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Maps: Let A and B be sets. Let S ⊆ A. • Constant Map: f : A → B, f (x) = b for some elements b ∈ B and x ∈ A where b is a ﬁxed element. • Identity Map: 1A : A → A such that 1A (x) = x for all elements x ∈ A. • Inclusion Map: j : S → A such that j(x) = x for all elements x ∈ S. • Restriction Map: denoted f |S (x) and f |S : S → B, such that f |S (x) = f (x) for all x ∈ S. • Extension Map: g : S → B is any map such that G : A → B and G|S = g. • Projection Map: from A × B given by π1 : A × B → A and π2 : A × B → B such that π1 ((a, b)) = a and π2 ((a, b)) = b for all (a, b) ∈ A × B. • Image: f∗ (P ) = [b ∈ B|b = f (p)f orsomep ∈ P ] or [f (p)|p ∈ P ] • Inverse Image: f ∗ (Q) = [a ∈ A|f (a) = qf orsomeq ∈ Q] or [a ∈ A|f (a) ∈ Q] • Composition: (h ◦ g) ◦ f = h ◦ (g ◦ f ) and f ◦ 1A = f or 1B ◦ f = f • Right Inverse: g is a right inverse for f if f ◦ g = 1B (CODOMAIN) • Left Inverse: g is a left inverse for f if g ◦ f = 1A (DOMAIN) • Injective: x = y → f (x) = f (y) and f (x) = f (y) → x = y for all x, y ∈ A. • Surjective: (∀b ∈ B)(∃a ∈ A)|f (a) = b or f∗ (A) = B. • right inverse ↔ surjective • left inverse ↔ injective • inverse ↔ bijective • if f and g are surjective/injective/bijective then so is g ◦ f . • Injectivity: Let x, y ∈ A. Suppose that f (x) = f (y). ... Then x = y. Hence f is injective. • Surjectivity: Let b ∈ B. We deﬁne a as a = BLAH. ... Then b = f (a). Hence f is surjective.

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