnh gi tr trung bnh ca in p ra ti : Gi t1 l thi gian xung sn dng (kha m ) cn T l thi gian ca c sn m v dng, Umax l in p ngun cung cp cho ti. ==> Ud = Umax.( t1/T) (V) hay Ud = Umax.D vi D = t1/T l h s iu chnh v c tnh bng % tc l PWM Nh vy ta nhn trn hnh th dng iu ch xung th ta c : in p trng bnh trn ti s l : + Ud = 12.20% = 2.4V ( vi D = 20%) + Ud = 12.40% = 4.8V (Vi D = 40%) + Ud = 12.90% = 10.8V (Vi D = 90%) 3) Cc cch to ra c PWM iu khin to c ra PWM th hin nay c hai cch thng dng : Bng phn cng v bng phn mn. Trong phn cng c th to bng phng php so snh hay l t trc tip t cc IC dao ng to xung vung nh : 555, LM556...Trong phn mn c to bng cc chip c th lp trnh c. To bng phn mn th chnh xc cao hn l to bng phn cng. Nn ngi ta hay s dng phn mn to PWM a) To bng phng php so snh to c bng phng php so snh th cn 2 iu kin sau y : + Tn hiu rng ca : Xc nh tn s ca PWM + Tn hiu ta l tinshieuej xc nh mc cng sut iu ch (Tn hiu DC) Xt s mch sau :

Vi tn s xc nh c l f = 1/(ln.C1.(R1+2R2) nn ch cn iu chnh R2 l c th thay i rng xung d dng. Ngoi 555 ra cn rt nhiu cc IC to xung vung khc c) To xung vung bng phn mn. y l cch ti u trong cc cch to c xung vung. Vi to bng phn mn cho chnh xc cao v tn s v PWM. Vi li mch ca chng ta n gin i rt nhiu. Xung ny c to da trn xung nhn ca CPU. Ly 1 on v d to PWM trong con 8501 :

Trn l chng trnh to PWM n gin. Cc bn c th tham kho! 4) PWM trong iu khin ng c v trong cc b bin i xung p a ) Trong ng c : iu m chng ta d nhn thy rng l PWM rt hay c s dng trong ng c iu khin ng c nh l nhanh , chm, thun ,nghch v n nh tc cho n. Ci ny c ng dng nhiu trong iu khin ng c 1 chiu. v s nguyn l ca mch iu khin ng c DC l :

y l mch n gin iu khin ng c. Nu mun iu khin ng c quay thun quay ngc th phi dng n cu H. b) Trong cc b bin i xung p Trong cc b bin i xung p th PWM c bit quan trng trong vic iu chnh dng in v in p ra ti.B bin i xung p c nhiu loi nh l bin i xung p ni tip v b bin i xung p song song. Ly 1 mch nguyn l n gin trong b ngun Boot n gin. Ch y ch mch nguyn l thi .

y l nguyn l ca mch ngun Boot. Dng xung iu khin to tch ly nng lng t trng to in p ra ti ln hn in p vo. Ngoi nhng ci trn th PWM cn c s dng trong cc b chuyn i DC -AC , hay trong bin tn, nghch lu. Qua trn ti ni qua v PWM v ng dng ca n trong cc mch iu khin. Cc bn c th tham kho v bit nguyn l ca PWM