REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSE AND REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE

THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE
It can replace various the main verb in adjective caluses if it is progressive or in the present tense, or in the past tense of some kind.

EXAMPLE (PRESENT PARTICIPLE)

I saw a man who was carrying an umbrella. Adj. Clause : who was carrying an umbrella Verb in the Adj. Clause : “was carrying” is active Reduced to : I saw a man carrying an umbrella. Reduced Adj. Clause : carrying an umbrella Participle that starts the reduced clause : carrying We use “carrying” in the reduced clause because it comes from the active verb in the original clause.

THE PAST PARTICIPLE
It can replace the main verb in adjective clauses if it is “passive”.

EXAMPLE (PAST PARTICIPLE)
The people who worked there got a raise last year. Adj. Clause : who worked there Verb in the Adj. Clause : “worked” is active Reduced to :  The people working there got a raise last year. Reduced Adj. Clause : working there Participle that starts the reduced clause : working

REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
It can be reduced only when the subject of Adverb Clause and the subject of the Main Clause are the same

EXAMPLE (REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSE)

Omit the subject of the clause and the “Be” from of the verb :
 While

i was playing video game, i fell asleep  While playing video game, i fell asleep

If there is no “Be”, omit the subject and change the verb to “-ing” form :
 After

i signed the report, i gave it to the director  After signing the report, i gave it to the director

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