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emergence of A merica as a leading industrial nation and- colonizing ~>' .. power in the later nineteenth century and Haitis neocolonial situation ~:.L: .: extending well into the twentieth century render them somewhat excep~{.: tional with respect to the current usage of the term postcolonial. As many f.;:;' ' theorists have noted, the historical relation alone is insufficient to
.

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describe the meaning of this "post-,' The title of Kwame Anthony .A.ppif.t:··.:, .. ah's influential essay - "Is the Post- in Postmodernism the Post- in Post~ :i~~·;~·:,; colonial?" (1991) _. implies that the signi_tlcance of the term postcolonial fl~'!"~: < extends beyond the historical relation of colonialism to include other ~(i\··. times, themes, and discourses. Adapting jcall-Fral1<;ois Lyotards ~i<_.:· description of the Postmodcrn as that which cannot be "presented" in ~'~?..' the modern, we might say that the postcolonial refers to the unprescntt:.:):u· ····able in the colonial: racial difference, legal inequality, subalrcrniry, all of ~·.·t .the subrnerged or suppressed contradictions within the colonial social ~~~,"<;~·~:order III this sense, the postcolonial presents itself in the colonial itself. g't ..:... 'epoch, especially during periods of DECOLONIZATION, when social con~:,'{·:~>·"tradictions expressed in intensified nationalist organization and antiare ~.t.·:<:·'·..: colonial struggle. The processes of decolonization often continue well r$~/f:.:-,pastthe official establishment of a postcolonial state in the form of NEO~f~t;;,:·:<.··:COLONIALor nco-imperialist) relations of economic and political depen( ~~~r<·:<denceon the former colonizer. Entities such as the \Vorld Bank and the ~.}?" ...:: International Monetary Fund often play a part in neocolonial relations, ~~;:!;.·.:~···.·whilehe United Kingdom retains something of its old colonial structure ..· t [:;)·.· ...jnthe Commonwealth of Nations, which consists mostly of former ;t:,,·, British colonies. tt,·,:· .. :.. Frantz Fanon and Albert Mernmi, the leading figures of the first
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Sc.lid to task Ior his Nietzs('IIt'.lll IIIHI 1;()ll(,~llddiat1 .rrui luuuu n ixi u, his unwillingness to critique the id C~l () I'" t h i n l wo 1'1cl" a lit he Ill. ic it y, and his rc 1u eta nee to include COU:\TERi.ixn
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Al u u.u] , f()l' c-x.u nplr , lo()k

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struggle was set. aside b(,c~ll!sl'

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Of special interest
·
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In this context
possibilities

is the proll1illCnCC

r iln.uioua

l ixm and
spring

I IE(~HM(_)NIC

alternatives.

Said addresses

ll1any of these criticisms in the
19805,

in later

national identity Caribbean.

in the work of theorists

in Ireland, South Asia, and the

work, though generation issues

the issues at hand are addressed that emerged

more forcefully by a new including

Myriad

for l-IYBRID IDENTITY formation

of theorists

Homi

Bhabha and Gayatri Chakravorty

Spivak. For these theorists,

the main
.

.'

are the SUBJECT and SUBJECTIVITY, nationalism, and COLONIAL DISCOURSE. In "Can the Subaltern Speak? ,~)for example, Spivak uncovers.

.

. ~. .......

from the very ethnic, racial, and religio·us differences that delimit and destabilize colony and postcolony alike. Bhabha's highly influential Location of Culture defined COLONIAL IvlHvlICRY as "the sign of a double articulation; a complex 'appropriates' strategy of reform, regulation and discipline, which
.r-!

the dynamics of a SUBALTERN subjectivity silenced by V!estern theory which, despite its "radical" stance, remains committed to an Enlightenment vision of a universal and sovereign subject. She addresses the posw sibility of the subaltern finding a voice cc inside and outside the circuit of the epistemic violence of imperialist law and education" (((Subaltern" 2R3). Spivak's analysis of power relations in colonial and postcolonial India reveals dramatic and persistent gender inequalities. "Both as object of colonialist historiography and as subject of insurgency, the ideological construction of gel1der keeps the male dominant. If, in the context of colonial production, the subaltern has no history and cannot speak, the subaltern as female is even more deeply in shadow" ("Subaltern)) 287), Her example of sati (widow sacrifice) illustrates the \vays that imperialism codified and redefined a native practice as a crime, transforming

.

a

realm of free choice and power into one of juridical repression. Because the female subaltern disappears into a violent shuttling between tradition and modernization, she can not speak. As Fanon points out, one of the most pressing problems colonial
..... .

..
.

the Other as it visualizes power. Mimicry is also the sign of the inappropriate, however, a difference or recalcitrance which coheres the dominant strategic function of colonial power, intensifies surveillance, and poses an immanent threat to both 'normalized knowledges and disciplinary powers" (86). Mimicry is double-edged; it is the sign of a colonial discourse that desires a "reformed, recognizable Other" but it .. ' ..' . is also the means by which the colonized subject challenges that discourse. In the latter sense, mimicry reverses the process of disavowal .' inherent in "colonial representation and individuation' and permits ... 'denied knowledgcs" the opportunity to "enter upon the dominant discourse and estrange the basis of its authority ~ its rules of recognition" (114, 120). The I-IYBRID subject is the subject of a discourse of mimicry, forced to speak from multiple, typically antagonistic locations. Linked to this concept of hybridity is Stuart Hall's theory of DIASPORIC IDENTITIES. Hall claims that Caribbean peoples experi'. ence cultural identity a as an enigma, as a problem) as an open
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facing post-

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question" (286): everybody [in the Caribbean]
say, their true cultures, the original

states after independence

is the continuance

of the struggle

in

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the form of a resistance to ·NEC)CC)LONIAl relations that keep new states economically and politically (in some cases, culturallv) dependent on former colonial powers. The comrnit ment to continue the struggle against neocolonial ism has led Sa id to develop a conception of secular criticism that would offer a "contrapuntal" perspective on a divisive and
1.38

1,1.

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from somewhere else. , .. That

is

to

the places they really corne frorn, the traditions
is the first, diaspora .... [1Jn the histories of the rnigra-

that really formed them, are somewhere else. The Caribbean and the purest

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tion, forced or free, of peoples who now compose the populations of these

]39

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vrr y vV 11 ere 1 n tr r 111in g1cd wit h ()n c
violence

sc 1V c s r LI It II L 111 y I r ish.
C() 111 P

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of historical

and rupturc.
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a settler o r II 11 ~H.. I III i 11 i st 1'; It i v(' (.()1() Il y; I:, n }"L I I Id ·sri 1 h · largely a police action, dcsiglH'd to u m i nt a i r: ('I'd('!' ;11111.
shore up Protestant however, England's
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and indigenous

peoples have been in the modern~,",::,,:,.
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"hOllH'

r u lr." SillCl'

t l n:

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Ltlk~; (>I

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disp('1'St'd
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of isl.mds bound together,

role

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it

(·()11tllnJ('~;

had its roots in the .': t:":':,,. tain its role as a police forct: but is (11 joi ned w it 11 11 H' I{( 'I H 11)1 n ()(' I~llHI S() 11'<' sL, vc: t fad, ',. J\ 11 nt· (:{'s~dn:', a poet (J nd dramatist from Martinique, used:~::'~!,{,:i;:::<, in ongoing efforts to transfer po\vcr to a joi 111 (:~11 hol i.: Prot l'sta III Shakespeare's 'fhe T(~nlpcst as a point of departure for a critique ofWestern",','::,:;',,!,?,"::',< administration in Northern Ireland. As with the situation in the Palest in IMPERIALIS'M and its notions of racial difference, His Une Tempete (1969)':::' ,f::,~";':~:'.' ian Occupied Territories, the Northern Irish problem points up the difst pr1
l

11 Ll

r i IY hy c( )I()111 ~11 commerce,

which

.. ••••

"

,,:.'

I

tells Caliban's story from the native's point of view. Peter I-Iulme's

Colo~":,,':f':;~"c,;,:,'::'ficulties negotiating of

settlements

without due attention to the question

..

nial Encounters: Europe and the Native Caribbean, 1492-1797 (1986) was one:';':,'~::~';j""who has the right to settle where?" of the first major studies to analyze the phenomenon of cultural contact,:::;:,~":~:iL,~:"This is, of course, the underlying question in so many postcolonial .... _ from a postcolonial perspective. In order to recover the full discursive:,)"(:':,:'discourses. Indeed, it is the same question that Native Americans have context of the di scoverv" of .America, I-Iuln1.e explores the DISCURSIVE ,,",';;J,i:":::':"" been asking since at least the middle of the nineteenth ccntllry. The situ.. FORMA'fION constituted by the letters, journals, ship log entries, and :",":l~:::';\' ation in the US has been particularly : intriguing because of the lon_g ~ other docurncnts associated with the voyages of Columbus, but he also.'.". ,~),;:,~, .':..history of oppression endured by native peoples and enslaved Africans. ' includes the discourse of the Carib people, a discourse that was fre-"... I:::,~:,':'" . Such instances of domination and oppression redefine the very concept quently misunderstood and, for that very reason, had a profound impact'." ~{::i',:-" of colonialism. The segregation and resettlement of Native American on colonial discourse about "primitivc" peoples. .,,""J~:'(::',:.' Indian tribes 011 reservations is the rnost compelling example of domesDespite general agreel11ent concerning the objects of postcolonial /, '1;,:,~'.:,'." tic colonization," far-flung colonial practices broug11t to the imperial critique - colonial discourse and J1)EOLC)GY, nationalism, gender rela-,:,,:',)(\':' backyard. The work of Arnold Krupat and Gerald Vizenor has contribtions, religious scr tar ian ism - divergences can be fouild whenever we,",:d":Le,;':,uted much toexpand the warrant of Postcolonial theory to include those look. closely at specific colonial and postcolonial contexts. The most". iI(,)",social and cultural situations in which DOr"lINATION takes on specific important distinction w ithiri COLONTALIS~vl is between settler and admin-:.':" J:'i,\;' characteristics of widespread lack of social services, chronic unemployistrative colonies. Administrative colonies are those which supervise.". J:i.>":~,',,,ment, relocation of populations} and suppression of native traditions, exports (rubber, ivory, spices and, until the early nineteenth century.v'. ,~:}' languages, and cultural practices. .. ):: ' slaves), participate in world markets, guarantee freedom of movement',:,<,::~~:'}:·,::~"",Postcolonial tudies is profoundly involved in a project of historical S for religious missions and for sociological and anthropological inquirY.'::';Ji\:i:(;,:','~·',revisionism that makes possible the representation of historical subjects Settler colonies were developed by the colonial powers to absorb popula ...';~~:'J ~~;~:~,:;~:",;and. conditions of existence that had been ignored or suppressed by tions from the home country. In some cases, as in Rhodesia and Frencb "::'{'f ~:'/:'~i~,":"'.:'European historians. The Irish postcolonial experience, for example, has Algeria, these new populations were working- and middle-class settlersv. ~:f:\:\d:,>',yielded long tradition a of revisionist historiography, beginning at the seeking land and a fresh start; many in the middle classes regarded the:;',! l~J,:~,'"',,timef the Literary Revival in the 1890s and accelerating after the foro colonies as a \vay to find advancement that would otherwise be outof',,':,:'~:I.':!:::'~,~:':;,.'mationof the Irish Free State in 1922. The Subaltern Studies Group, a ,.~ their reach. In Australia and New Zealand, through the nineteenth':.,;:;Jjg(:,·::',; 'South Asian collective, similarly combats the representations of India century, the new populations were primarily impoverished Irish~:t';'~1',,1~v'":'and, the Indian peoples generated by Orientalist and colonialist disScottish, and English families and transported convicts. In Ireland, the,',,:::;'}]2~;i':e;:',,:::collrses. One result of this revisionist impulse is the displacement of the Anglo-Irish h ad a long history of occupation and many considered thetl1~,,':':'~ ~", ostcolonial as the primary category of th eoretical reflection. For example, ~,;{<,:,;' p
rc

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Spivak has recently

advocated the development of a "transnational cull 1.1 ra l S t uc lies" t h a two u Id suppl ant t raditiona 1 1110dcs of (0111P3 ra ti vc st lid y d Ild ('11('( HI rage greater sensitivity to native languages and cultures. 1<))' 1 h(' t rr postcolonial, she arglles that its original to desig•
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h(' 1);1V i 11g a x ir colon ia liS111 didn't exist.') lvloreover, the emphasis Post colo]) i a 1stud ics on the nation-state is no longer timely: "we can't
S

of nco-colonial

is In in state contexts.

Now it just

the t vV l'11t y" (i r s t

l' ( , 11t II

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or post·colon

ial itv '111 terms only of nation-state

have to think

of it in different

ways. Otherwise,

colonialism. \\Te it becomes more and

., •
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more a study of colonial discourse, of then rather than now. You can no longer wh ingc on about imperialism. We're looking at the failure of decolonization" (HSetting-'-' 168). It may be that Fanon's dialectical fusion of "national consciousness" and "an international dimension" is no longer possible. There appears to be little common ground between well-developed postcolonial states (e.g., Ireland, India, Egypt) and the new transient internationalism of migrants, refugees, exiles, emigres, and stateless peoples like the Kurds, This problem of transience illustrates from another perspective Bhabha's "temporality of continuance,' for it is the failure of nationalism and the triumph of neocolonial exploitation that have remained constant in the second half of the twentieth century. This is especially true of the Arab lands, which- were carved up by the colonial po"\yers and redistributed

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and IH't works r il "sl('('IH'r .rl lx" wl io:«: 11H'I,dl('I"~-; are often t11arginalizcd or excluded hy t he n.u ir iuu l ixt u of' t l ui r l u in «: countries. Once international sor ialism fell with the Berlill wall, the Islamic world alone maintained any interest in a vision of an international community bound by religious and historical ties. In this new context, the question of neocolonialism continues to be urgent.
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stateless collectivities

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WORKS CITED
Bhabha, Homi.
1994t

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The Location of Culture. London

and New York: Routledge,

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without regard for tribal, ethnic, and religious boundaries. This remapping of territories created and continues to create innumerable problems for national governments that are virtually powerless to remedy the lingering effects of colonial domination. Another factor in the ongoing development of postcolonial states is the nco-imperial project of GLOBALIZATIC)N that links developed nations to the burgeoning labor forces and consumer markets ill_ developing and undeveloped regions around the world. As a result, the postcolonial nation, often modeled on the ninetcenth-centurv European nation-state, is left out of the ((international dimension' because it has failed to develop sufficiently. The nullifying, destahiliz.inj; effects of theological and ideological absolutism so evident ill the Iormerlv colonized regions of the world n1ay be the result of ;, incomplete nation-building and thus of incomplete nationn lism. Fa non . ~', charted a 11 itinerary from su bjuga tion to revolution, a nd ~d()ng that itinerary was the difficult process of building a nation 1 hat rt-prcscnrcd the spirit of the people. In IT1any cases, the nation·lnlilding pn)ccss g()l sru llcd
.,

Fanon, Frantz. 'The If/retched of the Earth. Trans. Constance Farrington. New York: Grove \Veidenfeld, 1963. HalL Stuart. ((N egotiating Caribbean Identities." In Postcolonial Discourses: An Anthology. Ed. Gregory Castle. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000. 280~92. Said, Edward \V. OrientaIisl11. 1978. London: Penguin, 1985. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorrv, "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg. Urbana:
Universitv
,.J

of Illinois Press, 1988.271-313,

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"Setting to \Vork (Transnational Cultural Studies)." In A Critical Sense: Interviews with Trttellectuals. Ed. Peter Osborne, London: Routledge, 1996<
163~77,
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