PRODUCTION OF 400,000 TONNES PER

YEAR OF MTBE PLANT
JUPLIN KINTI 2000337672
MOHD NAZRI ISMAIL 2001193485
NOOR HARYANI MUSTAPHA 2000132163
NORMARIAH ABDULLAH 2000337665
ROHIZAD JAMEL 2001476067
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE PAGE
Table 1.1: Feed, Distillate and Bottom Composition 2
Table 1.2: Calculation Value of Θ 2
Table 1.3: Calculation Value of Rm 3
Table 1.4: The Value of Coefficient 4
Table 1.5: Calculation for Bubble Point Temperature 5
Table 1.6: Calculation for Dew Point Temperature 5
Table 1.7: Calculation for Bubble Point Temperature 5
Table 1.8: Viscosity of TBA, PO and Acetone ` 6
Table 1.9: Relative Volatility 6
Table 1.10: Properties of TBA, PO and Acetone 9
Table 1.11: The Sugden’s Parachor for TBA, PO and Acetone 10
Table 1.12: Calculation of Molar Volume PO 22
Table 1.13: Viscosity of TBA and PO at 356 K Temperature 23
Table 2.1: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Each
Types of Heat Exchanger 35
Table 2.2: Selection of Heat Exchanger 37
Table 2.3: Layout & Tube Size of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger 45
Table 2.4: Summary of Chemical Engineering Design of
Heat Exchanger 55
Table 2.5 Shell-And-Tube Specification 57
Table 2.6: Material Selected for Shell-And-Tubes 59
Table 2.7: Types of Heads and Its Applications 62
Table 2.8: Standard Nozzle for Tube Size 66
Table 2.9: Standard Nozzle for Shell Side 67
Table 2.10 Steel Welding Neck Flanges 68
Table 2.11 Dimension of Selected Standard Steel Saddle 70
Table 2.12 Summary of Mechanical Engineering Design
of Heat Exchanger 70
Table 3.1: Reactor Mass Balance for Input Stream 71
Table 3.2: Reactor Mass Balance for Output Stream 72
Table 3.3: Properties of Flue Gas 80
Table 3.4: Chemical Design Specification Data 84
TABLE PAGE
Table 3.5: Mechanical Design Specification Data 96
Table 5.1: Summary of Chemical Engineering Design 150
Table 5.2: Summary of Mechanical Engineering Design 160
Table 6.1: Summary of the Piping of MTBE Plant 172
Table 7.1: Quantities Chemicals Stored/ Handled On-Site 186
Table 7.2: HAZOP Guide Words 198
Table 7.3: Typical HAZOP Process Parameter 199
Table 7.4: HAZOP Analysis of TBA Vaporizer
Table 8.1: Estimation Cost of Purchased Equipment 208
Table 8.2: Labor Cost 210
Table 8.3: Annual Cash Flow Before Tax And After Tax 214
Table 8.4: Annual IRR After Tax 215
Table 8.5: Cumulative Cash Flow After Tax 216
Table 8.6: Simple Payback Period 217
Table 8.7: Discounted Payback Period 217
Table 9.1: Data for Heat Integration 219
Table 9.2: Interval Temperatures for ΔT Min = 10°C 220
Table 9.3 Rank Order of Interval Temperature 220
Table 10.1: The Composition of Gases Discharged 224
Table 10.2: Flash Point and the Lower and Upper Flammable
Limit (LFL) and (UFL) 224
Table 10.3: Inventory of Waste Water 226
Table 10.4: Oxygen Demand of Component 227
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLE PAGE
1.1 Trial Layout of Plate 18
1.2 Plate Specification 20
2.1 Design Procedure of Shell-and-Tube
Heat Exchanger 39
2.2 Process Operation of Shell and Tube
Heat Exchanger 41
2.3 Heat Exchanger is Separate Into 2
Heat Exchanger in Series 42
2.4 Triangular Pattern 47
2.5 Typical Standard Flange Design 68
4.1 Fixed Bed Reactor 97
6.1 Fixed Bed Reactor Control 166
6.2 Distillation Column Control 167
6.3 PFD Diagram for MTBE Process 174
7.1 Typical Plot of Plant Layout for MTBE Plant 178
7.2 TBA Vaporizer Instrumentation 203
8.1 Cumulative Cash Flow vs. Year 216
9.1 Hot and Cold Stream Composite Curves 219
9.2 Heat Cascade 221
9.3 Proposed Heat Exchanger Network 222
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE PLANT
JUPLIN KINTI 2000337672
MOHD NAZRI ISMAIL 2001193485
NOOR HARYANI MUSTAPHA 2000132163
NORMARIAH ABDULLAH 2000337665
ROHIZAD JAMEL 2001476067
A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award
of Bachelor of Engineering (Hons.) in Chemical Engineering
FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
SHAH ALAM
MARCH 2004
“We declared that this report is the result of our own work except for quotations and
summaries have been duly acknowledged”
(Signed) (Signed)
JUPLIN KINTI NOOR HARYANI MUSTAPHA
2000337672 2000132163
(Signed) (Signed)
MOHD NAZRI ISMAIL NORMARIAH ABDULLAH
2001193485 2000337665
(Signed)
ROHIZAD JAMEL
2001476067
18
th
March 2004
“We declared that we read this report and in our point of view this report is
qualified in term of scope and quality for the purpose of awarding the
Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) in Chemical Engineering”.
Signed:………………..
Date :………………..

Supervisor
Encik Rusmi Alias
Faculty of Chemical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Shah Alam, Selangor
Signed:………………..
Date :………………..
Supervisor
Puan Sharifah Intan Baizura Syed Ahmad Fuad
Faculty of Chemical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Shah Alam, Selangor
Accepted:
Signed:………………..
Date :………………..
Head of Programme
Prof. Madya Dr. Wan Shabuddin Wan Ali
Faculty of Chemical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Shah Alam, Selangor
Signed:………………..
Date :………………..
Coordinator
Puan Noor Fitrah Abu Bakar
Faculty of Chemical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Shah Alam, Selangor
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 1 TBA DISTILLATION COLUMN
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN OF
DISTILLATION COLUMN 2
1.2.1 The Operating Line 2
1.2.2 Calculate Bubble Point
And Dew Point 4
1.2.3 Calculate The Number
Of Stages 6
1.2.4 Pressure Drop 8
1.2.5 Calculation For Density
And Relative Molar Mass 9
1.2.6 Calculation Surface
Tension (Σ) 10
1.2.7 Column Diameter 11
1.2.8 Provisional Plate Design 13
1.2.9 Evaluation Design 13
1.2.10 Plate Efficiency ( Emv) 21
1.3 MECHANICAL DESIGN 24
1.3.1 Dead Weight of Vessel. 25
1.3.2 Weight of Plates. 26
1.3.3 Weight of Insulation. 26
1.3.4 Wind Loading. 26
1.3.5 Analysis of Stresses At Bottom 27
1.4 DESIGN OF STIFFNESS RING 29
1.5 DESIGN OF DOMED END. 30
1.6 DESIGN FOR THE
SKIRT SUPPORT. 31
CHAPTER 2 HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
2.1. INTRODUCTION 34
2.2 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 35
TITLE PAGE
Selection of Shell-And-Tube-Type
Of Heat Exchanger 35
2.3 BASIS DESIGN PROCEDURE
OF HEAT EXCHANGER 39
2.4 CHEMICAL DESIGN OF FLOATING
HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER 41
2.4.1 Design Specification 41
2.4.2 Properties Of Steam And TBA 42
2.4.3 Heat Load 45
2.4.4 Heat Transfer Area 45
2.4.5 Number Of Tubes 46
2.4.6 Tubes Arrangement (Pitch) 47
2.4.7 Diameter Of Shell 48
2.4.8 Tube Side Coefficient, Hi 49
2.4.9 Shell Side Coefficient, Hs 50
2.4.10 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, Uo 52
2.4.11 Tube Side Pressure Drop 53
2.4.12 Shell Side Pressure Drop 54
MECHANICAL DESIGN OF
HEAT EXCHANGER 56
Design Specification 57
DESIGN PRESSURE
AND TEMPERATURE 57
2.7 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 58
2.8 DESIGN STRESS 59
2.9 WELDED JOINT EFFICIENCY 60
CORROSION ALLOWANCE 60
2.11 DESIGN CRITERIA 60
2.11.1 Minimum Thickness Of
Cylindrical Of The Shell 61
2.12HEADS AND CLOSURE 62
Design of Domed
Ends-Ellipsoidal Heads 62
2.13DESIGN LOAD 63
2.14DESIGN OF NOZZLES 64
TITLE PAGE
Shell Side Nozzles 64
2.14.2 Tubes Side Nozzles 65
The selected tube size nozzle 66
2.14.4 Shell side nozzles 67
2.15BOLT-FLANGED JOINTS 67
BAFFLES 68
2.17SUPPORT DESIGN – SADDLES
SUPPORT 69
CHAPTER 3 ISOBUTYLENE REACTOR
3.1 INTRODUCTION 71
3.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN 72
3.2.1 Selection of Catalyst 74
3.2.2 Effective Diffusivity, De 74
3.2.3 Tube Specification 76
3.2.4 Heat Transfer Calculation 78
3.2.5 Tube Side Coefficient 78
3.2.6 Shell Side Coefficient 80
3.2.7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 82
3.2.8 Tube Side Pressure Drop 83
3.2.9 Shell Side Pressure Drop 83
MECHANICAL DESIGN 85
3.3.1 Design Pressure 85
3.3.2 Design Temperature 85
3.3.3 Material of Construction 85
3.3.4 Corrosion Allowance 86
3.4.5 Thickness of Cylindrical Shell 86
3.3.6 Head and Closures 86
3.3.7 Weight Load 87
3.3.8 Wind Loading 89
3.3.9 Analysis of Stresses 90
3.3.10 Elastic Stability 91
3.3.11 Vessel Support Design 92
3.3.12 General Consideration for
The Design 94
TITLE PAGE
3.3.13 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts 94
3.3.14 Pipe Size Selection for the Nozzle 96
3.3.15 Standard Flanges 96
CHAPTER 4 MTBE REACTOR
4.1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN
OF REACTOR 97
4.1.1Catalyst 98
4.1.2 Tube side 103
4.1.3 Shell 105
4.1.4 Condition Calculation 106
4.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF REACTOR 112
4.2.1 Design Consideration 112
4.2.2 The Design of Thin Walled Vessels
Under Internal Pressure 113
4.2.3 Design of Vessels Subject to
Combined Loading 116
4.2.4 Vessel Support 121
4.2.5 Base Ring and Anchor Bolt Design 124
4.2.6 Bolt Flanged Joint 127
4.2.7 Pipe Sizing 129
4.2.8 Compensation for Opening and
Branch Connections 130
CHAPTER 5 MTBE DISTILLATION COLUMN
INTRODUCTION 133
5.1 CHEMICAL DESIGN 134
5.1.1 Determination of Key Components 134
5.1.2 Determination of Bubble Point and
Dew Point 134
5.1.3 Determination Relative Volatility, α 136
5.1.4 Determination The Number of
Stages 137
5.1.5 Calculation to Determine Overall
Tray Efficiency, Eo 138
TITLE PAGE
5.1.6 Determination Of Feed Point
Location 138
5.1.7 Estimate or Gather The Physical
Properties 139
5.1.8 Determination Of Maximum And
Minimum Vapor and Liquid Flow
Factor and Flooding Velocity
For The Turn Down Ratio 140
5.1.9 Determination Of Column Diameter 141
5.1.10 Liquid Flow Arrangements 142
5.1.11 Plate Layout 142
5.1.12 Determination of Weir Length, lw 143
5.1.13 Check The Weeping Rate 143
5.1.14 Plate Pressure Drop 145
5.1.15 Downcomer Design 146
5.1.16 Check Entrainment 147
5.1.17 Plate Layout 147
5.1.18 Number Of Hole 148
5.1.19 Column Size 149
MECHANICAL DESIGN 150
5.1.20 Design Pressure 150
5.1.21 Material Construction 151
5.1.22 Vessel Thickness 151
5.1.23 Heads and Closure 152
5.1.24 Column Weight 153
5.1.25 Wind Loads 154
5.1.26 Vessel Support Design
(Skirt Design) 155
5.1.27 General Consideration For Design 157
5.1.28 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts 157
5.1.29 Feed, Top Product, Bottom Product
Piping Sizing 159
CHAPTER 6 PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
6.1 INTRODUCTION 161
TITLE PAGE
6.2 TYPES OF CONTROL 161
6.2.1 Feedback Control 161
6.2.2 Feed forward Control 162
6.2.3 Cascade Control 162
6.3 CONTROLLING SHELL AND TUBE
HEAT EXCHANGER 163
6.4 FIXED BED REACTOR CONTROL 165
6.5 DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL 167
6.6 PIPING 170
6.6.1 Introduction 170
6.6.2 Material of Construction 170
6.6.3 Pipe Sizing 170
6.6.4 Fluid Velocity 171
CHAPTER 7 PLANT SAFETY
7.1 GENERAL SITE
CONSIDERATIONS 175
7.1.1 Introduction 175
7.1.2 Site Layout 175
7.1.3 Plant Layout 179
7.2 PLANT SAFETY 181
7.2.1 General Overview
Of Safety 181
7.2.2 The Integration Of Safety
Procedure 182
7.2.3 Safety During Start-Up
And Shutdown 183
7.2.4 Emergency Response
Plan (ERP) 185
7.2.5 HAZOP Study 197
7.2.6 HAZOP Report 200
7.2.7 Hazard Analysis 204
CHAPTER 8 ECONOMIC EVALUATION
8.1 INTRODUCTION 206
8.2 The specification of plant 206
TITLE PAGE
8.3 Revenue from sales 207
8.4 Cost Estimation 207
8.4.1 Capital Cost Estimation 207
8.4.2 Manufacturing Cost Estimation 209
8.4.3 Cost of Operating Labor (COL) 210
8.4.4 Cost of Utilities (CUT) 211
8.4.5 Cost of Raw Material (CRM) 212
8.5 Profitability Analysis 213
8.5.1 Before Tax and After Tax
Cash Flow 214
8.5.2 Present Worth and IRR Method 215
8.5.3 Cumulative Cash Flow After Tax 216
8.6 PAYBACK PERIOD 217
8.6.1 Simple Payback Period 217
8.6.2 Discounted Payback Period 217
8.7 CONCLUSION 217
CHAPTER 9 PROCESS INTEGRATION
9.1 INTRODUCTION 218
9.2 PINCH TECHNOLOGY 219
9.3 THE PROBLEM TABLE METHOD 219
9.4 THE NETWORK DESIGN 221
CHAPTER 10 WASTE TREATMENT
10.1 INTRODUCTION 223
10.2 DESCRIPTION AND PROCESS
SYNTHESIS 224
10.2.1 Air Treatment 224
10.2.2 Water Treatment 225
10.3 LAYOUT OF WASTE WATER
TREATMENT 227
10.4 MECHANICAL DESIGN WASTE
TREATMENT 228
10.5 CONCLUSION 229
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
TBA DISTILLATION COLUMN JUPLIN KINTI
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A..FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 1:
TBA DISTILLATION COLUMN
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 1 TBA DISTILLATION COLUMN
1.3 INTRODUCTION 1
1.4 CHEMICAL DESIGN OF
DISTILLATION COLUMN 2
1.2.11 The Operating Line 2
1.2.12 Calculate Bubble Point
And Dew Point 4
1.2.13 Calculate The Number
Of Stages 6
1.2.14 Pressure Drop 8
1.2.15 Calculation For Density
And Relative Molar Mass 9
1.2.16 Calculation Surface
Tension (Σ) 10
1.2.17 Column Diameter 11
1.2.18 Provisional Plate Design 13
1.2.19 Evaluation Design 13
1.2.20 Plate Efficiency ( Emv) 21
1.3 MECHANICAL DESIGN 24
1.3.6 Dead Weight of Vessel. 25
1.3.7 Weight of Plates. 26
1.3.8 Weight of Insulation. 26
1.3.9 Wind Loading. 26
1.3.10 Analysis of Stresses At Bottom 27
1.6 DESIGN OF STIFFNESS RING 29
1.7 DESIGN OF DOMED END. 30
1.6 DESIGN FOR THE
SKIRT SUPPORT. 31
CHAPTER 1
DESIGN DISTILLATION COLUMN
1.5 INTRODUCTION
Generally, the function of distillation column is to separate the element inside the
component by vaporization. In this method, the boiling points for each element are
important to know the top product and bottom product.
Basically the more volatile component is discharge at the top in vapour
phase and the heavy component at the bottom as a liquid. In others word, the top
product has low boiling point and the bottom product has higher boiling point
Based on our MTBE plant, multicomponent distillation are using because the
feed more than one component. There are tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), Propylene
Oxide (PO) and Acetone. Here, distillation column is using to separate the mixture of
tertiary butyl alcohol and Propylene Oxide (PO) which the separation occurred
around the boiling point of the component. In our MTBE plant, tertiary butyl alcohol
is a bottom product that needed as a main material to synthesis MTBE
In designing the distillation column, selected materials are required based on
the characteristic of chemical properties such as the temperature, pressure and
density of component and mechanical properties such as the stress and loading,
Here, we chose stainless steel as material construction to design our distillation
column. Cost of construction and simplicity in design also the important aspect to
design our distillation column.
1.6 CHEMICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN
Table: 1.1: Feed, distillate and bottom composition
component Feed
Product
Distillate Bottom
Molar
flowrate
(kmol/h)
Mole
fraction
(kmol/kmol)
Molar
flowrate
(kmol/h)
Mole
fraction
(kmol/kmol)
Molar
flowrate
(kmol/h)
Mole
fraction
(kmol/kmol)
TBA 707.9089 0.4950
- - 707.9089
0.9989
PO 707.9089 0.4950
706.947
9
0.9844 0.961 0.0011
Acetone 14.3012 0.010 14.3012 0.0156 -
-
Total 1430.119 1.0000 721.2491 1.0000
708.8699 1.0000
1.2.21 THE OPERATING LINE
Calculate the reflux ratio (R).
Using the Underwood (1948), equation 11.60 (Coulson & Richardson’s), vol.6 page
525.
∑ x,d (  – θ) = Rm + 1
 = the relative volatility of component with respect to reference
component, usually the heavy component.
Rm = minimum reflux ratio
X,d = concentration of component in the tops at minimum reflux.
Table 1.2: Calculation value of θ
component Bottom

Top

Average

x,f  xf (θ = 1.5)
 xf (  –
θ)
(θ = 1.45)
 xf (  –
θ)
TBA 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.4950 0.4950 -0.9900 -1.1000
PO 4.2098 1.0255 2.6177 0.4950 1.2957 1.1593 1.1097
Acetone 0.0000 0.4540 0.4540 0.0100 0.0045 -0.0043 -0.0046
total 1.000 0.165 0.0051
θ = 1.45 acceptable because this value will approximately ∑  xf (  – θ) = 0.
Table 1.3: Calculation value of Rm
Component xd
 xd 
(xd ) / ( –  
) θ
TBA 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000
PO 0.9844 2.6177 2.5768 2.2068
Acetone 0.0156 0.4540 0.0071 -0.0071
Total 1.0000 2.1997
Hence,
The minimum reflux ratio
Rm + 1 = 2.2
Rm = 1.2
Reflux ratio (R) = 1.2

The liquid and vapor streams in the column
Above the feed point:
Vapour flow rate:
Vn = D (R+1)
D = distillate molar flowrate
R = Reflux ratio
Hence,
Vn = 721.2491 (1.2 + 1)
= 1586.7480 kmol/hr
Liquid down flow:
Ln = Vn – D
= 1586.7480 - 721.249
= 865.4990 kmol/hr
Below the feed point:
Liquid flow rate:
Lm = Ln + F
F = feed molar flowrate
Hence,
Lm = 865.4990 + 1430.119
= 2295.618 kmol/hr
Vapour flow rate:
Vm = Lm – W
W = bottom molar flowrate
Hence,
Vm = 2295.618 - 708.8699
= 1586.7481 kmol/hr
The equation for the operating lines below the feed plate:
Ym = (Lm / Vm )(Xm +1) – (W / Vm) (Xw)
= (2295.618 / 1586.7481) ( Xm + 1) – (708.8699 / 1586.7481)
(0.0011)
= 1.45 ( Xm + 1) – 0.00049
The equation for the operating lines above the feed plate:
Yn = (Ln / Vn) (Xn + 1) + (D / Vn) Xd
= (865.499 / 1586.7480) (Xn + 1) + (721.2491 / 1586.7480)
(0.9844)
= 0.55 (Xn + 1) + 0.4475
1.2.22 CALCULATE BUBBLE POINT AND DEW POINT
Using Antoine equation
To get the partial pressure for each component and the value
Log P = A - B / (T+ C)
Ki = Po / P total
Table 1.4: The value of coefficient
Component A B C
TBA 16.8548 2658.29 -95.5
PO 15.327 2107.58 -64.87
HO (Acetone) 16.6513 2940.46 -35.93
Bubble point at the feed
T= 51
0
C or 324k and the operating pressure = 760mmHg
Table 1.5: Calculation for bubble point Temperature
Component Xf = xi Pi (mmHg) Ki ∑ yi = ∑Ki xi
TBA 0.4950 194.7734 0.2563 0.1269
PO 0.4950 1373.3030 1.8070 0.8945
HO (Acetone) 0.0100 651.4247 0.8571 0.0086
1.0000 1.0299
∑ yi = ∑Ki xi value is close to 1.0, accept this temperature. Hence, the bubble point
temperature is 51
0
C.
Dew point (Top column)
T= 35
0
C or 308k and the operating pressure = 760mmHg.
Table 1.6: Calculation for dew point Temperature
Component Yi = xd = xi Pi (mmHg) Ki ∑ xi = ∑yi / ki
PO 0.9844 779.3566 1.0255 0.9600
HO (Acetone) 0.0156 345.0077 0.4540 0.0344
1.0000 0.9943
∑ xi = ∑yi / ki value is close to 1.0, accept this temperature. Hence, the dew point
temperature is 35
0
C.
Bubble point (Bottom column)
T= 83
0
C or 356k and the operating pressure = 760mmHg
Table 1.7: Calculation for bubble point temperature
Component Xi = xw Pi (mmHg) Ki ∑ yi = ∑Ki xi
TBA 0.9989 772.9635 1.0171 1.0159
PO 0.0011 3254.1653 4.2818 0.0047
1.000 1.0206
∑ yi = ∑Ki xi value is close to 1.0, accept this temperature. Hence, the bubble point
temperature is 83
0
C.
1.2.23 CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF STAGES
Using the Connell”s Correlation, equation 11.67 (Coulson & Richardson’s) vol.6
page 549. This equation only considered the viscosity and volatility of each
component to determine the plate efficiency.
Eo = 51 -32.5 Log (µα)
µ = viscosity (mNs/m2)
 = relative volatility for light.
Viscosity at average temperature
= (T at top + T at bottom) / 2
= (35 + 83) / 2
= 59
0
C = 332 K
Log (viscosity) = (VISA) x { (1/T) – (1/VISB) }
Table 1.8: Viscosity of TBA, PO and Acetone.
Component VISA VISB µ
TBA 972.10 363.38 1.79
PO 377.43 213.36 0.23
HO (Acetone) 367.25 209.68 0.23
Molar average viscosity of feed, µ = 0.495 (1.79) + 0.495(0.23) + 0.01(0.23)
= 1.0022 mNs/m
2
.
Relative volatility for light key
α = K light key / K heavy key
Here, the light key is PO and the heavy key is TBA
Table 1.9: Relative volatility
PO Top column Bottom column
ki 1.0255 4.2818
α 1.0255 4.2098
Average relative volatility = (1.0255 + 4.2098)/ 2
= 2.618
Hence, the plate efficiency
Eo = 51 -32.5 Log (µα)
= 51 -32.5 log (1.0022 x 2.618)
= 0.37
Minimum number of stages:
Fenske equation, equation 11.58 (Coulson & Richardson’s) vol.6 page 524
Nm = Log [x LK / x HK] d [x HK / x LK] b
Log α LK
= log [0.9844] [0.9989/0.0011]
Log (2.618)
= 7 stages
The actual stages
= 2Nm – 1
Eo
= 2(7)-1
0.37
= 35 stages
Determination of Feed Point Location
In order to find the feed point location, estimation can be made by using the Fenske
equation to calculate the number of stages in the rectifying and stripping section
separately, but this requires an estimate of the feed point temperature. As an
alternative approach, here I use the empirical equation given by Kirkbride (1944) as
a matter for the same objective.
Log [Nr/ Ns] = 0.206 log [ ( B/D) ( Xf, HK / Xf, LK) (Xb, HK / Xb, HK)
2
]
Where,
Nr = number of stages above the feed, include the condenser
Ns = number of stages below the feed, include the reboiler
B = molar flow bottom product
D = molar flow top product
Xf, HK = concentration of the heavy key in the feed
Xf, LK = concentration of the light key in the feed
Xd,HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product
Xb, LK = concentration of the light key in the bottom product
Hence,
Xb, HK =1/ B = 1/ 708.8699
= 0.00014
Xb, HK =1/ D = 1/ 721.2491
= 0.00013
So,
Log [Nr/Ns]= 0.206log[708.87/ 721.25) (0.495/ 1.2957) (0.00014/0.00013)
2
]
Log [Nr/ Ns] = 0.206 log (0.4355)
[Nr/ Ns] = 0.0744
Nr = 0.0744Ns
From previous calculation, number of stages, excluding the reboiler = 35
Nr + Ns = 35
Ns = 35 – Nr = 35 – 0.0744Ns
1.0744Ns = 35
Ns = 35 / 1.0744
= 32.58
Hence, we take the location of feed point is at stages 33.

1.2.24 PRESSURE DROP
Pt = (ρl) x g x ht x number of real stages (N)
Assume pressure drop 200 mm liquid per plate
( ρl ) at bottom column =0.9989 (787) + 0.0011(829)
= 787.1 kg/m
3
g = 9.81m2/s
ht = 200 x 10
-3
m
N = 35
Hence, pt = 787.1 x 9.81 x 200 x 10
-3
x 35
= 54050.157 N/m
2
or Pa
Top pressure 1 bar = 100 x 10
3
pa
Estimated bottom pressure = 100 x 10
3
+ 54050.157
= 154050.157 Pa
= 1.54 bar
1.2.25 CALCULATION FOR DENSITY AND RELATIVE MOLAR MASS
Table 1.10: Properties of TBA, PO and Acetone
Component Molecular
weight
Feed
Mol
fraction
Top
product
Mol
fraction
Bot.
product
Mol
fraction
Liquid
density
TBA 74 0.4950 - 0.9989 787.0
PO 58 0.4950 0.9844 0.0011 829.0
HO(acetone) 58 0.0100 0.0156 - 790.0
Calculation for relative molar mass
Feed = 0.495 (74) + 0.495 (58) + 0.010 (58)
= 66.0 kg/kmol
Top product = 0.9844 (58) + 0.0156 (58)
= 58 kg/kmol
Bottom product = 0.9989 (74) + 0.0011(58)
= 74.0 kg/kmol
Calculation for density ( ρ)
Bottom product:
Liquid density (ρL) = 0.9989 (787) + 0.0011(829)
= 787.1 kg/m
3
Vapour density (ρv) = (74 / 22.4) (273 / 356) (1.54 / 1.00)
= 3.90 kg/m
3
Top product:
Liquid density (ρL) = 0.9844 (829) + 0.0156 (790)
= 828.4 kg/m
3
Vapour density (ρv) = (58 / 22.4) (273 / 308) (1.0 / 1.0)
= 2.30 kg/m
3
1.2.26 CALCULATION SURFACE TENSION (Σ)
Using Sugden (1924), equation 8.23 (Coulson & Richardson’s) vol.6 page 334
σ = [ {Pch (ρL – ρv)} / M ]
4
x 10
-12
Where,
σ = surface tension, MJ/ m
2
Pch = Sugden’s parachor
ρL = liquid density
ρv = Vapour density
M = relative molecular weight
For mixture
σm = σ1x1 + σ2 x2
Table 1.11: The Sugden’s Parachor for TBA, PO and Acetone
Component Formula Pch
contribution
Top product
Mol fraction
Bot. product
Mol fraction
TBA
C4H10O
184.4 - 0.9989
PO
CH3(CHCH2)O
137 0.9844 0.0011
HO(acetone)
CH3COCH3
137 0.0156 -
Pch at top = 0.9844 (137) + 0.0156(137)
= 137
Pch at bottom = 0.9989 (184.4) + 0.0011 (137)
= 184.3
Hence,
Surface tension at top Column,
σm = {[137 (828.4 - 2.30)] / 58}
4
x 10
-12
= 14.5 dyne /cm or 14.5 x 10
-3
N/m
Surface tension at bottom column,
σm = {[184.3 (787.1 -3.90)] / 74}
4
x 10
-12
= 14.5 dyne / cm or 14.5 x 10
-3
N/m
1.2.27 COLUMN DIAMETER
F LV = Lm,n { ρv / ρL)
0.5
Vm,n
Where, FLV is a liquid flow factor.
FLV (Top) = 0.55 {2.30 / 828.4)
0.5
= 0.029
Where, 0.55 is the distillate operating line.
FLV (Bottom) = 1.45 {3.90 / 787.1)
0.5
= 0.102
Where, 1.45 is the bottom operating line.
Assume initially 0.9m of tray spacing, to know that flooding occurred or not.
From figure 11.27 (Coulson & Richardson’s, Vol. 6 page 567) we get the value of Ki.
(Please refer APPENDIX A-1)
Hence,
Bottom Ki = 1.04 x 10
-1
Top Ki = 1.05 x 10
-1
Take hole active area 10 %,
Bottom Ki = 1.04 x 10
-1
x 1.0 = 0.104
Top Ki = 1.05 x 10
-1
x 1.0 = 0.105
Correction for surface tension,
= K
1
x (σ / 0.02)
2
Which, liquid surface tension is 0.02 N/m
Bottom Ki = (14.5 x 10
-3
/ 0.02)
0.2
x 0.104 = 0.098
Top Ki = (14.5 x 10
-3
/ 0.02)
0.2
x 0.105 = 0.099
Flooding velocity,
Uf = Ki √ (ρL – ρv) / ρv
Bottom Uf = 0.098 √ (787.1-3.9) / 3.9 = 1.39 m/s
Top Uf = 0.099 √ (828.4 – 2.3) / 2.3 = 1.87 m/s
The flooding percentage was assumed to be 90%, this is based on flooding velocity
for design, a value of 70 % to 90 %.
Bottom Uf = 1.39 m/s x 0.9 = 1.25 m/s
Top Uf = 1.8 m/s x 0.9 = 1.68 m/s
Maximum volumetric flow rate,
Bottom = { Vm ( RMM)} / ρv
RMM = Relative molecular mass
Bottom = 1586.7481 x 74 = 8.36 m
3
/s
3.90 x 3600
Top = { Vn ( RMM)} / ρv
= 1586.7480 x 58 = 11.12 m
3
/s
2.30 x 3600
Net area required = Volumetric flow rate / flooding velocity
Bottom = 8.36 / 1.25 = 6.69 m
2
Top = 11.12 / 1.68 = 6.62 m
2
As first trial, take downcomer area as 10% of total column cross sectional area
Bottom = 6.69 / 0.90 = 7.43 m
2
Top = 6.62 / 0.90 = 7.36 m
2
Column Diameter
Hence, Column cross sectional area, A = (  diameter / 2)
2
Bottom = √ (7.43 x 4) /  = 3.08 m
Top = √ (7.36 x 4) /  = 3.06 m
For the design take the whole diameter as 3.00 m.
1.2.28 PROVISIONAL PLATE DESIGN
Column diameter Dc = 3.00 m
Column area Ac = 7.07 m
2
Downcomer area Ad = 0.10 x 7.07 (at 10%) = 0.707 m
2
Net area An = Ac – Ad = 7.07 – 0.707 = 6.36 m
2
Active area Aa = Ac – 2Ad
= 7.07 – 2(0.707) = 5.66 m
2
Hole area Ah = 0.566 m
2
(take 10% of Aa as first trial)
Weir length
(Ad / Ac) x 100% = 0.707/ 7.07 x 100% = 10%
(From figure 11.31, Coulson & Richardson’s, vol. 6 page 572),
(Please refer APPENDIX A-2)
Iw = 0.73 x Dc
= 0.75 x 3.00 = 2.19m
Take weir height, hw = 50mm
Hole diameter, dh = 5mm
Plate thickness = 5mm
1.2.29 EVALUATION DESIGN
Check weeping (enough vapour to prevent liquid flow through hole).
Max. Liquid flowrate = 2295.618 kmol/hr x 74 kg/kmol
3600 s
= 47.19 kg/s
Minimum Liquid rate = 0.7 x 47.19 kg/s (70% turn down ratio)
= 33.03 kg/s.
Weir Liquid crest
how = 750 (Lw / (ρL x Iw)
2/3
Where, Iw = weir length
Lw = liquid flow rate, kg/s
ρL = Liquid density
Maximum, how = 750 {47.19 / (787.1 x 2.19)}
2/3
= 68.13 mm liquid
Minimum, how = 750 {33.03 / (787.1 x 2.19)}
2/3
= 53.17 mm liquid
At minimum rate, clear liquid depth,
how + hw = 53.71 + 50 = 103.71 mm liquid.
From figure 11.30, Coulson & Richardson’s, vol. 6, page 571)
(Please refer APPENDIX A-3)
When, how + hw = 103.71 mm liquid
k2 = 31.0
Weep point
The purpose to calculate this weep point is to know the lower limit of the operating
range occurs when liquid leakage through the plate holes becomes excessive.
Minimum vapour velocity through the holes based on the holes area.
Uh (min) = k2 - 0.9(25.4 – dh)
(ρv)
1/2
= 31- 0.9 (25.4 – 5)
(3.9)
1/2
= 6.40 m/s
Actual minimum Vapour velocity,
= minimum vapour rate / Ah
= (0.7 x 8.36) / 0.566
= 10.34 m/s
So, minimum operating rate will above weep point.
Plate pressure drop
Dry plate drop ( hd)
Maximum vapour velocity through holes
Uh (Max.) = volumetric flow rate / hole area (Ah)
= 8.36 / 0.566 = 14.77 m/s
From figure 11.34, (Coulson & Richardson’s), Vol 6 page 576.
For the thickness / hole diameter = 1
Ah / Ap = Ah / Aa = 0.566 / 5.66
= 0.1
(Please refer APPENDIX A-4)
θ
So, (Orifice coefficient) Co = 0.84
hd = 51(Uh / Co)
2
(ρv/ ρL)
= 51(14.77/0.84)
2
(3.9/ 787.1)
= 78.13 mm liquid
Residual head ( hr) = (12.5 x 10
3
) / ρL
= (12.5 x 10
3
) / 787.1
= 15.88 mm liquid
Pressure drop per plate ( ht) = hd + (hw+how) + hr
= 78.13+ (50+68.13) + 15.88
= 212.14 mm liquid
Note: 200 mm liquid was assumed to calculate the bottom pressure. The calculation
could be repeated but the small change in physical properties will have effect on the
plate design. Hence, 212.14 mm liquid per plate is considered acceptable.
Down comer liquid back–up
Downcomer pressure loss.
Take hap = hw - 10mm
= 50 - 100 = 40 mm
Where, hap is the height of the bottom edge of the apron above the plate.
Area under apron, Aap = hap x Iw
= 40 x 10
-3
x 2.19 m
2
= 0.0876 m
2
Where, Aap is the clearance area under downcomer.
As this less than Ad = 0.707 m
2
hdc = 166 ( Lwd / ρL Am)
2
Where, hdc = head loss in downcomer, mm
Lwd = liquid flow-rate in downcomer, kg/s
Am = either the downcomer area Ad / the
clearance area under the downcomer
Aap, whichever is the smaller.
θ
Hdc = 166 (47.19 / 787.1 x 0.0876)
2
= 77.76 mm.
Back up in the downcomer, (hb),
Hbc = hw + how + hf + hdc
= 50 + 68.13 + 212.14 + 77.76
= 408.03 mm liquid @ 0.408 m.
Check,
0.408 ‹ 1/2 (plate spacing + weir height)
‹ 1/2 (0.9 + 0.05) m
‹ 0.475 m
So, tray spacing is acceptable, (to avoid flooding).
Residence time, t
Sufficient residence time must be allowed in the downcomer for the entrained
vapour to disengage from the liquid stream, to prevent heavily “aerated “liquid being
carried under the downcomer. A time at least 3 seconds is recommended.
Check residence time:
tr = (Ad x hbc x ρL ) / Lwd
= (0.707 x 0.408 x 787.1) / 47.19
= 4.81 s.
tr is greater than 3.0 which recommended so tr here is satisfactory.
Check Entrainment.
Actual velocity, Uv = Uf( max.) / An(net area)
= 8.36m
3
/s / 6.36m
2
= 1.31 m/s
% Flooding, = Un actual velocity (based on net area)
Uf
= (1.31 / 1.39) x 100
= 94%
Flv (bottom) = 0.102
From figure 11.29 (Coulson & Richardson’s), Vol.6 page 570
θ
(Please refer APPENDIX A-5)
Ψ value = 0.071
Ψ value is below 0.1, so the column diameter, which is proposed earlier, is
acceptable.
Trial Layout
Use cartridge type construction.
Allow 50 mm unperforated
50 mm wide calming zone.
50 mm
Iw=2.19
Dc = 3.0m


50 mm
Figure 1.1: Trial layout of plate
Perforated area:
From figure 11.32 (Coulson & Richardson’s), Vol.6 page 573.
At Iw / Dc = 2.19 / 3.00
= 0.73
θc = 96
0

Angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strips
= 180 – 98
= 84
0

Mean length, unperforated edge strips
= (3.00 – 50 x 10
-3
) x   x 84/180
= 4.32 m
Area of unperforated edge strips,
= 50 x 10
-3
x 4.32m
= 0.216 m
2
Area of Claming zone,
= 2 x 50 x 10
-3
(3.00 - 50 x 10
-3
) sin (98/2)
= 0.22 m
2
Total area available for perforation, Ap:
Ap = Active area - (area of unperforated edge + area of calming)
= 5.66 - (0.216 + 0.220)
= 5.22 m
2
Ah / Ap,
= 0.566 / 5.22 = 0.11
From figure 11.33, (Coulson & Richardson’s) vol.6 page 574.
(Please refer APPENDIX A-6)
Ip / dh,
= 2.85
Satisfactory, range normally within 2.5 – 4.0
Number of holes:
Area of one hole = 1.964 x 10
-5
(with diameter 5mm)
Number of holes = 0.566 / 1.964 x 10
-5
= 28819
Plate Specification
50 mm
Iw=2.19m Dc =3.0m
50 mm
Figure 1.2: Plate specification.
Plate no. = 1 (from bottom column)
Plate ID = 3.00
Hole size diameter = 5 mm
Hole pitch = 12.5 Δ
Active holes = 28,819
Turn down ratio = 70% at max.Liquid
Plate Material = stainless
Downcomer material = stainless
Plate spacing = 0.9 m
Plate thickness = 5 mm
Plate pressure drop = 212 mm liquid.
1.2.30 PLATE EFFICIENCY ( EMV)
Using Van Winkle correlation, equation 11.69 (Coulson & Richardson’s) vol.6 page
551
Emv = 0.07 Dg
0.14
Sc
0.25
Re
0.08
Where,
Emv = Plate efficiency
Dg = surface tension number = σL / (µ
L
µ
V)
µ
V
= superficial vapour velocity
σ
L
= liquid surface tension
µ
L
= liquid Viscosity
Sc = liquid schimdt number = µ
L
/ (ρ
L
D
LK
)
ρ
L
= liquid density
DLK = Liquid Diffusivity, Light Key Component
Re = Reynol’s number = (hw uv ρv) / (µL FA)
Hw = weir height
Ρv = Vapour density
FA = fractional area = area of holes
Total column cross sectional area
To calculate liquid diffusivity (for light key component)
Using equation develop by Wilke and Chang (1955), to predict the liquid diffusivity.
DL = 1.173 x 10
-13
( ØM)
0.5
T
µVm
0.6
DL = liquid diffusivity
Ø = an association factor for solvent
(Take Ø as 1.0 for unassociated solvent)
M = Molecular weight of solvent
µ = viscosity of solvent
T = temperature, K
Vm = molar volume of solute at its boiling point, m
3
/ kmol
Here, solvent is TBA.
To estimate Viscosity of solvent (TBA)
Estimation based at temperature 83
0
C or 356 K (bottom column temperature)
Log (viscosity) = (VISA) x { (1/T) – (1/VISB) }
= 972.1 x { 1/356 – 1/363.8)
= 0.0586
Viscosity = 1.14 mNs/m
2
.
Actual viscosity,
= 1.14 x 0.9874
= 1.1256 mNs/m
2
.
Molecular weight of TBA at bottom column = 74.0 kg / kmol.
Note: reference for viscosity calculation from physical property data, C&R,vol 6
To estimate the molar (Vm) of the solute (PO) at its boiling point
This can be estimated from the group contributions given in table 8.6 (C & R),Vol. 6
page 333.
Propylene oxide, (PO),
Formula : C3H6O
Table 1.12: Calculation of molar volume PO
Atom Volume Number of Volume x Number of
C 0.0148 3 0.0444
H 0.0037 6 0.0222
O 0.0074 1 0.0074
total 0.0740
Therefore, actual molar volume ( Vm) of PO = 0.0011 x 0.0740
= 8.14 x 10
-5
m
3
/ kmol
Liquid diffusivity, DL
DL = 1.173 x 10
-13
x (1.0 x 74)
0.5
x 356
1.1256 x (8.14 x 10
-5
)
0.6
= 9.07 x 10
-8
m
2
/s
To calculate liquid viscosity (at bottom )
Log (viscosity) = (VISA) x { (1/T) – (1/VISB) }
Using the T = 356 K (Bottom Temperature)
Table 1.13: Viscosity of TBA and PO at 356 K temperature
Component VISA VISB µ
TBA 972.10 363.38 1.145
PO 377.43 213.36 0.195
Liquid viscosity mixture (µ L)
µL = 0.9989 (1.145) + 0.0011 (0.145)
= 1.144 mNs/m
2
Superficial vapour velocity ( Uv)
Uv = vapour volumetric flow rate
Total column cross sectional area
= 8.36 m
3
/s / 7.07 m
2
= 1.18 m/s
FA (Fractional area),
= hole area
Total column cross sectional area
= 0.566 m
2
/ 7.36 m
2
= 0.0769
Liquid surface tension σL = 14.6 x 10
-3
N/m
Dg = surface tension number
= σL / (µL µV)
= 14.5 x 10
-3
1.18 x 1.144 x 10
-3
= 10.74
Sc (Liquid Schmidt number) = µL / (ρ
L
DLK)
= 1.144 x 10
-3
/ (787.1 x 9.07 x 10
-8
)
= 16.02
Reynolds’s number = (hw uv ρv) / (µL FA)
50 x 10
-3
x 1.18 x 3.9
0.0769 x 1.144 x 10
-3
= 2615.56
Therefore, plate efficiency,
Emv = 0.07 Dg
0.14
Sc
0.25
Re
0.08
= 0.07(10.74)
0.14
(16.02)
0.25
(2615.56)
0.08
= 0.37 x 100
= 37%
1.3 MECHANICAL DESIGN
Column design specification
Total column height = tray spacing x no. of stages
= 0.9 x 35
= 31.5 m
Allow, 2 m for clearance height
= 31.5 + 2
= 33.5 m
Internal Diameter, Dc = 3.00 m
Operating pressure,
Top column = 1.0 bar
Bottom column = 1.39 bar
Take column operating at = 1.39 bar
Material of column = stainless steel
Operating temperature = 35
0
C to 83
0
C
Tray type = sieve tray (35 trays)
Material of type = stainless steel
Insulation column = mineral wool 75 mm thick
Design stress (σ des) = 175 N/mm
2
Take design pressure as 10% above operating pressure,
= 1.39 x 1.1
= 1.529 bar 0r 0.1529 N/mm
2
Minimum thickness required for pressure loading (t),
t = (ΔP x Dc) / (2 σ des – ΔP)
= 0.1529 x 3.00x 10
3
2 (175) – 0.1529
= 8.57 mm.
A much thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the wind and
dead weight load. As a trial, divide the column into two sections with the thickness
increasing by 2 mm per section. Try 8 and 12 mm with mean thickness 10 mm.
1.3.11 Dead weight of vessel.
Wv = 240 x Cv x Dm x ( Hv + 0.8 Dm ) t x 10
-3
kN
Where,
Wv = total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as
plates
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways and
internal supports. (In this case for distillation column take Cv as 1.15).
Dm = mean diameter of vessel ( Dc + t x 10
-3
) m
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness, m
Note: (Equation above applies strictly to vessel with uniform thickness, but it can
be used to get rough estimation of the weight of the vessel.)
First try take,
T = 10 mm or 10 x 10
-3
m.
Cv = 1.15
Dm = (3.00 + 10 x 10
-3
) = 3.01m
Hv = 33.5 m
∴Wcv = 240 x 1.15 x 3.01 (33.5 + 0.8(33.5)) x 10 x 10
-3
= 500.9 kN
1.3.12 Weight of plates.
Plate area = ( /  4) x 3
2
= 7.07m
2
Weight of plate = 1.2 x 7.07 = 8.48 kN.
(Where, 1.2 is factor for contacting plates, steel including typical liquid loading in
kN/m
2
)
For 35 plates = 35 x 8.48
= 296. kN
1.3.13 Weight of insulation.
Mineral wool density = 130 kg/m
3
.
Approximate volume of insulation =  x 3.0 x 33.5(75 x 10
-2
)
= 23.68 m
3
.
Weight = 23.68 x 130 x 9.81
= 30199.1 N or 30.20 kN.
Double this value to allow for fitting = 60.4 kN.
Total weight ( Wv ),
Shell = 500.9 kN
Plates = 296.8 kN
Insulation = 60.40 kN
Total = 858.1 kN
1.3.14 Wind Loading.
Dynamic wind pressure = ½ x Cd x ρa x Uw
2
For smooth cylinder = 0.05 U
w
2
Design for 160 km/hr = 0.05 x (160)
2
= 1280 N/m
2
.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 3.0 + 3.0 (10+75) x10
-3
.
= 3.26 m
∴Loading per unit length, Fw = 1280 x 3.26
= 4172.8 N/m.
Bending moment at bottom tangent line, Mx :
Mx = ∫ o
x
Fwxdx
Where x = Hv = 33.5 m (column height).
Mx = Fw (x
2
/ 2)
= 4172.8 {(33.5)
2
/ 2}
= 2,341,462.4 N/m.
1.3.15 Analysis of stresses at bottom.
At bottom tangent line:
Pressure stresses:
σL = PD / 4t
Where P = operating pressure = 0.1529 N/mm
2
D = column diameter = 3.00 m
T = thickness = 12 mm.
σL = 0.1529 x 3x10
3
/ (4 x 12)
= 9.56 N/mm
2
σh = PD / 2t
= 0.1529 x 3x10
3
/ (2 x 12)
= 19.11 N/mm
2
Dead weight stress
σw = Wv
π ( Di + t ) t
= 858.1
x  ( 3x10
3
+ 12) 12
= - 7.56 N/mm
2
(- ve sign because compressive stress)
Bending stress
σb = t M / Iv ( Di / 2 + t )
Where Iv is the second moment of area,
Iv =  / 64 (Do
4
- Di
4
)
Do = 3000 + 2 x 12 = 3024 mm
Di = 3000 mm
∴Iv = / 64 x (3024
4
-3000
4
) =1.29 x 10
11
mm
4
σb = t 2,341,462.4 x 10
3
x (3000/ 2 + 12)
1.29 x 10
11

= t 27.44 N/mm
2
.
The resultant longitudinal stress is
σz = σL + σw t σb
σw is compressive stress and therefore –ve sign.
σz (upwind) = 9.56 - 7.56 + 27.44
= 29.44 N/mm
2
σz (downwind) = 9.56 - 7.56 - 27.44
= - 25.44 N/mm
2
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principle stresses will be σz and σh. The
radial stress σr is negligible.
Check failure against greatest difference of the principle stresses:
i.e 19.11 - (- 25.44) = 44.55 N/mm
2
Design stress = 175 N/mm
2
. ( stainless steel ).
Failure is well below the design stress.
Check elastic stability (buckling).
Critical buckling stress, σc :
∴σc = 2 x 10
4
( t / Do) N/mm
2
= 2 x 10
4
( 12 / 3024)
= 79.37 N/mm
2
.
When the vessel is not under pressure (where the maximum stress occur)
= σw + σb
= 27.44 + 7.56 = 35.0 N/mm
2
.
The maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Hence, design is
satisfactory.
1.8 DESIGN OF STIFFNESS RING
Take Rings = 75 mm wide.
Rings = 10 mm deep.
Plate spacing = 0.9 m.
Take design pressure as 1 bar external or 10
5
N/m
2
.
The load each ring :
Fr = PcLs
Where, Pc = External pressure
Ls = Spacing between the rings
So, the load per unit length on the ring
Fr = 10
5
N/m
2
. x 0.9 m
= 0.9 x 10
5
N/m.
Taking E (young’s modulus) for the steel at temperature 83
0
C (column maximum
operating temperature) as 150.000 N/mm
2
or 1.5 x 10
11
N/m
2
and using a factor of
safety of 6, the second moment of area of the ring to ovoid buckling is given:
PcLs = 24 E Ir
Dr
3
x factor of safety
Where, Ir = second moment of area of the ring cross-section
Dr = diameter of the ring (approximately equal to the shell outside
diameter) = 3.00 m.
0.9 x 10
5
N/m = 24 x 1.5 x 0.9 x 10
11
Ir
3
3
x 6
∴Ir = 4.5 x 10
-7
m
4
For the rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:
I = breath x depth
3
12
So, Ir for the support rings = 10 x (75) x
3
10
-12
12
= 3.5 x 10
-7
m
4
And the support rings is adequate size to be considered as a stiffening
Ring,
L’
= 0.9 / 3 = 0.3
Do
Where L’ = plate spacing
Do = internal diameter
D
o = 3000 / 10 = 300
t
Where t = column shell mean thickness (10 mm).
From figure 13.16, (Coulson & Richardson’s), vol.6 pg. 825,
(Please refer APPENDIX A-7)
Kc = 101
From equation 13.52, (Coulson & Richardson’s), vol.6 pg. 751,
Pc = Kc x E x (t / Do)
3
.
= 101 x 1.5 x 10
11
x (10 / 3000)
3
.
= 5.6 x 10
5
N/m
2
.
This is above the maximum design pressure of 1.0 x 10
5
N/m
2
. So, design of the
support rings to support the plate is satisfied.
1.9 DESIGN OF DOMED END.
Taken an ‘standard’ ellipsoidal head, ratio major: minor axes = 2 : 1.
This type of head is chosen because it would be the most economical.
Material of construction is stainless steel.
e = Pi Di
2 J f – 0.2 P
i
Where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required
Pi = internal pressure, 0.1529 N/mm
2
Di = internal diameter, 3.00 m
f = design stress , 175 N/mm
2
J = Joint factor ( for ellipsoidal head J= 1 )
Therefore, minimum thickness required,
e = 0.1529 x 3.0 x 1000
2 x 1x 175 - 0.2 (0.1529)
= 1.31 mm
Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance = 3.31 mm. say 4.0 mm.
So, thickness for the Domed End with ellipsoidal head is 4 mm.
1.6 DESIGN FOR THE SKIRT SUPPORT.
Design for a straight cylindrical skirt, ( θs - 90
0
)
Material of construction stainless steel
Design stress = 175 N/mm
2
Young’s modulus = 150,000 N/mm
2
The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full with
TBA.
Approximate weight =  / 4 x 3.02 x 33.5 x 787.1 x 9.81
= 1828420.65 N = 11828.42 kN.
Weight of vessel from previous calculation = 858.1 kN.
Total weight = 1828.42 + 858.1
= 2686.52 kN
Wind loading from previous calculation = 4.17 kN
Take skirt support height as 1 m,
Bending moment at base skirt=4.17 x (Column height+skirt support height)
2
2
= 4.17 (33.5 + 1)
2
/ 2
= 2481.67 kNm.
As a first trial, take skirt thickness as the same that of the bottom section of the
vessel, 12 mm. The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead weight
loads and bending moments imposed on it by the vessel; it will not be under the
pressure vessel.
The resultant stresses in the skirt will be :
σs (tensile) = σbs - σws
and σs (compressive) = σbs + σws
where σbs = bending stress in the skirt
σws = dead weight stress in the skirt
σbs = 4 Ms
π ( Ds + ts ) ts Ds
Where, Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the
base of the skirt (due to the wind, seismic and
Eccentric loads)
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base
ts = skirt thickness
∴σbs = 4 x 2481.67 x 10
3
x 10
3

 (3000 + 12) 3000 x 12
= 29.14 N/mm
2
σws (test) = W
π ( Ds + ts ) ts
= 1828.42 x 10
3
π (3000 + 12) 12
= 16.10 N/mm
2
σws (operating) = 858.1 x 10
3
π (3000 + 12) 12
= 7.56 N/mm
2
Maximum σs (compressive) = 29.14 + 16.10
= 45.24 N/mm
2
Maximum σs (tensile) = 29.14 - 7.56
= 21.58 N/mm
2
Take joint factor as 0.85,
Criteria for design:
σs (maximum, tensile) < fs J sinθ
21.58 < 0.85 x sin 90
o
21.58 < 148.7
σs (maximum, compressive) < 0.12 E ( ts / Ds ) sinθ
45.24 < 0.125 x 150000 x (12/3000) sin 90
45.24 < 75
Both criteria are satisfied. Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance.
Therefore for the design thickness = 14 mm.
REFERENCES
R. K. Sinnott. 2000. Chemical Engineering Design. Volume 6. Third Edition. Great
Britain. Butterworth Heinmann.
H. Perry and W.Green, 1998. Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook, Seventh
Edition, United State.
Douglas, James M., 1988,Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, Singapore,
McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Elvers B.,1989, Ullman’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Volume 13,
Germany, VCH Verlagsgesellschuft.
Scott, Doug and Crawley Frank. 1992, Process Plant design and Operation,
Warwickshire, UK, Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Fogler, H.Scott, 1999, Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Third Edition,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Inc.
Ludwig, E. Ernest, 1964, Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical
Plants, Vol. 1, Houston, Gulf Publishing Company.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
Dimensions in M, L, T
Aa Active area of plate L
2
Aap Clearance area under apron L
2
Ac Total column cross sectional – area L
2
Ad Downcomer cross - sectional area L
2
Ah Total hole area L
2
An Net area available for vapour – liqud disengagement L
2
Ap Perforated area L
2
Co Orifice coefficient -
D Mols of distillate per unit time MT
-1
Dc Column diameter L
dh Hole diameter L
Emv Plate efficiency -
g Gravitational acceleration -
hap Apron clearance LT
-2
hb Height of liquid back – up in down comer L
hbc Down comer back – up in term of clear liquid head L
hd Dry plate pressure drop, head of liquid L
hdc Head loss in down comer L
how Height of liquid crest over down comer weir L
hr Plate residual pressure drop L
ht Total plate pressure drop L
hw Weir height L
K1 Constant -
Lm Molar flow rate of liquid per unit area ML
-2
T
-1
Lw Liquid flow rate L
2
T
-1
Lwd Liquid mass flow rate MT
-1
Ip Pitch of holes (distance between centre) L
Iw Weir length L
Nm Minimum number of stages -
NT Theoretical number of stages -
∆pt Total plate pressure drop ML
-1
T
-2
P
o
Partial pressure ML
-1
T
-2
q Heat to vaporize one mol of feed divided by molar latent heat -
R Universal gas constant L
2
T
2
θ
-1
R Reflux ratio -
Rm Minimum reflux ratio -
Ua Vapour velocity based on active area LT
-1
Uf Vapour velocity through holes LT
-1
Uv Superficial velocity (based on total cross sectional area) LT
-1
V Vapour flow rate per unit time MT
-1
Vw Vapour mass flow rate MT
-1
xi Mole fraction of component I -
xd Mole fraction of component in distillate -
yi Mole fraction of component I -
µL Liquid viscosity -
µ Viscosity of solvent ML
-1
T
-1
ρL Liquid density ML
-1
T
-1
ρv Vapour density ML
-3
σ Surface tension MT
-2
Dm Mean diameter L
E Young’ Modulus ML
-1
T
-2
Hv Height between tangent L
Pi Internal pressure ML
-1
T
-2
Mx Bending moment at base of the skirt ML
-1
T
-2
Ms Bending moment at point x from free end column ML
2
T
-2
t Thickness of plate (shell) L
ts Skirt thickness L
J Joint factor -
σb Bending stress ML
-1
T
-2
σw Dead weight stress ML
-1
T
-2
σcw Compressive stress ML
-1
T
-2
σws Stress in skirt due to weight of vessel ML
-1
T
-2
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN NOOR HARYANI BINTI MUSTAPHA
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 2:
HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 2 HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
2.1. INTRODUCTION 34
2.2 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 35
Selection of Shell-And-Tube-Type
Of Heat Exchanger 35
2.3 BASIS DESIGN PROCEDURE
OF HEAT EXCHANGER 39
2.4 CHEMICAL DESIGN OF FLOATING
HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER 41
2.4.1 Design Specification 41
2.4.2 Properties Of Steam And TBA 42
2.4.3 Heat Load 45
2.4.4 Heat Transfer Area 45
2.4.5 Number Of Tubes 46
2.4.6 Tubes Arrangement (Pitch) 47
2.4.7 Diameter Of Shell 48
2.4.8 Tube Side Coefficient, Hi 49
2.4.9 Shell Side Coefficient, Hs 50
2.4.10 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, Uo 52
2.4.11 Tube Side Pressure Drop 53
2.4.12 Shell Side Pressure Drop 54
MECHANICAL DESIGN OF
HEAT EXCHANGER 56
Design Specification 57
DESIGN PRESSURE
AND TEMPERATURE 57
2.7 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 58
2.8 DESIGN STRESS 59
2.9 WELDED JOINT EFFICIENCY 60
CORROSION ALLOWANCE 60
2.11 DESIGN CRITERIA 60
TITLE PAGE
2.11.1 Minimum Thickness Of
Cylindrical Of The Shell 61
2.12HEADS AND CLOSURE 62
Design of Domed
Ends-Ellipsoidal Heads 62
2.13DESIGN LOAD 63
2.14DESIGN OF NOZZLES 64
Shell Side Nozzles 64
2.14.2 Tubes Side Nozzles 65
The selected tube size nozzle 66
2.14.4 Shell side nozzles 67
2.15BOLT-FLANGED JOINTS 67
BAFFLES 68
2.17SUPPORT DESIGN – SADDLES
SUPPORT 69
CHAPTER 2
CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER
2.1. INTRODUCTION
Heat exchanger is a device that provides the flow of thermal energy between 2
or more fluids at different temperature. Heat exchanger are used in a wide variety of
application which include power production; process, chemical and etc. In
production of MTBE, heat exchanger is one of the important equipment to design, in
spite of distillation column, reactor and separator. The purpose of this equipment is
to increase or decrease the mixture to the desired temperature that is from
temperature 82
o
C to temperature 316
o
C. Type of heat exchanger that has been
chosen is the shell-and-tube heat exchanger.
The shell and tube heat exchanger is the most common of the various types of
unfired heat transfer equipment used in industry. Although it is not especially
compact, it is robust and its shapes make it well suited to pressure operation. Shell-
and-tube heat exchanger gives a lot of advantage, which may include;
a) Good mechanical layout; a good shape for pressure operations.
b) It can provide a large transfer area in a small space.
c) It also can be constructed from a wide range of materials.
d) It can clean easily.
e) It used well-established fabrication technique and design procedure.
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are built of round tubes mounted in long
cylindrical shell with the tubes axis parallel to that of the shell. One fluids stream flow
through the tube while the other flows on the shell side, across or along the tubes. A
number of shell-and-tube flow arrangements are used in shell-and-tube heat
exchanger depending on heat duty, pressure drop, pressure level, fouling
manufacturing technique and cost, and cleaning problems. Shell-and-tube heat
exchanger is design on a custom basis for any capacity and operating condition and
this is contrary to many heat exchanger types.
2.2 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT
Basically there are three types of heat exchanger used in industries, which are
a) Shell-and-tube heat exchanger
b) Plate heat exchanger
c) Spiral heat exchanger
Among the three types of exchanger, the one that have been chosen is shell-
and-tubes heat exchanger because it is the most widely used and can be designed
for virtually application. Besides, it also relatively cheaper than other heat exchanger
with a sufficient in its applications.
Selection of Shell-and-Tube-Type of Heat Exchanger
There are various types of heat exchanger used in industries; each one of it can
give its own advantages and disadvantages. Table 2.1 shows the advantages and
disadvantages of each type of heat exchanger:
Table 2.1: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Types of Heat
Exchanger
Construction Advantages Disadvantages
Non-
removable
Bundle,
Fixed Tube
Sheet
• Less costly
Give maximum
heat transfer
surface per given
size of shell and
tubes
• Shell side can be cleaned only
by chemical means.
Table 2.1: The Advantages and Disadvantages Of Each Types Of Heat Exchanger
(Continue)
Construction Advantages Disadvantages
• Provides multi-
tube pass
arrangement
Removable Bundle,
Packed Floating Tube
Sheet
• Shell side can be
mechanically
cleaned
• Bundle can be
easily replaced or
• Shell side fluids
limited to non
volatile
• Tube side
arrangement
repair
• Less costly than
pull, internal
floating head
types
• Maximum surface
per given shell
and tube size
limited to one or 2
passes
• Tubes expand as
a group, not
individually, so
sudden shock’s
should be
avoided
• Limits design
pressure and
temperature
Removable Bundle,
Internal Clamp ring,
Types Floating head
cover.
• Good for
handling
flammable or
toxic fluids
• High surface per
given shell and
tubes size
• Provides multi
tubes pass
arrangement
• More costly than
fixed tube sheet
or U tube heat
exchanger design
• Shell cover,
clamp ring and
floating head
cover must be
removed prior to
removing the
bundle. Results
Table 2.1: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Types of Heat Exchanger
(Continue)
Construction Advantages Disadvantages
in higher
maintenance cost
Removable Bundle U
tube
• Less costly than
floating head or
packed floating
tube sheet design
• Provides multi
tube pass
arrangement
• High surface area
• Tube side only
can be cleaned
by chemical
means
• Individual tube
replacement is
not practical
• Cannot made
single tube pass
• Capable of
withstanding
thermal shock
• Draining tube
side difficult in
vertical position
TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association) give classification of heat
exchanger. Table 2.2 give the types of heat exchanger that have been chosen and
reasons why it being selected.
Table 2.2: Selection of Heat Exchanger
Type Reasons of Selection
Front End
Stationary
Head Types
Type A
• Channel and
removable
cover
• Good for frequent cleaning of
tubes
Shell Types Type E
• One pass
shell
• The most commonly used in
industries
• More cheaper and simple
Table 2.2: Selection of Heat Exchanger (Continue)
Type Reasons of Selection
Rear Ends Head Types Type T
• Pull through
floating head
• Give a smaller
number of tubes
• Reduced
maintenance time
because the
bundle can be
withdrawn from
the shell without
removing shell or
floating-head
covers
2.3 BASIS DESIGN PROCEDURE OF HEAT EXCHANGER
An algorithm for the design of shell-and tube exchanger is shown in figure 2.1.
Figure 2.1: Design Procedure of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger
Step 1
Specification
Define duty
Make energy balance if needed
to calculate unspecified flow
rates of temperature
Step 2
Step 10
Decide baffle spacing and
estimate shell-side heat transfer
coefficient
Calculate overall heat transfer
coefficient including fouling
factors, Uo, calc
Estimate tube and shell-side
pressure drop
Set Uo, ass = Uo, cal
NO
Step 11
Step 12
Collect physical properties
Step 3
Assume value of overall
coefficient Uo, ass
Step 4
Decide number of shell and
tubes passes. Calculate
lm
T ∆
,
correction factor, F, and
lm
T ∆

Step 5
Determine heat transfer area
required:
lm ass o o
T U q A ∆ ·
,
/
Step 6
Calculate number of tube
ass o
ass o calc o
U
U U
,
. ,
% 30 0 〈 − 〈
Estimate cost of heat
exchanger

YES
Step 8
Decide type, tube size, material layout.
Assign fluids to shell or tube side
Pressure drop
within
specification?
Step 13
YES
NO
YES
(Sources: Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6, 2002)
2.4 CHEMICAL DESIGN OF FLOATING HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER
2.4.1 DESIGN SPECIFICATION
Fresh feed TBA to the plant is 52385.26 kg per hour. The stream
specification at the vaporization stage can be obtained from the material and energy
balance. At this stage, the first heat exchanger is used to heat up the TBA stream
from 82
o
C to 316
o
C before entering the first reactor. The process operation is shown
above;
Calculate shell diameter
Step 9
Estimate tube side heat transfer
coefficient
Can design be
optimized to
reduce cost?
NO
Accept design
Step 7
Step 14
Figure 2.2: Process Operation Of Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger
But because the temperature used to heat up the TBA is 316
o
C, then, 2 units of heat
exchanger are needed to get the desired temperature. The process operation will
becomes as follows;
Figure 2.3: Heat Exchanger Is Separate Into 2 Heat Exchanger In Series
2.4.2 PROPERTIES OF STEAM AND TBA
Assumption
1) Heat losses are negligible
2) The rate of each fluid flow is constant.
3) The specific heat of each flux flow is constant
4) All steam have been condensed
Flow rate of steam
= 2500 kg/hr
= 0.69 kg/s
E-101
T
in
= 82
o
C
T
out
= 316
o
C
E-101
T
in
= 82
o
C
T
out
= 316
o
C t
out
= 250
o
C
t
in
= 110
o
C
E-101
Properties of Steam at Temperature = 250
o
C & 110
o
C
Temperature
Item Units T=250
o
C T=110
o
C
Flow rate kg/s 2500 2500
Specific Heat, cp kJ/kg.
o
C 1.9898 2.06
Dynamic viscosity,
µ
kg/m.s 1.776E-05 1.271E-05
Thermal conductivity, k W/m.
o
C 0.0355 0.0246
Density of fluids,
ρ
kg/m
3
0.4245 0.5863
Latent heat kJ/kg 1716 2230
Properties of Steam at Mean Temperature Tm= 180
o
C
Item Units Temperature (180
o
C)
Flow rate kg/s 0.6944
Specific Heat, cp kJ/kg.
o
C 1.98
Dynamic viscosity,
µ
kg/m.s 1.525E-05
Thermal conductivity, k W/m.K 0.0299
Density of fluids,
ρ
kg/m
3
0.4902
Latent heat kJ/kg 2015
(Source: Incropera Dewitt, 2002) (Refer APPENDIX 13)
Properties of TBA
Temperature (
o
C)
Item Units 82 119
Flow rate kg/h 52385.26 52385.26
Specific Heat kJ/kg.
o
C 3.50 2.44
Dynamic viscosity kg/m.s 1.5500E-03 7.06E-06
Thermal conductivity, k W/m.K 0.11 0.1018
Density of fluids kg/m
3
705.00 650.00
(Source: R.W.Gallant, Vol.1, 1992)
Mean Temperature
Mean temperature different
m
T ∆
:
m
T ∆ =
lm t
T F ∆ × (2.1)
where;
m
T ∆
= True temperature different
Ft = temperature correction factor
lm
T ∆
= Logarithmic mean temperature
lm
T ∆ =
( ) ( )

,
_

¸
¸


− − −
1 2
2 1
1 2 2 1
ln
t T
t T
t T t T
(2.2)
where;
t1 = inlet shell-side fluid temperature
t2 = outlet shell-side temperature
T1 = inlet tube-side temperature
T2 = outlet tube-side temperature
( ) ( )

,
_

¸
¸


− − − · ∆
82 110
119 250
ln
82 110 119 250
lm
T
= 66.8
o
C
Using Figure 12.19 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6) the temperature correction
factor can be obtained
1 2
2 1
t t
T T R

− ·
(2.3)


( )
( ) 82 119
110 250

− ·
= 2.7

,
_

¸
¸


·
1 1
1 2
t T
t t
S (2.4)

( )
( ) 82 250
82 119

− ·
= 0.22
From figure 12.19 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6) (Refer APPENDIX B-1)
Ft = 0.92
Substitute value above into equation 1.1

lm t m
T F T ∆ × · ∆
= 0.92
×
(66.8)
= 61.5
o
C
2.4.3 HEAT LOAD
Shell side Q = w. Cp (t2 - t1) (2.5)
= (52385.2586/3600) x (3.5) x (119-82)
= 1.88 kW
Tube side Q = w. Cp (t2 - t1)
= (2500/3600) x (1.98) x (250-110)
= 192.5 kW

2.4.4 HEAT TRANSFER AREA
Types of heat exchanger = Shell and tube with floating head
Passes = 1 shell pass & 2 tube passes
The tube layout and tube size of shell and tube heat exchanger with pull-through
floating head are shown above:
Table 2.3: Layout & Tube Size Of Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger
Unit Dimension
Tube Length, L m 4.8
Outer Diameter, OD mm 20
Inside Diameter, ID mm 16
Pitch, Pt mm 25
Birmingham wire gage
(BWG)
- 14
 Birmingham wire gage (BWG) with value 14 is chosen because it can give
moderate flow area and wall thickness to withstand significant pressure drop.
The hot fluids used is TBA and cold fluids is steam, then from Figure 12.1 assume
the Overall Coefficient,

Uo, ass = 400 W/m
2
.
o
C (Refer APPENDIX B-2)
Start with one shell pass and 2 tubes pass
Heat transfer area in tubes:
Area needed, Ao
(2.6)
Ao = 8.38E+06/(900*147.9)
= 62.94 m
2
2.4.5 NUMBER OF TUBES
Standard pipe are taken from Table 12.3 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6)
Inside diameter, di = 16 mm
Outside diameter, do = 20 mm
Length of the tubes is assumed as
Length, L = 4.8 m
• For a given surface area, the use of longer tubes will reduce the shell
diameter, which will result lower cost of exchanger.
• Using a floating head exchanger for efficiency and ease of cleaning
• Area of one tube: neglecting thickness of tubes sheets Area,
( )
m o
T U Q A ∆ × ÷ ·
2.7)
a = 3.142 X 0.02 X 4.8
= 0.3016 m
2
Number Of tubes,
Nt = Ao/a
Nt = 245.67
say = 246
So for 2 passes, tube per pass = 246/2
= 123
2.4.6 TUBES ARRANGEMENT (PITCH)
Bundle and Shell diameter: the tube in a heat exchanger arranged in triangular
patterns because it give a low-pressure drop.
The tubes pitch (distance between tubes center) = 1.25
Pt = 1.25 x do (2.8)
= (1.25) x (0.02)
= 0.03 m
Figure 2.4: Triangular pattern
DL a Area π · ,
Flow
P
t
2.4.7 DIAMETER OF SHELL
From Table 14.2 for 2 tubes per pass (Refer APPENDIX B-3)
K1 = 0.249
n1 = 2.207
Bundle diameter
Db = do X (Nt/Kt)
1/n1
(2.9)
= 0.02*(246/0.249)
1/2.207
Db = 0.4547 m @ 454.67 mm
For a pull-through floating head exchanger, the typical shell clearance from figure
12.10 is 90 mm (Refer APPENDIX B-4)
Bundle diameter clearance = 90 mm
Shell diameter, Ds
Ds = 0.4547+0.09
= 0.5447 m @ 544.67 mm
2.4.8 TUBE SIDE COEFFICIENT, hi
Parameter Units Value
Mean temperature of the
tube t mean
o
C = 180

Cross sectional area m
2
= 3.142 x d
2
= 2.0109E-04
Tube per pass tube/pass = 246/2
= 123
Total flow rate area m
2
= (Cross sectional area) x (tube/pass)
= 2.0109E-04 x 123
= 0.0247
Steam mass velocity, Gt kg/m
2
.s =(Steam flow rate)/(total flow rate area)
= (2500/3600)/0.0247
= 28.1142
Steam linear velocity, ui
m/s = (Gt) / (steam density)
= 28.1142 x 0.4902
= 57.3526
Reynolds Number, Re
=
µ
ρν
i
d
(2.10)
= (0.4902) x (57.3526) x (0.016)/1.525E-05
= 2.4131x104
Prandtl number, Pr
=
f
p
k
C µ
(2.11)
= (1.98 x 1.525E-05)/0.0299
= 1.0099
Heat transfer factor (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6)
Ratio of L/di = 300
Reynolds Number, Re = 2.9497E+04 (Refer APPENDIX B-5)
jh = 3.70E-03
Tube side coefficient, hi can be calculated using equation below
hi = (2.12)
= (3.7E-03 x 0.0299 x 2.9497E+04 x 1.0099)/0.016
= 204.6164 W/m
2
.
o
C
2.4.9 SHELL SIDE COEFFICIENT, hs
Parameter Formula Value Units
Take baffle spacing
as 1/5 from the shell
diameter, Baffle
spacing,
IB = Ds/5
= 0.5447/5 = 0.1089
m
Tube pitch, Pt Pt = 1.25 x do
= (1.25) x (0.02)
= 0.025 m
Flow area, As
=
( ) ( ) ( )
t
B s o t
P
I D d P −
= (0.025-0.02) x (0.5447) x 0.1089
=0.0119 m
2
Mass velocity, Gs = Ws / As
= (52385.2586/3600)/0.0119
=1226.2667 kg/m
2
s
Shell side velocity, us
=
ρ
s
G
(2.13)
= 1226.2667/705
= 1.7394 m/s
Shell side equivalent diameter for triangular pitch arrangement
de =
( )
2 2
917 . 0
10 . 1
o t
o
d p
d

(2.14)
i
f h
d
k j
33 . 0
Pr Re
= (1.10/0.02) x (0.0252 – 0.917 x 0.02
2
)
= 0.0142 m
Calculate Reynolds number, Re
Re =
TBA
e s
d G
µ
(2.15)
= (1226.2667 x 0.0142)/1.55 E-03
= 22368.0704
Prandtl number, Pr
Pr =
f
TBA
TBA
p
k
C µ
(2.16)
= (3.5 x 1.55E-03)/0.109
= 21.9377
Choose baffle cut of 25%

REASON: Because generally a baffle at this percentages will be the
optimum, giving good heat transfer rate, without excessive drop
From figure 12.20 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6), we can obtained
jf = 4.00E-03 (Refer APPENDIX B-6)
Assume that the viscosity correction is negligible
hs =
e
f f
d
j k
3
1
Pr Re
(2.17)
= 0.109 x4.00E-03 x 22368.0704 x 21.9377
1/3
= 1817.06
2.4.10 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT, Uo
From table 12.6, the conductivity of metals at temperature
Material of construction = Stainless Steel
Reason = The material, steam in the tube more
corrosive than TBA in the shell. Its also can
corrode the tube wall
Thermal conductivity of
the tube Wall, kw = 16 W/m
o
C
(Refer APPENDIX B-7)
From Table 12.2 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6) take dirt Coefficient as
(Refer APPENDIX B-8)
hid = 10000 W/m
2o
C
hod = 5000 W/m
2o
C
i i
o
id i
o
w
i
o
o
od s o
h d
d
h d
d
k
d
d
d
h h U
1 1
2
ln
1 1 1
× + × +

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
(2.18)
o
U
1
= 0.00711
Uo = 1/0.00711
= 140.6185 W/m
2o
C
2.4.11 TUBE SIDE PRESSURE DROP
Reynolds number, Re
=
µ
ρν
i
d

= (0.4902) x (57.3526) x (0.016)/1.525E-05
= 2.4131x104
From figure 12.24 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6), we can obtained
(Refer APPENDIX B-3)
jf = 5.50E-01
Neglecting the viscosity correction term
(2.19)
= 2 8(5.5E-01)(4.8/0.016)+2.5 x ((0.4902 x 57.3426
2
)/2)
= 2132432.078 N/m
2
= 2132.4321 kPa
= 21.0455 Psi
= 0.0002 Bar

The pressure drop in the tubes is 2132.4321 kPa

,
_

¸
¸
1
1
]
1

¸

+

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
· ∆

2
5 . 2 8
2
i i
m
w i
f p t
u
d
L
j N P
ρ
µ
µ
2.4.12 SHELL SIDE PRESSURE DROP
Reynolds number, Re
Re =
TBA
e s
d G
µ
(2.15)
= (1226.2667 x 0.0142)/1.55 E-03
= 22368.0704
From figure 12.3 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6), we can obtained
(Refer APPENDIX B-9)
jf = 4.00E-03
Shell side pressure drop can be calculated using equation below
14 . 0
2
8

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
· ∆
w
s
B e
s
f
u
I
L
d
D
j P
µ
µ ρ
(2.20)
= 8(4.00E-03) x (0.5447/0.0142) x (4.8/0.1089) x ((705x1.7394)/2)
= 33158.6806 N/m
2
= 33.1587 kPa
= 0.3273 psi
= 0.3316 Bar

The pressure drop in the shell is 33.1587 kPa
Summaries of Chemical Engineering Design Of Heat Exchanger is shown in Table
2.4 above:
Table 2.4: Summary Of Chemical Engineering Design Of Heat Exchanger
Parameter Value
Process Condition :
Heat load, Q
Overall coefficient, Uo
1.88 kW
400 W/m
2
K
Tube Side: Saturated Steam
Inlet temperature, t1
Outlet temperature, t2
Flow rate, W
Tube inside diameter, ID
Tube outside diameter, OD
BWG
Length, L
Pitch, Pt
Number of tubes, Nt
Passes
Area per pass
Heat transfer coefficient, hi
Pressure drop, ∆Pt
150
o
C
250
o
C
25000 kg/hr
16 mm
20 mm
12
4.8
25 mm
246
2
301.6 mm
2
204.6146 W/m
2
.
o
C
2132.4321 kPa
Shell Side: TBA
Inlet temperature, T1
Outlet temperature, T2
Flow rate, W
Shell side diameter, Ds
Pass
Baffles spacing with 25% cut, IB
Equivalent triangular pitch arrangement, de
Heat transfer coefficient, hs
Pressure drop, ∆Ps
82
o
C
316
o
C
52385.2586 kg/h
544.6667 mm
1
108.9 mm
14.2 mm
1858.9766 W/m
2
.
o
C
33.4587 kPa
2.5 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER
British Standard, BS 3274, covers mechanical design features, fabrication,
and material of construction and testing of shell and tube heat exchanger. The
standard of the American Tubular Heat Exchanger, the TEMA standards, are also
used. The standard give the preferred shell and tube dimensions: the design and
manufacturing tolerances; corrosion allowances; and the recommended design
stresses for material of construction.
The details in designing heat exchanger may include the following;
1. Design Pressure And Temperature
2. Material Of Construction
3. Design Stress
4. Welded Joint Efficiency
5. Corrosion Allowance
6. Minimum Thickness Of Cylindrical Of The Shell
7. Longitudinal Stress
8. Circumferential Stress
9. Minimum Thickness Of Head And Closure
10. Minimum Thickness Of The Channel Cover
11. Design Load
12. Nozzle Design
13. Standard Flange
14. Baffles
15. Saddles Support
DESIGN SPECIFICATION
Table 2.5: Shell-and-tube Specification
Shell Side Tube Side
Types of fluids Tert-Butanol
(TBA)
Types of fluids Steam
Inlet 82 Inlet Temperature,
o
C 250
Temperature,
o
C
Outlet
temperature,
o
C
119 Outlet temperature,
o
C 110
Internal Diameter,
mm
454.6667 Number of Tubes, Nt 246
Baffles space,
mm
108.9 Length, m 4.8
Pass 1 OD, mm 20
BWG 14
Pitch, mm 25
Passes 2
Flow area per tubes, a
(mm
2
)
301.6
DESIGN PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE
A vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is
likely to be subjected in operation. Under internal pressure, the pressure is normally
taken as the pressure at which the relieve valve is set; normally 5 to 10 percent
above the normal working pressure. The purpose is to avoid spurious operation
during minor process upsets. The increasing in temperature will decreased the
strength of the metals, where the maximum allowable stress will depends on the
material of the temperature.
By taking a safety factor of 10%
Shell Side Tube Side
Operating Pressure, bar 11 1
Design Pressure, bar 12.1 1.1
Operating Temperature
o
C 119 250
Design Temperature,
o
C 130.9 275
2.7 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
Selection of a suitable material must be taken into consideration, firstly is the
suitability of the material for fabrication as well as the compatibility of the material
with the process environment.
The most economical material selected for both chemical and mechanical
requirements should be selected; this will be the material that gives lowest cost over
the working life of the plant, allowing for maintenance and replacement.
The applied material selected must suitable for the various specific operation
conditions. A few factors that need to be considered:
• Corrosion resistance
• Operating conditions
• Economic feasibility
• Suitability for fabrication (welding)
• Process safety.
Table 2.6: Material Selected for Shell-and-tubes
Shell Tubes
Material selected
• Carbon steel • Stainless steel
Advantages
• Commonly used as a
engineering material
• Impregnated with
chemically resistant resins
and used for specialized
equipment especially heat
exchanger
• It has high conductivity and
good resistance to most
• Widely used in
industries
• Suitable for
corrosive material
chemicals (except
oxidizing acid more than
30%)
• Since the fluid properties in
the shell are not corrosive,
then the carbon steel have
been chosen
• It is more economical and
easy to get compare to
stainless steel
• It also easily fabricated
and have high strength
2.8 DESIGN STRESS (NOMINAL DESIGN STRENGTH)
For design purpose it is necessary to decide a value for the maximum
allowable stress that have been decided and accepted in the material of
construction. This is determined by applying a suitable “design stress factor” (factor
of safety) to the maximum stress that the material should be expected to withstand
without failure under standard test conditions.

The typical design stress factor for pressure component:
Material used Design Stress (N/mm
2
)
Shell: Carbon steel 115 at 119
o
C
Tubes: Brass 95 at 250
o
C
2.9 WELDED JOINT EFFICIENCY
The strength of a welded joint will depend on the types of joint and the
quality of the welding. Normally, the large size of the vessel (large d) is made from
the large plate. The plate will form using the machine and its joint will be welding.
The possible lower strength of a welded joint compared with the virgin plate is
usually allowed for in design by multiplying the allowable design stress for the
material by a “welded joint factor” J. taking the factor as 1.0 implies that the joint is
equally as strong as the virgin plate; this is achieve by radio graphing the complete
weld length and cutting out and remaking any defects.
CORROSION ALLOWANCE
The “corrosion allowance” is the additional thickness of metal added to allow
for material lost by corrosion and erosion, or scaling. For carbon and low-alloy
steels, where severe corrosion is not expected, a minimum allowance of 2.0 mm
should be used. Most design codes and standards specify a minimum allowance of
1.0 mm.
2.11 DESIGN CRITERIA
Minimum Practical Wall Thickness
A minimum wall thickness is necessary because to ensure that any vessel is
sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight, and any incidental loads.
Shell inside diameter, di = 544.67 mm @ 0.5447 m
2.11.1 Minimum Thickness of cylindrical of the shell
• For a cylindrical of a shell, the minimum thickness required to resist internal
pressure can be determined
From equation
(2.21)
Where;
e = minimum thickness
Pi = design pressure
= 1.21 N/mm
2
di = shell diameter
di = 454.6667 mm@0.4547m
i
i i
P f
D P
e

·
2
f = design stress (From Table 13.2, Coulson &
Richardson, Vol. 6)
f = 85
J = welded joint efficiency
= 1

e = (1.21 x 0.5447)/(2(85)-1.21)
= 3.9 mm @ 0.0039 m
Adding corrosion allowance = 2 mm
e = 3.9 + 2
= 5.9 mm
Round up the number of the thickness
e = 6 mm
So the minimum thickness of the cylindrical shell after adding corrosion allowance is
5.9 mm
2.12HEADS AND CLOSURE
Heads closes the end of a cylindrical heat exchanger. The typical used of heads are
as follows:
Table 2.7: Types of Heads and its applications
Types of heads The applications
1) Flat plates & formed flat heads
• Used as covers for many man
ways, and as the channel
covers of heat exchanger
• Limited to low-pressure and
small-diameter vessel
1) Hemispherical heads
• The strongest shape
• Higher cost
• Used for high pressure
1) Ellipsoidal heads
• Most economical for operation
above 15 bar
1) Torispherical
• Most common for operation up
to 15 bar
Design of domed ends-ellipsoidal heads
These types of heads have been chosen because it gives economical evaluation
compared to other heads and since it save cost the minimum thickness of the heads
is calculated
The minimum thickness of torispherical head can be calculated by equation
(2.22)
Where
e = minimum thickness
Pi = design pressure
Di = shell diameter
f = design stress
= 70.00 N/mm
2

∴ e = (1.21x 544.6667)/2(1)+0.2(1.21)
= 4.7 mm
Adding corrosion allowance
= 4.7 + 2
∴ e = 6.7 mm
The minimum thickness of domed ends is 6.7 mm
2.13DESIGN LOAD
The major sources of dead weight loads are as follows
1) The vessel shell and tubes
2) The fluids to fill the vessel (TBA)
3) The fluid to fill the tubes (steam)
i f
i i
P J
D P
e
2 . 0 2 +
·
4) The insulator
Dead weight of vessel
Weight of the shell
(2.23)
Wv = 1580.56 N
A) Weight of tubes
(2.24)
Wt = 34190.24 N
B) Weight of insulation
Approximate volume of insulation
V = (3.142 x d x L) x t (2.25)
= 0.41m
3
Material used Mineral Wool insulation
Density, kg/m
3
130
Length, m 4.8
Thickness of insulator, mm 50
Shell diameter, m 0.54
( )
3
1 0 8 . 0

× + · t D H g D C W v
m v m m v
π ρ
( ) g L d d N W
m i o t t
ρ π
2 2
− ·
Weight
Wi = V
× ×ρ
g (2.26)
= 523.79 N
Total weight of heat exchanger
WT = Wv + Wt + Wi
= 36294.59 N
= 36.29 kN
2.14DESIGN OF NOZZLES
There are four opening or known as nozzles in one heat exchanger for steam
inlet and outlet and also for TBA inlet and outlet. Designing tube side and shell side
nozzles are based on TEMA heat exchanger standard.
Shell Side Nozzles
Pipe size for TBA at inlet
Material of construction = Carbon steel
Density TBA inlet = 705.00 kg/m3
Flow rate of TBA, GTBA = 14.55 kg/s
Diameter pipe for TBA inlet, DTBA
(2.27)
DTBA = 107.00 mm
Pipe size for TBA at outlet
Material of construction = Carbon steel
Density TBA inlet = 705.00 kg/m3
Flow rate of TBA, GTBA = 14.55 kg/s
Diameter pipe for TBA inlet, DTBA
37 . 0 53 . 0
293

· ρ G D
TBA
37 . 0 53 . 0
293

· ρ G D
TBA
(2.28)
DTBA = 107.00 mm
2.14.2 Tubes Side Nozzles
Pipe size for inlet steam
Material of construction = Aluminium Brass
Density Steam inlet = 0.33 kg/m3
Flow rate of Steam, Gsteam = 0.69 kg/s
Diameter of the pipe for steam inlet
(2.29)
D steam, in = 365.21 mm
Pipe size for outlet steam
Diameter of the pipe for steam outlet
Material of construction = Aluminium Brass
Density Steam inlet = 0.37 kg/m3
Flow rate of Steam, Gsteam = 0.69 kg/s
Diameter of the pipe steam outlet
(2.30)
Dsteam,out = 348.85 mm
The selected tube size nozzle
Fluid: Steam
By taking D = 107 mm (4.21”)
37 . 0 53 . 0
,
293

· ρ G D
in steam
37 . 0 53 . 0
,
293

· ρ G D
out steam
Table 2.8: Standard Nozzle for Tube size
Nominal
pipe size, in
Outside
diameter, in
Schedule
No.
Wall
thickness, in
Inside
diameter, in
4 4.5
(114.3 mm)
40ST 0.237
(6.02mm)
4.026
(102.26mm)
2.14.4 Shell side nozzles
Fluid: TBA
By taking D = 365.21 mm (14.38’), the selected shell size nozzle
Table 2.9: Standard Nozzles for Shell Side
Nominal
pipe size, in
Outside
diameter, in
Schedule
No.
Wall
thickness, in
Inside
diameter, in
14 14
(355.6 mm)
ST 0.375
(9.53 mm)
13.250
(336.55mm)
(Source: Robert H. Perry, 1998)

(Refer APPENDIX B-10)
2.15 BOLT-FLANGED JOINTS
A flanged joint are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels, for
manhole covers and for removable vessel heads when ease of access is required.
Flanged joints are also used to connect pipes to other equipment, such as pump
and valves. There are several types of flanges used for various applications
(Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6, 1999).
For the design, standard flanges are specified. The standards are adapted
from the British standard (BS 4504) with nominal pressure of 6 bars. Type of flange
chosen is full neck welding neck flange.
Table 2.10: Steel Welding Neck Flanges
Nominal
pipe
Pipe,
o.d
d1
Flanged Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h1 d4 f No d2 k d3 h2 r
100 114.3 210 16 45 148 3 M16 4 18 170 130 10 8
350 355.6 490 22 62 415 4 M20 12 22 445 385 15 12
(All units in mm) (Refer APPENDIX B-11)
d4
k
D
de
d3
d1
Figure 2.3: Typical standard Flange Design
Baffles
Have two fuction:
• To support the tubes for structural rigidity, preventing tube vibration and
sagging
• To divert the flow across the bundle to obtain a higher heat transfer
coefficient
Types = Transverse baffle
Baffles thickness = 5.5 mm
Diameter of tubes holes in baffles, Dh
Dh outer diameter of tube = 5.5
= 20 + 5.5
= 25.5 mm
= 0.03 m
Baffles spacing, IB
Ds = 544.67 mm
= 0.5447 m
= Ds/5 mm

IB = 0.11 m
Baffles cut = 25%
No. of Baffles = L/Ds (2.31)
= 8.81
Round up to = 9 Baffles
2.17SUPPORT DESIGN – SADDLES SUPPORT
The methods used to support a vessel will depend on
• Design temperature and temperature
• Internal and external fitting and attachment
• Size and shape
• Weight of the vessel
• Vessel location and arrangement.
Heat exchanger is mounted with two-saddle support, which must be designed to
carry the weight of the vessel and contents and any super imposed loads such as
wind load.
Table 2.11: Dimension of Selected Standard Steel Saddle.
(Refer APPENDIX B-12)
Table 2.12 above show the summaries of calculation on mechanical design of shell
and tube heat exchanger
Table 2.12: Summary Of Mechanical Engineering Design Of Heat Exchanger
Parameter Value
Shell Side Tube Side
Design pressure, Pi 12.1 bar 1.1 bar
Design temperature, TD 275
o
C 130.9
o
C
Material of construction Carbon Steel Stainless Steel
Corrosion allowance 2 mm 2 mm
Thickness 6 mm 4 mm
Nozzle diameter 107 mm 365.21 mm
Type of flange Welding neck
Head and closer
Domed and type
Thickness
Ellipsoidal
6.7 mm
Insulation Thickness 31.24 mm
Support type Saddle
Total weight 36294.59 N
Vessel Maximum Dimensions (m) mm
Diameter, m Weight, kN V Y C E J G t2 t1 Bolt diam. Bolt holes
0.6 35 0.48 0.15 0.55 0.24 0.19 0.095 6 5 20 25
REFERENCES
R.K Sinnott.. Chemical Engineering Design. Vol.6. Butterworth Heinemann 1999.
E. AD Saunders, Heat Exchanger Selection, Design and Construction. Longman
Scientific & Technical1988.
J.P Gupta. Working with Heat Exchanger. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.ical
Industry 1990.
Green W. Don & Perry Robert H. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook.
Seventh Edition Kansas. McGraw Hill, 1997.
Sadik Kakac, Hong Tan Liu. Heat Exchanger, Selection, Rating and Thermal
Design. CR C Press.
Dr.Brian Spulding,J.Tab Orela, Heat exchanger Theory and Design Handbook,
McGraw-Hill, 1990
R.W. Gallent and Jay M. Railey, Physical Properties of Hydrocarbon Volume 2
and Volume 1, Gulf Publishing Company, 1992
Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles, Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach,
Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1998
www.yahoo.com
www.google.com
www.altavista.com
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
ISOBUTYLENE REACTOR ROHIZAD BIN JAMEL
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 3:
ISOBUTYLENE REACTOR
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 3 ISOBUTYLENE REACTOR
3.1 INTRODUCTION 71
3.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN 72
3.2.1 Selection of Catalyst 74
3.2.2 Effective Diffusivity, De 74
3.2.3 Tube Specification 76
3.2.4 Heat Transfer Calculation 78
3.2.5 Tube Side Coefficient 78
3.2.6 Shell Side Coefficient 80
3.2.7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 82
3.2.8 Tube Side Pressure Drop 83
3.2.9 Shell Side Pressure Drop 83
MECHANICAL DESIGN 85
3.3.1 Design Pressure 85
3.3.2 Design Temperature 85
3.3.3 Material of Construction 85
3.3.4 Corrosion Allowance 86
3.5.5 Thickness of Cylindrical Shell 86
3.3.6 Head and Closures 86
3.3.7 Weight Load 87
3.3.8 Wind Loading 89
3.3.9 Analysis of Stresses 90
3.3.10 Elastic Stability 91
3.3.11 Vessel Support Design 92
3.3.12 General Consideration for
The Design 94
CHAPTER 3
ISOBUTYLENE REACTOR
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The high purity isobutylene can be economically produced by dehydrating tertiary
butyl alcohol (TBA). Vapor phase TBA dehydration have been developed in an
isothermal fixed bed reactor using a silica alumina cracking catalyst. Increased
demand for oxygenates in reformulated gasoline has focused the attention of the
petrochemical industry on isobutylene etherification. Potential sources of isobutylene
are dehydrogenation of isobutene and dehydration of TBA. TBA is a major
byproduct of the process for propylene oxide manufacture from propylene and
tertiary hydroperoxide. TBA can be converted into Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
(MTBE) which is environmentally accepted blending component for reformulated
gasoline by a two-step process. In the two-step process, TBA is first dehydrated to a
high purity isobutylene and water and then isobutylene is reacted with methanol to
produce MTBE. Furthermore, it was decided that the heat of reaction to be supplied
by flue gas and that in order to achieve 98% conversion, the temperature and
pressure in the reactor is kept maintain at 316ºC and 20 psig (3 bars) respectively.
Table 3.1: Reactor mass balance for input stream
Components Mass flowrate
(kg/h)
Mass
fraction
(w/w)
Molar flowrate
(kmol/h)
Mole fraction
(kmol/kmol)
TBA 52385.2586 0.9989 707.9089 0.9986
Propylene oxide 55.7380 0.0011 0.9610 0.0014
Total (Gm) 52440.9966 1.0000 708.8700 1.0000
Table 3.2: Reactor mass balance for output stream
Components Mass flowrate
(kg/h)
Mass
fraction
(w/w)
Molar flowrate
(kmol/h)
Mole fraction
(kmol/kmol)
TBA 1047.7069 0.0200 14.1582 0.0200
Propylene oxide 55.7380 0.0011 0.9610 0.0011
Isobutylene 38850.0392 0.7408 693.7507 0.7408
Water 12487.5126 0.2381 693.7507 0.2381
Total (Gm) 52440.9966 1.0000 1402.6206 1.0000
3.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN
Chemical design is carried out to determine the dimensions of the reactor as shown
in following sections. The reactor volume, combination of shell and tubes
dimensions, heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop are determined.
Dehydration of TBA is characterized by endothermic reaction and from the energy
balance the heat required for the reaction is 2.379x10
7
kJ/h. For isothermal fixed
bed reactor and first order reaction, the reaction rate constant for TBA dehydration is
given by equation below, (Journal of Hydrocarbon Processing, please refer to
APPENDIX C1):
Reaction involved:
C4H10O C4H8 + H2O
TBA Isobutylene Water
X
X LHSV
K


· )
1
1
ln( 2 (3.1)
K = Reaction rate constant
X = Fraction of TBA converted
LHSV = Ratio of feed rate and the amount of catalyst
X = 0.98 (TBA conversion)
98 . 0 )
98 . 0 1
1
ln( 2 −

·
LHSV
K
= 6.844
At 20 psig (3 bars), the equation relating reaction rate constant and temperature is
given by:
ln K = 21.7483 – 17992/T (3.2)
T = Temperature in degree Rankine, 316ºC = 1060ºR
ln K = 21.7483 – 17992/1060
K = 118.48 h
844 . 6
48 . 118
·
LHSV
h
LHSV
0578 . 0
1
·
v
V
LHSV
·
1
(3.3)

Where,
V = Volume of catalyst
v = Feed volume flowrate
Volume flowrate of TBA = mass flowrate of TBA x specific gravity of TBA
= 52385.2586 kg/h x 1.2706x10
-3
m
3
/kg
= 66.5632 m
3
/h
Volume of catalyst, Vc
LHSV
v
1
· (3.4)
= 66.5632 m
3
/h x 0.0578 h
= 3.8474 m
3
Volume of reactor, VR = Vc/ (1 – ε) (3.5)
= 3.8474 / (1-0.4)
= 6.4123 m
3
3.2.1 Selection of Catalyst
A catalyst is a substance that increases a rate of reaction by participating chemically
in intermediate stages of reaction and is liberated near the end in a chemically
unchanged form. Over a period of time, however, permanent changes in the catalyst
such as deactivation may occur. Many catalysts have specific actions in that they
influence only one reaction or group of definite reactions. The catalyst that used for
the fixed bed reactor is silica alumina cracking catalyst. The properties of catalyst
are shown below (Perry’s Handbook, 1997).
Surface area SA: 0.35x10
6
m
2
/kg
Diameter of particle, dp: 3 mm
Pore diameter, θd: 6.1 nm
Porosity of particle, θp: 0.56
Particle density, ρp: 1062 kg/m
3
Specific surface area, Sg:1840 m
2
/m
3
Tortuosity, τ: 2
Voidage, ε: 0.4
Bulk density, ρB = (1-ε)(ρp) (3.6)
= (1- 0.4)(1062 kg/m
3
)
= 637.2 kg/m
3
Weight of catalyst, Wc = (Vc)(ρB) (3.7)
= (3.8474 m
3
)(637.2 kg/m
3
)
= 2451.56 kg
3.2.2 Effective Diffusivity, De
The resistance to diffusion in a catalyst pore is due to collisions with other molecules
and with the walls of the pore. The corresponding diffusivities are called bulk
diffusivity and Knudsen diffusivity DK. The actual diffusivity in common porous
catalysts usually is intermediate between bulk and Knudsen. Moreover, it depends
on the pore size distribution and on the true length path. The effective diffusivity, De
is given by the equation below:
τ
θ D
D
e
· (3.8)
Where,
θ= particle porosity
τ= Tortuosity of the pores
D = Dk + DB (3.9)
Where,
Dk = Knudsen Diffusivity
DB = Bulk Diffusivity
Neglecting DB term, hence D = Dk, Knudsen diffusivity (m
2
/s) in a straight cylindrical
pore can be expressed (based on the kinetic theory of gases) as:
p
t
k
r
m
RT
D 0638 . 1 ·
(3.10)
Where,
rp = the pores radius = dp/2 = 6.1 nm/2 =3.05 nm
T = temperature in K = 589 K
mt = the mean molecular weight of tube side material
= 54.445 kg/kmol
445 . 54
589
) 10 05 . 3 )( 97 (
9 −
× ·
k
D
= 9.73x10
-7
m
2
/s
Therefore,
s m D
e
/
2
) 56 . 0 )( 10 73 . 9 (
2
7 −
×
·
= 2.72x10
-7
m
2
/s
3.2.3 Tube Specification
In order to decide the tube length and tube diameter used in this design, the
following criteria is followed:
Square pitch arrangement is chosen for ease of cleaning (Kern, 1965).
From table 12.3 (Colson & Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering), we take standard
tube of:
Inside diameter, di = 44.5 mm
Outside diameter, do = 50.8 mm
Length of tube, L = 1.22 m
Area of the tube can be calculated using equation below.
Assumed thickness of the tube is negligible.
Cross sectional area of tube,
As =
4
) (
2
o
d π
(3.11)
=
2
2
4
) 0508 . 0 (
m
π
= 2.0268x10
-3
m
2
Number of tube, Nt = L A
V
s
c
(3.12)
=
) 22 . 1 )( 10 0268 . 2 (
8474 . 3
2 3
3
m m x
m

= 1556 tubes
Residence time, τ =
v
V
(3.13)
=
h m
s m
/ 5632 . 66
3600 8474 . 3
3
3
×
= 208.08 s
= 3.47 minutes
Flow through each tube, Vt = Vf / Nt (3.14)

= s m /
1556
7306 . 4
3
= 3.0402x10
-3
m
3
/s
Superficial velocity, uc =
S
t
A
V
(3.15)
= s m
x
x
/
10 0268 . 2
10 0402 . 3
3
3


= 1.51 m/s
Tube side mass flowrate per unit area,
t s
m
t
N A
G
G ·
(3.16)

s m kg
s m kg
x
2
2
3
/ 62 . 4
/
) 1556 )( 10 0268 . 2 )( 3600 (
9966 . 52440
·
·

Fixed bed reactor is designed as the shell and tube heat exchanger which catalysts
are in the tube.
Approximate tube bundle diameter, Db
Db =
1
/ 1
1
n
t
o
k
N
d

,
_

¸
¸
(3.17)
Where,
k1 and n1 are constants,
for square pitch, pt = 1.25do
for 1 pass, k1 = 0.215
n1= 2.207
Therefore, Db =
207 . 2 / 1
215 . 0
1556
8 . 50

,
_

¸
¸
= 2846 mm
Square pitch is chosen, pt = 1.25do (3.18)
hence, pt = 1.25(50.8) mm
= 63.5 mm
Allow 50 mm for shell-inside diameter to bundle diameter
Therefore, approximate shell diameter, Ds = (2846 + 50) mm
= 2896 mm
3.2.4 Heat Transfer Calculation
From energy balance, heat required for the process is 2.379x10
3
h.
Assuming overall heat transfer calculation, Uo = 0.06kW/m
2
K
Heat transfer area available, A
A = NtπL(do + di) / 2 (3.19)
= 1556π x 1.22 x (0.0505 + 0.0445) / 2 m
2
= 283.2780 m
2
By using Q = UoAΔT for isothermal condition.
ΔT =
A U
Q
o
(3.20)
= K
x x
x
2780 . 283 06 . 0 3600
10 379 . 2
7
= 389 K
3.2.5 Tube Side Coefficient
The temperature profile in the bed is constant which is not likely to happen. For the
worst condition, the temperature profile in the bed is parabolic, and to ensure that
the design is in the safe region, therefore the resistance in the bed should be
considered.
The tube side coefficient is split into two parts to account for the resistance in the
region very near the wall and for the resistance in the rest of the packed bed.
Wall coefficient, hw,
Rec =
µ
ρ
p c
d u
(3.21)
=
3
10 0152 . 0
003 . 0 51 . 1 384 . 1

x
x x
= 412
Pr =
k
C
p
µ
(3.22)
=
0424 . 0
10 0152 . 0 10 469 . 2
3 3 −
x x x
= 0.89

k
d h
N
p w
u
· = 1.6(Re)
0.51
(Pr)
0.33
(3.23)
p
w
d
k
h
33 . 0 51 . 0
(Pr) (Re) 6 . 1
·
(3.24)
= K m W
x x
2
33 . 0 51 . 0
/
003 . 0
) 89 . 0 ( ) 412 ( 0424 . 0 6 . 1
= 469 W/m
2
K
Bed coefficient, hbed,

r
k
h
e
bed
4
· (3.25)
Where ke = effective thermal conductivity of bed
r = radius of the inside tube

Pr Re 1 . 0 5 + ·
k
k
e
(3.26)
Hence ke = k(5 + 0.1RePr)
ke = 0.0424(5+0.1(412)(0.89)) W/m
2
K
ke = 1.77 W/m
2
K
K m W h
bed
2
/
) 2 0445 . 0 (
) 77 . 1 ( 4
÷
·
·318 W/m
2
K
Tube side coefficient, hi,

bed w i
h h h
1 1 1
+ ·
(3.27)
=
318
1
469
1
+
· ∴
i
h 190 W/m
2
K
Correcting this coefficient to the heat transfer area corresponding to the centre of
the tube wall.
Tube side heat transfer coefficient, hiw
o i
i i
iw
d d
d h
h
+
·
2
(3.28)

0505 . 0 0445 . 0
) 0445 . 0 )( 2 )( 190 (
+
·
= 177 W/m
2
K
3.2.6 Shell Side Coefficient
The source of heating medium is flue gas. It is assumed that the flue gas is available
at 760 K, therefore temperature of flue gas at outlet is 371 K.
Table 3.3: Properties of flue gas
Property Value
Heat capacity, Cps
Viscosity, µs
Thermal conductivity, ks
Density, ρs
1.195 kJ/kgK
0.0255x10
-3
Ns/m
2
0.0287 W/m
2
K
0.78 kg/m
3
Mass flowrate of flue gas required, ms =
T Cp
Q
s

(3.29)
= s kg
x x
x
/
) 371 760 ( 3600 195 . 1
10 379 . 2
7

= 14.22 kg/s
Take baffle spacing as 1/5 from the shell diameter.
Baffle spacing, Ib = Ds/5 (3.30)
= 2896/5 mm
= 579.2 mm
Tube pitch, pt = 1.25do (3.31)
= 1.25(0.0508 m)
= 0.0635 m
Cross flow area, Ac = (pt – do)IbDs/pt (3.32)
= (0.0635 – 0.0508) m (0.5792 m) (2.896 m)/0.0635m
= 0.3355 m
2
Mass velocity, Gs = m/Ac (3.33)
= 14.22 kg/s / 0.3355 m
2
= 42.3845 kg/m
2
s
Reynolds number,
s
o s
d G
µ
· Re
(3.34)

84436
10 0255 . 0
) 10 8 . 50 )( 3845 . 42 (
3
3
·
·


x
x
From figure 12.31 (Coulson & Richardson, 1999, please refer to APPENDIX C2),
heat transfer factor for cross flow tube bank, jh = 3.7x10
-3
Prandtl number,
s
s s
k
Cp µ
· Pr
(3.35)
=
0287 . 0
) 10 0255 . 0 )( 10 195 . 1 (
3 3 −
x x
= 1.06

14 . 0 3 / 1
) ( Pr Re
w
h
s
o s
j
k
d h
µ
µ
·
(3.36)
neglecting
14 . 0
) (
w
µ
µ
term,
o
h s
s
d
j k
h
3 / 1
Pr Re
· ∴ (3.37)

K m W
K m W
x
2
2
3 / 1 3
/ 180
/
0508 . 0
) 06 . 1 )( 84436 )( 10 7 . 3 )( 0287 . 0 (
·
·

Correcting to the tube wall centre heat transfer area.
Shell side coefficient,
) (
2
i o
o s
ow
d d
d h
h
+
·
(3.38)
=
K m W
2
/
) 0445 . 0 058 . 0 (
) 058 . 0 )( 2 )( 180 (
+
= 192 W/m
2
K
3.2.7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Scale factor, Organic vapor, his = 5000 W/m
2
K
Flue gas, hos = (2000 – 5000) W/m
2
K
Take mean value = 3500 W/m
2
K
Tube type is stainless steel and it’s thermal conductivity at 600ºC, kw = 36 W/m
2
K
Hence,
Overall heat transfer coefficient:
K m W U
U
U
h h d
d
k
d
d
d
h h U
o
o
o
is iw i
o
w
i
o
o
os ow o
2
/ 82
0123 . 0
1
5000
1
177
1
5 . 44
8 . 50
) 36 ( 2
5 . 44
8 . 50
ln 0508 . 0
3500
1
192
1 1
1 1
2
) ln(
1 1 1
· ∴
·
1
]
1

¸

+ +

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
1
]
1

¸

+ + + + ·
(3.39)
3.2.8 Tube Side Pressure Drop
Hougan and Watson equation will be used to calculate tube side pressure drop
7 . 1
2
2
ge
v fG
z
P
ρ
·

(3.40)
Where,
Z = length of tube (1.22 m)
V = S(1-e)
= 1840(1-0.4)
= 1102
Where f = 2.6(Re”)-0.13 for 150>Re”>10 and f = 1.23(Re”)-015 for 300>Re”>150
Re” =
) 10 0152 . 0 )( 1102 (
62 . 4
3 −
·
x v
G
t
µ
(3.41)
= 276
Therefore, f = 1.23(276)
-0.15
= 0.53
2
7 . 1
2
/
) 4 . 0 )( 81 . 9 )( 384 . 1 (
) 1102 ( ) 62 . 4 )( 53 . 0 )( 2 )( 22 . 1 (
m N P
t
· ∆ ∴
= 10637 N/m
2
= 10.6 kPa
3.2.9 Shell Side Pressure Drop
From figure 12.36 (Coulson & Richardson`s, 1999, please refer to APPENDIX C3)
at Re = 84436, for 1.25 Δpitch, jf = 4.8x10
-2
Shell side flue gas velocity,
s
s
s
G
u
ρ
·
(3.42)
= s m/
78 . 0
38 . 42
= 47.4 m/s
14 . 0
2
) (
2
) ( 8
w
s
b
s f s
u
I
L
D j P
µ
µ
ρ · ∆ (3.43)

Neglecting viscosity term,

2
) ( 8
2
s
b
s f s
u
I
L
D j P ρ · ∆ (3.44)
)
2
4 . 47
)( 78 . 0 )(
2 . 579
22 . 1
)( 2896 )( 10 9 . 4 )( 8 (
2
2 −
· x
= 2095 N/m
2
= 2.1 kPa
Table 3.4: Chemical Design Specification Data
Parameter Value
Volume of catalyst 3.8474 m
3
Weight of catalyst 2451.56 kg
Volume of reactor 6.4123 m
3
Residence time 3.47 minutes
Length of vessel 8 m
Tube OD 50.8 mm
Tube ID 44.5 mm
Number of tube 1556 mm
Tube pitch 63.5 mm
Tube bundle diameter 2846 mm
Shell diameter 2896 mm
Tube side heat transfer coefficient 190 W/m
2
K
Shell side heat transfer coefficient 192 W/m
2
K
Tube side pressure drop 10.6 kPa
Shell side pressure drop 2.1 kPa
.

MECHANICAL DESIGN
The mechanical design is a function of the equipment, operating pressure and
temperature, material of construction and equipment dimensions. This mechanical
design for the fixed bed reactor is carried out based on the approach to Sinnot,
(Coulson & Richardson’s,1999).
3.3.1 Design Pressure
A reactor must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is likely
to be subjected for operation. The operating pressure for this reactor is10 bar. For
safety reason, the design pressure of this reactor is taken as 10% above the
operating pressure
Design pressure, Pi = (10 – 1) x 1.1
= 9.9 bar
=0.99 N/mm
2
3.3.2 Design Temperature
The design temperature at which the design stress is valuated should be taken as
the maximum working temperature of the material. For this reactor the design
temperature is 500˚C.
3.3.3 Material of Construction
The material used is stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni, 304). This material is good for creep
resistance, intergranular cracking and last longer. For this material, the design
stress at 500ºC (Coulson & Richardson’s,1999, please refer to APPENDIX C4).
Design stress, f = 90 N/mm
2
Tensile strength = 510 N/mm
2
3.3.4 Corrosion Allowance
Corrosion and erosion or scaling will cause material lost, so an additional thickness
of material is needed and it is corrosion allowable. The recommended corrosion
allowance is 2 mm.
3.6.5 Thickness of Cylindrical Shell
A minimum thickness is required to ensure that the vessel is sufficiently rigid to
withstand its own weight and any incidental load.
i
s i
P f
D P
e

·
2
(3.45)
Where,
e = minimum thickness
Pi = design pressure
Ds = Diameter of shell
f = Friction factor
e =
) 99 . 0 ( ) 90 )( 2 (
) 2896 )( 99 . 0 (

= 16.20
Add corrosion allowance = 2 mm
e = (16.20 + 2) mm
= 18.20 mm, take thickness as 19 mm
3.3.6 Head and Closures
The ends of a cylindrical vessel are closed by heads of various shapes. There are
three types of commonly used domed head:
1) Hemispherical head
2) Ellipsoidal head
3) Torispherical head
Torispherical head had been choosing for this reactor. The selection of head
depends on the cost and the thickness required for the head. The design equation
and chart for the various types of domed heads are given in the codes and standard
BS 5500 used in this design.
Take, crown radius, Rc = Di = 2.896 m
Knuckle radius, Rk = 6%Rc = 0.174 m
A head for this size would be form by pressing: no joints, so J = 1.0
Cs =

,
_

¸
¸
+
k
c
R
R
3
4
1
(3.46)
=

,
_

¸
¸
+
174 . 0
896 . 2
3
4
1
= 1.771
Therefore, minimum thickness:
e =
) 2 . 0 ( 2 − −
s i
i i
C P Jf
D P
(3.47)
=
) 2 . 0 771 . 1 )( 99 . 0 ( ) 90 )( 1 )( 2 (
) 2896 )( 99 . 0 (
− −
= 16 mm
Add corrosion allowance = 2 mm
e = (16 + 2) mm
= 18 mm
3.3.7 Weight Load
Dead weight of vessel, Wv
For a steel vessel,
t D H D C W
m v m V v
) 8 . 0 ( 240 + · (3.48)
Where,
Dm = mean diameter, m (Di + t)
Cv = a factor, take 1.15
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness
Wv = (240)(1.15)(2.915)(1.22+0.8(2.915))19
= 50991.77 N
= 51 kN
Weight of tubes, Wt

W
t
·N
t
πd
o
2
−d
i
2
( )

m
g
(3.49)
= 1556π(0.0508
2
-0.0445
2
)(1.22)(3000)(9.81)
= 105376.31 N
= 105 kN
Weight of insulation
Material used = mineral wool insulation
Insulation thickness = 50mm = 0.05m
Density = 130kg/m
3
Approximate volume of insulation

V ·πH
v
(r +r
1
)
2
−r
2
[ ]
(3.50)
= π(1.22)[(0.38 + 0.05)
2
– (0.38)
2
]
= 0.16 m3

W
i
·Vρg
(3.51)
= (0.16)(130)(9.81)
= 197.96 N
= 0.2 kN
Weight of catalyst, Wc
Wc = (mc)(g) (3.52)
Where; mc is weight of catalyst
Wc = (2451.56 kg) (9.81m/s
2
)
= 24049.8 N
= 24 kN
Total weight of vessel
Wt = Wv + Wt +Wi + Wc (3.53)
= 51 kN + 105 kN + 0.2 kN + 24 kN
= 156.2 kN
3.3.8 Wind Loading
A vessel must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed that is likely to be
encountered at the site throughout the life span of the plant. A wind speed of 160
km/h is used for the preliminary design studies.
Pw = 0.05Uw
2
(3.54)
= 0.05(160)
2
= 1280 N/m
2
Loading per unit length of reactor, Fw
Fw = PwDeff (3.55)
Where,
Deff = Effective reactor diameter
= Diameter shell + 2(tshell + tinsulation)
= 2896 + 2(19 + 50)
= 3034 mm
= 3.034 m
Therefore,
Fw = (1280)(3.034)
= 2973.32 N/m
Bending Moment
Mx = Fw (X)
2
/2 (3.56)
Where,
X = Distance measure from the free end
= 5 m
Therefore,
Mx = 2973.32(5)
2
/2
= 37166.5 Nm
= 37.17 kNm
3.3.9 Analysis of Stresses
Longitudinal pressure stress,
t
PD
i
L
4
· σ (3.57)
= (0.99)(2896)/4(19)
= 37.72 N/mm
2
Circumferential pressure stress,
t
PD
i
h
2
· σ (3.58)
= (0.99)(2896)/2(19)
= 75.45 N/mm
2
Dead weight stress,
t t D
W
i
w
) ( +
·
π
σ
(3.59)

19 ) 19 2896 (
10 2 . 156
3
+
·
π
x
= 0.8977 N/mm
2
Bending stress,

,
_

¸
¸
+ t · t
D
I
M
i
v
b
2
σ
(3.60)
Where,
M = total bending moment
Iv = ( )
4 4
64
i o
D D −
π
(3.61)
Iv = second moment of area
Where,
Di = 2896 mm
Do= (2896 + 2(19))
= 2934 mm
so,
Iv ( )
4 4
2896 2934
64
− ·
π
= 1.848x10
11
mm
4
Therefore,

,
_

¸
¸
+ · 19
2
2896
10 848 . 1
1000 5 . 37166
11
x
x
b
σ
= 0.30 N/mm
2
The resulted longitudinal stress, σz is,
σz(upwind) = σL – σw + σb (3.62)
= 37.72 –0.8977 + 0.30
= 37.12 N/mm
2
σz(downwind) = σL – σw - σb (3.63)
= 37.72 – 0.8977 + 0.30
= 36.52 N/mm
2
3.3.10 Elastic Stability
Critical bulking stress

,
_

¸
¸
× ·
o
D
t
4
1
10 2 σ (3.64)
=

,
_

¸
¸
×
2934
19
10 2
4
= 129.52 N/mm
2
Maximum compressive stress will occurs when the vessel not under pressure, σmax
= σw + σb (3.65)
= 0.8977+ 0.30
=1.1977 N/mm
2
This is below critical bulking stress, so acceptable.
3.3.11 Vessel Support Design
The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight of
the vessel, design pressure and temperature and vessel location and arrangement.
Since reactor is vertical vessel, skirt support is used in this design. A skirt support
consists of a cylinder or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel.
Type of support :Straight cylindrical skirt
θs :90°
Material construction :Carbon steel
Design stress, fs :135 N/mm
2

Skirt height :1.0 m
Young modulus :200, 000 N/mm
2
Approximate weight,
Wapprox = g H D
L v i
× × × × ρ
π
2
4
(3.66)
= π/4(2.896)
2
(1.44)(1000)(9.81)
= 93050.45 N
= 93.1 kN
Weight of vessel = 180.2 kN
Total weight = 93.1 kN + 180.2 kN
= 273.3 kN
Wind load,
Fw = 2973.32 N/m
= 2.97 kN/m
Bending moment at skirt base,
Ms =
1
]
1

¸
+
2
) (
2
skirt v
w
H H
F (3.67)
=
1
]
1

¸
+
2
) 1 44 . 1 (
97 . 2
2
= 8.84 kNm
As a first trial, take skirt thickness as same as the thickness of the bottom section of
the vessel, ts = 19 mm.
Bending stress in skirt,
] ) ( [
4
s s s s
s
bs
D t t D
M
+
·
π
σ
(3.68)

Where,
Ms = maximum bending moment (at the base of the skirt)
ts = skirt thickness
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt base
= 2.896 m
Therefore,
)] 2896 )( 19 )( 19 2896 ( [
) 1000 )( 1000 )( 84 . 8 ( 4
+
·
π
σ
bs
= 7.07 N/mm
2
Dead weight stress in the skirt,
] ) ( [
s s s
ws
t t D
W
+
·
π
σ
(3.69)
Therefore,
)] 019 . 0 )( 019 . 0 896 . 2 ( [
) 1000 )( 05 . 930 (
) (
+
·
π
σ test
ws
= 5.35 N/mm
2
)] 019 . 0 )( 019 . 0 896 . 2 ( [
) 1000 )( 2 . 156 (
) (
+
·
π
σ operating
ws
= 0.90 N/mm
2
Thus, the resulting stress in the skirt, σs:
Maximum σs (compressive) = σbs - σws(test) (3.70)
= 7.07 + 5.35
= 12.42 N/mm
2
Maximum σs (tensile) = σbs + σws(operating) (3.71)
= 7.07 – 0.90
= 6.17 N/mm
2
3.3.12 General Consideration for the Design
Take the joint factor as J as 0.85,
σs (tensile) < fs J sin θs
σs (compressive) < 0.125 E
s
s
s
D
t
θ sin
Where,
fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material (135 N/mm
2
)
J = weld joint factor
θs = base angle of a conical skirt
E = modulus Young (200, 000N/mm2)
Therefore,
σs (tensile) < 135 x 0.85 sin 90
6.17 N/mm2 < 113.08 N/mm2
σs (compressive) < (0.125)(200, 000) 90 sin
2896
19
12.42 N/mm2 < 161.53 N/mm2
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, give design thickness of 21 mm.
3.3.13 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts
Assume pith circle diameter = 3.0 m
Circumference of bolt circle = 4000π
Bolt stress design, fb = 125 N/mm2
Recommended spacing between bolts = 600 mm
Minimum number bolt required, Nb =
600
4000π
= 20.9
Closest multiple of 4 = 12 bolts
Bending moment at base skirt, Ms = 80.8 kNm
Total weight of vessel, W = 273.3 kN
Area of bolt,
Ab =

,
_

¸
¸
−W
D
M
f N
b
s
b b
4 1
(3.72)
=
,
_

¸
¸
− ) 1000 )( 3 . 273 (
3
) 1000 )( 8 . 80 ( 4
) 125 ( 9 . 20
1
= 580.25 mm
2
Bolt root diameter,
π
) 4 (
b
A
d · (3.73)

π
) 4 ( 25 . 580
·
= 27.18 mm
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
1
1
]
1

¸

+ ·
s
s
s
b
D
W
D
M
F
π
π
2
4
(3.74)
=
1
]
1

¸

+
) 3 (
) 1000 ( 25 . 249
) 0 . 3 (
) 1000 )( 8 . 80 ( 4
2
π π
= 37.88 kN/m
Assuming that a pressure of 5 N/mm
2
is one of the concrete foundation pad, fc so
minimum width of the base ring,
3
10
1
× ·
c
b
b
f
F
L
(3.75)

3
3
10 5
10 88 . 37
×
×
·
= 7.58 mm
3.3.14 Pipe Size Selection for the Nozzle
Material of construction = Stainless steel
Density of TBA = 787 kg/m
3
Flowrate of TBA = 14.55 kg/s
Diameter pipe for TBA
DTBA = 260 G
0.52
ρ
-0.37
(3.76)
= 260 (14.55)
0.52
(787)
-0.37
= 88.75 mm
3.3.15 Standard Flanges
Flanges used in this design are chosen from the standard flanges. Here standard
flanges are adapted from the British standard (BS 4504), nominal pressure of 6 bar.
(Please refer to APPENDIX C5).
Table 3.5: Mechanical Design Specification Data
Parameter Value
Design pressure 9.9 bar
Design temperature 500ºC
Material of construction Stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni, 304)
Design stress 90 N/mm
2
Tensile stress 510 N/mm
2
Tube thickness 3 mm
Shell thickness 19 mm
Torispherical head thickness 18 mm
Manhole 800 mm [BS470:1984]
Longitudinal pressure stress 37.22 N/mm
2
Circumferential pressure stress 75.45 N/mm
2
Longitudinal stress (upwind) 37.12 N/mm
2
Longitudinal stress (downwind) 36.52 N/mm
2
Critical buckling stress 129.52 N/mm
2
Maximum compressive stress 1.1977 N/mm
2
Type of skirt support Straight cylindrical skirt
Material construction of skirt support Carbon steel
REFERENCES
Coulson, J M and Richardson, J F, 1998, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical
Engineering, Vol. 1 : “Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer”, Oxford,
Pergamon,
Douglas, James M., 1988, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, Singapore,
McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Elvers B. et. al., 1989, Ullman’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Volume 13,
Germany, VCH Verlagsgesellschuft.
Felder, Richard M. and Rousseau, Ronald W., 1986, Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes, Second Edition, United States, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Fogler, H.Scott, 1999, Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Third Edition,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Inc.
Ludwig, E. Ernest, 1964, Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical
Plants, Vol. 1, Houston, Gulf Publishing Coompany.
Perry R.H., Green D.W., 1997, Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook, 7
th
edition,
USA, McGraw-Hill.
Richardson, J F and Peacock, D G, 1994, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical
Engineering, Vol. 3 : “Chemical & Biochemical Reactors & Process Control”, Oxford,
Pergamon.
Scott, Doug and Crawley, Frank, 1992, Process Plant Design and Operation,
Warwickshire, UK, Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Sinnott, R.K, 1999, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering, Vol. 6 :
“Chemical Engineering Design”, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Smith R., 1995, Chemical Process Design, USA, McGraw-Hill.
Hydrocarbon Processing, 1992, Vol. 71(February).
LIST OF NOMENCLATURES
Ab - By-pass area m
2
Ac - Cross flow area m
2
Ah - Heat transfer area m
2
As - Tube cross-sectional area m
2
Cps - Flue gas heat capacity kJ/kgK
Db - Bundle diameter m
De - Effective diffusivity m
2
/s
Dk - Knudsen Diffusivity m
2
/s
Ds - Shell inside diameter m
di - Inside tube diameter m
do - Outside tube diameter m
dp - Diameter of particle m
e - Thickness m
f - Design stress N/m
2
Gm - Vapor mixture mass flowrate kg/h
Gs - Shell side mass flowrate per unit area kg/m
2
s
GT - Tube side mass flowrate per unit area kg/m
2
s
G - Gravitational acceleration m/s
2
hi - Tube side heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
hs - Shell side heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
hw - Wall heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
hbed - Bed heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
jh - Heat transfer factor -
jf - Friction factor -
k - Reaction rate constant s
L - Tube length m
Ib - Baffle spacing m
Mt - Molecular weight of tube side material kg/kmol
ms - Flue gas flowrate kg/s
Nt - Number of tube -
Pi - Design pressure N/m
2
pt - Tube pitch m
ΔPs - Shell side pressure drop kPa
ΔPt - Tube side pressure drop kPa
Q - Heat transfer required W
Rc - Crown radius m
Rk - Knuckle radius m
S - Surface area m
2
ts - Shell thickness m
tt - Tube thickness m
ΔT - Temperature different °C
Uc - Superficial velocity m/s
V - Volume of catalyst m
3
v - Feed volume flowrate m
3
/h
x - Fraction of TBA converted -
ρp - Particle density kg/m
3
ρs - Flue gas density kg/m
3
µs - Flue gas viscosity Ns/m
2
LIST OF FORMULA
X
X LHSV
K


· )
1
1
ln( 2 (3.1)
ln K = 21.7483 – 17992/T (3.2)
v
V
LHSV
·
1
(3.3)
Vc
LHSV
v
1
· (3.4)
VR = Vc/ (1 – ε) (3.5)
ρB = (1-ε)(ρp) (3.6)
Wc = (Vc)(ρB) (3.7)
τ
θ D
D
e
· (3.8)
D = Dk + DB (3.9)
p
t
k
r
m
RT
D 0638 . 1 · (3.10)
As =
4
) (
2
o
d π
(3.11)
Nt = L A
V
s
c
(3.12)
τ =
v
V
(3.13)
Vt = Vf / Nt (3.14)
uc =
S
t
A
V
(3.15)
t s
m
t
N A
G
G ·
(3.16)
Db =
1
/ 1
1
n
t
o
k
N
d

,
_

¸
¸
(3.17)
pt = 1.25do (3.18)
A = NtπL(do + di) / 2 (3.19)
ΔT =
A U
Q
o
(3.20)
Rec =
µ
ρ
p c
d u
(3.21)
Pr =
k
C
p
µ
(3.22)
k
d h
N
p w
u
· = 1.6(Re)
0.51
(Pr)
0.33
(3.23)
p
w
d
k
h
33 . 0 51 . 0
(Pr) (Re) 6 . 1
·
(3.24)
r
k
h
e
bed
4
· (3.25)
Pr Re 1 . 0 5 + ·
k
k
e
(3.26)
bed w i
h h h
1 1 1
+ ·
(3.27)
o i
i i
iw
d d
d h
h
+
·
2
(3.28)
ms =
T Cp
Q
s

(3.29)
Ib = Ds/5 (3.30)
pt = 1.25do (3.31)
Ac = (pt – do)IbDs/pt (3.32)
Gs = m/Ac (3.33)
s
o s
d G
µ
· Re
(3.34)
s
s s
k
Cp µ
· Pr
(3.35)
14 . 0 3 / 1
) ( Pr Re
w
h
s
o s
j
k
d h
µ
µ
·
(3.36)
o
h s
s
d
j k
h
3 / 1
Pr Re
· (3.37)
) (
2
i o
o s
ow
d d
d h
h
+
·
(3.38)
1
]
1

¸

+ + + + ·
is iw i
o
w
i
o
o
os ow o
h h d
d
k
d
d
d
h h U
1 1
2
) ln(
1 1 1
(3.39)
7 . 1
2
2
ge
v fG
z
P
ρ
·

(3.40)
Re” =
v
G
t
µ
(3.41)
s
s
s
G
u
ρ
·
(3.42)
14 . 0
2
) (
2
) ( 8
w
s
b
s f s
u
I
L
D j P
µ
µ
ρ · ∆ (3.43)

2
) ( 8
2
s
b
s f s
u
I
L
D j P ρ · ∆ (3.44)
i
s i
P f
D P
e

·
2
(3.45)
Cs=

,
_

¸
¸
+
k
c
R
R
3
4
1
(3.46)
e =
) 2 . 0 ( 2 − −
s i
i i
C P Jf
D P
(3.47)
t D H D C W
m v m V v
) 8 . 0 ( 240 + ·
(3.48)

W
t
·N
t
πd
o
2
−d
i
2
( )

m
g
(3.49)

V ·πH
v
(r +r
1
)
2
−r
2
[ ]
(3.50)

W
i
·Vρg
(3.51)
Wc = (mc)(g) (3.52)
Wt = Wv + Wt +Wi + Wc (3.53)
Pw = 0.05Uw
2
(3.54)
Fw = PwDeff (3.55)
Mx = Fw (X)
2
/2 (3.56)
t
PD
i
L
4
· σ (3.57)
t
PD
i
h
2
· σ (3.58)
t t D
W
i
w
) ( +
·
π
σ
(3.59)

,
_

¸
¸
+ t · t
D
I
M
i
v
b
2
σ
(3.60)
Iv = ( )
4 4
64
i o
D D −
π
(3.61)
σz(upwind) = σL – σw + σb (3.62)
σz(downwind) = σL – σw - σb (3.63)

,
_

¸
¸
× ·
o
D
t
4
1
10 2 σ (3.64)
σmax = σw + σb (3.65)
Wapprox = g H D
L v i
× × × × ρ
π
2
4
(3.66)
Ms =
1
]
1

¸
+
2
) (
2
skirt v
w
H H
F (3.67)
] ) ( [
4
s s s s
s
bs
D t t D
M
+
·
π
σ
(3.68)
] ) ( [
s s s
ws
t t D
W
+
·
π
σ
(3.69)
σs (compressive) = σbs - σws(test) (3.70)
σs (tensile) = σbs + σws(operating) (3.71)
Ab =

,
_

¸
¸
−W
D
M
f N
b
s
b b
4 1
(3.72)
π
) 4 (
b
A
d · (3.73)
1
1
]
1

¸

+ ·
s
s
s
b
D
W
D
M
F
π
π
2
4
(3.74)
3
10
1
× ·
c
b
b
f
F
L
(3.75)
DTBA = 260 G
0.52
ρ
-0.37
(3.76)
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
MTBE REACTOR NORMARIAH BINTI ABDULLAH
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 4:
MTBE REACTOR
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 4 MTBE REACTOR
4.1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN
OF REACTOR 97
4.1.1Catalyst 98
4.1.2 Tube side 103
4.1.3 Shell 105
4.1.4 Condition Calculation 106
4.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF REACTOR 112
4.2.1 Design Consideration 112
4.2.2 The Design of Thin Walled Vessels
Under Internal Pressure 113
4.2.3 Design of Vessels Subject to
Combined Loading 116
4.2.4 Vessel Support 121
4.2.5 Base Ring and Anchor Bolt Design 124
4.2.6 Bolt Flanged Joint 127
4.2.7 Pipe Sizing 129
4.2.8 Compensation for Opening and
Branch Connections 130
CHAPTER 4
MTBE REACTOR
4.1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN OF REACTOR
The major equipment in the MTBE process plant is reactor, where the
conversion of reactant to products takes place. The reactor use is fixed bed reactor
which operates isothermally. The fixed bed reactor consists of a number of tubes
packed with catalyst particles and operated at vertical position. The condition of the
reactor is plug flow reactor where the reactants flow through the tube without back
mixing with concentration changing down the tube as a result of the reaction.
The amount of catalyst required can be determined by calculating the rate of
reaction. The catalyst effectiveness factor must be taken into account in overall rate
constant calculation because the intra- particle diffusion has a great effect on the
rate of reaction.
Feed
Cooling
water inlet
Cooling
Water Outlet
Product
Figure 4.1: Fixed Bed Reactor
4.1.1 Catalyst
The catalyst used for this process is sulfonic ion resin which is having 16000
hours operating life, longer life compared to other catalyst.
Catalyst properties:
Diameter of catalyst (dp) = 0.04 mm
Bulk density (ρb) = 700 kg/ m
3
Surface area (Sa) = 100 m
2
/ g
Total voidage (εb) = 0.54
Void fraction (εp) = 0.32
Pore volume (V) = 4.7 x 10
-7
m
3
/ g
Specific surface area (O) = 0.020 m
2
/ g
4.1.1.1 Particle solid density
From Perry’s:
ρ
p =
ρ
ε
ρ
− 1
b
=
32 . 0 1
/ 700
3

m kg
= 1029 kg/ m
3
4.1.1.2 Pore radius of catalyst
Brunauer -Emmet-Teller (BET) showed that the pore radius is related to the
specific surface area, O perunit mass to the pore volume, V by the equation below: (
G.H Osborn, 1961)
r = 2.7
O
V
= 6.35 x 10
-5
m
4.1.1.3 Effective Diffusivity
Knudsen diffusion
Dk =
3
8r
M
RT
π 2
= 4.68 cm
2
/ s
4.1.1.4 Thiele Modulus
From Levenspiel, Thiele Modulus for sphere is given by: (Octave Levenspiel,
1999)
φ = 1.1
4.1.1.5 Effectiveness factor, η
From Perry’s:
η =
φ
2
3

,
_

¸
¸
−1
tanhφ
φ
= 0.93
4.1.1.6 Reaction Rate
For a reversible first order reaction on exothermic conditions, the rate of
reaction for the suphonic cation exchange resin catalyst is:
CH3OH + CH3C(CH3)CH2 ⇔ (CH3)3CH2COCH3
A B C
-rB = k1CB – k2Cc A1 = 6.5 x 10
5
R = 8.314 J/ mol.K A2 = 1.36 x 10
8
Tin = 65
o
C = 338 K E1 = 4.74 x 10
4
Tout = 200
o
C = 473 K E2 = 7.04 x 10
4
Pin = 2 bar
Pout = 10 bar
K1 = A1 e
(-E1/ RT)
= 3.07 x 10
-2
hr
-1
K2 = A1 e
(-E2/ RT)
= 2.285 hr
-1
By using ideal gas law for isobutylene :
CBO =
RT
P
BO
= 71.17 mol/m
3
Component Density (kg/m
3
) Volume flowrate (m
3
/hr)
C4H8 600 64.75
CH3OH 791.5 28.04
H2O 998.2 0.23
PO 312 0.18
Input flowrate = 61335.1630 kg/hr
Volume of mixture = 93.20 m
3
/hr
Density of mixture =
V
M
=
hr m
hr kg
/ 20 . 93
/ 1630 . 61335
3
= 658.10 kg/m
3
CCO =
V
F
F = mole flowrate of the feed
V = volume of the feed
CCO =
20 . 93
2048 . 1401
= 15.03 mol/m
3
M =
BO
CO
C
C
= 0.211

-rB = k1CB – k2Cc
= k1(CBO – CBOXB) – k2(MCBO + CBOXB)
= -196.77
4.1.1.7 Weight of catalyst

·
x
o B
r
dx
F
W
W = weight of catalyst needed
F = molar flowrate of the feed
X = conversion of reactant

·
x
B
r
dx
F W
0
= ( ) 999 . 0
77 . 196
2048 . 1401
= 7.11 m
3
W = 7.11 m
3
x 700 kg/ m
3
= 4977 kg
4.1.1.6 Pressure Drop
For gas-liquid reaction at high pressure, the change in pressure may effects
the global rate significantly. Also, the pressure drop is needed for designing
pumping equipment which usually estimates the economic structure of a reactor
system. For packed bed, the pressure drop may be estimated from the Ergun
equation as below:
( )
p d
fu
L
dP
'
2
ρ
·

Where:
f = friction factor

( )

,
_

¸
¸

1
]
1

¸

+
3
1
Re
1 150
75 . 1
b
b b
ε
ε ε
u = superficial linear velocity
ρ = density of fluid
L = depth of the bed
d’p = effective particle diameter = 5 x 10
-4
m
i. Superficial linear velocity
L = 4.88 m
D = 2.0 m
U =
A
Q
= ( ) ( )
4
88 . 4 2
/ 20 . 93
3
m m
hr m
π
= 3.377 x 10
-3
m/s
ii. Reynolds number
Re =
υ
ρud
= 658.10 (3.377 x 10
-3
) (5x10
-4
)
1.89 x 10
-3
= 0.59
iii. Friction factor
f =
( )

,
_

¸
¸

1
]
1

¸

+
3
1
Re
1 150
75 . 1
b
b b
ε
ε ε
f =
( )

,
_

¸
¸

1
]
1

¸

+
3
54 . 0
54 . 0 1
59 . 0
54 . 0 1 150
75 . 1
b
f = 346.76
iv. Pressure drop
( )
p d
fu
L
dP
'
2
ρ
·

= 346.76 (3.377 x 10
-3
)
2
(658.10)
5 x 10
-4
= 5204.90 N/m
3
4.1.1.9 Height of the bed
The preferred lengths of the tubes length are 6 ft, 8 ft, 12 ft, 16 ft, 20 ft and
24 ft ( Coulson and Richardson,1999). The height of the bed is taken as 16 ft
(4.88m). The height of the bed is selected to suit the criteria that the optimum value
of pressure drop is between 5 to 15% of the total pressure.
Pressure drop (- ) dP = 5204.90 N/m
3
x 4.88m
= 25399.95

N/m
2
4.1.1.10 Volume of catalyst bed
Vp =
p
W
ρ
=
3
/ 1029
4977
m kg
kg
= 4.84 m
3
4.1.2 Tube Side
4.1.2.1 Total cross section of the tube
= volume of catalyst bed
Height of the bed
= 4.84 m
3

4.88 m
= 0.99 m
2
4.1.2.2 Tube diameter (O.D)
The standard dimensions for steel tube diameter is in the range of 16 mm to
50 mm. The smaller diameters (16 mm to 25 mm) are preferred for most duties.
Larger tubes are easier to clean by mechanical methods and would be selected for
heavily fouling fluids. Therefore the tube diameter of 50 mm is choose as they will
give more compact and therefore cheaper.
4.1.2.3 Wall thickness
A 2.0 mm of wall thickness is the standard wall thickness for 50 mm tube
diameter that are given in BS 3274 used in this reactor.
4.1.2.4 Inside diameter
DI = 50 mm – 2(2.0mm)
= 0.046 m
4.1.2.5 Total number of tube
cross section of one tube =
4
2
I D π
=
( )
4
046 . 0 142 . 3
2
= 1.66 x 10
-3
m
2
nt = Total cross section of tube
cross section of one tube
=
3
2
10 66 . 1
99 . 0

x
m
= 596 tubes
4.1.2.6 Tube arrangements
The tubes are usually arranged in an equilateral triangular, square or rotated
square pattern. Since this process required high heat transfer to maintain isothermal
condition in the reactor, the triangular arrangement is recommended. (Please refer
APPENDIX D10)
4.1.2.7 Tube pitch
The recommended tube pitch (distance between tube centre) is 1.25 times
the tube outside diameter.
Pt = 1.25 x O.D
= 0.0625 m
4.1.2.8 Tube side passes
Since the inlet flow rate is very high, this exchanger is build with one tube
passes.
4.1.2.9 Bundle diameter
The bundle diameter will depend not only on the number of tubes but also
the number of the tubes passes. For triangular patterns;
1
1
1
n
t
o b
k
N
d D

,
_

¸
¸
·
where :
Nt = number of tubes
Db = bundle diameter
Do = tube outside diameter
142 . 2
1
319 . 0
596
05 . 0

,
_

¸
¸
·
b
D
= 1.68 m
4.1.2.10 Holding time
Vtube =
4
π
x0.046
2
x 4.88
= 8.11 x 10
-3
m
3
Voutlet = 83.77 m
3
/hr
th =
77 . 83
10 11 . 8
3 −
x
= 0.35 s
4.1.3 Shell
4.1.3.1 Shell types
A single shell pass type is used
4.1.3.2 Shell diameter
The shell diameter must be selected to give as close as fit to the tube bundle
as in practical to reduce bypassing round the outside of the bundle. The clearance
required between the outermost tubes in the bundle and the shell inside diameter
will depend on the type of exchanger and manufacturing tolerances. The split ring
floating head type is used in this reactor.
From figure 12.10 (Coulson & Richardson vol.6);(Please refer APPENDIX
D7)
Ds – Db = 100 mm
= 100 mm + 1680 mm
= 1.780 m
4.1.3.3 Baffles
Baffles are used in the shell to increase the fluid velocity and to improve the
rate of the heat transfer. 25% baffles cut is used for this shell.
4.1.3.4 Baffle spacing
The baffle spacing used range from 0.2 to 1.0 shell diameters. The optimum
spacing usually between 0.3 to 0.5 times the shell diameter.
Bs = 0.4 x 1.780 m
= 0.712 m
4.1.3.5 Number of baffles
1 + ·
b
s
N
B
L
1
712 . 0
88 . 4
+ ·
b
N
Nb = 6 baffles
4.1.3.6 Cross flow area
As =
s s
t
t
B x D x
P
OD P

,
_

¸
¸ −
=
6
10 712 1780
5 . 62
50 5 . 62

,
_

¸
¸ −
x x x
= 0.2535 m
2
4.1.3.7 Volume of reactor
VR =
4
2
s
D π
x bed height
= 12.15 m
3
4.1.4 Condition Calculation
4.1.4.1 Tube side
Feed = 61335.1630 kg/hr
Outside diameter = 0.050 m
Inside diameter = 0.046 m
Pitch = 0.0625 m
Length = 4.88 m
Number of tubes = 596
Passes = 1
Cross section of one tube = 0.00166 m
2
Total cross section = 0.99 m
2
4.1.4.1.1 Heat transfer coefficient in tube side
Gmax =
min
A
M
Where;
Gmax = maximum mass flowrate
M = total mass flowrate
Amin = total minimum free flow area
Gmax = 61335.1630 kg/hr
0.99 m
2
= 61954.7101 kg/hr
= 17.21 kg/s
Re =
µ
max
DG
Where;
D = outside diameter
µ = average viscosity
Re =
( )
3
10 89 . 1
21 . 17 050 . 0

x
= 455.29
L/D = 4.88 m / 0.046m
= 106.09
From figure 12.23 (Coulson & Richardson vol.6);
Heat transfer factor, jh = 8 x 10
-3
(Please refer APPENDIX D1)
14 . 0
33 . 0
Pr Re

,
_

¸
¸
·
w
h
f
i i
j
k
d h
µ
µ
µ = µw
Neglect

,
_

¸
¸
w
µ
µ

Pr =
f
p
k
C µ
= 84.45
046 . 0
88 . 4
·
i
d
L
= 106.09
33 . 0
Pr Re
h
i
f
i
j x
d
k
h ·
= ( )( ) ( )
33 . 0 3
45 . 84 29 . 455 10 8

x x
0.046
0.21989
= 75.267 W/m
2
.K
4.1.4.1.2 Correction for tube heat transfer coefficient
The heat transfer coefficient that calculated is based on the inside diameter.
In order to obtain heat transfer coefficient that based on outside diameter, correction
is;
o
i i
c
D
D h
h ·
=
050 . 0
046 . 0 39 . 41 x
= 69.247 W/m
2
.K
4.1.4.1.3 Tube side pressure drop
From figure 12.24 for Re=3154,
Jf = 1.8 x10
-1
(Please refer APPENDIX D2)
∆ P = 8jf
2
2
t
i
u
d
L ρ

,
_

¸
¸
= 33.981 N/m
2
4.1.4.2 Shell side
Flow area = 0.2535 m
2
Inside diameter = 1.780 m
Baffle spacing = 0.712 m
4.1.4.2.1 Shell side heat transfer coefficient
Shell side mass velocity, Gs
= Ws
As
Ws = fluid flowrate on the shell side
Gs = 61335.1630 kg/hr
0.2535 m
2
= 67.209 kg/m
2
.s
4.1.4.2.2 Shell side equivalent diameter
For an equilateral triangular pitch arrangements,
De =
2
4 2
1
87 . 0
2
4
2
o
o
t
t
d
d
P x
P
π
π

,
_

¸
¸

= 0.037 m
4.1.4.2.3 Reynolds Number
Re =
µ
e s
d G
=
( ) ( )
3
10 89 . 1
037 . 0 209 . 67

x
= 2045
4.1.4.2.4 Heat transfer factor
From figure 12.29 (Coulson & Richardson vol. 6)
Jh = 1.5 x 10
-1
(Please refer APPENDIX D3)
4.1.4.2.5 Heat transfer coefficient
14 . 0
3
1
Pr Re

,
_

¸
¸
·
w
h
f
e s
j
k
d h
µ
µ
Neglect

,
_

¸
¸
w
µ
µ
3
1
Pr Re
n
e
f
s
j x
d
k
h ·
= ( )( ) ( ) 3
1
1
45 . 84 73 . 1315 10 5 . 1
037 . 0
21989 . 0

x x
= 5145.90 W/m
2
.K
4.1.4.2.6 Overall heat transfer coefficient
The overall heat transfer coefficient can be determined from Fourier
equation. By neglecting the wall effect, the equation is;
i o i
o o i
h h
h h
U
+
·
0
( ) ( )
90 . 5145 267 . 75
90 . 5145 267 . 75
0
+
· U
= 74.182 W/m
2
.K
4.1.4.2.7 Friction factor
From figure 12.30 (Coulson & Richardson vol.6)
Jf = 7.0 x 10
-2
(Please refer APPENDIX D4)
4.1.4.2.8 Pressure drop
∆ Ps = 8jf
14 . 0
2
2

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
w
s
s e
s
u
B
L
d
D
µ
µ ρ
Neglect

,
_

¸
¸
w
µ
µ
∆ Ps = 8 (7.0 x 10
-2
)
( )
2
054 . 0 10 . 658
712 . 0
88 . 4
037 . 0
780 . 1
2

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
∆ Ps = 632.139 N/m
2
4.1.4.2.9 Total heat transfer area
A = πDoLNt
= (4.88)(596)(0.05)π
= 456.922 m
2
4.1.4.2.10 Design overall coefficient
Let dirt factor,Rd = 0.001
d
o d
R
U U
+ ·
1 1
= 001 . 0
182 . 74
1
+
Ud = 69.059 W/m
2
.K
Overall heat transfer,
Q = UdA∆Tm
Log Mean Temperature Different (LMTD)
∆Tm =
2 2
922 . 456 / 059 . 69
/ 17 . 22598
m x K m W
s J
= 716.16 K
∆TLMTD = ∆ T o - ∆ T L
ln(∆To / ∆TL)
By trial and error, outlet temperature of cooling water = 155
o
C
4.1.4.2.11 Reactors cooling system
Cooling water is flow outside the reactor tubes where the reaction took place. This is
to maintain a constant operating temperature and to prevent any excessive heating
happen.
Mass of cooling water enter,
mfCp(T1 –T2) = mcCp(t2 –t1) = Q
mc = 39.673 kg/s

4.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF REACTOR
4.2.1 Design Consideration
4.2.1.1 Design pressure
For vessels under internal pressure, the design pressure is normally taken
as the pressure at which the relief device is set. This will normally be 5 to 10 percent
above the normal working pressure, to avoid spurious operation during minor
process upsets. The design pressure is taken as 10% above the operating pressure.
PD = (PI -Po ) x 1.1
= (10-1 ) x 1.1
= 9.9 bar
4.2.1.2 Design temperature
The maximum allowable design stress is depended on the temperature of
material because the strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature. The
design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated is taken as the maximum
working temperature of the material, that is T = 200
o
C
4.2.1.3 Material
A suitable material must take into account the suitability of material for
fabrication as well as the compatibility of the material with the process environment
since the maximum working temperature at this reactor is
200
o
C because it will oxidize rapidly at high temperature. Stainless steel is
recommended in construction of vessel tubes and shell.
4.2.1.4 Design stress (nominal design strength)
A maximum allowable stress that can be accepted in the material of
construction is necessary to decide for design purpose in which the material could
be expected to withstand without failure under standard test conditions. By using
stainless, the design stress is given as 115 N/mm
2
(Please refer APPENDIX D5)
4.2.1.5 Welded joint efficiency
The strength of a welded joint will depend on the type of joint and the quality
of the welding. For reactor, the joint factor is taken as 1.0 which implies that the joint
is equally as strong as the virgin plate. This highest category, requires 100% non
destructive testing welds.
4.2.1.6 Corrosion allowance
The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow
for material lost by corrosion and erosion. For carbon and low- alloy steels, where
severe corrosion is not expected, a minimum corrosion allowance of 2.0 mm is used
since the influent and effluent gas of the reactor is not corrosive.
4.2.2 The Design of Thin Walled Vessels Under Internal Pressure
4.2.2.1 Cylinders shell minimum practical wall thickness
A minimum wall thickness is required to ensure that any vessel is sufficiently
rigid to withstand its own weight, and any incidental loads. For a cylindrical shell the
minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure can be determined from
equation below:
Pi Jf
Di Pi
e
2 . 1 4 −
·
where:
e = minimum wall thickness, m
Pi = internal pressure, N/mm
2
f = design stress, N/mm
2
J = joint efficiency
Di = internal diameter of shell, mm
e = 1 N/mm
2
(1780mm)
2 (115 N/mm
2
)-1N/mm
2
= 7.773 mm
By adding corrosion allowance of 2 mm,
· e
9.773 mm
4.2.2.2 Heads and closure
The ends of a cylindrical vessel are closed by heads of various shapes. The
commonly types used are:
i. Domed heads
a. Hemispherical heads
b. Ellipsoidal heads
c. Torispherical heads
ii. Flat heads
Design equations and charts for the various types of domed heads are given
in the codes and standards and values for design constant Cp and the nominal plate
diameter De of flat end closures are given in the design codes and standards for
various arrangements of flat end closures. The selection of head depends on the
thickness required for the head which contributed to cost.
a) Torispherical heads.
The minimum thickness of head can be calculated from equation
below:
( ) 2 . 0 2 − +
·
Cs Pi fJ
Cs Rc Pi
e
where :
Cs = stress concentration factor for torispherical
heads

,
_

¸
¸
+
Rk
Rc
3
4
1
Rc = crown radius = shell outside diameter
Rk = Knuckle radius
Where Rc / Rk should not be less than 0.06 and to avoid buckling;
crown radius Rc should not be greater than diameter of the cylinder
section.
For formed head (no joints in the head), the joint factor J is taken as
1.0.
Rc = 1.78 m
Rk = 0.06 Rc
= 0.1068 m

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
Rk
Rc
Cs 3
4
1
= 1.771 m
Add corrosion allowance of 2 mm
· e
1.773 m
b) Ellipsoidal heads with major and minor axis ratio of 2:1. The minimum
thickness required can be determined by equation below:
Pi Jf
Di Pi
e
2 . 0 2 −
·
e = 1 N/mm
2
(1780mm)
2 (115 N/mm
2
)-0.2(1N/mm
2
)
= 7.746 mm
Add corrosion allowance of 2 mm
e = 9.746 mm
c) Flat heads
The minimum thickness required is given by equation below:
f
P
D C e
i
e p
·
Where Cp = a design constant, dependent on the edge
constraint
De = nominal plate diameter
f = design stress
For bolted cover with a full face gasket (to avoid leakage) take Cp =
0.4 and De equal to the bolt circle diameter, take as approximately 1.7
m
8
5
10 15 . 1
10 10
7 . 1 4 . 0
x
x
x x e ·
= 0.063 m
Add corrosion allowance of 2 mm;
e
= 65 mm
This shows the inefficiency of flat head. It would be better to use a
flanged domed head.
4.2.3 Design of Vessels Subject To Combined Loading
Pressure vessels are subjected to other loads in addition to pressure and
must be designed to withstand the worst combination of loading without failure. A
trial thickness must be assumed (based on that calculated for pressure alone) and
the resultant stress from all loads to ensure that the maximum allowable stress
intensity is not exceeded at any point.
The main sources of load to consider are;
a. Pressure
b. Dead weight of vessel and contents
c. Wind
d. Earthquake
e. External loads imposed by piping and attached equipment.
4.2.3.1 Stresses Analysis
4.2.3.1.1 Stresses resulting from internal pressure
The longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to pressure are given by:
t
PD
i
L
4
· σ
= (1 N/mm
2
)(1780 mm)
4(9.773)
= 45.534 N/mm
2
t
PD
i
h
2
· σ
= (1 N/mm
2
)(1780 mm)
2(9.773)
= 91.067 N/mm
2
4.2.3.1.2 Dead weight stress
The major sources of dead weight loads are:
a. The vessel shell
b. The vessel fittings: manways, nozzles
c. Internal fittings; ladders,platforms,
piping.
4.2.3.1.2.1 Weight of cylindrical vessel
The approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed ends, and uniform
wall thickness, can be estimated from the following equation:
( )
3
10 8 . 0

+ · x t D H g D C W
m v m m v v
π ρ
For a stainless steel vessel, the equation reduces to:
( )t D H D C W
m v m v v
8 . 0 240 + ·
where;
Wv = total weight of the shell, excluding internal
fittings
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles
manways, internal supports,etc, Cv is taken as
1.08 for vessel with only a few internal fittings.
Hv = Height between tangent lines
t = wall thickness
g = gravitational acceleration, 9.81m/s
2
ρm = density of vessel material, kg/m
3
Dm = mean diameter of vessel
= ( Di + t x10
-3
)
= (1.780 + 9.773 x 10
-3
)
= 1.790 m
Wv =240 (1.080)(1.790)(4.88 + 0.8(1.790))9.773
= 28.62 kN
4.2.3.1.2.2 Weight of tubes
From Perry’s (Robert H. Perry,1997), the mass per length of steel tube is
equal to 1.905 kg/m.
The weight of one tube = 1.905 x 4.88
= 9.2968 kg
Total weight of tubes = 596 x 9.2968
= 54.353 kN
4.2.3.1.2.3 Weight of insulation
For high operating temperature, mineral wool is normally used as insulator.
Density of mineral wool = 130 kg/m
3
The thickness of insulator = 75 mm
Approximate volume of insulation; = πDiHvt
Vi = π(1.780)(4.88)(75 x 10
-3
)
= 2.047 m
3
Weight of insulator = ρVig
= 130 (2.04)(9.81)
= 2.61 kN
4.2.3.1.2.4 Weight of catalyst
Weight of catalyst, Wc = 48.824 kN
4.2.3.1.2.5 Total weight
Total weight, WT = Wv + Wt + Wi + Wc
= 134.408 kN
4.2.3.1.2.6 Calculation of dead weight stress
The dead weight stress can be calculated by equation below:
( )t t D
W
i
T
w
+
·
π
σ
= 134.408
π(1780 + 9.773)9.773
= 2.446 N/mm
2
4.2.3.1.3 Bending stress
4.2.3.1.3.1 Wind loads
A vessel installed in the open must be designed to withstand the weight
bending stress caused by wind loading. The wind loading is a function of the wind
velocity, air density and the shape of structure. A wind speed of 160 km/hr is used
for preliminary design.
For a cylindrical column, the following semi-empirical equation can be used to
estimate the wind pressure.
2
07 . 0
w w
U P ·
where ; Pw = wind pressure, N/m
2
Uw = wind speed, km/hr
w
P = 0.07 (160)
= 1792 N/m
2
The loading per unit length of the column can be obtained from the wind pressure by
multiplying by the effective column diameter
eff w w
D P F ·
= 3494.40 N/mm
2
where Fw = Loading per unit length
= Pwx(mean diameter including insulation)
Deff = Effecting column diameter, the outside
diameter plus allowance for the thermal
insulation.
= 1.780 + 2(9.773+75)x10
-3
= 1.950 m
4.2.3.1.3.2 Bending moment
For a uniformly loaded cantilever, the bending moment at any plane is given
by:
2
2
WX
M
x
·
= 3494.40 (4.88)
2

2
= 41608.52 Nm
where X = distance measured from the free end (Hv)
W = Fw = load per unit length (N/m)
4.2.3.1.3.3 Calculation for bending stress
The bending stresses will be compressive or tensile, depending on location,
and are given by;
1
]
1

¸

+ t · t
D
I
M
i
v
x
b
2
σ
= 0.106 N/mm
2
where Iv = second moment of area of the vessel
about the place of bending
( )
4 4
4
i o v
D D I − ·
π
= 3.522 x 10
11
mm
4
·
o
D
Outside diameter of vessel
=
t D
i
2 +
= 1780 + 2(9.7730
= 1799.55 mm
4.2.3.1.3.4 Principle stresses
The resultant longitudinal stress is :
b w L z
σ σ σ σ t + ·
w
σ is compressive and therefore negative
z
σ (upwind) = 45.534 – 2.446 +0.106 =43.194 N/mm
2
z
σ (downwind)= 45.534 -2.446 -0.106 =42.982N/mm
2
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and σh.
σh = 43.406 N/mm
2
The greatest principal stresses that acted on the vessel is 0.212N/mm
2
which is well
below the maximum allowable design stress.
4.2.3.1.3.5 Check Elastic Stability (Buckling)
A vessel design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of
resultant axial stress (compressive) does not exceed the critical value at which
buckling will occur. For steel cylindrical vessels, the critical buckling stress is given
by:

,
_

¸
¸
·
o
c
D
t
x
4
10 2 σ
= 2 x 10
-4
(9.773/1780)
= 109.81 N/mm
2
The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure.
Maximum compressive stress =
b w
σ σ +
= 2.552 N/mm
2
which is well below the critical buckling stress and maximum allowable design
stress.
4.2.4 Vessel Support
The method used to support a vessel will depend on size, shape and weight
of the vessel, the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and
arrangement: the internal and external fittings and attachments.
Since the design reactor is a vertical vessel, a skirt support is recommended
as it does not impose concentrated loads on the vessel shell. Supports will impose
localized loads on the vessel wall, and the design must be checked to ensure that
the resulting stress concentrations are below the maximum allowable design stress.
4.2.4.1 Skirt supports
A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of
vessel. A flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations.
Openings must be provided in the skirt for access and for any connecting pipes.
4.2.4.2 Skirt thickness
The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead weight loads and
bending moments imposed on it by the vessel; it will not be under the vessel
pressure.
4.2.4.3 Structure of skirt
The skirt is not required to withstand the pressure in the vessel and in the
condition of the fluid, then the selection of material is not limited to steels permitted
by the pressure vessel codes. A straight cylindrical skirt of plain carbon steel with
design stress 105 N/mm
2
is used.
4.2.4.4 Height of the skirt
The height of the skirt is taken as I m
4.2.4.5 Stresses analysis on skirt
The resultant stresses in the skirt will be:
σs(tensile) = σbs - σws
σs(compressive) = σbs + σws
where σbs = bending stress in the skirt
=
( )
s s s s
s
D t t D
M
+ π
4
σws = the dead weight stress in the skirt
=
( )
s s s
t t D
W
+ π
where Ms = maximum bending moment
W = total weight of the vessel and contents
Ds = inside diameter of skirt
ts = skirt thickness
The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind and
dead weight loading the following design criteria not exceeded
( )
s s s
J f tensile θ σ sin ≤
( )
s
s
s
s
D
t
E e compressiv θ σ sin 125 . 0

,
_

¸
¸

where fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material,
normally taken at ambient temperature.
J = weld joint factor, if applicable
θs= base angle of a conical skirt (80
o
to 90
o
)
4.2.4.6 Calculation of bending stress at the base of the skirt
Wind loading, Fw = 3494.40 N/m
Bending moment at base of skirt,
Ms = Fw x ½ (Hv + Hs)
2
= 3494.40 x ½ (4.88 + 1)
2
= 60408.39 Nm
Where Hv = Height of vessel
Hs = Height of skirt
4.2.4.7 Calculation of bending stress in the skirt
Weight of vessel = 134.408 kN
σbs =
( )
s s s s
s
D t t D
M
+ π
4
σbs = 4(60408.39 x 10
3
)
π(1780 + 18)18(1780)
= 1.335 N/mm
2
σws =
( )
s s s
t t D
W
+ π
σws = 134.408 x10
3

π(1780 + 18)18
= 1.322 N/mm
2
Maximum
( ) e compressiv
s
σˆ
= 1.335 + 1.322 = 2.657 N/mm
2
Maximum
( ) tensile
s
σˆ
= 1.335 – 1.322 = 0.013 N/mm
2
Take joint factor J as 0.85 because type of joint is double welded butt and requires
less non-destructive testing but places some limitations on the materials which can
be used and the maximum plate thickness, and Young’s Modulus 200000N/mm
2
.
Criteria for design:
( ) θ σ sin ˆ J f tensile
s s

( ) ≤ tensile
s
σˆ
0.85(105) sin 90
o
( ) ≤ tensile
s
σˆ
89.25N/mm
2
( ) θ σ sin 125 . 0 ˆ

,
_

¸
¸

s
s
s
D
t
E e compressiv
( ) ≤ e compressiv
s
σˆ
0.125 (200000)(18/1780)sin 90
o
( ) ≤ e compressiv
s
σˆ
252.81 N/mm
2
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, gives a design thickness of 20
mm.
4.2.5 Base Ring and Anchor Bolt Design
The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the
skirt base ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by the wind and other lateral
loads will tend to overturn the vessel: this will be opposed by the couple set up by
the weight of the vessel and the tensile load in the anchor bolts.
Since reactor is considered as small vessels, the simplest type rolled angle rings is
recommended.
Scheiman’s method can be used for preliminary design.
4.2.5.1 Calculation for area of bolt
The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the
bolt area required is given by:
1
]
1

¸

− · W
D
M
f N
A
b
s
b b
b
4 1
where Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread,mm
2
Nb = number of bolts
fb = maximum allowable bolts stress, N/mm
2
:
typical design value 125 N/mm
2
(18,000 psi)
Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm
W = weight of the vessel, N
Db = bolt circle diameter, m
Scheiman gives several guide rule for selecting the anchor bolts.
a. Bolts smaller than 25 mm (1 in) diameter should not be used.
b. Minimum number of bolts 8
c. Use multiples of 4 bolts.
d. Bolt pitch should not be less than 600 mm (2 ft)
Let the pitch circle diameter = 0.49 m
Circumference of bolt circle = 1540 mm
Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing
= 1540
600
= 2.57
Since the minimum number of bolts is 8, therefore 8 bolts are used.
Take bolts design stress =125 N/mm
2
Ms = 60408.39 Nm
Take W= operating value = 134.408 kN
1
]
1

¸

− · W
D
M
f N
A
b
s
b b
b
4 1
( )
( )
1
]
1

¸

− ·
3
10 408 . 134
49 . 0
39 . 60408 4
125 8
1
x A
b
= 359 mm
2
From BS 4190 : 1967, M24 bolts with root area of 353 can be used.
Bolt root diameter = (353 x 4/π )
1/2
= 21.20 mm
4.2.5.2 Calculation for minimum thickness of base ring
The base ring must be sufficiently wide to distribute the load to the
foundation. The total compressive load on the base ring is given by:
1
1
]
1

¸

+ ·
s
s
s
b
D
W
D
M
F
π
π
2
4
( )
( )
( )
1
]
1

¸

+ ·
780 . 1
10 408 . 134
780 . 1
39 . 60408 4
3
2
π
π
x
F
b
= 48304.81 N/m
where Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, Newtons per
linear metre
Ds = skirt diameter, m
The minimum width of the base ring is given by:
3
10
1
x
f
F
L
c
b
b
·
where Lb = base ring width, mm
fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the
concrete foundation pad, which will depend on the mix
used, and will typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm
2
(500 to
1000 psi)
Taking bearing pressure as 5 N/mm
2
3
10
1
x
f
F
L
c
b
b
·
= (48304.81/5) x (1/10
3
)
= 9.66 mm
Actual width required = Lr + ts + 50 mm
= 64 + 18 + 50
= 132 mm
From M24 (BS 4190 : 1967), Lr = 64
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:
· ′
c
f 48304.81 / 132 x 10
3
= 0.366 N/mm
2
The minimum thickness is given by:
r c r b
f f x L t ′ · 3
where tb = Base ring thickness, mm
Lr = The distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge
of the ring, mm
f’c = Actual bearing pressure on base , N/mm
2
fr = Allowable design stress in the ring material, typically
140 N/mm
2
r c r b
f f x L t ′ · 3
= 64 ((3 x 0.366)/140)
1/2
= 5.67 mm
4.2.6 Bolt Flanged Joint
Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels, for
manhole covers, and for removable vessel heads when ease of access is required.
Flanges may also be used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the
vessel into sections for transport or maintenance.
4.2.6.1 Selection of Flange
Since the operating temperature of the reactor is to be considered high,
welding–neck flanges are recommended which are suitable for extreme service
conditions such as high temperature. They will normally be specified for the
connections and nozzles on process vessels and process equipment. They have a
long tapered hub between the flange ring and the welded joint. This hub provides a
more gradual transition from the flange ring thickness to the pipe wall thickness,
thereby decreasing the discontinuity stresses and consequently increasing the
strength of the tube flange.
4.2.6.2 Selection of Gaskets
Gaskets are used to make a leak-tight joint between two surfaces. It is
impractical to machine flanges to the degree of surface finish that would be required
to make a satisfactory seal under pressure without a gasket. Gaskets are made from
‘semi-plastic’ materials; which will deform and flow under load to fill the surface
irregularities between the flange faces, yet retain sufficient elasticity to take up the
changes in the flange alignment that occur under load. An Iron or soft steel is
recommended for this vessel since they are normally used for higher temperature.
4.2.6.3 Flange Faces
The raised face, narrow faced which is probably the most commonly used
types of flange are used for all the flanges.
4.2.6.4 Flange Design
The bolts hold the flange faces together, resisting the forces due to internal
pressure and gasket sealing pressure. As these forces offset, the flange is subject to
a bending moment. A flange assembly must be sized so as to have sufficient
strength and rigidity to resist this bending moment.
The total moment
op
M
acting on the flange is given by:
g g t t d d op
h H h H h H M + + ·
where
g
H
= gasket reaction (pressure force) =
( )
i
mP b G 2 π
t
H = pressure force on the flange face =
d
H H −
H = total pressure force = ( )
i
P G
2
4 π
d
H = pressure force on the area inside the flange
= ( )
i
P B
2
4 π
G = mean diameter of the gasket
B = inside diameter of the flange
b 2 = effective gasket pressure width
b = effective gasket sealing width
The minimum required bolt load under the operating condition is given by:
g m
H H W + ·
1
The moment Matm is given by:
g m atm
h W M
2
·
where Wmz is the bolt load required to seat the gasket, given by:
Gb y W
m
π ·
2
where y is the gasket seating pressure (stress)
The flange stresses are given by:
Longitudinal hub stress,σhb = F1M
Radial flange stress, σrd = F2M
Tangential flange stress,σhb = F3M – F4σrd
Where M is taken as Mop or Matm, whichever is the greater.F1 and F4 are the
flange type and dimensions, are obtained from equations and graphs given
in BS5500.
The design criteria of flange are:
fo hb
f 5 . 1 ≤ σ
fo rd
f ≤ σ
( )
fo rd hb
f ≤ +σ σ 2 1
( )
fo tg hb
f ≤ +σ σ 2 1
where
fo
f
is the maximum allowable design stress for the flange material at
the operating conditions.
4.2.7 Pipe Sizing
The pipe diameter can be obtained from the following equation below:
Carbon steel pipe;
doptimum = 293 G
0.53
ρ
-0.37
Stainless steel pipe;
doptimum = 260 G
0.52
ρ
-0.37
where d = optimum diameter of the pipe, mm
G = flow rate of fluid in the pipe, kg/s
ρ = density of fluid, kg/m
3
Equation below can be used to calculate the thickness where the pipe diameter is
considerably large.
i
i i
P f
D P
t

·
2
where Di = optimum diameter of pipe.
4.2.7.1 Calculation of Pipe Diameter
i. Feed Stream
Flow rate = 17.04 kg/s
Density of the stream = 658.10 kg/m
3
Stainless steel is recommended for the construction of the pipe.
For stainless steel,
doptimum= 260(17.04)
0.52
(658.10)
-0.37
= 104.06 mm
ii. Inlet and Outlet Stream for Cooling Water
Stainless steel is recommended for the construction of this pipe
For stainless steel pipe,
doptimum = 260 (39.673)
052
(998.20)
-0.37
= 136.92 mm
4.2.8 Compensation for Openings and Branch Connections
The presence of openings and branches weakens the shell and give rise to
stress concentrations. Sufficient reinforcement must be provided to compensate for
the weakening effect of the opening.
The “equal area method” is chosen because it is the simplest method used
for calculating the amount of reinforcement required and experience has proved it to
be satisfactory for a wide range of application.
I. Feed stream
From Perry’s Handbook,
For d = 104.06 mm
Nominal pipe size = 127.00 mm
Outside diameter = 141.30 mm
Nominal wall thickness = 19.05 mm
Minimum thickness of branch , e1 = PiDi
(2f-Pi)
= 0.454 mm
The nominal pipe wall thickness is above minimum thickness of branch,
so no reinforcement of the branch is required.
II. Cooling Water Stream
For d = 136.92 mm
Nominal pipe size = 127.00 mm
Nominal wall thickness = 2.767
Minimum thickness of branch, e1 = 0.60 mm
The nominal pipe wall thickness is above the minimum thickness of
branch, so no reinforcement of the branch is required.
4.2.8.1 Manholes
The maximum length of manhole is dependent on the manhole diameter.
The length is perpendicular distance fro the face of the opening including lining or
any projection of the branch within the vessel.
Type of branch connection: flush nozzle
Inside diameter = 598.50 mm
Nominal size = 600 mm
Outside diameter = 609.60 mm
Nominal wall thickness = 5.54 mm
4.2.8.1.1 Compensation for manholes
Actual thickness
ta = (do – di) / 2
= 5.55 mm
Minimum thickness
e1 = PiDi
(2f-Pi)
= 2.614 mm
Distance, N = 2.5 ta
= 13.875 mm
Length, S = di /2
= 299.25 mm
Area removed, X = edi
2
= (7.773)(598.5)
2
= 2326.07 mm
2
Compensation area, Y = Nta – Ne1 + Stc
= 40.737 +299.25tc
tc is the thickness for compensation
Area X = Area Y
2326.07 = 40.737 +299.25tc
tc = 7.637 mm
4.2.1.8.2 Flat end closure for manholes
Flat plates are used to blank off flange connections, and as covers for
manholes and inspection parts. Flat end closures are blind flanges, bolted cover
with a full face gasket,
The thickness required will be depend on the degree of constraint at the
plate periphery. The minimum thickness required is given by:
e = CpDe(Pi/f)
1/2
where Cp = design constant = 0.4
De = bolt circle diameter = 490 mm
f = design stress, 115 N/mm
2
Minimum thickness for flat end closures, e = 18.277 mm
Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance, e = 20.277 mm
REFERENCES
Coulson and Richardson. 1999. Chemical Engineering Volume 6.
Butterworth Heinemann.
Coulson and Richardson. 1971,Chemical Engineering Volume 3.
Pergammon Press.
Massimo Morbidelli. 2001. Catalyst Design- Optimal Distribution of Catalyst
in Pellets reactors and membranes. Cambridge University Press.
Page 124-130.
M.J Slater. 1992. Ion Exchange Advances-Proceedings of IEX’s. Elsevier
Science Publisher Limited.
G.H. Osborn. 1961. Synthetic Ion Exchange. London Chapman and Hall
Limited. Page 1-17.
Robert C. Reid. The Properties of Gases and Liquid. Fourth Edition.
McGraw Hill Inc..Page 433.
James M. Douglas. 1998. Conceptual Design of Chemical Process.
McGraw Hill International Editions. Page 329.
Michael Streat. 1988. Ion Exchange for Industry. Ellis Herwood Limited.
Page 585.
M. Necati Ozisik. 1985. Heat Transfer-A Basic Approach. McGraw Hill Book
Company. Page 385-397
Octave Levenspiel. 1999. Chemical Reaction Engineering. John Wiley and
Sons. Page 367-509.
Robert H. Perry. 1997. Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook. 7
th
Edition.
McGraw Hill.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
Dimension
A Total Heat Transfer Area for Tubes L
-2
Ab Area of One Bolt At The Root of the Thread
As Cross section Area of Shell L
-2
At Total Cross Section Area of Tubes L
-2
Bs Baffles Spacing L
Cs Stress Concentration Factor for Torispherical
Head
Cv Account Factor
d Particle diameter
Db Bolt Circle Diameter L
Db Bundle diameter L
2
De Effective diffusivity L
2
T
-1
De Effective Column Diameter L
De’ Equivalent Diameter of Shell L
2
Dk Knudsen Diffusivity L
2
T
-1
Di Inner Diameter of Tube L
Di Inner Diameter L
Dm Vessel Mean Diameter L
Do Outer Diameter of Tube L
Ds Shell Diameter L
Ds Skirt Diameter L
dc Diameter of Catalyst L
E Young’s Modulus ML
-1
T
-2
e Shell Thickness L
eh Domed Head Thickness L
Fb Compressive Load on the Base Ring MT
-2
Fw Wind Loading MT
-2
fb Maximum Allowable Bolt Stress ML
-1
T
-2
fc Maximum Allowable Bearing Pressure on
Concrete Foundation ML
-1
T
-2
fs Maximum Allowable Design Stress for the
Skirt Material ML
-1
T
-2
f’c Actual Bearing Stress on Base ML
-1
T
-2
g Gravitational Acceleration LT
-2
Hs Skirt Height L
Hv Height Between Two Tangent Lines of A Vessel L
Hi Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient MT
-3
θ
-1
Hio Corrected Tube Side Coefficient MT
-3
θ
-1
Hs Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient MT
-3
θ
-1
Iv Second Moment of Area L
4
J Welded Joint Efficiency
jf Shell Side Friction Factor
jHS Shell Side Heat Transfer Factor
jHt Tube Side Heat Transfer Factor
K1,K2 Velocity constant of Reaction T
-1
Kf Thermal Conductivity of Fluid In Tubes MLT
-3
θ
-1
L Length of Tube L
Lb Base Ring Width L
M Mass flowrate
Mx Bending Moment ML
2
T
-2
Nb Number of Bolts
Nc Number of Crosses
nt Total number of Tubes
PD Design Pressure ML
-1
T
-2
Pi Internal Pressure ML
-1
T
-2
Pw Wind Pressure ML
-1
T
-2
∆P Pressure Drop In the Tube Side ML
-1
T
-1
Pr Prandt Number
∆Ps Pressure Drop In Shell Side ML
-1
T
-1
Pt Tube Pitch L
Rc Crown Radius L
Re Reynold number
r Pore radius
Sg Total Surface area of Catalyst M
-1
L
2
T Operating temperature θ
t Wall Thickness L
ts Skirt Thickness L
∆TLMTD Log Mean Temperature θ
Ud Design Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient MT
-3
θ
-1
V Volume flowrate M
-2
L
3
Vg Void Volume of Catalyst M
-2
L
3
W Weight of Catalyst M
Wc Weight of Catalyst MLT
-2
W Total Weight MLT
-2
Wt Weight of Tubes MLT
-2
Wi weight of Insulation MLT
-2
Wv Weight of Vessel MLT
-2
X Total Conversion of Reactant
εb Voidage of Catalyst
εp Internal void fraction
ρ Fluid density ML
-3
ρp Particle Solid Density ML
-3
φ Thiele Modulus
η Effectiveness Factor
σD Design Stress ML
-1
T
-2
σL Longitudinal Stress ML
-1
T
-2
σb Bending Stress ML
-1
T
-2
σh Circumferential Stress ML
-1
T
-2
σm Maximum Compressive Stress ML
-1
T
-2
σw Dead Weight Stress ML
-1
T
-2
σz Resultant Longitudinal Stress ML
-1
T
-2
σr Radial Stress ML
-1
T
-2
µ Fluid viscosity at the bulk fluid temperature ML
-1
T
-2
µw Fluid viscosity at the wall ML
-1
T
-2
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
MTBE DISTILLATION COLUMN MOHD. NAZRI BIN ISMAIL
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 5:
MTBE (C
5
H
12
O) DISTILLATION
COLUMN
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 5 MTBE DISTILLATION COLUMN
INTRODUCTION 133
5.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN 134
5.2.1 Determination of Key Components 134
5.2.2 Determination of Bubble Point and
Dew Point 134
5.2.3 Determination Relative Volatility, α 136
5.2.4 Determination The Number of
Stages 137
5.2.5 Calculation to Determine Overall
Tray Efficiency, Eo 138
TITLE PAGE
5.2.6 Determination Of Feed Point
Location 138
5.2.7 Estimate or Gather The Physical
Properties 139
5.2.8 Determination Of Maximum And
Minimum Vapor and Liquid Flow
Factor and Flooding Velocity
For The Turn Down Ratio 140
5.2.9 Determination Of Column Diameter 141
5.2.10 Liquid Flow Arrangements 142
5.2.11 Plate Layout 142
5.2.12 Determination of Weir Length, lw 143
5.2.13 Check The Weeping Rate 143
5.2.14 Plate Pressure Drop 145
5.2.15 Downcomer Design 146
5.2.16 Check Entrainment 147
5.2.17 Plate Layout 147
5.2.18 Number Of Hole 148
5.2.19 Column Size 149
MECHANICAL DESIGN 150
5.2.20 Design Pressure 150
5.2.21 Material Construction 151
5.2.22 Vessel Thickness 151
5.2.23 Heads and Closure 152
5.2.24 Column Weight 153
5.2.25 Wind Loads 154
5.2.26 Vessel Support Design
(Skirt Design) 155
5.2.27 General Consideration For Design 157
5.2.28 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts 157
5.2.29 Feed, Top Product, Bottom Product
Piping Sizing 159
CHAPTER 5
MTBE (C5H12O) DISTILLATION COLUMN
Introduction
Basically, the function of distillation is to separate by vaporization, a liquid
mixture of miscible and volatile substances into individual
components or some into groups of components. It also known
as a method used to separate the components of a liquid
solution, which depends upon the distribution of these various
components between a vapor and a liquid phase. All components
are present in both phases. The vapor phase is created from the
liquid phase by vaporization at the boiling point.
In our project design, the MTBE Distillation Column is been
selected as a part of equipment design for objective to separate MTBE
composition from Methanol (CH3OH). This distillation column is important
for the MTBE plant production for recycle back methanol from the MTBE
Distillation Column. Besides that, the equipment design of the MTBE
Distillation Column is also consider the multicomponent distillation method
which means that for this distillation method it consist the feed component
with more than one component. Therefore, the determination of the
minimum number of stages of this MTBE Distillation Column, Nm by using
the Frenske Equation: Overall minimum total trays with total condenser
(Reference: Applied Process Design, Volume 2: Third Edition) has been
selected as a methodology for this equipment design.
The characteristics in chosen types of distillation column are
requirement of separation objective satisfied with this distillation column,
the cost of construction and simplicity in design. The design of a distillation
column can be divided into the following steps:
1. Specify the degree of separation required; set product specifications.
2. Select the operating conditions: batch or continuous; operating
pressure.
3. Select the type of contacting device: plates or packing.
4. Determine the stage and reflux requirements: the number of equilibrium
stages.
5. Size of the column: diameter, number of real stages.
6. Design the column internals: plates, distributors, packing support.
7. Mechanical design: vessel and internal fittings.
5.1 CHEMICAL DESIGN
5.1.1 Determination of Key Components
Firstly, we must determine the key components which involving in this
distillation method. There are 2 main key components in the distillation
method:
1. Heavy Key Component, KHK
2. Light Key Component, KLK
Therefore, the determination of the key components are :
1. Heavy Key Component, KHK = MTBE (C5H12O)
2. Light Key Component, KLK = Methanol (CH3OH)
5.1.2 Determination of Bubble Point and Dew Point
The vapor pressure can be calculated from Antoine equations:
ln P
*
= A -
C T
B
+
Where P
*
= vapor pressure (mm Hg)
A, B and C = The Antoine coefficients (All these value are referred
Appendix D, Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, 1999)
T = Temperature, K
The designing of an evaporation or condensation process, the
most important that we must know that the conditions which the transition
from liquid to vapor and from vapor to liquid takes place. This principle is
also considered in designing other processes such as distillation,
absorption and stripping which requires information on the conditions at
phase transitions occur and on the compositions of the resulting phases.
The bubble – point temperature, Tbp is the temperature at which
the first vapor bubble forms when the liquid is heated slowly at constant
pressure. Meanwhile the dew – point temperature, Tdp is the temperature at
which the first liquid droplet forms when a gas or vapor is cooled slowly at a
constant pressure.
For bubble – point conditions. By using Raoult’s law for an ideal
liquid solution and contains species such as A, B, C. With known mole
fraction each component, xA, xB, xC…. Let assume that the vapor is ideal
(follows the ideal gas equation of state) and since the vapor is in
equilibrium with liquid, therefore the partial pressures of the components
are given by Raoult’s law,
pi = xipi* (Tbp) (5.1)
Where, pi* = The vapor pressure of component i at bubble – point
temperature
i = Components
Therefore, the sum of the partial pressures must be the total
system pressure, P;
P = xA pA*(Tbp) + xB pB*(Tbp) +………. (5.2)
This bubble point temperature may be calculated by trial and error
as the value of (Tbp) that satisfies this equation. Once (Tbp) is known, the
composition of the vapor phase can be easily be determined by evaluating
the partial pressures each component from Equation 1 and determining
each vapor – phase mole fractions as
yi = pi / P (5.3)
Equation 5.2 can be used to determine such a pressure for an
ideal liquid solution at a specific temperature and mole fractions in the
vapor in equilibrium with the liquid can be determined as
yi = pi / P = xipi* (T) / Pbp (5.4)
For dew – point conditions. This calculation is using the similar
method from bubble – point temperature estimation. There are suppose a
gas phase contains the condensable components A, B, C … and a
noncondensable components at fixed temperature. By assuming applying
Raoult’s law, the liquid – phase mole fractions may be calculated as;
xi =
) ( *
dp
T Pi
yiP
(5.5)
Where, i = components, A, B, C…excluding noncondensable components

yi
= The mole fraction of component i in the gas
The mole fractions of the liquid components (those that are
condensable) at the dew point of the gas mixture must sum to 1.
xA + xB +xC +……….. = 1 (5.6)
From Equation 5.4,

) ( *
dp
T pA
yAP
+
) ( *
dp
T pB
yBP
+…….=1 (5.7)
The value of Tdp can be found by trial and error once expressions
for T Pi ( * ) have been substituted. The dew – point pressure can be
determined from Equation 5.6 with Tdp replaced by system temperature, T.
From the calculation which are included at Table 5.2 (APPENDIX
E), The Appendix given, the value of the boiling point temperature, Tbp and
the dew point temperature, Tdp:
1). At Feed Stream, Tbp = 400.6 K
2). At Distillate (Top) Stream, Tdp = 335.3 K
3). At Bottom Stream, Tbp = 408.2 K
5.1.3 Determination Relative Volatility, α
The determination of relative volatility, α of the components can be
determined as the ratio between K values of light key component to heavy
key component:
α =
HK
LK
K
K
(5.8)
Where
LK
K = Light key component, Methanol (CH3OH)

HK
K = Heavy key component, MTBE (C5H12O)
For both K values, they are determined as shown in formula below:
K =
i
i
x
y
(5.9)
Where,
i
y
= Mole fraction (liquid) component

i
x
= Mole fraction (vapor) component
Determination of relative volatility, α can be referred to Table 5.4
from the Appendix and the values of K can be referred to Table 5.3
(APPENDIX E)
5.1.4 Determination The Number of Stages
The determination of the minimum number of stages of this MTBE
Distillation Column, Nm by using the Frenske Equation :Overall minimum
total trays with total condenser (Reference : Coulson and Richardson,
Volume 6, 1999)
Nm=
LK
b
LK
HK
d
HK
LK
x
x
x
x
α log
log
1
1
]
1

¸

1
]
1

¸

1
]
1

¸

(5.10)
Nm=
( ) 1148 . 315 log
0003 . 0
9973 . 0
0073 . 0
4567 . 0
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
Log

Nm=
) 1148 . 315 log(
) 758 . 207975 log(

Nm= 2.1285
In order to the number of theoretical stages by using the Gilliland
Correlations. Normally after using the Fenske’s Equation, the value of Nmin
is given by the equation below to get the number of stages, NT,
NT = 2Nm (5.11)
NT = 2(2.1285)
= 4.2570
≈ 5 stages
5.1.5 Calculation to Determine Overall Tray Efficiency, Eo
By using O’Connell Correlations equation,
Eo =
25 . 0
) (
5 . 0
αµ
(5.12)
From calculation,
1. For feed, overall viscosity, µ = 0.355419cP
2. For Distillate, overall viscosity, µ = 0.1294 cP
3. For Bottom, overall viscosity, µ = 0.1998 cP
Average viscosity between distillate and bottom
viscosity, µ =
2
cP 0.1998 cP 0.1294 +
= 0.1646 cP
From the Excel calculation, the average volatility, α or a between distillate
and bottom is 315.1148.
Therefore, Eo =
25 . 0
) (
5 . 0
αµ
=
25 . 0
) 1646 . 0 1148 . 315 (
5 . 0
x

∴ Eo = 0.1863
Eo = 18.63 %
Finally, to determine the real number stages of this MTBE
Distillation Column.
Number of real stages =
O
E
1 - stages al theoretic of Number
(5.13)
No of stages =
1863 . 0
1 - stages 5

= 21.4707
≈ 22 stages
5.1.6 Determination Of Feed Point Location
In order to find the feed point location, estimation can be made by using the
Fenske equation to calculate the number of stages in the rectifying and
stripping section separately, but this requires an estimate of the feed point
temperature. As an alternative approach, here I use the empirical equation
given by Kirkbride (1944) as a matter for the same objective.
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
1
]
1

¸

2
,
,
,
,
log 206 . 0 log
HK d
LK b
LK f
HK f
S
r
X
X
X
X
D
B
N
N
(5.14)
Where,
Nr = number of stages above the feed, include the condenser
Ns = number of stages below the feed, include the reboiler
B = molar flow bottom product
D = molar flow top product
Xf, HK = concentration of the heavy key in the feed
Xf, LK = concentration of the light key in the feed
Xd,HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product
Xb, LK = concentration of the light key in the bottom product
( )
s r
s
r
s
r
S
r
N N
N
N
N
N
N
N
0782 . 0
0782 . 0
10 23 . 4 log 206 . 0 log
0.9973
0.0003
0.0813
0.8216
136.3452
632.0166
log 206 . 0 log
6
2
·
·
1
]
1

¸

× ·
1
]
1

¸

1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
1
]
1

¸


From previous calculation, number of stages, excluding the reboiler = 21
Nr + Ns = 21
Ns = 21 – Nr = 21 – 0.0782Ns
Ns = 19.4769
Ns ≈ 20
5.1.7 Estimate or Gather The Physical Properties
The properties consider in this design are liquid flow rate, LW, vapor flow
rate, VW, liquid surface tension, σ, liquid density, ρl and vapor density, ρv.
This physical properties evaluated at the system temperature by using
HYSIS generated data or estimate manually from mass and energy
balance data. The useful properties data is given as below:
Feed;
Liquid flow rate, LW = 55802.0640 kg/hr = 15.5006 kg/s
σ tension, surface Liquid
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0.0004 03 - 9.50E 0.0003 03 - 8.50E
0.0020 03 - 7.50E 0.9795 0.0135
× + ×
+ × + × ·
= 0.013245 N/m
Liquid density, ρl
=( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0.0004 0.57 0.0003 0.44 0.0020 0.44 0.9795 0.68 × + × + × + ×
= 0.6673g/ml
= 667.3 kg/m
3
Distillate;
Vapor flow rate, VW = 5531.1456 kg/hr = 1.5364 kg/s
Vapor density, ρv
,
_

¸
¸
×

,
_

¸
¸
×

,
_

¸
¸
·
01 . 1
66 . 5
335
273
22.4
RMM
(5.15)

,
_

¸
¸
×

,
_

¸
¸
×

,
_

¸
¸
·
01 . 1
66 . 5
335
273
22.4
44.29

3
/ 0296 . 9 m kg ·
RMM = Relative molecular mass
*Most data evaluate at system temperature and pressure
5.1.8 Determination Of Maximum And Minimum Vapor And Liquid
Flow Factor And Flooding Velocity For The Turn Down Ratio
Liquid-vapour flow factor were determine by using below equation
FLV =
l
V
Vw
Lw
ρ
ρ
(5.16)
FLV
3 . 667
0296 . 9
1.5364
15.5006
·
1736 . 1 ·
Assumption were made for initial tray spacing based on value of FLV by
referring to figure 11.27 from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering
volume page 567. The data were used to determine the constant, K1 for
estimation of flooding velocity.
So, Assumption initially 0.5m of tray spacing, the value k1 = 0.080
(constant) and correction factor are used as equation below:
K1 = k1
2 . 0
02 . 0

,
_

¸
¸ σ
(5.17)
= 0.080
2 . 0
02 . 0
0.0132

,
_

¸
¸
= 0.0736
and flooding velocity, Uf determine by equation 5.18.

V
V L
f
K U
ρ
ρ ρ −
·
1
(5.18)
Uf =
0296 . 9
0296 . 9 3 . 667
0736 . 0

s m/ 6284 . 0 ·
The flooding percentage was assumed to be 85%, this is based on flooding
velocity for design, a value of 80 to 85 %. Therefore, Uv were found by
using below,
UV = 0.80 (Uf) (5.19)
= 0.80 (0.6284 m/s)
= 0.5027 m/s
≈ 0.50 m/s
5.1.9 Determination Of Column Diameter

Based on flooding (distillate) consideration by using equation 5.20,
Dc =
v v
m
U
V
πρ
4
(5.20)
Dc =
) 5027 . 0 )( 0296 . 9 (
) 1.5364 ( 4
π
= 0.6582m
≈ 0.7 m @ 700mm
5.1.10 Liquid Flow Arrangements
Before deciding liquid flow arrangement, maximum volumetric flowrate
were determined by using,
VL =
v
w
L
ρ
(5.21)
VL =
0296 . 9
15.5006
= 1.7166 m
3
/s
Based on value of volumetric flow rate and column diameter, DC. Figure
11.28 from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page
568. Therefore, types of liquid flow found as single pass.
5.1.11 Plate Layout
The value of downcomer area, active area, hole area, hole size, and weir
height were determined based on above value calculated, trial plate layout
column area determine by using below,
Column area, AC =
v
m
U
U
(5.22)
AC =
5027 . 0
0052 . 1
= 2.0000 m
2
Where Um = Velocity at below plate,
Down comer area were found by assume 20% of column area and using
below,
Down comer Area, Ad = 0.2 AC (5.23)
Ad = 0.2(2.0000m
2
)
= 0.4 m
2
Net area and active area were determined by using equation 5.24 and
equation 5.25,
Net Area, An = Ac - Ad (5.24)
= 2.000 – 0.4000 m
2
= 1.6000 m
2
Active area, Aa = Ac - 2Ad (5.25)
= 2.0000 - 2(0.4000)
= 1.2000 m
2
Hole Area, AH are determine with trial value of 10% active area by equation
5.27,
Hole Area, AH = 0.10(Aa) (5.26)
= 0.10(1.2000)
= 0.1200 m
2
Weir Length, lw calculated by referring figure 11.31 from Coulson
Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 572 which determined
based value the ratio of Ad/Ac to get the ratio of lw/ Dc
5.1.12 Determination of Weir Length, lw
The weir height determine from standard from as below
Weir Height = 50 mm (Standard)
Hole diameter = 5 mm (Standard)
Plate Thickness = 5 mm (Standard)
From figure 11.31,Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6,
page 572,
When Ad/Ac x 100% = 18%, lw/ Dc = 0.85
From calculation,
DC =0.7000 m
lw/ DC = 0.85
lw = 0.85DC
lw = 0.5950 m
5.1.13 Check The Weeping Rate
By using Francis equation from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering
volume 6, page 571 to determine the height over the weir ;
how =
3 / 2
) (
750

,
_

¸
¸
lw
Lw
l
ρ
(5.27)
=
3 / 2
) 5950 . 0 ( 3 . 667
5006 . 15
750

,
_

¸
¸
= 86.3114 mm liquid
Where,
lw = Weir length
how = weir crest
Lw = liquid flow rate
So at minimum liquid flow rate determine by adding weir height hw and weir
crest, how. After that, the constant, K2 where find based on the value and
referring to figure 11.30 from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering
volume 6, page 571;
hw + how (mm) = 50 mm + 86.3114 mm
hw + how (mm) = 136.3114 mm (since this value is too big, I use hw + how =
100 mm )
hw + how (mm) ≅ 100mm
∴ K2 = 31
Minimum vapor velocity Uh, were determine by equation 5.29
Uh =
5 . 0
2
) 4 . 25 ( 90 . 0
v
d K
h
ρ
− −
(5.28)
=
5 . 0
) 0296 . 9 (
) 5 4 . 25 ( 90 . 0 31 − −
= 4.2064 m/s
≈ 4.2 m/s
And actual minimum vapor velocity is ratio of Minimum vapor rate / Ah were
determine and comparing to value of weep point. Satisfaction value must
above weep point. Therefore, the calculation as below;
Actual minimum vapor velocity = Minimum vapor rate / Ah (5.29)
=
h
A
Um) ( 7 . 0
=
1200 . 0
) 0052 . 1 ( 7 . 0
= 5.8637 m/s
≈ 6 m/s
and minimum vapor velocity is above weep point velocity.
5.1.14 Plate Pressure Drop
Plate pressure Drop was calculated by:
Maximum vapor velocity through hole,
Uh =
h
m
A
U
(5.30)
=
1200 . 0
0052 . 1
= 8.3767 m/s
≈ 8.4 m/s
By referring to figure 11.34 from Coulson Richardson Chemical Engineering
volume 6, page 576
Ah/Ap = 0.1
Ah/Ap x 100% = 0.1 x 100% = 10
Plate thickness/Hole diameter = 0.005m/0.005m = 1
∴ Orifice coefficient, Cd = 0.84
Then pressure Drop through dry plate
hd =51

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
l
v
C
U
D
h
ρ
ρ
2
(5.31)
= 51

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
3 . 667
0296 . 9
84 . 0
4 . 8
2
= 69.0109 mm
≈ 70 mm
Residual pressure drop
hr =
L
x
ρ
3
10 5 . 12
(5.32)
=
3 . 667
10 5 . 12
3
x
= 18.7322 mm liquid
Total pressure drop,
ht = hd+(hw + how) + hr (5.33)
= 70 + 100 + 18.7322
= 188.7 mm liquid
≈ 190 mm liqiuid (H2O)
5.1.15 Downcomer Design
Downcomer pressure drop
hap = hw –10 (5.34)
= 50 – 10 mm
= 40 mm
Area under downcomer
Aap = hap x lw (5.35)
= 0.04 m x 0.5950m
= 0.0238 m
2
(less than Ad = 0.4 m
2
)
Since Aap is less than Ad so we use Aap to calculate head loss in downcomer
hdc
hdc =
2
) (
166

,
_

¸
¸
m
wd
A l
L
ρ
(5.36)
=
2
) 0238 . 0 )( 3 . 667 (
7169 . 0
166

,
_

¸
¸
= 0.33821mm liquid
Where
Lwd = liquid flow rate in downcomer
Am = Ad (downcomer) area or Aap (Area under downcomer) either is
smaller
,hdc = head loss in downcomer
Downcomer backup, hb
hb = (hw +how) + ht + hdc (5.37)
= 100 + 190 + 0.3382
= 290.3382 mm liquid
hb ≠ @ > ½ (lt + hw)
Resident time, tr were determined by equation 6.44,
tr =
wd
b d
L
l h A ρ
(5.38)
=
7169 . 0
) 3 . 667 )( 2903 . 0 )( 4000 . 0 (
= 108.08660 second
≈ 108 second
The value is relevant and recommended to proceed for another design.
Therefore, plate layout details, calming zones, unperforated area,
and check hole pitch will be decide as below section.
5.1.16 Check Entrainment
Entrainment were checked by determined actual flooding percentage, Uv by
using equation 6.40 and equation 6.41,
Actual % of flooding, Uv
Uv =
Ac
U
m
(5.39)
=
000 . 2
0052 . 1
= 0.5026 m/s
Then determine the percentage of flooding,
% of flooding =
100 x
U
U
f
v
(5.40)
= 100
6284 . 0
5026 . 0
x
= 79.9809%
≈ 80%
After that, fractional entrainment was getting based on this percentage and
FLV = 1.1736, by referring figure 11.29 from Coulson Richardson Chemical
engineering volume 6, page 570. So:
Fractional entrainment Ψ = 0.08
5.1.17 Plate Layout
Angle subtended by unperforated strip were determine from figure 11.32
from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 573. An
example likes below:
For, lw/Dc =
7000 . 0
05950
(5.41)
= 0.8500
θc = 130
o

So angle = 180
o
– 130
o
(5.42)
= 50
o
.Mean Length unperforated edge strip = (Dc – 0.05) π
,
_

¸
¸
180
Angle
(5.43)
Mean Length unperforated edge strip = (0.7000 -0.05) π
,
_

¸
¸
180
50

= 0.8727 m
Area of unperforated edge strip = 0.005m x 0.8727m
= 0.0044 m
2

Mean length of claming zone = (Dc – 0.05) sin
,
_

¸
¸
2
Angle
(5.44)
= (0.7000 – 0.05) sin
,
_

¸
¸
2
130
= 0.5891 m
Area of claming zone = 2(0.05)(Mean length of claming zone) (5.45)
= 2(0.05)(0.5891)
= 0.0589 m
2
Total Area available for perforation, Ap
Ap = Aa – (Area of unperforated + area of claming zone) (5.46)
= 1.200 – (0.044 + 0.0589)
= 1.0971 m
2
Determine ratio
p
h
A
A
(5.47)
p
h
A
A
=
0971 . 1
1200 . 0

= 0.1094
and referring to figure 11.32 from Coulson Richardson Chemical
engineering volume 6, page 574.
h
p
d
l
= 2.8 satisfactory, within 2.5 to 4.0 (5.48)
5.1.18 Number Of Hole
Area of hole
AH =
4
2
h
d π
(5.49)
=
4
005 . 0
2
π
= 0.00001964 m
2
= 1.9635 x10
-5
m
2
Number of Hole =
H
h
A
A
(5.50)
=
5
10 9635 . 1
1200 . 0

x
= 6111.5498unit
≈ 6112 units
5.1.19 Column Size
Column Diameter = 0.7000 m
≈ 700 mm
Column Height;
= (No stage –1) (tray spacing) + (tray spacing x 2) +
(No stage-1)(thickness of Plate) (5.51)
= (22 –1)(0.4)+(0.4)(2) + (22-1)(0.05)
= 8.4 m + 0.8 m +1.05 m
= 10.25 m = 10250 mm
Table 5.5: Summary of Chemical Engineering Design
5.1 Item Value Unit
Column diameter 0.70 m
No of plate 22
Plate spacing 0.4 m
Plate thickness 0.005 m
Total column height 10.25 m
Plate pressure drop 0.07 m
Plate material SS 304
Downcomer area 0.4 m
2
Downcomer material SS 304
Column area 2.0000 m
2
Net area 1.6000 m
2
Active area 1.2000 m
2
Hole area 0.1200 m
2
Number of Hole 6112 Units
Weir Length 0.5950 m
Weir height (standard) 0.005 m
Resident time 108 s
MECHANICAL DESIGN
5.1.20 Design Pressure
In mechanical design, there are two parameters such as temperature and
pressure are important properties in order evaluate the thickness and the
stress of material. Therefore, the safety factor is added as precaution and
determined by certain consideration such as corrosion factor, location and
process characteristic.
The operating pressure is 802.5548 kPa or 8.025548 atm or
8.025548 bars and the safety factor is 10% above operating pressure. The
design pressure calculated as below equation.
Design Pressure, Pi = (Operating P –1) x 1.1 (5.52)
= (8.03 –1) x 1.1
= 7.733 bar
= 0.7733 N/mm
2
Operating Temp, T = 135.21
o
C
Design Temp. , T = Operating T (ºC) x 1.1 (5.53)
= 135.21ºC x 1.1
= 148.731ºC

5.1.21 Material Construction
The material used is stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni, 304). For this material, the
design stress at 150 ºC is obtained from table 13.2, page 809 Chemical
Engineering Vol. 6.
Design stress, f = 130 N/mm
2
= 1.30 x 10
8
N/m
2
Diameter vessel, Di = 0.7000 m
Tensile strength, = 510 N/mm
2
= 5.1 x 10
8
N/m
2
5.1.22 Vessel Thickness
The thickness of column and other design are calculated based on
equation below;
e =
Pi f
Di Pi
− 2
(5.54)
Where, Pi = Design pressure
Di = Column diameter,
,f = joint factor
e =
) 7733 . 0 ( ) 130 ( 2
) 700 )( 7733 . 0 (

= 2.0882 mm
= 2.0882 mm + 2 mm (corrosion allowance)
= 4.0882 mm
For vessel diameter less than 1 m, a minimum thickness required is 5mm,
these values include a corrosion allowance of 2 mm.
As a first trial, divide the column into five sections (courses), with
the thickness increasing by 2 mm per section. Try 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 mm
to determine the thickness average.
Therefore, average thickness = 7+9+11+13+15 mm / 5 = 11 mm (5.55)
5.1.23 Heads and Closure
Torispherical head had been choose because of operating pressure below
10 bars, and suitable for liquid vapor phase process in inconsistent high
pressure. The calculations as below with take
Crown radius, Rc = Di = 0.7000m
Knuckle radius, Rk = 6% Rc = 0.0420m
A head of this size would be form by pressing: no joints, so J = 1.0
Cs =

,
_

¸
¸
+
k
c
R
R
3
4
1
(5.56)
=

,
_

¸
¸
+
0420 . 0
7000 . 0
3
4
1
= 1.7706
Where
Crown radius, Rc = Di
Knuckle radius, Rk = 6% Rc
Therefore, minimum thickness: e =
( ) 2 . 0 2 − +
S
S C i
C Pi Jf
C R P
(5.57)
=
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 . 0 7706 . 1 7733 . 0 130 1 2
7706 . 1 700 7733 . 0
− +
= 3.6692mm
For welding purposes, the thickness of head were taken as same as
thickness of the vessel, = 5 mm. Its, matching to joint factor were taken as
1.
5.1.24 Column Weight
1. Dead Weight of Vessel, Wv
For a steel vessel, the equation 6.66 are used
Wv = 240 Cv Dm (Hv + 0.8Dm) t (5.58)
Where, Dm = mean diameter, m
= (Di + t) (5.59)
Cv = a factor, take 1.15 for distillation
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness, m
To get a rough estimate of the weight of this vessel is by using the average
thickness. 11 mm.
Dm = 0.7000 + 0.011
= 0.7110 m
Hv = 10.25 m
So,
Wv = 240 (1.15) (0.7110) (10.25 + 0.8(0.7110)) 11
= 23353.4 N
= 23.3534 Kn
2. Weight of Plates, Wp
From Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take
contacting plates, 1.2 kN/m
2
. The total of weight of plate determine by
multiply the value with number of plate design.
Weight of plate = Ac x 1.2 (5.60)
= 0.3848 x 1.2
= 0.4618 kN
Weight of 22 plates, Wp = 0.4618 x 22 (5.61)
= 10.1596 kN
≈ 10.2 kN
3. Weight of Insulation, Wi
The fiberglass was choosing as insulation material. By referring to Coulson
Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 833,
Density, ρ of fiber glass = 100 kg/m
3
Thickness = 50 mm = 0.05 m
Volume of insulation,VI = π x Dm x Hv x thickness of insulation (5.62)
= π (0.7000) (10.25) (0.05)
= 1.1270m
3
Weight of insulation, WI = Volume of insulation x ρ x g (5.63)
= 1.1270 x 100 x 9.81
= 1105.587 N
= 1.1056 kN
Double this value to allow fittings, so weight of insulation will be = 2.2112
kN
4. Total Weight
Double this value to allow fittings. The total weight is the summation of
dead weight of vessel, weight of insulation, weight of plates,
Total weight = Wv + Wp + WI (5.64)
= 23.3534 + 10.2 + 2.2112
= 35.7646 kN
≈ 36 kN
5.1.25 Wind Loads
This factor also is be considered and calculated based on location and
weather surrounding. Since our plant, situated at Teluk Kalong Industrial
Park, near the Kemaman Port, therefore it has higher wind speed. This is
because it is located to the near sea.
Win speed, Uw= 160 km/hr
For a smooth cylindrical column stack, the following semi-empirical
equation can be used to estimate wind pressure using below equation
Pw = 0.05Uw
2
(5.65)
= 0.05(160)
2
= 1280 N/m
2
Loading per Unit Length of column, Fw
Fw =Pw Deff] (5.66)
Where, Deff = Effective column diameter
= Diameter + 2(tshell + tinsulation) (5.67)
= 0.7000 + 2(0.011 + 0.03)
= 0.98 m
Fw = 1280 x 0.98
= 1254.4N/m
Bending Moment
Mx =
2
) (
2
X F
w
(5.68)
Where, X = Distance measure from the free end
= 10.25 m
Therefore,
Mx =
2
) 25 . 10 ( 4 . 1254
2
= 65895.2 Nm
5.1.26 Vessel Support Design (Skirt Design)
Type of support : Straight cylindrical skirt
θ s : 90º
Material construction: Carbon steel
Design stress, fs : 135 N/mm
2
at ambient temperature, 20ºC
Skirt height : 2.5 m
Young modulus: 200, 000 N/mm
2
At this condition of ambient temperature, the maximum dead weight load on
the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of the mixture.
Approximate weight, Wapprox =
4
π
x DI
2
x Hv x ρL x g (5.69)
=
4
π
(0.7
2
)(10.25)(667.3)(9.81)
= 25822.5995N
≈ 26 kN
Weight of vessel + insulation + plates = 36kN
Therefore, total weight = Wv + Wp + WI + Wapprox (5.70)
= 62 kN
Wind load, Fw = 1516.42 N/m
= 1.51642 kN/m
Bending moment at skirt base, Ms = Fw
( )
1
]
1

¸

+
2
2
skirt v
H H
(5.71)
= 1.2544
( )
1
]
1

¸

+
2
5 . 2 25 . 10
2
= 101.9593kNm
≈ 102kNm
As a first trial, take skirt thickness as same as the thickness of the bottom
section of the vessel, ts = 11 mm
Bending stresses in skirt, σbs =
( ) [ ]
s s s s
s
D t t D
M
+ π
4
(5.72)
Where, Ms = maximum bending moment (at the base of
the skirt)
ts = skirt thickness
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt base
= 0.7 m = 700 mm
Therefore, σbs =
( ) [ ] ) 7 . 0 )( 011 . 0 ( 011 . 0 7 . 0
) 102 ( 4
+ π

= 23721.9270 kN/m
2
=

23.7219 N/mm
2
Dead weight stress in the skirt, σws =
( ) [ ]
s s s
t t D
W
+ π
(5.73)
Where, W = Total weight of the vessel and content
= 62 kN
Therefore, σws(test) =
( ) [ ] ) 11 ( 11 700
26000
+ π

= 1.0582 N/mm
2
σwbs,(operating) =
( ) [ ] ) 11 ( 11 700
36000
+ π

= 1.4652 N/mm
2
Thus, the resulting stress in the skirt, σs:
Maximum σs (compressive) = σws (test) + σwbs (5.74)
= 1.0582 +1.4652 N/mm
2
= 2.5234N/mm
2
Maximum σs (tensile) = σbs - σwbs (operating) (5.75)
= 23.7219 – 1.4652 N/mm
2
= 22.2567 N/mm
2
5.1.27 General Consideration For Design
Take the joint factor J as 0.85,
σs (tensile) < fs J sin θs (5.76)
σs (compressive) < 0.125 E s
s
s
D
t
θ sin
(5.77)
Where , fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material
= 135 N/mm
2
J = weld joint factor
θs = base angle of a conical skirt
E = modulus young
= 200, 000 N/mm
2
Therefore, σs (tensile) < 135 x 0.85 sin 90
22.2567 N/mm
2
< 114.75 N/mm
2
σs (compressive) < (0.125)(200,000)
90 sin
700
11
2.5234N/mm
2
< 392.8571 N/mm
2
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, and give design
thickness = 13mm
5.1.28 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts
Assume pitch circle diameter,Db = 0.9 m
Circumference of bolt circle,πDb = 900π
= 2827 mm
According to Scheiman (Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume
6, page 848),
Bolt stress design, fb = 125 N/ mm
2
Recommended spacing between bolts = 600 mm
Minimum number bolt required, Nb =
600
900π
(5.78)
= 4.7124
≈ 8
Bending moment at base skirt, Ms= 102 kN/m
Total weight of vessel, W= 36 kN
Area of bolt, Ab =

,
_

¸
¸
− W
D
M
f N
b
s
b b
4 1
(5.79)
=
,
_

¸
¸
− 36000
9 . 0
) 102000 ( 4
) 125 ( 8
1
= 417mm
2
Bolt root diameter, d =
π
4 417 x
(5.80)
= 23.04 mm
≈ 23 mm
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
Fb =
1
]
1

¸

+
s s
s
D
W
D
M
π π
2
4
(5.81)
=
1
]
1

¸

+
) 9 . 0 (
36000
) 9 . 0 (
) 102000 ( 4
2
π π
= 173066N/m
By assuming that a pressure of 5 N/mm
2
is one of the concrete foundation
pad, fc
Minimum width of the base ring, Lb =
3
10
1
x
f
F
c
b
(5.82)
=
3
10 5
173066
x
= 34.61 mm
With this minimum width, can get actual width
Use M56 bolts (BS 4190:1967) root area = 2030 mm
2
, figure 13.30, page
849, Chemical Engineering Volume 6, 1996.
Actual width required = Lr + ts + 50 (5.83)
= 150 + 11 + 50
= 211 mm
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation
f'c =
width actual
Fb
(5.84)
=
211
066 . 173
= 0.8202 N/mm
2
Actual minimum base thickness, tb = Lr
5 . 0
3

,
_

¸
¸
r
c
f
f
(5.85)
Where , fc= actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm
2
fr= allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm
2
Therefore, tb = 150
( )
140
8202 . 0 3

= 19.8860 mm
≈ 20 mm
5.1.29 Feed, Top Product, Bottom Product Piping Sizing
By assuming that the flow of the pipe is turbulent flow, therefore to
determine optimum duct diameter is
Optimum duct diameter, dopt,t = 260G
0.52
ρ
-0.37
(For Stainless Steel) (5.86)
Where, G = flow rate, kg/s
ρ = Density, kg/ m
3
Nozzle thickness, t =
Ps
d P
opt s
+ σ 20
(5.87)
Where Ps = Operating pressure, N/mm
2
σ = Design stress at working temperature, N/mm
2
Optimum duct diameter, dopt,t = 226G
0.52
ρ
-0.37
Where, G = flow rate = 61333.2096 kg/hr
= 17.0370 kg/s
ρ = density = 698.0384 kg/ m
3
Therefore, dopt = 260 (17.0370)
0.52
(698.0384)
-0.37
= 100.7076 mm
≅ 125 mm
Nozzle thickness, t =
Ps
d Ps
opt
+ σ 20
Where Ps = Operating pressure = 8.02 N/mm
2
σ = Design stress at working temperature = 135 N/mm
2
Therefore, t =
02 . 8 ) 135 ( 20
) 125 )( 02 . 8 (
+
= 0.3702 mm
So, thickness of nozzle = corrosion allowance + 0.3702 mm
= 2 + 0.3702 mm
= 2.3702 mm
∼ 3 mm
For the top vapor output calculated as below,
Optimum duct diameter, dopt,t = 260G
0.52
ρ
-0.37
Where, G = flowrate = 5531.1456 kg/hr
= 1.5364 kg/s
ρ = density = 9.0296 m
3
Therefore, dopt = 260(1.5364)
0.52
(9.0296)
-0.37
= 143.9986 mm
= 150 mm
For the bottom liquid output calculated as below,
Optimum duct diameter, dopt,t = 260G
0.52
ρ
-0.37
Where, G = flow rate = 55802.0640 kg/hr
=15.5006 kg/s
ρ = density = 667.3 kg/ m
3
Therefore, dopt = 260 (15.5006)
0.52
(667.3)
-0.37
= 97.4890 mm ≅ 100 mm
Table 5.6: Summary of Mechanical Engineering Design
Column types Pressure vessel
Column material Stainless steel (SS 304)
Design temperature 135.2
0
C
Operating Pressure 8.02 bar
Design Pressure 7.733 bar (10% of safety factor)
Design Stress 135 N/mm
2
Skirt Height 2500 mm
Total column height 10250 mm
Column head Torispherical head
Column diameter 700 mm
Insulation material Fiberglass
Insulation thickness 50 mm
No of manhole 2
Manhole diameter 500 mm [BS 470: 1984]
REFERENCES
J. M. Coulson, J. F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume Two,
Third Edition, The Pergamon Press, 1977.
R. K Sinnot, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering,
Chemical Engineering Design, Volume Six, Butterworth
Heinemann, 1999.
Robert H. Perry, Don W. green, Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s
Handbook, Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1998.
James, M. Douglas, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988.
Martyn S. Ray and David, W. Johnston, Chemical Engineering,
Design Project: A Case Study Approach, Gordon and Breach
Science Publishers, 1989.
Carl R. Branan, Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Gulf
Publishing Company, 1994.
Billet, R., Distillation Engineering, Heydon Publishing, 1979.
King, C. J., Separation Processes, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill,
1992.
Kister, H. Z., Distillation Design, McGraw-Hill, 1992.
Lockett, M. J., Distillation Tray Fundamentals, Cambridge University
Press, 1986.
Normans, W. S., Absorption, Distillation and Cooling Towers,
Longmans, 1961.
Oliver, E. D., Diffusional Separation Procesess, John-Wiley, 1966.
Robinson, C.S., and Gilliland, E.R., Elements of Fractional
Distillation, McGraw-Hill, 1950.
Smith, R., Chemical Process Design, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
Van Winkle, M., Distillation, McGraw-Hill, 1967.
Micheal J. Barber, Handbook of Hose, Pipes, Couplings and
Fittings, First Edition, The Trade & Technical Press Limited,
1985.
Louis Gary Lamit, Piping Systems: Drafting and Design, Prentice-
Hall, Inc., 1981.
David H. F. Liu, Bela. G. Liptak, Wastewater Treatment, Lewis
Publishers, 2000.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
Dimensions in M, L, T
Aa Active area of plate L
2
Aap Clearance area under apron L
2
Ac Total column cross sectional – area L
2
Ad Downcomer cross - sectional area L
2
Ah Total hole area L
2
An Net area available for vapour – liqud disengagement L
2
Ap Perforated area L
2
Co Orifice coefficient -
D Mols of distillate per unit time MT
-1
Dc Column diameter L
dh Hole diameter L
Emv Plate efficiency -
g Gravitational acceleration -
hap Apron clearance LT
-2
hb Height of liquid back – up in down comer L
hbc Down comer back – up in term of clear liquid head L
hd Dry plate pressure drop, head of liquid L
hdc Head loss in down comer L
how Height of liquid crest over down comer weir L
hr Plate residual pressure drop L
ht Total plate pressure drop L
hw Weir height L
K1 Constant -
Lm Molar flow rate of liquid per unit area ML
-2
T
-1
Lw Liquid flow rate L
2
T
-1
Lwd Liquid mass flow rate MT
-1
Ip Pitch of holes (distance between centre) L
Iw Weir length L
Nm Minimum number of stages -
NT Theoretical number of stages -
∆pt Total plate pressure drop ML
-1
T
-2
P
o
Partial pressure ML
-1
T
-2
q Heat to vaporize one mol of feed divided by molar latent heat -
R Universal gas constant L
2
T
2
θ
-1
R Reflux ratio -
Rm Minimum reflux ratio -
Ua Vapour velocity based on active area LT
-1
Uf Vapour velocity through holes LT
-1
Uv Superficial velocity (based on total cross sectional area) LT
-1
V Vapour flow rate per unit time MT
-1
Vw Vapour mass flow rate MT
-1
xi Mole fraction of component I -
xd Mole fraction of component in distillate -
yi Mole fraction of component I -
µL Liquid viscosity -
µ Viscosity of solvent ML
-1
T
-1
ρL Liquid density ML
-1
T
-1
ρv Vapour density ML
-3
σ Surface tension MT
-2
Dm Mean diameter L
E Young’ Modulus ML
-1
T
-2
Hv Height between tangent L
Pi Internal pressure ML
-1
T
-2
Mx Bending moment at base of the skirt ML
-1
T
-2
Ms Bending moment at point x from free end column ML
2
T
-2
t Thickness of plate (shell) L
ts Skirt thickness L
J Joint factor -
σb Bending stress ML
-1
T
-2
σw Dead weight stress ML
-1
T
-2
σcw Compressive stress ML
-1
T
-2
σws Stress in skirt due to weight of vessel ML
-1
T
-2
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
PROCESS CONTROL AND
INSTRUMENTATION NORMARIAH BINTI ABDULLAH
NOOR HARYANI BINTI
MUSTAPHA
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 6:
PROCESS CONTROL AND
INSTRUMENTATION
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 6 PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
6.1 INTRODUCTION 161
TITLE PAGE
6.2 TYPES OF CONTROL 161
6.2.1 Feedback Control 161
6.2.2 Feed forward Control 162
6.2.3 Cascade Control 162
6.3 CONTROLLING SHELL AND TUBE
HEAT EXCHANGER 163
6.4 FIXED BED REACTOR CONTROL 165
6.5 DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL 167
6.6 PIPING 170
6.6.1 Introduction 170
6.6.2 Material of Construction 170
6.6.3 Pipe Sizing 170
6.6.4 Fluid Velocity 171
CHAPTER 6
CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Process control is important in chemical plant that operated under
known and specified conditions. It is important in safety and environmental,
in operability so that plant can achieve desired reaction and in economics
to meet market requirement of purity product.
A chemical plant might be thought of as a collection of tanks in
which materials are heated, cooled and reacted, and of pipes through
which they flow. Such a system will not, in general, naturally maintain itself
in a state such that precisely the temperature required by a reaction is
achieved, a pressure in excess of the safe limits of all vessels be avoided,
or a flow rate just sufficient to achieve the economically optimum product
composition arise.
6.2 TYPES OF CONTROL
There is several control approach that has been applied in the
production plant, the basic concepts of these control are stated below.
6.2.1 Feedback Control
The feedback control system function is to bring the measured
quantity to its required value or set point. The feedback control system uses
direct measurements of the controlled variables to adjust the values of the
manipulated variables. The main advantage of the feedback control is the
corrective actions occur as soon as the controlled variable deviates from
the set point regardless of its source and the type of disturbances. Minimal
knowledge of the process is sufficient to set up this type of control. It is also
both versatile and robust which means that if the process condition
changes, re-tuning will still give a satisfactory result. However, this type of
control also has certain disadvantages, which are, there is no corrective
action taken until after a deviation in the controlled variable occurs. In
addition, it does not provide a predictive control action to compensate for
the effects of known or measurable disturbances. If the process encounters
large and frequent disturbance, the action of the controller will be such that
the process will operate continually in a transient state and never attain the
desired steady state.

6.2..2 Feedforward Control
The basic idea of the feedforward control is to measure the
important load variables and take the corrective actions before they upset
the process. However there are disadvantages of this control technique as
the load disturbances must be measured online and in many applications
this is not feasible. For this technique to be effective, we need to have
some basic knowledge about the process to construct a process model.
Ideal feedforward control theoretically is capable of achieving perfect
control but in reality it may not be physically realizable. There are times
when the combination of both feedback and feedforward control strategies
are required such as in the level control.
6.2.3 Cascade Control
The cascade control uses a secondary measurement point and a
secondary feedback controller in order to improve its dynamic response to
the load changes. The secondary measurement point is located so that it
recognizes the upset conditions sooner than the controlled variable. The
cascade control system utilizes multiple feedback loops in a process. It has
two distinguish features. The first feature is that the output signal of the
master controller serves as the set point of the slave controller. The second
feature is that it consists of two nested feedback control loops with the
secondary loop (slave controller) located inside the primary loop (master
controller). The advantages of cascade control are; 1) the control will
eliminate the effect of disturbance entering the secondary loop, 2) the
control will reduce the response time of the element inn the secondary loop,
which in turn will affect the primary loop, 3) the control will make the closed-
loop less sensitive to model error.
6.3 CONTROLLING SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
6.3.1 INTRODUCTION
The principle of operation for heat exchanger is simple enough: two
fluid of different temperature are brought into close contact and prevented
from mixing by a physical barrier. But, actually shell and tube heat
exchanger are among the most confusing pieces of equipment for the
process control engineers.
The temperature of the 2 fluids will tend to equalize by arranging counter
current flow it is possible for the outlet temperature of each fluids to
approach the inlet temperature of the other. The heat contents are simply
exchanged from one fluid to the other and vice versa and no energy is
added or removed.
The heat exchanger it self is not constant and its characteristic
change with time. The most common changes are a reduction of heat
transfer rate because of the surface fouling.
The heat exchanger must be controlled to make it operate at the
particular rate required by the process at every moment in time.
6.3.2 CONTROL OBJECTIVE
The purpose of controlling in heat exchanger is to control the temperature
from the outlet stream. Precisely, it is important that the temperature
involved in the process must be maintained because it will influence the
temperature in the next stages or equipment and it must in a certain
temperature so that the process can operate smoothly.
6.3.3 HOW TO MAINTAIN THE TEMPERATURE
a) Thermocouple is used to determine any changes in temperature,
especially in the outlet the transmitter, which will convert the signal to
the electrical signal, detects stream and then the changes.
b) Temperature controller is used to interpret the electrical signal and will
send an output to the transducer. The function of the transducer is to
convert the electrical signal into air pressure. These are because the air
pressure is used to open and closed the valve in order to maintain the
temperature.
c) Here, the controller will correct the increased in temperature in the
outlet stream by using the valve of the inlet stream. When this happen
the heat transfer will reduced in spite of reduce in temperature.
6.3.4 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HEAT EXCHANGER
6.1.4.1 FEEDBACK CONTROL OF HEAT EXCHANGER
T1 = Temperature of inlet fluid T = Transducer
T2 = Temperature of outlet fluid Tset = Temperature set
TT = Temperature Transmitter
F = Fluid flowrate
6.3.4.3 TYPES OF CONTROLLING
 The controller used is feedback control, which have lots of
advantages. These types of controller can detect any changes
of temperature in the outlet stream and corrective action then
occurred as soon as the controlled variables deviates from the
set point, regardless of the source and types of disturbance.
Heat Exchanger
TT
Feedback
Controller
T
T set
F
Steam
Condensate
T
2
F
T
1
F
Liquid in
Condensate
Besides, it also required minimum knowledge about the
process to be controlled.
Manipulated variable
• A steam flow rate, F
Process variable/control variable
• Temperature of the outlet liquid (Tout), T2
Load/disturbance
• Temperature and flow rate of liquid in temperature outlet.
Tout = f (Ti,Fi)
6.4 FIXED BED REACTOR CONTROL
6.4.1 INTRODUCTION
The schemes used for reactor, if a reliable on line analyzer is
available, and the reactor dynamics are suitable, the product composition
can be monitored continuously and the reactor conditions are feed flows
controlled automatically to maintain the desired product composition and
yield. Reactor temperature will normally be controlled by regulating the flow
of the heating or cooling medium. Pressure is usually held constant.
Material balance control will be necessary to maintain the correct flow of
reactants to the reactor and the flow of product and un reacted materials
from the reactor.
6.4.2 CONTROL OBJECTIVE
i. To overcome the temperature increase of inlet cooling water
that may cause unsatisfactory performance by adjusting the
control valve on inlet stream.
ii. To maintain the temperature of exit liquid at the desired
value.
TC
INLET
FEED
COOLING WATER OUT
COOLING
WATER IN
OUTLET PRODUCT
REACTOR
Figure 6.1: Fixed Bed Reactor control
6.4.3 CASCADE CONTROL
The cooling water is passed through the reactor jacket to regulate the
reactor temperature. The reactor temperature is affected by changes in
disturbances variables such as reactant feed temperature or composition.
The control strategy to handle such disturbances is by adjusting a control
valve on the cooling water inlet stream. By adding cascade control on the
feedback controller will overcome the increase of the inlet cooling water
temperature that may cause unsatisfactory performance. Cascade control
measures the jacket temperature, compares to it set point, and uses the
resulting error as the input to a controller for the cooling water makeup,
thus maintaining the heat removal rate from the reactor at constant level.
The controller set point and both measurements are used to adjust a single
manipulated variable, the cooling water makeup.
6.4.4 ADVANTAGE OF CASCADE CONTROL
i. The output signal of the master controller serves as the set
point for the slave controller.
ii. The two feedback control loops are nested, with the
secondary control loop( for the slave controller) located
inside the primary control loop (for the master controller)
6.5 DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL
Reflux Distillate
Feed
Condenser
Bottoms
Reboiler
PC
Boilup
LC
LC
FC
FC
Figure 6.2: Distillation Column control
6.5.1 INTRODUCTION
The final, overall objective of any process control application should
always be to maximize the profitability of the process under control. This is
normally achieved via a rationalization of the value added by the process
with the energy that is consumed by the process. In the distillation column,
increasing the internal vapor and liquid flows nearly always increase the
separation of key component and therefore, increase either the product
yield or its value. However, the increase in internal flow rates in only
achieved at the expense of additional energy consumption in both the
condenser and reboiler. With most reactors and many other unit operations,
this principle often manifests itself with respect to the heating or cooling
requirement, or the recycle rate. An effective control application adjusts the
process operation towards an optimum where the incremental value added
is just less than the incremental cost of the energy and raw materials.
6.5.2 DEGREE OF FREEDOM ANALYSIS
A simple two product distillation column with a single feed and a
total condenser has five degrees of freedom. These correspond to control
valves that vary the following quantities:
• The distillate product draw rate (D):
• The bottoms product draw rate (B):
• The reboiler duty (QR or V to donate the internal vapour rate):
• The reflux rate (R):
• The condenser duty(Qc):
The condenser and reboiler duty usually cannot be manipulated directly but
the designation, QR and QC, are used to represent the group of variables
which could not be used to adjust the duty in each case, for example the
control valve which is designated to regulate the condenser duty might
actually manipulate the coolant flow rate (either directly or indirectly by
regulating the bypass rate) the active surface area of the condenser or the
rate at which vapour is withdrawn from the from the column. Similarly, the
method of regulating the reboiler duty could be the heating medium flow
rate, the reboiler exchange area or the process flow through the reboiler.
The column pressure, the reboiler sump level and the reflux
accumulation level (i.e. the column vapour and liquid inventory) must all be
stabilized for the column to operate in a steady state. The column pressure
is almost always controlled via the condenser duty (Luyben, 1990) and tight
control is usually achievable with a simple SISO (single-input, single-
output) control loop (Dale E. Seborg,1989). The liquid inventory can usually
be controlled by two simple SISO controllers provided either the distillate
rate or the reflux accumulator level and either the bottoms rate or the
reboiler duty is use to control the reboiler sump level.
Therefore, two degrees of freedom remain for the control of the
process objectives. If neither of these variables is used within a control loop
(i.e. the process operator manipulates the control valve directly), the
column is said to be operated in open-loop or manual. If only one of these
variables is manipulated automatically to control a measured property, a
one-point or single composition control scheme is deemed to be in used. In
this case, the remaining degree of freedom is usually fixed at a constant
value or manipulated only occasionally to reflect capacity constraints (e.g.
maximum reboiler duty or flooding). Finally, both available degrees of
freedom can be utilized within control loops. This is known as two-point or
dual composition control.
6.5.3 OPEN-LOOP CONTROL
The most basic distillation control system consider only the column
inventory and relies on the process operator to counteract disturbances to
the process by adjusting (when required) on the manipulated variables
which are not being used for inventory control. The effectiveness of this
approach depends on the variable pairings (i.e. the control configuration).
It is convenient to adopt a nomenclature to concisely describe the
variable pairings or control configuration. The most widely accepted method
of describing control configuration employs two letter designations that
correspond to the variables which are not used for inventory control.
6.5.4 ONE-POINT CONTROL
One-point control schemes have been the backbone of industrial
distillation control for many years, although the advent of multivariable
predictive controllers (e.g. Dynamic Matrix Control, DMC) has recently seen
a shift towards more complex strategies. However, one-point control is still
widely practiced and has some inherent advantages compared with open
loop and two-point control.
One-point control is relatively easy to implement, is not subject to
interactions between opposing composition control loops and provides a
form of effective constraint management. Distillation columns are almost
always illconditioned due to the presence of high gain variables (e.g.
internal flows which change the energy balance). If a two-point control
scheme is applied, the illconditioning can restrict the attainable closed-loop
performance and, in extreme cases, create instability due to excessive
interaction.
6.6 PIPING
6.6.1 INTRODUCTION
The installation cost of piping systems varies widely with the materials of
construction and the complexity of the system. The economics also depend
on the pipe size and fabrication techniques employed. Therefore, it is
important to choose pipe sizes which give a minimum total cost for pumping
and fixed changes.
6.6.2 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
There are several considerations that need to be evaluated when
selecting the piping material such as corrosiveness, brittle failure and the
ability of thermal insulation. For this process, almost all the components are
not corrosive. So, carbon steel is the most suitable for piping system
because of its low cost of material. However for the reactor with cooling
water, stainless steel is used because of its corrosiveness.
6.6.3 PIPE SIZING
An approximate estimation of the economic pipe diameter can be
obtained by the following equation, (Coulson and Richardson, 1999)
For carbon steel pipe
doptimum = 293 G
0.53
ρ
-0.37
For stainless steel
doptimum = 260 G
0.52
ρ
-0.37
where d = optimum diameter of the pipe, mm
G = flow rate of fluid in the pipe, kg/s
ρ = density of fluid, kg/m
3
The minimum pipe wall thickness can be determined by : (Coulson and
Richardson, 1999)
i
i
P f
D P
t
+
+
·
2
where t = minimum wall thickness, mm
Pi = Internal pressure of the pipe, N/mm
2
f = maximum allowable stress, N/mm
2
D = Pipe outer diameter, mm
6.6.4 FLUID VELOCITY
The fluid velocity of each stream is given by the equation below;
(Robert H. Perry, 1997)
2
4
D
G
U
πρ
·
where U = Fluid velocity, m/s
D = Selected internal diameter, m
The fluid velocity should be kept below erosion is likely to occur. For gases
and vapor, the velocity must not exceed the critical velocity.
George R. Kent shows the formulas which can be used to estimate
maximum fluid velocity: (Robert H. Perry, 1997)
Liquids, U =
3
2
4
ρ
Gases, U = ( ) m KZT / 223
Table 6.1: Summary of the piping for MTBE plant
Stream Pi(bar) T(K)
Mwmix
(kg/kmol) σ (N/mm
2
) ρ (kg/m
3
) G (kg/h)
G
(kg/s)
d
(opt),mm t(mm) u (m/s) D (mm)
S1 1.000 324.000 66.990 165.000 461.990 19525.130 26.190 159.135 0.4822 2.8502438 254.8322
S2 1.000 309.000 58.000 165.000 315.750 41490.910 11.620 120.060 0.3638 3.2506812 267.4558
S3 1.500 356.000 73.980 145.000 714.010 61016.040 14.570 99.857 0.3443 2.6056159 254.1877
S4 11.000 589.000 73.980 85.000 721.930 41655.890 14.570 99.450 0.5850 2.5981534 326.9544
S5 15.000 477.400 45.300 105.000 664.690 41655.890 14.570 102.537 0.4883 2.6545600 376.1654
S6 15.000 371.000 56.000 145.000 599.290 579.890 10.810 91.225 0.3146 2.7597723 298.2495
S7 10.000 473.000 22.330 115.000 969.360 41076.000 3.760 44.091 0.1917 2.5404945 533.3017
S8 5.000 308.000 56.000 135.000 599.290 41076.000 10.810 91.225 0.3379 2.7597723 271.7491
S9 2.000 338.000 47.170 145.000 658.300 414.910 17.040 111.634 0.3849 2.6446178 310.1788
S10 8.020 473.000 84.136 115.000 732.190 19360.150 17.040 107.325 0.4666 2.5724736 274.7422
S11 4.080 400.000 46.057 115.000 667.180 605.940 1.550 31.934 0.1388 2.9006508 341.4829
S12 7.850 335.000 87.950 125.000 740.670 18754.210 15.480 101.664 0.4067 2.5746525 226.1472
S13 8.050 408.000 45.150 115.000 474.970 18755.210 1.610 36.934 0.1606 3.1637755 348.3276
S14 5.000 340.000 54.030 125.000 612.840 18756.210 1.000 26.238 0.1050 3.0178778 290.6757
S15 2.000 340.000 30.610 125.000 808.360 18757.210 0.610 18.315 0.0733 2.8643195 386.1842
S16 1.000 335.000 31.860 125.000 792.520 18758.210 0.560 17.647 0.0706 2.8889613 375.7390
S17 1.000 330.000 18.000 115.000 998.550 18759.210 0.050 4.613 0.0201 2.9965184 496.1437
S18 1.000 340.000 31.860 145.000 793.160 18760.210 5.670 58.796 0.2027 2.6329025 378.5326
S19 1.000 340.000 31.860 125.000 793.120 18761.210 6.230 61.749 0.2470 2.6230361 378.5326
PC
FC
LC
FC
LC
TT
T
TSET
FBCONTROLLER
TTRAP
TC
COOLING
WATERIN
COOLING
WATEROUT
PC
FC
LC
LC
FC
I/P FC
FT
FC
FEED
SYMBOL;
CONTROLVALVE
CENTRIFUGALPUMP
PC PRESSURECONTROLLER
FC FLOWCONTROLLER
TC TEMPERATURECONTROLLER
LC LEVELCONTROLLER
TT
TEMPERATURETRANSMITTER
DESIGNEDBY;
NORMARIAHABDULLAH
ISOBUTYLENE
TBA
TBA
ISOBUTYLENE
INERT
PROPYLENEOXIDE
DISTILLATIONCOLUMN
HEATEXCHANGER
REACTOR
DISTILLATIONCOLUMN
COOLINGWATERIN
CONDENSATE
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
Figure 6.3 : PFD Diagram for MTBE process
FC
ISOBUTYLENE
METHANOL
TSET
FEEDBACKCONTROLLER
FT
FC I/P
TT
TT
FC
PC
FC
LC
LC
FC
TT
PC
LC
FC
LC
FC
COOLING
WATEROUT
ISOBUTYLENE
MTBE
MTBE
METHANOL
+WATER
MTBEREACTOR
DISTILLATIONCOLUMN
WASHWATERCOLUMN
METHANOLRECOVERY
PURGE
HEATEXCHANGER
METHANOLRECYCLE
TT
COOLINGWATER
S8
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
S17
S19 S9
S10
S18
S16
Figure 6.3 : PFD Diagram for MTBE process
REFERENCES
Coulson and Richardson. 1999. Chemical Engineering Volume 6.
Butterworth Heinemann.
Coulson and Richardson. 1971,Chemical Engineering Volume 3.
Pergammon Press.
Robert H. Perry. 1997. Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook.
7
th
Edition. McGraw Hill.
Dale E. Seborg. 1989. Process Dynamics and Control.
John Wiley and Sons.
William L. Luyben. 1990. Process Modelling, Simulation and Control for
Chemical Engineers. McGraw Hill.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
T Temperature
T Transducer
TC Temperature controller
F Fluid flowrate
Mw Molecular weight
σ Design stress
ρ Density
G Mass flowrate
D Optimum diameter
t Thickness
u Velocity
D Outer diameter
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
PLANT SAFETY NOOR HARYANI BINTI
MUSTAPHA
MOHD NAZRI ISMAIL
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 7:
PLANT SAFETY
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 7 PLANT SAFETY
7.1 GENERAL SITE
CONSIDERATIONS 175
7.1.1 Introduction 175
7.1.3 Site Layout 175
7.1.3 Plant Layout 179
7.2 PLANT SAFETY 181
7.2.1 General Overview
Of Safety 181
7.2.8 The Integration Of Safety
Procedure 182
7.2.9 Safety During Start-Up
And Shutdown 183
7.2.10 Emergency Response
Plan (ERP) 185
7.2.11 HAZOP Study 197
7.2.12 HAZOP Report 200
7.2.13 Hazard Analysis 204
CHAPTER: 7
PLANT SAFETY
7.1 GENERAL SITE CONSIDERATIONS
7.1.1 INTRODUCTION
In determining plant layout designers should consider all the factors that
have been outlined. Plant layout actually is often a compromise between a
numbers of factors, which will discuss later in this chapter. The most
important factors of plant layout as far as safety aspects are concerned are:
1. Prevent, limit and/or mitigate escalation of adjacent events (domino
effects- fire explosion and toxic release)
2. Ensure safety within on-site occupied buildings
3. Control access of unauthorized personnel
4. Facilitate access for emergency service
To avoid aggregation and trapping of flammable/toxic vapors which could
lead to hazardous event, building should be designed so that all parts of the
buildings were well ventilated by natural or forced ventilation.
Basically, evacuation routes should not be blocked by poor plant
layout, and personnel with more general site responsibilities should usually
be housed in buildings sited in a non-hazard area near the main entrance.
7.1.4 SITE LAYOUT
A suitable site must be found for a new project and the site and equipment
layout planned. Ancillary building must have the provision and service
needed for plant operation. All of these should lie out in order to give the
most economical flow of materials and personnel around the site.
Considerations have to be take into account especially for the hazardous
processes where the site must be located at a safe distance from other
buildings.
The proper layout of industrial facilities is an important factor in the
prevention of catastrophic fires. In spite of ancillary buildings and services
required on the site, others additional main processing units also must take
into consideration, which may include:
1. Storage for raw materials and products: tank farms and warehouse
2. Maintenance workshop
3. Stores for maintenance and operating supplies
4. Laboratories for process control
5. Fire station and other emergency services
6. Utilities; steam boilers, compressed air, power generation,
refrigeration, and transformer station.
7. Effluent disposal plant
8. Offices for general administration
9. Cafeteria and other amenity buildings, such as medical center
10. Car parks and bicycle sheds
Normally, during roughing out the preliminary site layout, the first and
foremost to be sited and arranged is the process unit, in order to give the
smooth flow of material starting from the raw material until the final product
storage.
The process unit normally being spaced at least 30 m apart or may
be greater especially for hazardous process (MTBE & TBA). Then the
location of the principal ancillary building should be decided. The
arrangement of the ancillary building should minimize the time spending by
the personnel to traveling between the buildings.
The best location for the administration offices, cafeteria, mosque
and laboratory (occupied buildings) is should be far away from the
potentially hazardous process since there are many people staying there.
The distance between occupied building and plant building will be governed
by the need to reduce the danger of explosion, fire and toxicity. In all cases,
occupied buildings should be sited downwind of hazardous plant areas,
where consideration should be given to site of occupied buildings outside
the main fence.
While for the controller room also must located at a safer distance
from the hazardous processes but normally it is located adjacent to the
process unit. Layout for plant roads, pipe alleys and drains also must be
taken into consideration in locating the main process units. Each building
for construction, operation and maintenance needs the easy access road,
so that the process can be done smoothly. Site location for utilities building
and process units must give the most economical run of pipes to and from
the process center.
Medical center also must be located, in case there are some
workers or personnel injured or infected by chemicals or radiation. The
medical center also must be located far from the hazardous process, so
that it may not affect the patients. Besides, future expansions needed to be
considered also in order the company to expand their business/production
in the future.
Finally is the storage area to keep the products and raw materials
where these areas should be placed between loading and unloading
facilities and the process units they serve. But for hazardous storage tank
the site should be located at least 70 m from the site boundary. Flammable
storage should be sited in the open air so that minor leaks or thermal out-
breathing can be dissipated by natural ventilation.
(Source: Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6, 2002)
A typical plot plan is in Figure 7.1.
20
N
N
1
2
3
4
5
6 7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
1
Figure 7.1: Typical Plot of Plant Layout for MTBE Plant
ROAD ROAD
E W
7.1.3 PLANT LAYOUT
How well the plant and equipment specified on the process flow sheet is laid out
may influence the economic construction and efficiency of the process operation units.
There are 7 principal factors that to be considered in a plant layout which include:
a) Economic consideration; construction and operating costs
 The cost of construction can be minimize by adopting layout that gives
the shortest run of connecting pipe between equipment and the lest
amount of structural steel work.
 The need to keep distance for transfer of materials between
plant/storage units to a minimum to reduce costs and risks.
b) The process requirement
 Interaction with existing or planned facilities on site, such as existing
roadways, drainage and utilities routings.
 Interaction with other on site plants.
c) Operation
 Convenience of equipment that needs a frequent attention from the
operator should be located near to the control room.
 Sufficient working space and headroom must be provided to allow easy
access to equipment convenience.

d) Maintenance
 Heat exchange need to be sited so that the tube bundles can be easily
withdrawn for cleaning and tube replacement.
 Equipment that requires dismantling for maintenance, such as
compressor and large pumps should be placed under cover.
e) Safety
 At least 2 escape roots for operators must be provided from each level in
process building.
 Site boundaries and people living in the local neighborhoods need to be
locating as far as possible from hazardous materials facilities.
 The need to prevent confinement where release of flammable
substances may occur.
 The need to provide access for emergency services
f) Plant expansion
 Equipment should be located so that in the future expansion of the
process it can be conveniently tied in.
 Some space should be left to on pipe alley for future needs and service
pipes over sized to allow for future requirements.
g) Modular construction
 The modules may include the equipment structural steel, piping and
instrumentation.
 Advantages of modular construction
1. Improved quality control
2. Reduced construction cost
3. Less need for skilled labor on site
4. Less need for skilled personnel on overseas site
 Disadvantages
1. Higher design cost
2. More structural steel work
3. More flanged connection
4. Possible problems, with assembly on site
(Source: Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6, 2002)
7.2 PLANT SAFETY
7.2.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW OF SAFETY
Process safety can be applied in any process industry, but the term and the
approaches have been particularly widely used in the process industries, where its
usually means the same as loss prevention. Safety can be defined as; concerned with
adverse reactions to prolonged exposure to dangerous but less intense hazard. Safety
is also good business; the good management practices needed to ensure safe
operation would also ensure efficient operation.
The engineers should aware of hazard associated with the chemical used and
the process conditions and ensure that through the sound engineering practice
application, the risk can be reduced to acceptable levels. When a physician makes an
error, only one victim suffer, but when an engineer makes mistakes an error in design
of a product, many persons may suffer.
For many years, since chemical plant was opened, accident tragedies happened
in chemical industry plant, which have injured thousand of people and many more were
killed due to the leaks of safety considerations and no considerations in the factor of
safety (FOS) and in engineering designed. But fortunately nowadays, almost all
chemical industries have given full attention on considering the safety in their plant,
start from the research, development on new process, construction manufacture and
distribution and lastly are the use of the product.
Anyway, there are few steps that may steps in order to prevent losses in
chemical plant industries design, which included;
 Identification and assessment of the hazard
 Control of the hazard; by containment of flammable and toxic material
 Control of the process; automatic controlling system alarm system and interlock
system.
 Limitation of loss; pressure relief, plant layout, provision of fire fighting
equipment.
Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) 1994 is an organization in Malaysia that
has listed some legal and administrative forced to promote, stimulate the high quality
standards and encourage safety at work place. The aims of OSHA 1994 only can be
achieved by;
 Encouraging employers and employees in their effort to reduce the number of
occupational safety and health hazards at the workplace.
 By setting mandatory occupational safety and health standard.
 By providing for research in the field of occupational safety and health, including
the psychological factors involved.
 By exploring ways to discover latent disease, establishing causal connections
between disease and work in environmental condition.
7.2.14 THE INTEGRATION OF SAFETY PROCEDURE
 Employers, users and distributors of hazardous chemical should be given an
appropriate MSDS for each of the component and it is should be readily
accessible to all employees.
 Operations, maintenance, R&D, engineering design, contraction, contractor and
other personnel who are involved in the plant process and design project need
to understand the safety and health hazard of the chemicals and process for the
protection of all personnel and the public nearby community (Kemaman).
 Operators and maintenance personnel need training in order to posses the
knowledge and proficiency to perform there assigned job functions.
 The management and employees should communicate effectively and be open
to constructive ideas from all the parties that will result in mutually desirable
improvements.
 The interface between employee and the process equipment should be
compatible. In process control, the alarm and information systems displays
should be user friendly.
 It is important during the process and plant operation to study the near-misses
incident because a serious consequence could have occurred but did not.
Process and plant personnel need to identify and mitigate the causes of the
incident and near misses of similar operation that have been previously
constructed. The main objective is to learn from past experience and thereby
avoid repeating the mistake.
 Maintenance personnel should be having good mechanical ability and a well-
rounded background in their assigned work areas. They also should have more
in depth safety training than other employees because the hazard condition in
their workplace changes from day to day they should know how to use many
specialty tools, machines and personnel protective equipment (PPE).
 Maintenance crew should be provided with a proper training to create
awareness of job hazard and control. The maintenance employees need to
know the properties and hazard control of all irritating, toxic or corrosive material
present in work place.
 By doing a lots of maintenance activities through out the plan, the personnel
become familiar with all of the processes of normal plant operation and the
related equipment in the plant. With this exposure, this will allow maintenance
employees the ability to identify, analyze and correct many unsafe conditions in
the plant and its process units.
7.2.15 SAFETY DURING START-UP AND SHUTDOWN
Operating facilities need to go through a start up period before normal operations been
reached. The start-up and shutdown of the plant must proceed safely and easily, yet be
flexible enough to be carried out in several ways. The operating limits of the plant must
not exceed and dangerous mixtures must not be formed.
During start-up and normal operating phase of the new facility, procedures should
be in placed to maintain the integrity of process equipment, where hazardous materials
are involved. The probability for a successful start-up is greatly enhances through
operator training and process design that anticipates start-up problems before they
actually occurred. Some errors that could occur during start-up of the plant may include:
1. Wrong routing, involving failure to ensure that correct valves are closed.
2. Setting of wrong valves for operating parameters (e.g.; jacket temperature in the
reactor and reflux in the distillation column).
3. Drain valves are left open resulting in loss of material and possibly endangering
the lives of workers.
4. Valves left closed resulting in over pressure in the vessel.
5. Failure to complete purging cycle before admission of fuel air mixture.
6. Backflow of material because of the flow from high pressure to low-pressure
system.
Safety during shutdown
Basically shutdown procedure is important on occasion for the maintenance,
emergency situations and to do an adjustment in product inventories. During the
shutdown phase, deviations outside of normal operating range can also be expected.
The operating personnel and plant designer have to make sure that the operating
problem is connected with plant shutdown. A successful start-up of operating facility
may results a smooth shutdown procedure in one plant. If a shutdown procedure is not
well done or not done in well concieved, then it will cause;
a) Plugged lines
b) Damage to instrumentation
c) Stress and corrosion of construction materials
d) Poor documentation procedures followed,
e) And other safety hazard may results.
7.2.16 EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (ERP)
Emergency planning is an important component of any workplace Occupational,
Safety and Health Management System. In large Chemical Work Emergency Response
Plans are likely to separate for on-site and off-site emergency, but they must be
consistent with each other i.e. they must be related to the same assessed emergency
conditions.
Basically, emergency plan should cover fires, natural disaster (flood,
earthquakes, etc.) and other such incident. But in our country, Malaysia natural disaster
like hurricane, earthquakes and tornado will never happens, so the emergency
response neither plans for this types of emergency will nor take into considerations.
Furthermore, emergency planning can actually minimize losses and top
management is the ones who responsible with the plan, which is usually, lie on the
guidance of the safety, health and environmental protection sector of the organization.
Planning should focus on protecting the health and safety of employee and the public,
as well as property and the environment and on restoring normal operation after an
accident. Content of the Emergency Response Plan (ERP) that should be included are
as follows;
a) Purpose of the plan
b) Nature and quantities of chemicals on-site
c) Description of potential emergencies
d) Allocate responsibility
e) Communications
f) Backup resources
g) Test emergency procedures
h) Notification of authorities
i) Notification of neighbors
j) Evacuation
k) Incident investigation
l) Media interest
(Refer APPENDIX G)
A) PURPOSE OF THE PLAN
 A few reasons on why planning for emergency;
a) Emergency will happen; it’s only a question of time
b) Proper implementation of an appropriate ERP can;
~ Minimize cost
~ protect people, properties and environment
c) Minimize losses caused by emergency required
~understanding on the responsibility
~trained experience people
~accepted accountability
~designated authority
~planned procedure
d) Too late to plan when emergency occurred
e) Lack of preparing can turn an emergency to disaster.
B) NATURE AND QUANTITIES OF CHEMICAL ON-SITE
Table 7.1: Quantities Of Chemicals Stored/Handled On-Site
BIL TYPES OF COMPONENT QUANTITIES STORED/
HANDLED (kg/h)
1. MTBE 55555.56
2. TBA 94.79
3. ISOBUYLENE 3396.9
4. PO 55.738
5. ACETONE 829.46
6. DI-ISOBUTYLENE 27.87
 Material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each of the component are shown in
APPENDIX G
C) DESCRIPTION OF POTENTIAL EMERGENCIES
The potential emergency, which could occur in MTBE plant, may include fire,
flooding (plumbing failure), explosion, natural gas leak, and boiler plant failure. The
entire potential emergencies need some evacuations procedure either to the workers,
engineers’ manager or foreman so that any disaster won’t happen.
FIRE
a) If see fire or smoke, immediately push/pull the nearest fire alarm station
to warn occupant.
b) Call the Kemaman Fire Department at 9-994, given the location and
description of the fire.
c) If the fire small, then use the fire extinguisher, but do not put yourself at
undue risk while fighting the fire
d) If the alarm sounds, turn off any electrical equipment that been operating
and evacuation the building immediately.
- Close all doors to help preventing the fire from spreading, exit
via stairwells
e) Go to the assigned assembly area and keep away from the building. Do
not enter the building until authorized by the police.
f) Call 994 (HAZMAT) to give location and extent of fire and notify the
management to report the fire.
– State if there are any circumstance, such as dangerous
chemical
g) Do not use elevators, when fire occurred, it safe if use the stairways.
2. FLOODING/PLUMBING FAILURE
a) Do not use electrical equipment in the area of the flooding, if necessary
evacuate the area. Keep unauthorized personnel from entering the area.
REMEMBER! THERE IS AN EXTREME DANGER OF ELECTRIC SHOCK!
b) Workers will not enter a flooded area until the power has been shut off.
c) All electrical equipment used for emergency purpose will be connected to a
ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI).
3. EXPLOSION
a) Pull the fire alarm and call 9-991
b) Get out of the building as quickly and calmly as possible. Do not try to extinguish
fire and go to the assigned assembly area. Stay well away from the building.
4. NATURAL GAS LEAK
a) If you smell natural or hear blowing or hissing noise, turn off possible ignition
source.
b) Do not switch on light or any electrical equipment
c) Activate fire alarm if you believe there is a potential damage to building
occupants.
d) Once outside move to a clear area that is at least 500 ft away from the affected
building.
5. BOILER PLANT FAILURE (BOILER RUPTURE/ PIPE RUPTURE, TANK
RUPTURE & STEAM LINE
a) Evacuate the area and keep people from entering the area
b) If the heat too great and the building valve cannot be turned off, shut off the
main isolator valves for the area, but under covered by the boiler plant operator.
c) In certain situations, the entire plant system may need to be shut down where it
is made by Boiler operator if there is a catastrophic problem
d) In the event of a potential steam explosion inside the boiler plant immediately hit
the ‘kill switch’ by the door and leave the facility. Notify supervision.
D) RISK ASSESSMENTS
a) In industrial operations employees, materials and equipment come together in
the work environment to produce product. Productivity is best when the
operation at the facility runs smoothly, thereby allowing time and resources to be
used efficiently and effectively.
b) Risk assessment in safety, health and environmental protection often involves
exposure to potential chemical hazards. The health risk begin with identify of the
chemical and their exposure levels for the various employees activities and
behavior pattern.
MTBE
 MTBE may cause minor eye irritation, moderate skin irritant; over-exposure may
produce anesthetic or narcotic effects.
 Prolonged over-exposure may cause coughing, shortness of breath, dizziness
and intoxication.
TBA
 TBA is extremely flammable liquid. Can cause severe eye irritant, skin irritant,
inhalation and ingestion hazard.
 Prolonged over-exposure may also cause coughing, shortness of breath,
dizziness and intoxication.
METHANOL
 Methanol also a flammable liquid that may cause skin irritation and also can
cause central nervous system depression.
 It may absorb through the skin and also can cause kidney damage
 More worse is that it may be fatal or blindness if swallowed it.
 Methanol also can cause severe eye irritation and possible injury in spites of
causing respiratory and digestive tract irritation.
ACETONE
 Inhalation of acetone vapors irritates the respiratory tract, cause coughing,
dizziness, dullness and headache.
 Higher concentration can produce central nervous system depression, narcosis
and unconsciousness.
 It also irritating due to default action on skin.
 Prolonged or repeated skin contact may produce severe irritation and dermatitis.
PROPYLENE OXIDE
 Ingestion of PO can cause gastrointestinal irritation and diarrhea.
 PO splashed in eye can cause severe burning, tearing, etc.
 It also can cause severe skin irritation and blistering.
 Excessive inhalation of vapor can cause nasal and respiratory irritation, central
nervous system such as dizziness, weakness, fatigue and etc.
ISOBUTENE
 It can cause irritation, nausea, headache, symptoms of drunkenness, coma, etc.
in short-term exposure.
 Major health hazard is central nervous system depression and difficulty to
breath.
(Refer APPENDIX G)
E) ALLOCATE RESPONSIBILITY
On-site Plans
The emergency plan details how the accident is dealt with, the name of the person
responsible for on-site safety and the names of the persons authorized to take action
under the plan
a) Incident Controller
 to proceed the scene of the incident and take control
 assesses the emergency and decides if the major emergency is to be activated
 direct all operations within the affected area with priorities to secure the safety of
personnel, minimize damage to plant property and environment and to minimize
loss of material
 action is taken to shut down
 means of controlling release and spillages must be considered
 established appropriate communications an all activities of the site main
controller are taken until the arrival of the designated person
 Closing the emergency after consulting the site main controller and the
emergency services.
b) The Site Main Controller (SMC)
 The SMC goes to emergency control centre and takes overall control of the
emergency in the work
 All outside emergency services are called in upon declaration of emergency
 Key personnel are called in
 Emergency response is then coordinated in communication with the emergency
services
 The emergency duties end on assertion of the emergency
c) Spokesperson
 A senior manager be appointed as the sole authoritative source of information
F) COMMMUNICATIONS
An effective round-the-clock communications system is essential. Commercial
telephone or walkie-talkie will be the primary means of communication between the
locations. The primary means of communications is by radio between fixed and mobile
location. The following communications device should be available
1. telephones
2. fax
3. voice mail
4. cell phones
5. e-mail
6. 2-ways radio
G) EVACUATION
a) Exit the plant as calmly and quickly as possible using the nearest safety exit. DO
NOT USE ELEVATOR
b) Alert all persons in the area. Turn off all ignition sources if possible.
c) Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) such as coals, shoes, and take a
wet towel to place over the face in case of smoke or fire.
d) Proceed to the assembly area outside the plant are and wait for the further
instruction. Stay away from the plant as well far as possible.
e) Evacuation plans should be posted on every floor or every placed in the plant
area either the control room, workshop, or store. The plans are showing the
location and updated by the safety officer.
 Do not re-enter the building until and unless the safety officer or fire
personnel have been determined that it is safe.
H) INCIDENT INVESTIGATION
a) Major accident might be defined as one having the potential to kill three or
more people or damage a specific area of the environment or cause property
damage and loss in excess of a particular sum.
b) Most major accident in the process industries will involved a large accidental
release of chemicals or the energy from their reaction, in such a away as to
cause appreciable damage.
c) The major accident may give adverse effect either to humans, or
environment.
 The loss of public and employee support and confidence
 The terminations of operating and siting permits
 Kill the people and cause tremendous property damages.
d) The main objective of this investigation is that to learnt from the past
experience and thereby avoid from repeating the same mistake.
e) The incident investigation may include;
Study the near misses
 Process and plant operation must study the near misses because a
serious incident may occur but did not.
 The person who responsible is the process and plant personnel, they
need to identify and mitigate the causes of the accident near misses
of similar operations.
Management of risk
 A prime consideration and precaution to the location of hazardous
process, materials and product, when a new operating facility, major
plant expansion or significant process modification is being planned.
 The management of risk should involve the health and safety of the
employees and community, the protection of the environment and the
protection of the plant property.
 The hazard analysis include; maximum release of flammable,
explosive, reactive and toxic materials, interruption of business
activities, and the determination of exposure to employees and
community
Reviewed near misses
 Whenever possible the near misses that can be major incident must
be reviewed if they could relate to the process and plant.
 This information can be applied to improvement of the process and
plant when another occurrences of near misses (repeated errors)
An effective compliance audits.
 A compliance audit is used to verify compliance with regulatory
standard and management practice. An effective one usually
includes a review of the relevant documentation and process safety
information, an inspection of the operating facility and interviews with
selected plant personnel.
 In the process and plant design phase the results of a compliance
audit at a similar facility would greatly aid and guide design engineers
about situations that could adversely affect the performance of the
operating facility.
I) MEDIA INTEREST
a) Effective media such as radio, TV, Internet and press communication is
essential both in implementing ERP and dealing with the community interest
during and after any significant incident. The news media have played major
roles in making people fearful of chronic risk to chemical exposure.
b) But these media also one of the safety tools in chemical process especially
when any accident happen either fire, explosion or release of hazardous
chemical, where it will inform the community about the incident and told them to
take safety precaution or stayed at home if hazardous chemical release. These
media also will inform the community when the plant is back to normal.
J) NOTIFICATION OF AUTHORITIES
a) If an incident happen either minor or major, it is very important to contact the
emergency services such as fire department, police department ambulance
(red cross)
b) For our MTBE plant, the nearest police department is in Kemaman. If any
fire occurred, there is a fire station in the plant itself. But if major fires
occurred then supervisor should call fire department in Kemaman, because
it involved dangerous situation. (Call 994). Police also should be contact so
that they can control the situation in the incident place.
c) If the incident such as explosion, chemical release or electrical shocks then
the safety officer should call 999 or ambulance to bring the victims to the
hospitals.
d) The manager of the plant should call the accident investigator team to
discover the real situation of the disaster by determining what are the main
causes, if there any leakage or any significant chemical or radiation release.
K) NOTIFICATION OF NEIGHBOURS
a) It is very important to our plant to get to know the neighbor, so that if
anything happens they know something happening to our company
b) If the neighbor especially the community saw smoke, fire or suffer from the
toxic release then they will informed us because of our good relationship.
They also will call police or fire department or ambulance in case there is
incident happen.
c) So we have to have the list of contact number, so that if we have problem
with our plant we can inform the community or other neighbor about it.
L) BACKUP RESOURCES
 Backup resources such as personal protective gear, monitoring equipment,
absorbent litter, fire fighting equipment, access to earth moving machinery and
waste containment should be available to deal with emergency.
 The desirable technique to solve safety hazard in engineering and management
is the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The personal protective
equipment that mostly used in industries may include:
a) Protection of the head – hard hats, safety hats, and safety helmets.
b) Protection of hearing
 Types of hearing protection; earplugs, hearing bands and earmuff.
 Employees are expose to a steady noise level more than 85 dBA
c) Protection of the face and eyes
 Safety eyewear/glasses
 Goggles
d) Protection from falls
 Employees who are working at the elevated conditions must be
qualified and trained properly used the equipment.
 Debris net designed to protect employee or the other people from
falling tools, foreign object and construction debris.
e) Protection of respiratory system
 There are 2 main types of respirators to protect against hazard:
1) Air-supplying respirators
• Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
2) Air-purifying respirators
• Chemical cartridge respirators
• Gas masks
• Disposable dust, mist and fume respirators
• Powered air purifying respirators.
f) Protection of the foot
- Electrical hazard shoes- minimize hazard contact with
electrical; current
- Chemical protection footwear (from dirt, mud, water to
hazardous contaminates, corrosive splashes.
- Disposable and disposable, rubber boots and shoes.
g) Protection of the hand. Arms, and body
- Gloves, coveralls, aprons, coats.
h) Safety showers and eyewash fountains.
• For personal protection from fire and corrosive chemicals.
i) Another types of safety backup is the fire fighting facility;
 The fire hose – placed strategically throughout the facility.
 Fire detection – alarm alert personnel to escape and take
action to control the fire
 Types of fire extinguisher that normally provided;
 CO2 extinguisher
 Foam extinguisher
 Dry chemical fire extinguisher
(Refer APPENDIX G)
M) TEST EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
 The emergency response plan (ERP) should be periodically tested to ensure
that the organization is prepared, and response procedures work in an adequate
and timely manner.
 The emergency coordinator is responsible for overall coordination of training of
assigned emergency services and volunteer personnel.
 Personnel assigned to provide the following emergency services then will
receive initial training and refresher training annually;
1. Notification and warning
2. Communications
3. Evacuation assembly center operations
4. Emergency operation
5. Law enforcement
6. Fire and resume.
7.2.17 HAZOPS STUDY
a) The hazard and operability, commonly referred to as HAZOP Study, is a
procedure for systematic, critical, examination of operability of a process.
When applied to a process design or an operating plant, it indicates
potential hazards that may arise from deviations from the intended
design conditions.
b) It provides a better understanding about plant operation and should lead
to improved plant efficiency.
c) Only an expert and experience analysis team that is familiar with HAZOP
analysis should do HAZOP analysis.
d) HAZOP analysis uses guidewords that shown in Table 7.2 and applied in
the HAZOP process parameter as shown in Table 7.3;
Table 7.2: HAZOP Guide Words
Guide words Meaning
OSHA-required
No
Less
More
Part of
As well as
Reverse
Other than
Other possible guide words
Yes
Same as
Forward
Begin
End
Reached
Never, none
Quantitative decrease, low, too short
Quantitative increase, high too long
Qualitative decrease, too little
Qualitative increase, contaminates, too much
Opposite of forward or intent
Complete substitution, another
Always
Constant
Opposite of reverse
Start
Completion
Achieved
Table 7.3: Typical HAZOP Process Parameter
Typical HAZOP Process Parameter
Pressure
Temperature
Flow
Level
Time
Composition
pH
Reaction
Heating
Addition
Data
Information
Separation
Viscosity
Voltage
Frequency
Speed
Density
Cooling
Mixing
Solubility
(Source: A. Charles, 1998)
e) Consider that the steam supply line and associated control
instrumentation (Refer figure 7.2). The engineer’s intention is that steam
shall be supplied at a pressure and flow rate to match the required TBA
demand and Table 7.4 shows the HAZOP analysis of TBA vaporizer.
7.2.18 HAZOP REPORT
The HAZOP report for heat transfer equipment and reactor as shown in Table 7.4
and Table 7.5
Table 7.4: The HAZOP Report for Reactor (R-102)
Deviation Guide
Word
Cause Consequence Action
Vessel: Reactor
Intention: Reaction of isobutylene with Methanol to form MTBE
FLOW NO ~Valve failure
~Compressor
failure
~Pump failure
~Reduce the
reaction rate
~Shut down
compressor 1 & start
up compressor 2
~Fit low flow alarm
~Maintenance of
pump, valve &
compressor
LESS ~Partial failure
pump
~Failure of
compressor
~Valve partially
closed
~Fall in
reaction rate
~Shut down pump
~Fit low level alarm
~Maintenance of
pump & compressor
MORE ~Failure of valve
& pumps
~Failure of
compressor
~Reduce the
reaction rate
~Increase the
reactor
~Fit temperature alarm
~Automatic pump
shutdown
~Maintenance on
~Failure of temperature
Table 7.4: The HAZOP Report for Reactor (R-102)-(Continue)
Deviation Guide
Word
Cause Consequence Action
control system pumps, compressor
& valve
REVERSE ~Pumps
and
compresso
r fails
~Failure of
valve
~Reduce in
reaction rate
~High reactor
temperature
~Fit level alarm
~Fit non-return
valve (NRV)
~Automatic
pump shut
down
~Automatic
compressor
shut down.
LEVEL LOW ~Failure of level
control
~Leakage
~Electric failure
~Valve fails to
open
~Valve closed
~Failure of
pump
~Low level
~Fall in
reaction rate
~Fit level control
~Shut pump 1 and
start up pump 2
~Automatic
generator start-up
~Fit level alarm
~Maintenance on
pump
HIGH ~Failure of level
control
~Valve fully
open
~Failure of
pump
~Miss operation
~Valve fails to
closed
~Level
exceeded
~Hazardous
explosion
~High
concentration of
methanol and
low
concentration of
isobutylene
~Fit high level alarm
~Automatic pump
shut-down
~Maintenance on
pump and valve
Table 7.4: The HAZOP Report for Reactor (R-102)-(Continue)
Deviation Guide
Word
Cause Consequence Action
PRESSURE HIGH ~Failure of
pressure control
~Failure of high
pressure alarm
~Explosion on
reactor
~No reaction
occurred
~Excessive reactant
in reactor
~Fit high
pressure
alarm
LOW ~Failure of
pressure control
~Failure of low
pressure alarm
~No reaction
occurred
~Damage to reactor
~Excessive reactant
in reactor
~Fit low
pressure
alarm
TEMPERATURE LOW ~Failure of
temperature
control
~Failure of low
temperature
alarm
~No reaction
occurred
~Fall in reaction
rate
~Fit low
temperature
alarm
HIGH ~Failure of
temperature
controller
~High
temperature
~controller fails
~Fails of heat
transfer
equipment
Failure of pump
and valve
~Reactor running at
high temperature
~Damages to
reactant and
catalyst
~Falls in reaction
rate
Reactor explosion
~More
supplies of
cooling water
~Fit high
temperature
alarm
~Pump and
compressor
shut down
~Maintenance
on heat
transfers
equipment.
Figure 7.2, shows the operability of vaporizer while Table 7.5 shows the HAZOP report
of the vaporizer operation.
Figure 7.2: TBA vaporizer Instrumentation
Table 7.4: HAZOP Analysis of TBA Vaporizer
PC
LC
1
LA
2
LA
1
LC
2
Steam
CRV3
NRV
Trap
CRV2
CRV1
TBA Feed
Vapor reactor
(Source: Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6, 2002)
7.2.19 HAZARD ANALYSIS
 An operability study will identify potential hazards, but gives no guidance on the
likelihood on an incident occurring or loss suffer.
 Incident usually occurred through the coincident failure of two or more items;
failure of equipment, control system and instrumentation and miss-operation.
 The sequence of events that leads to a hazardous incident can be shown as a
fault tree (logic tree) as shown in the figure 7.2, which shows the set of
circumstances that would result in the flooding of the TBA vaporizer shown in
figure 7.3. The AND symbol is used where coincident inputs are necessary
before the system fails and OR symbols, where failure of any input by itself
would cause failure of the system. (Source: A.
Charles, 1998)
Item Deviation Cause Consequence Action
Steam to
vaporizer
TBA to
Vaporizer
No flow
More flow
Reverse
flow
Less flow
Blockage, Valve
Failure, Failure of
steam supply
CV1 sticking, LC1
fails
Pumps fails,
vaporizer press
higher than
delivery
Partial failure pump
Loss of TBA flow
Vaporizer floods,
liquids to reactor
Flow of vapor in
storage tank
Level falls in
vaporizer
Fit low level alarm (LA1)
Fit high level alarm
(LA2) with automatic
pump shut-down
LA1 alarm, fit non-return
valve (NRV)
Fit low level alarm (LA1)
Figure 7.3: Simple Fault Chart
REFERENCES
Failure of Steam
Trap
Failure of flow valve
Failure of level
control
Failure of high-level
S / D system
Flooding of
vaporizer
liquid TBA
to reactor
AND
OR
OR
Green W. Don & Perry Robert H. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. Seventh
Edition Kansas. McGraw Hill, 1997.
Charles A.Wentz, Safety, Health, And Environmental Protection, McGraw Hill, 1998
R.K Sinnott. Coulson & Richardson, Chemical Engineering Design. Vol.6. Butterworth
Heinemann 1999.
www.yahoo.com
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PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
ECONOMIC EVALUATION MOHD NAZRI ISMAIL
JUPLIN KINTI
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 8:
ECONOMIC EVALUATION
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 8 ECONOMIC EVALUATION
8.8 INTRODUCTION 206
8.9 The specification of plant 206
TITLE PAGE
8.10 Revenue from sales 207
8.11 Cost Estimation 207
8.11.1 Capital Cost Estimation 207
8.11.2 Manufacturing Cost Estimation 209
8.11.3 Cost of Operating Labor (COL) 210
8.11.4 Cost of Utilities (CUT) 211
8.11.5 Cost of Raw Material (CRM) 212
8.12 Profitability Analysis 213
8.12.1 Before Tax and After Tax
Cash Flow 214
8.12.2 Present Worth and IRR Method 215
8.12.3 Cumulative Cash Flow After Tax 216
8.13 PAYBACK PERIOD 217
8.13.1 Simple Payback Period 217
8.13.2 Discounted Payback Period 217
8.14 CONCLUSION 217
CHAPTER 8
ECONOMIC EVALUATION
8.1 INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, the costing of equipment which has been designed will be estimated
and the feasibility of MTBE production will be evaluated by profitability analysis to make
sure the project is economically attractive. There are some general assumptions to this
chapter;
i. The plant life span is fifteen years.
ii. The currency exchange rate of US dollar to Ringgit Malaysia is fixed at
3.8 as fixed by Malaysian Government.
iii. The price of raw materials, catalyst and product is fixed for the whole
period of operation.
8.2 THE SPECIFICATION OF PLANT
For the specification of plant, the following data throughout the lifetime of the project are
as:
Cost of raw material : Tert-Butanol – RM 1035/ metric ton
(Reference: Appendix H1)
: Methanol – RM 832/metric ton
(Reference: Appendix H2)
Price of product : MTBE – RM 1235/ metric ton
(Reference: Appendix H3)
Price of by-product : Propylene Oxide – RM 1411/ metric ton
(Reference: Appendix H4)
8.3 REVENUE FROM SALES
Price of MTBE = RM 1235 / metric on
The capacity of MTBE = 400,000 ton / year
Sales income =
ton metric
1235 RM
Year
ton metric 000 , 400
×
= RM 494,000,000.00 / year
Capacity of Propylene Oxide = 295,625 ton / year
Sales income =
ton
1411 RM
year
) balance mass from gathered is value ton(this 625 , 295
×
= RM 417,8126,875.00 / year
Total sales income = RM 911,126,875.00 / year
8.4 COST ESTIMATION
8.4.1 Capital Cost Estimation
CTC = CFC + CWC + CL (8.1)
Where,
CTC = total capital cost
CFC = fixed capital cost
CWC = working capital cost
CL = cost of land & other non-depreciable costs
FP = Pressure factor to account for high pressure
FM = Material factor to account for material of constructions
CP = Purchase cost for base condition
FBM = Bare module cost factor
CBM = Bare module equipment cost for base condition
C°BM = Bare module equipment cost for actual condition
Table 8.1: Estimation Cost of Purchased Equipment
Equipment
Size(m
2
)/
Diameter
(m)/Power(kW)
Material of
Construction
Operating
Pressure
(bar)
FP/Fq FM FBM F
O
BM Cp($) CBM ($) C
o
BM ($)
R - 504 3m SS 3 1.4 4 1 5.6 40000 160000 224000
R - 508 456.922m
2
SS 9.9 1.1 1 1 - 250000 250000 -
E-506 62.94 m
2
CS/Cu 11 1 1.25 1.25
1.256
3
10500 13125 13191.15
E-507 62.94 m
2
CS/Cu 11 1 1.25 1.25
1.256
3
10500 13125 13191.15
C - 503 500kW SS - - - 1.5 3.5 200000 300000 700000
P-100A/B 65kW SS - 1 2.4 3.31 5.424 18000 119160 195264
DC - 501 3m SS 1.5 1.1 2 5.5 6 150,000 825000 900,000
35 Trays - SS 1.5 1 - 1.2 2 950 33250 66500
DC - 509 3m SS 1.5 1.1 2 5.5 6 150,000 825000 900,000
35 Trays - SS 1.5 1 1.2 2 950 33250 66500
DC - 505 0.7m SS 8.02 1.4 4 4 12 22000 88,000 264,000
22 Trays - SS 8.02 2 - 1.2 2 298 7867.2 13112
DC – 511 3 SS 1.5 1.1 2 5.5 6 150,000 825000 900,000
35 Trays - SS 1.5 1 1.2 2 950 33250 66500
V-100 3 SS 1.5 1.1 2 5.5 6 150,000 825000 900,000
Total 4351027 5222258
Total Module Cost, CTM = ∑C°TM (Reference: Appendix H5) (8.2)
= 1.18 (∑C°BM)
= 1.18 (5222258)
= 6162265 x 3.8
= RM 23416607
Grass Root Cost, CGR = CTM + 0.35 (∑ CBM) (Reference: Appendix H5)(8.3)
= 6162265 + 0.35 (4351027)
= 7685124 x 3.8
= RM 29203471
Since, Grass Root Cost (CGR) is:
CGR = CFC + CL (8.4)
When,
CWC = 15% of fixed capital cost (CFC) (8.5)
(Coulson & Richardson,1999)
So,
CGR = 1.15 CFC
i. CFC =
15 . 1
GR
C
(Coulson & Richardson,1999) (8.6)
=
1.15
29203471
= RM 25394323
ii. CL =
2
2 4 -1
m 1
60 RM
hacter 1
10 0 . 1
acre 1
hacter 10 4.046856
acre 100 ×
×
×
×
×
m
= RM 24,281,136
iii. CWC = 15% fixed capital cost (CFC)
= 0.15(25394323)
= RM 3809148
Total capital cost (CTC) = CFC + CWC + CL
= RM 25394323 + RM 3809148 + RM 24,281,136
= RM 53,484,607
8.4.2 Manufacturing Cost Estimation
The equation below is used to evaluate the cost of manufacture:
(8.7)
COM = 0.304FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CUT + CWT + CRM)
The cost of manufacturing (COM) can be determined when the following costs are
known or can be estimated:
1. Fixed Capital Investment (FCI): (CTM or CGR)
2. Cost of Operating Labor (COL)
Cost of manufacture (COM) = Direct Manufacturing Cost (DMC) +
Fixed Manufacturing Cost (FMC) +
General Expenses (GE)
3. Cost of Utilities (CUT)
4. Cost of Waste Treatment (CWT)
5. Cost of Raw Material (CRM)
8.4.3 Cost of Operating Labor (COL)
Table 8.2: Labor Cost
Equipment type
No of
equipment
Operators per shift per
equipment
Operator per
shift
Heat exchangers 1 0.1 0.1
Heater 1 0.5 0.5
Reactor 2 0.5 1.0
Vessels 1 0.0 0.0
Pumps 1 0.0 0.0
Compressor 1 0.15 0.15
Towers 4 0.35 1.4
Waste Treatment 1 2.0 2.0
Total 5.15
Since, a single operators works on the average 49 weeks (3 weeks time off for vacation
and sick leave) a year, five 8-hour shifts a week.
1 operator =
week
shift 5
Year
week 49
×
=
Year
shift 245
Operating shift per Year =
days
shift operating 3
Year
days 300
×
=
Year
shift operating 900
So, the number operator needed =
Year
shift 245
Year
shift operating 900
= 3.7 operators
Thus,
Operating Labor = 3.7operators x 5.15 operator per shift
= 19.1 operator
= 20 operator
A mechanical engineers maximum wages per year (MIDA Jan, 2003) RM 54,000.00
Thus,
Labor Cost (2003) = 20 x RM 54,000.00
= RM 1,080,000.00
8.4.4 Cost of Utilities (CUT)
Yearly costs = flowrate x costs x period x stream factor
Since, assuming the plants operating days per year = 300 days
So,
Stream factor (SF) = no. of day’s plant operates per year
no. of days per year
=
365
300
= 0.82
1. Heater (E-100)
Duty = hr GJ hr KJ 8 . 0 10 8 . 0
6
· ×
Thus,
Yearly cost = (Q) (C steam) (t)
=
82 . 0 300 24
3 . 19
8 . 0 × × × ×
yr
day
day
hr
GJ
RM
hr
GJ
= RM 91157.77
2. Pump
Power (shaft) = 2.34x10
5
kJ/h = 65 kW
Effeciency of drives, ξdr = 91.3% (Reference: Appendix H6)
Electric Power, Pr =
dr
ε
output Power
=
913 . 0
65
= 71.19kW
Yearly cost =
82 . 0 300 24
06 . 0
19 . 71 × × × ×
yr
day
day
hr
kWh
kW
(Reference: Appendix G7)
= RM 25218.35
3. Compressor
Power (shaft) = 1.8x10
7
kJ/h = 5000kW
Effeciency of drives, ξdr = 96% (Reference: Appendix H6 & H7)
Electric Power, Pr =
dr
ε
output Power
=
96 . 0
5000
= 5208.33 kW
Yearly cost =
82 . 0 300 24
06 . 0
33 . 5208 × × × ×
yr
day
day
hr
kWh
kW
= RM 1, 844, 998.82
Total of utilities costs = RM (91157.76 + 25218.35 + 1, 844, 998.82)
= RM 1, 961, 374.93/yr
8.4.5 Cost of Raw Material (CRM)
1. TBA = 94273.44 kg/h (Price = RM1035/Metric Ton = RM1.035/kg)
=
82 . 0
kg
1.035 RM
yr
day 300
day
h 24
h
kg 44 . 94273
× × × ×
= RM 576,071,053.4/yr
2. Methanol = 22429.40 kg/h Price RM 0.8816/kg
= 82 . 0
kg
0.8816 RM
yr
day 300
day
h 24
h
kg 40 . 22429
× × × ×
= RM 116,744,273.4/yr
3. Copper catalyst (solid) = 1,677 tonne/yr
Price RM 2.00/kg (Reference: Appendix H8)
= 1,677 tonne x 1000 kg x 2 x RM 2
tonne yr kg
= RM 6708000/yr
Total cost of raw material cost (CRM) = RM 699523327.8
The estimation of total manufacturing cost:
COM = 0.304FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CUT + CWT + CRM)(Reference:
Appendix H9)
Since, the cost of Waste Treatment (CWT) = RM 516600
Thus,
COM = 0.304 (53484607) + 2.73 (1080000) + 1.23 (1961374 + 516600 +699523328)
COM = RM 883260746/yr
8.5 PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
The feasibility of MTBE production in Malaysia is evaluated by profitability analysis.
The profitability of the project will be the largest factor that makes a project
economically attractive. To this stage, almost all the design and cost information
required for the profitability analysis were obtained. Based on the information available,
the best methods assessing the profitability of alternatives are based on projections of
the cash flows during the project file.
8.5.1 Before Tax and After Tax Cash Flow
Table 8.3: Annual Before Tax(CFBT) and After Tax Cash Flow (CFAT)
Year Gross
Income
Expenses
Investment &
Salvage
Value
CFBT Depreciation
Taxable
Income
(38%)
Taxes CFAT
0 -25394323 -25394323 -25394323
-3809148 -3809148 -3809148
-24,281,136 -24,281,136 -24,281,136
1 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
3628848.75
7
24237280.2
4
9210166.49
2 18655962.51
2 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
6219069.70
3 21647059.3 8225882.533 19640246.47
3 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
4441467.09
3
23424661.9
1 8901371.525 18964757.48
4 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
3171750.94
3
24694378.0
6
9383863.66
2 18482265.34
5 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
2267713.04
4 25598415.96
9727398.06
3 18138730.94
6 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
2265173.61
2 25600955.39
9728363.04
8 18137765.95
7 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
2267713.04
4 25598415.96
9727398.06
3 18138730.94
8 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
1132586.80
6
26733542.1
9
10158746.0
3 17707382.97
9 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
10 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
11 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
12 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
13 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
14 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
15 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
15 2539432.3 28090284 2539432.3 964984.274 29055268.27
Estimated salvage value = 10%CFC(Coulson & Richardson, 1999)(8.8)
= 0.1 x RM 25394323
= RM 25394323.3
8.5.2 Present Worth and IRR Method
In theory, the Minimum Attractive Rate of Return (MARR) is choosen higher than the
rate expected from the bank or some safe investment that involved minimal
investment risk. The MARR for after taxes is selected at 15%. (Analysis and Design
of Chemical Processes)
Table 8.4: Annual IRR After Tax
Year CFAT 30% PW 40% PW
0 -25394323 -25394323 -25394323
-3809148 -3809148 -3809148
-24,281,136 -24,281,136 -24,281,136
1 18655962.51 0.76923
14350726.0
4 0.71129 13269799.57
2
19640246.4
7 0.59172
11621526.6
4 0.5102 10020453.75
3
18964757.4
8 0.45517 8632188.66
0.3644
3 6911326.567
4
18482265.3
4 0.35013
6471195.56
3 0.26031 4811118.49
5
18138730.9
4 0.26933
4885304.40
3 0.18593 3372534.243
6
18137765.9
5 0.20718 3757782.35 0.13281 2408876.696
7
18138730.9
4 0.15937
2890769.54
9 0.09486 1720640.017
8
17707382.9
7 0.12259
2170748.07
8 0.06776 1199852.27
9
17276999.9
8 0.0943 1629221.098 0.0484 836206.799
10
17276999.9
8 0.07254
1253273.57
9 0.03457 597265.8893
11
17276999.9
8 0.0558
964056.598
9 0.02469 426569.1295
12
17276999.9
8 0.04292
741528.839
1 0.01764 304766.2796
13
17276999.9
8 0.03302
570486.539
3 0.0126 217690.1997
14
17276999.9
8 0.0254
438835.799
5 0.009 155492.9998
15
17276999.9
8 0.01954
337592.579
6 0.00643 111091.1099
15 29055268.27 0.01954
567739.942
1 0.00643 186825.375
7798369.25 -6934097.616
8
After interpolation it is found that the value of IRR is equal to 34.65% and therefore,
since it is bigger than the value of MARR (15%) this project is acceptable
8.5.3 Cumulative Cash Flow After Tax
Table 8.5: Cumulative Cash Flow After Tax (CFBT)
Year CFBT
Cumulative
cash flow
0 -53,484,607 -53,484,607
1 27866129 -25,618,478
2 27866129 2,247,651
3 27866129 30,113,780
4 27866129 57,979,909
5 27866129 85,846,038
6 27866129 113,712,167
7 27866129 141,578,296
8 27866129 169,444,425
9 27866129 197,310,554
10 27866129 225,176,683
11 27866129 253,042,812
12 27866129 280,908,941
13 27866129 308,775,070
14 27866129 336,641,199
15 28090284 392,597,612
Cumulative Cash Flow (RM) vs Year
-100,000,000
-50,000,000
0
50,000,000
100,000,000
150,000,000
200,000,000
250,000,000
300,000,000
350,000,000
400,000,000
450,000,000
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Year
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

C
a
s
h

F
l
o
w
Figure 8.1: Cumulative Cash Flow vs Year
8.6 Payback Period
8.6.1 Simple Payback Period
Table 8.6: Simple Payback Period
Year Cash Flow
Cumulative
Cash Flow
0 -53484607 -53484607
1 27866129 -25618478
2 27866129 2247651
From Table 8.6 it is found that the simple payback period is in the second year.
8.6.2 Discounted Payback Period
Table 8.7: Discounted Payback Period
Year Cash Flow
Cumulative
Cash Flow
0 -53484607 -53484607
1 27866129 -25618478 -29461249.7
2 27866129 -1595120.7 -1834388.805
3 27866129 26031740.2 29936501.22
From Table 8.7 it is found that the discounted payback period is in the third year of
operation.
8.7 Conclusion
Based on this chapter, the economic evaluation plant are made through
study in all aspect including feasibility study, process synthesis and flow sheeting
and designed of major equipment. From the cash flow analysis, the payback period
is about 3 years. By looking to the IRR value (34.65%) which is bigger than the
MARR therefore it can be concluded that this project is profitable and acceptable.
Furthermore, it should be stated that the present work is primarily illustrated based
on the method of engineering economic analysis of chemical processes.
REFERENCES
J. M. Coulson, J. F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume Two, Third
Edition, The Pergamon Press, 1977.
R. K Sinnot, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering, Chemical
Engineering Design, Volume Six, Butterworth Heinemann, 1999.
Robert H. Perry, Don W. green, Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook,
Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1998.
James, M. Douglas, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1988.
Martyn S. Ray and David, W. Johnston, Chemical Engineering, Design
Project: A Case Study Approach, Gordon and Breach Science
Publishers, 1989.
Carl R. Branan, Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Gulf Publishing
Company, 1994.
Smith, R., Chemical Process Design, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
C°BM = Bare module equipment cost for actual condition
CL = cost of land & other non-depreciable costs
CP = Purchase cost for base condition
CBM = Bare module equipment cost for base condition
CGR = Grass Root Cost
CFC = Fixed capital cost
COL = Cost of Operating Labor
CTC = Total capital cost
CTM = Total Module Cost
CUT = Cost of Utilities
CWC = Working Capital Cost
CWT = Cost of Waste Treatment
COM = Cost of Manufacturing
CFAT = Cash Flow After Tax
CFBT = Cash low Before Tax
FM = Material factor to account for material of constructions
FP = Pressure factor to account for high pressure
FBM = Bare module cost factor
FCI = Fixed Capital Investment
PW = Present Worth
MARR = Minimum Attractive Rate of Return
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
PROCESS INTEGRATION ROHIZAD JAMIL
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 9:
PROCESS INTEGRATION
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 9 PROCESS INTEGRATION
9.1 INTRODUCTION 218
9.2 PINCH TECHNOLOGY 219
9.3 THE PROBLEM TABLE METHOD 219
9.4 THE NETWORK DESIGN 221
\CHAPTER 9
PROCESS INTEGRATION
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Pinch technology was introduced by Linnhoff and Vredeveld to represent a new set
of thermodynamics based methods to minimized energy level in design of heat
exchanger networks. Process integration can lead to a substantial reduction in
energy requirements and increase the efficiency of a plant. One of the generally
useful techniques is pinch technology. The term derives from the fact that in a plot of
the system temperature versus the heat transferred, a pinch occurs at the minimum
temperature difference between the hot and cold stream, refer to Figure 9.1. It has
been shown that the pinch represents a distinct thermodynamic break in the system.
Temperature,
o
C
Pinch ∆Tmin
Hot
Stream
Cold
Stream
Enthalpy, kW
Figure 9.1: Hot and cold stream composite curves (not according to the value in this
case)
.
9.2 PINCH TECHNOLOGY
In this problem, the hot stream, stream 11-12 which requires cooling and cold
stream, stream 3, 4 has to be heated. Each starts at from a source temperature Ts,
and is to be treated to a target temperature Tt. The heat capacity of each stream is
shown as CP where given by:
CP = mCp (9.1)
Where m = mass flow rate, kg/s
Cp = average specific heat capacity between Ts and Tt, kW kg
-1

o
C
-1
The heat load is the total heat required to be exchange as the objective is to reduce
the power consumption.
Table 9.1: Data for heat integration
Stream
number
Type Heat Capacity, CP
KW/
o
C
Ts
o
C
Tt
o
C
Heat Load
KW
3-4 Cold 30.5 55 282 -6923.5
11-12 Hot 106.55 400 330 7458.5
9.3 THE PROBLEM TABLE METHOD
The actual stream temperatures Tact need to be converted into stream interval
temperatures, Tint. The use of interval temperatures rather than the actual
temperatures allows the minimum temperature difference to be taken into account.
Hot stream Tint = Tact -
2
min T ∆
(9.2)
= 400 – 10/2
= 395
o
C
Cold stream Tint = Tact +
2
min T ∆
(9.3)
= 55 + 10/2
= 60ºC
Table 9.2: Interval temperatures for 10 min · ∆T
o
C
Stream
number
Actual Temperature Interval Temperature
Ts,
o
C Tt,
o
C Ts,
o
C Tt,
o
C
3-4 55 282 60 287
11-12 400 330 395 325
The bracketed temperature indicates the duplicated temperature. All Tint are ranked
in order of magnitude and carry out a heat balance for the streams falling within
each temperature interval.
) )( ( T CP CP H h c ∆ − · ∆
∑ ∑
(9.4)
where H ∆ = net heat required in that interval

c CP =sum of heat capacities of the cold stream

h CP = sum of heat capacities of the hot stream
T ∆ = Interval temperature difference
Table 9.3: Rank order of interval temperatures
Rank
Interval( T ∆ )
o
C

c CP -

h CP
kW/
o
C
) )( ( T CP CP H h c ∆ − · ∆
∑ ∑
kW
395
325 70 -106.55 -7458.5
287 38 0 0
60 227 -76.5 -17263.35
Cascading the heat from one interval to the next implies that the temperature
difference is such that the heat can be transferred between the hot and cold
streams. The pinch occurs where the heat flow in the cascade is zero. This is
because the rule of heat integration says that for minimum utility requirements no
heat flows across the pinch. The supply of external heat only occurs above the
pinch, and external cooling only below the pinch.
Interval temperature
395
o
C
325
o
C
287
o
C
60ºC
0 kW
-7458.5
0
-17263.35
0 kW
7458.5 kW
7458.5 kW
24721.85 kW
Figure 9.2: Heat cascade
From the Figure 9.2 above, the pinch occurs at interval temperature = 395°C
9.4 THE NETWORK DESIGN
For the case which CPhot ≥ CPcold, the heat transfer can only occurs below the pinch.
Stream 3-4 will received the full load amount of heat required to bring up the
temperature to the Tt.
ex H ∆
) ( s t T T CP − · (9.5)
= 30.5 (282 - 55)
= 6923.5 kW
The load of stream 11-12 is H ∆
) (
t pinch
T T CP − ·
(9.6)
= 106.55 ( 400 -330)
= 7458.5 kW
Heat being transferred, ex H ∆ = ex H ∆ received by stream 3-4
= 6923.5 kW
Heat being cooled by chiller, cooled H ∆ = 7458.5 – 6923.5
= 535 kW
400°C 330
o
C
535 kW
282
o
C 55
o
C
6923.5 kW
Figure 9.3: Proposed heat exchanger network
The network shown in Figure 9.3 was designed to give the maximum heat recovery
and minimum energy consumption, hence increase the efficiency. Before process
integration, the process requires 7458.5 kW for cooling and 6923.5 kW for heating,
which will total up to 14382 kW. However, after heat exchanger was designed, the
process only requires 535 kW for cooling.
11-12
3-4
A
A
REFERENCES
Sinnott, R.K, 1999, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering, Vol. 6 :
“Chemical Engineering Design”, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURES
CP - Steam heat capacity kW/°C
ΣCPc - Sum of heat capacities of cold stream kW/°C
ΣCPh - Sum of heat capacities of hot stream kW/°C
ΔH - Change in enthalpy kW
ΔHex - Heat transfer in exchanger kW
Tact - Actual stream temperature °C
Tint - Interval temperature °C
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
WASTE TREATMENT JUPLIN KINTI
NORMARIAH BINTI ABDULLAH
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 10:
WASTE TREATMENT
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 10 WASTE TREATMENT
10.6 INTRODUCTION 223
10.7 DESCRIPTION AND PROCESS
SYNTHESIS 224
10.2.3 Air Treatment 224
10.2.4 Water Treatment 225
10.8 LAYOUT OF WASTE WATER
TREATMENT 227
10.9 MECHANICAL DESIGN WASTE
TREATMENT 228
10.10 CONCLUSION 229
CHAPTER 10
WASTE TREATMENT
10.11 INTRODUCTION
Generally, MTBE plant produces waste into air and water during operation.
This waste will be treating before discharge to the environment. The
purpose to treat this waste is to make sure that component have not been
hazardous to the animal, plants and human health. The entire waste
component must be treated to fulfill the requirement of Environmental
Quality Act (1974) before discharge to the environment
In aspect air pollution, air discharge from MTBE plant contains the
Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) such as Acetone. These materials are
been hazardous in high concentration in the air.
The location of MTBE plant in Teluk Kalong Industrial Park that is
located at Terengganu Darul Iman and nearby the sources of water supply.
Hence, the wastewater treatment is under the effluent parameter in
standard B, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents)
Regulation 1979.
So, the characteristic of waste water must achieve the required in standard
B before discharge to the river.
In our MTBE plant, most of the product discharge as a waste such
as Methanol, TBA and Isobutylene are recycle or reuse again to minimize
the waste discharge and reduce the pollution occurred to the environment
and directly reduce the cost to treat the waste.
10.12 DESCRIPTION AND PROCESS SYNTHESIS
10.2.5 Air Treatment
Generally, the waste that released into air in our MTBE plant is Volatile
Organics Component (VOC). There is acetone that produces in the first
distillation column. The concentration of acetone must be compare with the
Air Quality, Industrial Emission Standards for Organic Substances (1995)
which the limitation value is 2400 mg / m3. (Please refer to APPENDIX J-1)
This waste is flammable gases and has been low of flash point.
Based on this characteristic, direct combustion with flare is using to dispose
this waste with high temperature to make sure the complete combustion
occurred.
Table 10.1: The composition of gases discharged
Types of gas Mole fraction (kmol/kmol) Molar flowrate (kmol/h)
Acetone 0.0198 14.3012
In this case, we must consider the flammable limits of each
component to make sure that our waste is not lean to burn or explode. The
lower flammable limit (LFL) and upper flammable limit (UFL) are important
to detect the volume of gases mixture with air or oxygen for burning.
(Please refer to APPENDIX J-2)
Table 10.2: The Flash Point and the lower flammable limit (LFL) and
upper flammable limit (UFL).
Properties Acetone
Flash point (
o
C) -20
Auto-ignition (
o
C) 465
(LFL) % in ambient air 2.5
(UFL) % in ambient air 12.8
Acetone passed through at the stack flare and burned with high
temperature 1090
0
C to make sure these waste burned in complete
combustion. This combustion will produce CO2 and dust into air. The
concentration of CO2 must be compare with level of emissions
Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 1978.
10.2.6 Water Treatment
In our MTBE plant, we discharged three types of waste water. There are
Methanol, Dimethyl and Propylene Oxide. This component must be treated
before discharge into river because it will be toxicity in human health, skin
and eyes irritation. For the long term, this component can reduce the
productive of animals and plant. The waste water treatment divided into
three parts. There are primary water treatment, secondary water treatment
and sludge water treatment.
Primary Treatment
In this treatment, the waste water passed through the settling tank to
remove oil and grease from waste water by disperses process and
sedimentation will occur by reducing the velocity of flowrate. Aeration tank
are using to keep the waste in suspension. In suspension, the waste having
a higher specific gravity then the liquid tend to settle while the lower specific
gravity will tend to rise. The precipitation component will pass through the
sludge digester.
Secondary Treatment
In secondary treatment, the waste is subjected to biological decomposition
by bacteria. Here, activated sludge tank are using which oxygen will supply
from air into tank and the temperature to be maintain about 37
0
C.The
process biological occurs when the microorganism oxidize the organic
material to be stable compound
The sludge will discharge into sludge digester and remain passing
through the secondary settling using Granular medium filtration. Here, the
flocs settles out in this clarifying tank and pass through the digester tank.
Sludge Treatment
Generally, raw sludge that produces is untreated non-stabilized sludge and
it tends to acidify digestion and produce odor. Hence, we need sludge
digester to eliminate nuisances and reduce health related threat. Aerobic
digestion are apply with no external food supplied into tank because the
bacteria can metabolic their own protoplasm and oxidation the sludge be
stable and not harmful.
Dewatering sludge will reducing the amount of water in the sludge
so that it can be handled and disposed of as a solid rather than a liquid.
Here we use sand drying beds. After that sludge will pass through the
storage tank and disposed by combustion using incineration.
Inventory of Waste Water
Table 10.3: Inventory of waste water
Component Mass fraction (w/w) Mass flow rate (kg/h)
Methanol 0.0001 5.5739
Dimethyl 0.0005 27.8697
Propylene oxide 0.0010 55.7395
Oxygen required.
a. Methanol
CH3OH + 3/2 O2 CO2 + 2H20
Hence, 1 mol methanol required 3/2 mol of oxygen.
b. Dimethyl
C7H16 + 11 02 7 CO2 + 8 H20
Hence, 1 mol Dimethyl required 11 mol of oxygen.
c. Propylene oxide
CH3 (CHCH2) 0 + 4 O2 3 C02 + 3 H2O
Hence, 1 mol propylene oxide required 4 mol of oxygen.
Table 10.4: Oxygen Demand of component
Component Oxygen demand (g O2)
Methanol 3/2 x (16 x 2) = 48
Dimethyle 11 x (16 x 2) = 352
Propylene oxide 4 x (16 x 2) = 128
Average density = ∑ mass fraction of component x density of component
= {(0.0001x 791) + (0.0005 x 674) + (0.001 x 829)} kg / m
3
= 1.25 kg / m
3

Total oxygen demand = (48 + 352 + 128) g O2
= 528 g O2
Generally, the value of total oxygen related with Biological oxygen demand
(BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This total oxygen demand is
high and must be reduced before discharged into river. Based on the
Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulation 1979
the BOD discharge must below 50 mg / l and COD 100 mg / l in standard B.
(Please refer to APPENDIX J-3)
10.13 LAYOUT OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT
Grit camber
Generally, Grid chamber as a function to remove inorganic like’s sand in
the waste water. In this treatment, grid chamber provided to remove the oil
and grease in the settling tank.
Primary settling tank
Here, two existing primary tank will be installed for high efficiency of settling
will be occurred. Generally, more than one tank will install which one of the
tank as a function stand by tank. The rotating arm skims the floatable
materials (oils and greases) from the water surface. Another rotating arm at
the bottom of the tank sweeps sludge into a collecting chamber.
Aeration Tank
Oxygen will supply from the air into aeration tank and consumed by the
microorganism. The process biological occurs when the microorganism
oxidize the organics material to be a stable compound. This process will
provide a higher degree of treatment.
Pump
The waste water from the aeration tank will pass through to the secondary
settling tank by the centrifugal pump. This pump is needed to raise and
distribute the waste water to settling tank.
Secondary settling tank
Here, more than one tank will install and the other tanks as a stand by tank.
Waste water flows into secondary settling tanks or secondary clarifiers
where bacterial cells form clumps called floc. The floc settles out in this
clarifying tank and is piped over to the sludge holding tank for disposal.
Sludge storage tank
These tanks are covered to keep out precipitation. Here, the biological
treatment still occurred inside the sludge tank and oxidize the sludge to be
stable and non-hazardous. Sludge thickening is accomplished in a tank
equipped with slowly rotating that breaks the bridge between sludge,
thereby increasing settling and compaction.
(Please refer to APPENDIX J-4)

10.14 MECHANICAL DESIGN WASTE TREATMENT
Stack Flame Design
Stack flame is the equipment to disposed gases that produce in the plant.
The combustion of gases will occurred at the top of stack with continuous
flare at high temperature so that the gases will burn in complete
combustion to prevent any hazardous gases released.
The stack design must be high and designed plus 2.5 with higher
structure in the plant. The purpose is to make sure the plume to upward
level. In our MTBE plant the higher structure is 33.5 meter (Distillation
Column). Based on the EPA guidelines, the flare designed has the
operating temperature between 1370 K and 1920 K (1090
0
C and 1650
0
C).
(Please refer to APPENDIX J-5)
h = (33.5 + 2.5) m
= 36 m.
Settling Tank Primary and Secondary Design
Flow rate average = Total waste discharged x average density
89 .18 kg / h x 1.25 kg /m
3
= 69.13 m
3
/ hr.
The detention time = 1 hr
Depth Of tank = 5 m
The volume of tank = flow rate average x time detention
= 69.13 m
3
/ hr x 1 hr
= 69.13 m
3
.
The diameter of tank = √ (volume tank/ π x depth)
√ (69.13/ π x 5)
= 2.10 m
10.15 CONCLUSION
In our MTBE plant the waste water treatment discharge must be followed
the standard B in Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents)
Regulation 1979 which the value of BOD not exceed 50 mg/L and COD 100
mg / L. The waste water will continuously treat until achieved this
requirement.
Besides that, certain product such as TBA and isobutylene are not
disposed but reuse again to the plant operation because these components
are raw material to produce MTBE. This directly reduce cost production of
MTBE and pollution into environmental.
The other methods to minimize the waste in our MTBE plant is
packaging the certain product such as Propylene Oxide for commercialize
to get profit in the market.
REFERENCES
Christ. 1999. Production-Integrated Environmental Protection and Waste
Management in the chemical industry.. Germany. Wliley –VCH
C. Stern, W. Boubel. 1984. Fundamentals of Air Pollution. Second Edition.
Academic Press
Environmental Quality Act 1974 ( Act 127). 1999. Laws of Malaysia. Kuala
Lumpur . International Law Book services
European Chemical Bureau, European Commission. 2002. MTBE,
Summary Risk Assessment Report. Finland.
Hammer. 2004. Water and Waste Technology . Fifth Edition. New Jersey.
Pearson Education
H. Perry and W.Green, 1998. Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook,
Seventh Edition, United State.
R. Brunner, 1994. Hazardous waste incineration. Second Edition,
Singapore, McGraw-hill.
Regina D. 2002. An Overview of MTBE Remediation Process, Chemical
perspective. Inquiry reports MTBE. 7 August.
R. K. Sinnott. 2000. Chemical Engineering Design. Volume 6. Third Edition.
Great Britain. Butterworth Heinmann.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURES
BOD biochemical oxygen demand
h height of stack
H effective height
LFL lower flammable limit
UFL upper flammable limit
VOC Volatile Organics Component

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