Patrick C.

Agonias AB – CDA, LJL3

06/03/12 PHIFOCY


During the 1800‟s many revolutionary movements were established in China, aimed against the weakening Machu Dynasty. Even though the dynasty proposed the Hundred Days „Reform the Chinese people are still not satisfied. The first Chinese revolutionary to call for a change of government was a doctor educated in Western ideas. His name was Dr. Sun Yat-sen was born in China. However, he grew up and was educated abroad in Hawaii; there he attended a mission school. He then went to medical school in the British colony at Hong Kong and in Canton. While working with secret societies, he led an antiMachu uprising in 1895, but he soon had to flee to Japan. Sun then began to travel to overseas Chinese settlements; there he gathered followers and raising funds for a revolution. He also organized student groups throughout the world and wrote and spoke to promote his ideas. During his travels, he was embarrassed by China‟s lowly position in the world of nations. At some point in his travels in Asia he also came across emissaries of the Philippine Revolutionary government. He was moved by the plight of their struggle and sympathised them. He called for fundamental changes in Chinese society. He eventually developed a plan for a republican revolution and established an organization that was came to be known as the Kuomintang; meaning the nationalist Party. In 1905 he expressed his political, economic and social goals as the “Three Principles of the People.” In summary these three principles are generally translated as nationalism, democracy and the people‟s livelihood. Although his revolution was a success and ousted the Manchu dynasty on February 1912, the new republic faced confusion. Ambitions and personal interest by members of the revolution; like Yuan Shih-kai , China again fell into chaos. Warlords rose to carve up sections of the country and this struggle for control lasted for a decade. Sun Yat-sen tried in vain to restore order. By the time of his death in 1925, his hopes of democratic state of China seemed further out of reach that they had been before the republican revolution.

Marvin Perry, Daniel F. Davis, Jannette G. Harris, Theodore H. Von Laue, Donald Warren Jr. . (1989). A History of the World: Revised Edition. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company.

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