GATEWAY TO ARABIC

Book Three
Dr. Imran Hamza Alawiye

Peace Be Upon You

~r~\
Gi)~~Gr

o

/'

0

~

_j,

.uW~\

~~
,

J"

0~)y

",

~..

.....

.0"?-~
.....

o ....

•'

/'

//

'"

j2./

o~
;'---

.~~\.j)
,
.... ".0/

lS~)

o)L.. oh
,, ;lo~;

/'

/'

/'

O_JbW\ J" ,
,

0~~

jA

2

Vocabulary

Egyptian Abuja Nigerian Makkah Saudi London British Kuala Lumpur Malaysian my name (is)

'-?~
/ ~/

Pakistani Karachi Damascus Syrian Mogadishu Somalian

'"

~~~
~\~
/

Habib
I Khadija

~

. ".

Basim Bassam
0/ •

~yl

-

~...G-

Hanan Sara Huda Nadia 0~

Husain Khalid Faisal Tariq

'"

~~;
.Ji ..... /' ..II

Jerusalem Palestinian Cairo

if ..wI
o ;
0

Nisreen Azeeza

0-?-~
OJ-:;~
~~ .;~

I Qasim
Asma I Akram I these (m. or f.)

.ac

)~':JI~ '"

~ _r.:JL.
o

Saliha my friends

~~

from

/~r

Detached

(or personal) Pronouns

In Book Two (p. 17) we already came across the singular detached pronouns. Here below are all the detached pronouns in their singular, dual and plural forms. As the verb 'to be' is not generally used in the present tense in Arabic, it is often added to the detached pronouns when translating into English. e.g.

o~~lo
Dual (two) they (masc.)

-&

,/

0

~i

ss:

You are Malaysians.

Plural (three or more)
o
jl

Singular (one)
/ jl

they (masc.)

~

he, it

they (fem.)

~

they (fem.)

she, it
"" ;0.....(f)

you (rnosc.)
~

you (rnosc.) --~-+-~~-----.

~I

you (rnosc.)

CD

o

~ .~-~ -r----~--.---you (fem.)
.~~~. --~~--'----~-~-+---I

o
CD

::J Q
""0

you (tern.)
----~~-

~i

.90....-

you (fern)
t---.~---/

en o
::J

.-; 0

we (masc. or fem.)

we (masc. or fem.)

I (mase. or fern)

""0

CD

en

o
::J

3

Conversation
friends (f.)
;

Vocabulary
I those two (m.)

~I~
~
<

where?

Lebanon sister big (f.)
;/ '"

oW
/0 0

Jl

bikes armchair school schools friend (m.) friends (m.)
'"

that (fem.) those two (f.)
<

i Is? Are?
\

~i

~

~G
.:.WJi
< ~

o

<

who? no yes name

"'<

< od
./ 0

those (rn. or f.) boy

Cairo Alexandria Iraq ~)~

o~wl

'"

...uJ
//

'}I
;

~-l..o
0

<

boys
,..-

JI_rJI

<

0

y..-'

~ -l..oi \j

girl

'"

~

0

names

_o~~ ~ hello!

__ ... __ ~ ~~

~~<._/---,i_fri~e_nd_(f~.) hello, welcome!

-

<_~ ~~.

\ g_i~rIS

"'_w_L;

I .. that (m.)_._<_~_~_ ~<~ ~)

Pleased to meet you I

Basim: Assalamu 'alaykum. Habib: Wa 'alaykumu-ssalaam. Basim: I am Bosirn. and this is Bassam. Habib: Hello. Basim: Hello. Habib: Where are you both from? Basim: We are from Syria. And where ore you from? Habib: I am from London. Basim: Pleased to meet you.
"'....

~O/:~
. .r'

~

....

0~:; :~~
y ~i 0-;!i
"" 0 .... ,/ 0./

:.r:) . ~!r :.r: .r- :~~
0,/ /' j. 0

JI

0

""

,...

0/..lJ~ G1:~

Habib: Pleased to meet you. Basim: Good-bye. Habib: See you later.

o~~';:~

VI: /'

0)

~)U\~

:~~

. ~Lili\ J1 :~
4

3,

1,

;00/00"

~~I

,

.!.lli cY : y4;
,

Rabab: Who's that girl?
j1. ,..,,/ /

Tahir: Who's that boy on the bike?

. 0l>. ~
Huda: She's Hanan,

-

:~.J.A
,

Saeed: He's my friend Nabeel.

Rabab: Is she your sister?

Tahir: Where is he from?

.0WcYY"
Huda: Yes, she's my big sister.
,

/'

,.,0)0

/)

:~

,

Saeed: He's from Lebanon.

4,

2, Rabab: Who are those girls?
//0/0 .... /

~~~~~~\ :.:J.Jj1 :;0
,

:.;Au,
,

Tahir: Who are those boys?

Huda: They are my friends at the school.

. ~ .J..wl ~ ..
,,-

~~._L,.:,
...-

........

.....

.J'A

~j

:~.J.A
Saeed: They're my friends at the school.

~0y..!y ~ ~ :~lb
Rabab: Are they Egyptian?
~ ::;; 0

.....

&

J.o)o/

...,

Tahir: Are they Syrian?
" ..... ,.., --& '"
0)'/

..:.>~~
Huda: Yes, they're

.J'A ,~

::;;

J.

:~.J.A

.0~\~
Saeed: No, they're Iraqi.

~ ~~
0

,'1 :~
~
j""',

"..

Egyptian,

~~I~
Rabab: Are they from Cairo?
/0 /0,/

:~u,
.,-

Tahir: Are they from Baghdad?

.~~\
Huda: No, they're from Alexandria. Saeed: No, they're

~ ~ ,'J : ~
from Basra.

5

Greetings
Basma: Good evening, Mazin: Good morning,
&
J

.)_,J\
Hamida: Good evening,
/' .JJ ..... 0 ;-

C~:~

//

Bashir: Good morning,

~~\~
Basma: How's your [lit, the] health?

:a4u~
Mazin: How are you?

Hamida: Fine, praise be to Allah,

Bashir: Fine, praise be to Allah,

Basma: What's your name?

Mazin: What's your name?
.... 0,/ /jl_.,/ -" 0 ,.,.

.~lj..l..pl
.......
"...,..

~'j~J'~
/'

~\

Hamida: My name is Hamida, and these are my friends,
o
;;; JI
0,.....

-

:~
...._..

.....

Bashir: My name is Boshit and these are my friends,
..... 0 ,....

1 ~I

~

,...

0,....

0

L;-:!I UA : Ii 4u
£. ..

.~

~ ~I

oJlo//o,.....o

L;-:!I

.r :~}Lo
J. "
0 _0 ...

'"

Basma: Where are you (f, pl.) from?

Mazin: Where are you (rn. pI.) from?
;1

. ~~
Friends: We are from the Sudan,

~~

: ~l.i~~1

Friends: We are from Nigeria,

.~~~j~1:~
.~~~/~Gr
Basma: Welcome to you (t, pl.). I'm pleased to meet you (t. pl.).

.~

~j

~r

:~}Lo

.~~~Gr
Mazin: Welcome to you (m. pl.). I'm pleased to meet you (pl.),
~

. ~I

,/

0

.... jI

~

0

//

J : ~la.:!..L.Al1
Friends: We're delighted [to meet you too],

./

Friends: We're delighted

[to meet you too],

Basma: Good-bye,

Mazin: Good-bye,

Friends: In God's protection,

. JJ\ JL.~ ~ : ~~~I ,

. JJ\ JL.1 ~ : ~l.i~~1
Friends: In God's protection,

....

;1

/'

0

..... 0

I

(God be with you),

6

Vocabulary
o /

praise

how? condition, state

morning

these (rn. or t.) protection, Welcome! Welcome! (reply) security

~~~/

J~

evening
0/

0~r
~:, ~j

health

good, fine, well
JI

I
~ ~/

ill, unwell fi~e__
/

light

_0 ~r
/

L_gOOd,
JI JI ~

~

happy, fortuito_~s _ _

~ s s: / /
4,;._,.0~

Reply, May God protect you,

~

wI

Best wishes for a speedy recoveryl I hope he gets better soon,

Dialogue

Faisal: Khalid: Falsal: Khalid: Faisal: Khalid:

Where is your friend, [0] Khalid? He is at home. How is he? He is ill, I hope he gets better soon, May Allah protect you,

Two Sukoons Rule
You may remember from Book One that a shadda (-) is a symbol written above a letter to show that the letter has been doubled e,g.
~JI

and therefore sounds stronger.
,sl 0

it

~ JI

(mother)

it = i + i + I

JI

Note that the first

i

takes a sukoon.

You then learnt that when a defined word begins with a sun letter, the a sukoon. Instead, the sun letter takes a
,;

J

of

JI

(the) does not take

snccco.
0"" 0

e.g,

J- 4.':.1\
o;i

Ji

0;:;;
<) :.

(the sun) If

JI =J'+i+ u:.+u:.+J+ I

.9

Here, the laam cannot take a sukoon because the first sheen though we don't see the sukoon symbol when we write

J'

:.

already has sukoon on it, even a shcodo.

u:. with

Rule: In Arabic, you cannot have two sukoons next to each other. This rule also applies when a sukoon appears at the end of one word and the lam of the 'ol' at the beginning of the next word has a sukoon.
"Q.,... -"

y,

e.g. You cannot

write:

~~
--

~I

0

0

0

~

,..-

(Is the girl beautiful?)
VI..... '" ~
0 0 /'

_..

Instead, the sukoon on the first word changes into a kasra:

~~~I~

7

Word Patterns
Representation of word patterns in Arabic
As you will discover To demonstrate from the next page, many Arabic words originate for the letters from three root letters.

the pattern

of a word, it is common ~ could

J

t. -._.j to be substituted

in place could

of the root letters. For example,
VI

be represented

in the form

J.:J

,and

~\S

be represented

by

J.. d';
,

Exercise 1:
Substitute the letters

J

t. J for the

root letters in the following Pay careful

words to show the word patterns. attention to the position of the root

The root letters of each letters in each

word are shown in brackets.

word, as well as the correct

use of vowels and sukoons. The first row has been done for you.

I~

------~---n____4_
----I-----

VI

,

~
() .1 -if)
vt....-....-

---.. ---t--~ -

--

o~_+-,

0

~

_

VI

L C)

Y~
~ , 0 ,

1-----

-----

1--

.

__lI

._l_
~

I I

.-------+~_+_c) ~
..

VII f-- ___-----n

~

~

_i

(~_

~;),,-)+---i,~.,J.-../-'1"'4.>-~;)-

J

t) ~
VI,

,o~ ---------.--

~~'A

Exercise 2:
S·udy the word patterns crockets
~.

based on the form

J

t. J
J

and then substitute

in the root letters shown in

to create

proper

words. The first has been done for you.

I

I

J
(r
)

t.
J2

J
-

t.
vt....-

J

I

.!.h
/

....- ....- J2

~"Yvtj
I

tll~1

(I ,-

'--'

i_../

~ '\

~w
,
o,

;;J ....-

I i ,
I

(J .!.l
__
"----

Jw)

~~
'-"

()rJ' 0)
0

I

VlI~
_;

-~

J E)
~.--._.j

.~L,
vt....-....0

0

,

.-----

(

;. .1 r-_.l ,'-' I_.../
(~

~

0~
I,_;;l

C)

~
/

)-H-

~

8

Word Roots
A great many Arabic words are formed from three core or root letters, each group of which has a basic meaning concept. By recognising the three root letters, a reader can often work out what a new word means, or at least gain a general idea of its meaning, even if he or she has never seen it before! In Book Two we came across the two words: ~

,-:-"l.::.5"

--

meaning

'a book', and

~ ~

--~/

meaning

'a desk'.

If you study these two words carefully, you will find they both contain the letters These are the root letters of the two words, and they carry the idea of 'writing'. From the same three letters we can make the words:

w,,:,_,.!J

in that order.

~

~\..5'

/

'a clerk' or 'writer',

'!//~/
~

'a library', and

~/ /

~l.::.5"

'writing'.

Notice how all the meanings are connected In Book Two we also came across the words

in some way with writing.
~

L~

.....0

~

meaning

'a key', and

L~

Jlo".

meaning

'open'.

Both contain

the letters

L~

J

which carry the idea of 'opening'.

By combining the three root letters with certain other letters, following various rules and patterns, many other related words can be formed. e.g. ~/

~b

s: 'a can opener' and

s:

~W\

,.....0

Surat al-Fatihah, the opening

surah of the Qur'an.

It is very important to learn how to recognise the roots of words, not only to help with understanding a word's meaning, but also because words in Arabic dictionaries are usually listed under their root letters.

Verbs: The Regular

Past Tense

The three root letters are also important for another reason. They are the basis for forming verbs. The simplest type of verb in Arabic is the past tense, and the most basic form of the past tense is the masculine singular form. The first and third letters of this form are always written with a fatha. The second letter takes a fatha, kasra or dornrno. and the student must learn by heart which is the correct vowel for each verb.

e.g.

w~

i\ ...... becomes
J becomes

:__;s
/

He wrote.

C~
~)J"

~

He opened.

:.

becomes
/;

y.p
/

He drank.

) w.!J .

becomes

) w.!J .

/

He became

great, or he became

big.

9

Simple Past Tense Verbs
Just as Arabic nouns have singular, dual and plural forms, so verbs do likewise, Verbs also have masculine and feminine forms. The table below shows all the different forms of the past tense verb 'to write', starting with the most basic form, the masculine singular, i.e, 'he wrote'.

Plural
they (m.) wrote \~
.51//

Dual
they (two) (m.) wrote \~~ he wrote

Singular

they (t.) wrote

;;s
~
~

they (two) (f.) wrote ---~------+-----c,/

\ ;/:~
..>10'/

she wrote -------~-/ (j')

you (pl.) (rn.) wrote

you (two) (rn.) wrote

\ 4 -: •

--S "<"

you (rn.) wrote

CD

o

o

::J

/'

; 0,....,....

Q.

you (pl.) (f.) wrote
I--------------t----~-_+_

you (two) (f.) wrote
---,...0 ......,.....

\ 4 -;

you (f.) wrote
--

L

" - "5
••

all

CD

"'0

en

o
-

-+---

-----

--+--------+---

::J

We (rn. or t.) wrote

I

l.:......::S'

We (two) (m. or f.) wrote

l.:......::S'
/0//

I (m. or f.) wrote

en -+
\J

T1

CD

en

o
::J

How to make the past tense of a simple verb such as
a) Singular Forms

J

(he wrote)

1, To make the third person feminine Singular, take the third person masculine singular form
o ///

J

and add

~

to the end i.e.

C:

"<"

she wrote.

2. To make the second person masculine singular take
,/

J
0 ............

and replace the fatha on the

W

with a sukoon and then add

~

to the end l.e.

C:

--S

you (masculine singular) wrote.

3. To make the second person feminine singular take

J
all

and replace the fatha on the

W

with a sukoon and then add

~

to the end i.e.

C:

-;<:

you (feminine singular) wrote.

4, To make the first person (masculine or feminine) singular take
y. y.
all

~

and replace the fatha on the

'-'

with a sukoon and then add

..:..>

to the end i.e.

~

10

b) Dual Forms 5. To make the third person masculine dual take the root verb i.e.

J J

and add

1 to the end

\~:S--

they (two, masculine) wrote.

6. To make the third person feminine dual take the root verb i.e.

and add

G

to the end

\:"-:$'

they (two, feminine) wrote.

7. To make the second person masculine dual and the second person feminine dual take the root verb ~
,/

and replace the fatha on the

y

with a sukoon and then add

lo._j to the end

..-

.i'

i.e.

L() ~ ~\

..9-0//

you (two, masculine) wrote, or you (two, feminine) wrote.

8. To make the first person masculine or feminine dual take the root verb on the wrote. c) Plural Forms 9. To make the third person masculine plural take the root verb ~ .__, with a sukoon and then add

~

and replace the fatha (two, masculine or feminine)

G to the end

i.e.

\~~:S-- we

and replace the fatha on the

Y

with a damma

and then add

Ij

i.e.

I~

.i'..-..-

they (plural, masculine) wrote. The alif is silent.

10. To make the third person feminine plural take·the root verb
..-

J

and replace the fatha on the

.__, with a sukoon and then add

0

,/

0",.."

i.e.

~

they (plural, feminine) wrote .

11. To make the second person masculine plural take the root verb ~

and replace the fatha on the

Y

0..9-

oJlo,......,...,

with a sukoon and then add

.~

i.e.

~

you (plural, masculine) wrote.

12. To make the second person feminine plural take the root verb

J

and replace the fatha on the

Y

~

.;

~

jo//

with a sukoon and then add

:.;

i.e.

~

you (plural, feminine) wrote. ~ and replace the fatha or feminine)

13. To make the first person masculine or feminine plural take the root verb
,/ /0//

on the

.__, with a sukoon and then add

L;

to the end i.e.

L:-:S' we (plural, masculine

wrote. You may note that this is the same form as the first person dual (see no. 8 above).

11

Some points to note
Verbs in the first person are not affected the feminine: ~ I (masculine by gender, or feminine) so they remain the same for both the masculine wrote, and

\~o.;S' We (masculine
..... Jlo .....,.....

or feminine)

wrote .

The second

person dual is also not affected

by gender:

\

4 -;:

-;5'

You (masculine

or feminine)

wrote. form of

When oddressinq the verb is used.

or referring to a mixed group where at least one male is present, the masculine

Exercise 3:
Complete the past tense verbs in the two tables below in all their forms.

Plural
they (rn.) learnt

Dual
they (two) (m.) learnt
--

Singular
he learnt "
""
---i

::J'

~)~

Q_
CD

-u;
:J

"U

they (f.) learnt

they (two) (f.) learnt

she learnt

0
(f)

you (pI.) (rn.) learnt
f-----.--

you (two) (m.) learnt
---.----.~----.~--

you (m.) learnt
._-_
-

o
:J

CD

0
Q_ "U

~

you (pI.) (f.) learnt

you (two) (f.) learnt

you (f.) learnt

<E en

0
:J
Tl

We em. or f.) learnt

We (two) (m. or f.) learnt

I (m.or f.) learnt

~
"U

~

CD

u;

0
:J

Plural
they (m.) drank
~---

Dual
they (two) (m.) drank
---_----

Singular
he drank
-

"

" y_r;,
/

---i

::J' _. Q_

------

CD

"U

u; they (t.) drank they (two) (f.) drank she drank

0
:J
(f)

you (pI.) (rn.) drank
1-------

you (two) (m.) drank

you (m.) drank -_--_ you (f.) drank

CD

o

-_

0

..

_.----

:J Q

you (pI.) (f.) drank

you (two) (t.) drank

CD

"U

u;
:J

0

u; We (m. or f.) drank We (two) (m. or f.) drank I em, or f.) drank

::!1

.....
"U

CD

u;

I
12

0

:J

Exercise 4:
Complete the table below using the correct verb forms. Work out the root letters first. You may find it useful to try to work out the third person masculine singular ("he") form of the verb first, and then use the rules on the previous pages to change the verb into the other forms.

You (rn, or f.) dual

You (m) plural

They (m) plural

You (t.) singular

He
Meaning

;.

~

-

~

"'.

\~

laughed

went

returned

entered
J.
0,/ /'

o

,/

"',/

came/went out (of)

succeeded

looked (at)

~~

rode

washed
'" ;'0

\ A) -; • /

1

I I

wore

~1
'" Jlo'/ .~ /

ate

did
:
I

1)

read

sat

took

I
13

Verbs: Number and Gender
The normal sentence order in Arabic is for the verb to come first, followed by the subject of the verb and then the rest of the sentence. When a third person verb begins a sentence, it will always appear in the singular form, even if the subject governing the verb is in the dual or plural. However. the verb must always agree in gender. Masculine subject

oll /

/

oll

/

oll

/

//

;;

/

/'

-vz

/'

//

~)

J~I.b) ~L;
.o~~\~

~

~/~)~L;~

. ~)~~\

~

J)1.b
Qasim sat on the chair.

Qasim, Tariq and Hasan sat on the mat.

Qasim and his friend Tariq sat on the sofa. Feminine subject

,/

;.....

.....

/'

;

,...,0 .....

0

,/

...../

~~)

~j

-.:.. .. I~
~
~.)~

. ~)~~\
Zaynab, Nadia and Salma sat on the bed.

Zaynab and her friend Nadia sat on the sofa.

Nadia sat on the chair.

Exercise 5: Translate the following sentences into Arabic, starting each sentence with the verb.
(see page 16 for vocabulary). 1. Qasim looked at the small monkey. 2. Tariq and Bassam returned from the school. 3. Sara and Azeeza went to the new mosque. 4. Samir and his sister Hanan came out of the house. 5. Fatima sat on the brown table. 6. Akram, Husain and Khalid went to the big house. 7. Nisreen, Saliha and Huda came out of the small room. 8. Tariq, Nadia and Huda returned from the old mosque. __ _ ______
---_-~-

1 2

..

3
4 5 _6 __

___________ ______

7 8

14

However, if the subject happens to come first, or has already been mentioned, with its subject in both gender and number. Masculine

then the verb must agree

~"

~

~j

J/bj

"VI

~

,;;

",II

~\j

J~IJ:, ~~j

~L;
. Qasim sot on the chair.

. ~ "J ~II1~_ ~ ~
Qasim, Tariq and Hasan sat on the mot. Feminine

Qosim and his friend Tariq sat on the sofa.

52 ....

,...

,...

j,,,,,

...-,,;

52

..... 0

.......

~~I..i~...l_.,.::,j~j
, ,

Zaynab, Nadia and Salma sat on the bed.

Zaynab and her friend Nadia sat on the sofa.

Nadia sot on the choir.

Furthermore, when referring to a mixed gender group, the verb will always be masculine, even if there is only one male among several females.

,..-

~

,.., 0

.~/1JI

Jy>-

/'

jI.........Jl

.....0

....

.,_Q

,;

I~

~~Ij

~\j

.~~I~~~ij~\j

,.... .....

;:;i

/'

0

,....

,..,

//

"p)lo

jI"sI

.....

Qasim and the girls sat around the table.

Qasim and his sister Nadia sot under the tree.

15

Exercise 6:
Translate the following sentences into Arabic, starting each sentence with the subject of the verb.

1. Sarah, Huda and Nadia sat in the car.

2. Azizo and her brother Husayn returned from the school.

2

3. Faisal went out of the window and Huda went out of the door.

3

4. Asma' and Hanan went to the large room.

~~~~-~---

-----

- ~----

4

5. Samir, Qasim and Husayn sat in the mosque.

5

6. The boys and girls sat on the small chairs.

6

7. Tariq and Akram looked computer.

at the

7

8. Saliha looked

at the new doll.

__~_~~

__ ~

~ __ ~_~

__

~

~_~____

_

8

Vocabulary
.".//

on in from to, at around visitor (m.) visitor (f.) sofa

~

tree

o~
~I .
/

/

.".

/

Samir
o /

..r---'"
/

door window room
{

..
..
/

y~

-t
0

trees big, large small old new mosque mat, carpet

)

'"

}/

Fatima brother sister

4..-bl1
/

o~G
/

.r
/ /

Jl
J~ ..~(.
..rJ
/
/

..
~

d
/

..

..

/

.. .. ..::....>-i
0 ~,.... 0 ;.

(

.i
/

~ ..... ;. c

oU/ ($""1)'
/

chairs table computer house bed

..

/

..
..
~
..

~~
/

family doll
,

or! .
~~
"0

."./

--4~
,
0
/

~,..,oJl

..

~\1 )
/

s

Y_r"~

..,

o)lj
~)
/

monkey

~)
,
~}

..

0/

~
/

~\

o~~
/

~

brown

'" '"
~

..r..r
/

.".

i

16

Subject and Object
In a simple English sentence such as "The boy wrote a letter," "The boy" is the person or thing doing the action (in this case, writing), and is therefore the subject of the sentence. In the same sentence, "a letter" is what the verb was done to, and is therefore the object of the verb. The subject of a sentence is sometimes known as the nominative case and the object of a sentence is sometimes known as the accusative case. The Nominative Case

The following word endings are used in Arabic to show when a word is the subject of a sentence: The Indefinite Forms of the Nominative Case Sound (regular) plural e.g. Word ending e.g. Dual Word ending e.g. Singular Word ending Masculine Feminine

The Definite Forms of the Nominative Case Sound (regular) plural e.g. Word ending e.g. Dual Word ending e.g. Singular Word ending Masculine
-------+----

~

----t----'/'--------------I
/

uL

0\:-<>L~\

//

~/

;

0

-_._--_ .. Feminine

_-

The Accusative

Case

The following word endings are used in Arabic to show when a word is the object of a sentence: The Indefinite Forms of the Accusative Sound (regular) plural e.g. Word ending e.g. Dual Word ending e.g. Case Singular Word ending Masculine
0/

.....r- -0"~~~

. ~<t\.4
0 ...... ~ '" ; ,....

0 ...... ~/;

Feminine

The Definite Forms of the Accusative Sound (regular) plural e.g.
/' ~ '" .Yo 0 0/

Case Singular e.g. Word ending Masculine
-'_-"_-

Dual e.g. Word ending

Word ending

~\,

--

Feminine

17

Note: If a noun is indefinite (l.e. without "01" (the) before it. or for other reasons which you will learn later), then the word may end in tanween (i.e. two fathas, two kasras or two dammas) if it is a masculine or feminine singular word. If it is a sound feminine plural word it may only end in two dammas or two kasras. The other forms (i.e. the dual forms and the sound masculine plural) will keep the endings shown on the previous page. Word Order: In Arabic, the normal word order in a simple sentence is verb, subject, object.

Examples where the subject is singular, dual or plural, followed by a singular object
Definite Forms The visitor (m.) thanked teacher (m.). the /~ Indefinite Forms

r--- .. --------------The two visitors (m.) thanked the teacher
1----_. _.--------

r--

t;_ II;~(II/c/~
j

.r'

.r>:

A visitor (m.) thanked teacher (m.).

a

/~ (m.).

t ;_ ~(II/ r. II I:i r-- . .r .r>:
J. ../J.

Two visitors (m.) thanked a teacher (m.). (Some) visitors (m.) thanked a teacher (m.). A visitor (f.) thanked 'a teacher (f.).

o

;;;: ~
(j)

~01)lj~
--------------1

2_

The visitors (m.) thanked the teacher (rn.). The visitor (f.) thanked teacher (f.).
b----------

/J:;~II ·\~;~I~.\I ~ /c/~

-------+-----

r-- ""'r+ r'>"
----_.

the

The two visitors (f.) thanked the teacher
1---_-

--------------------Two visitors (f.) thanked a teacher (f.).

(f.).
---------

The visitors (f.) thanked the teacher (f.).

-;;/ ~

f/; II~"'I/.5I~.\1 ,",/c/~ .r "'_;..r'-"
J

(Some) visitors (t.) thanked a teacher

(f.).

Examples where the subject is singular, and the object is dual or plural
Definite Forms The visitor (m.) thanked the two teachers (m.).
.--

Indefinite A visitor (m.) thanked two teachers (m.).
_---

Forms

;:1:;JI;I)I~
/

_

,

;/,,1:: ;Ij~
-.
,

;;;:

The visitor (m.) thanked the teachers (m.). The visitor (f.) thanked the two teachers (f.).
-

~\;\)I~
,
/

A visitor (m.) thanked (some) teachers (m.). A visitor (f.) thanked two teachers (f.).
/ /

~;Ij~
/

--- o c _.
(j)
/

0 en

~

~1;}I)lw~
/

~;}lj0~
/

T1

,

(j)

--

The visitor (f.) thanked the teachers (t.).

w~I~}I)lw~
/ / /

A visitor (f.) thanked (some) teachers (f.).

~

wL...Lu.
/ ~/;

~/

o)lj w
/ 0

~

~

:3 ~
::J (j)

,

Examples where the subject is dual or plural, and the object is dual or plural.
Definite Forms The two visitors (m.) thanked the two teachers (m.).
----

Indefinite
o/~/;o

Forms

Lr.o" I •
,

visitors .....II 01)1~1 ~ Two teachers(m.) thanked two (m.).
/ ~ ~

,

~01}lj~
,
/

/

0
Ul

;;;: o
c

----

The visitors (m.) thanked the two teachers (m.) The two visitors (f.) thanked the two teachers (f.)
_

~J::JI 0)}1)1 ~
/ /

(Some) visitors (m.) thanked (some) teachers (m.). Two visitors (f.) thanked two teachers (f.). (Some) visitors (f.) thanked (some) teachers (f.).

~0)}lj~
,
/

~
(j)

;:~L;JI 0G}I)1 w~
,
/

o//~/;

,

Lr" : " • "
/

I

/

/

0\..j '-' ~I·" r)
///O~

~

T1

,

(j)

The visitors (f.) thanked the teachers (f.).

,

w~1

::'I}I)I w~
/ /

~

ww.::. 01)Ij 0~
,

2 ~
~
(j)

18

Exercise 7: Translate

the following

sentences into Arabic. --------------______ 1 2

1. The horse ate the apple. 2. The monkey ate a banana. 3. The two friends (m.) entered 4. The two nurses (f.) thanked 5. The boys thanked the room. the doctor (m.).

3
(m.). _ ______ _

4
5 6

the teachers

6. Khadija wore a skirt and her friend (f.) wore a dress. 7. The policeman found the crlrninots. _

7
-----

8. Habib drank the milk. 9. The teacher

--------

----

----

8 9
_ 10 __11 12

(f.) read the newspaper. the mosque. the two boxes. _

_

_

1D. The lrnorn entered 11. The grocer

(m.) opened

-----------_
---

12. Samir washed the two cars. ---

--------

-------

13. The girls (pI.) entered the school.
14. The teachers (f. pI.) returned from the school.

_
--_ _

1_3
14 15

---_._-

----

15. The two girls came out of the mosque.

Vocabulary
oJ!~

car years Khadija Samir Habib he opened

o_)~

~~

I
I

dress skirt horse monkey newspaper

grocer banana apple milk box age

J~
jy

policeman
oJ!
0 ;

criminal criminals nurse (f.)
oJ!

doctor ~

(rn.)

----....b . ".

~

t:"

newspapers

doctors (m.)

19

Practice with Past Tense Verbs

1. Hasan and Faisal arrived at the station early.

. o_;..6
-;::: ~ -" // j.

j. /

:.u.;WI U~~
, ,

,..,

0

"',/

2. The bus came late.

3. Hasan and Faisal stood in the queue .

.~I
....

Jl iliwI ~j
,,--....

4. The bus arrived at the station.

13. The headmaster
/' Y.

entered
j. 0 j.

with a new teacher.
,... 0

5. Hasan and Faisal entered the bus.
.....

Jl

~/

Jl

0

,..

,.,.

'J~I
14. The new teacher
,.... &~

~,~I

~I

i>-t

.~~
,

._ I'

0 ....... 0

II

.

L.i.>
,.... //

.....

~,

.j

took the attendance.
//....
0 (jJ Jl ~/ j. 0 ..... //

6. They sat down at the back.
............0 /' 0 ,... 0 .; ..... /' 0 ,.., //

'~Jr.--ll ~
15. The teacher

U'JJJ\ ~I

~

.4.......J..w1 ~
/'

,....,..,,,,.

iliWI

~j

wrote the lesson on the board .
..... 0;;1 ; ..... ;;.......-

7. The bus stopped

at the school.

'U'JJJI~Y\;JI~
16. The pupils understood the lesson.
",.. .... Si
j ~/ jl 0 /' /' .»

8, The pupils (rn. pl.) got down from the bus,

.~\jJJI~I~
17. The teacher collected the exercise books. 9. They found the gate locked.
/'".... :;:; ..... 0 j. ,.... 0 '" //

. ~)I

~

~I

~~I

c;oj
10. The guard opened

. ~Iy:-ll U'~WI ~
the gate.

18. The pupils put the books on the shelf .

. ~IJ!~I~I~)-~
19. Then they went out of the class to the library.

.o}J~ l;.,Jj ~I
;'

'"

"......

Jl ~.;GI
"'"...

~~

11. The pupils went to the playground played with the ball.

and

20. They sat down around the table.

12. Then they entered the classroom and sat on the chairs.

20

Vocabulary
'\St.....

blackboard exercise books table shelf closed early late (f.) back at then

O)Y:-'" classroom

~/

oJ!

0

/

~ ~

he played he got down he found

:___j

he took he entered he sat

_;u')
J //

library playground headmaster pupils (f.)

J)

U)
;:::: ..... ,.....0 jI

_r.. ...LA

oJ!

;

he arrived he put

j.:oJ
/

he came he collected

~
,:;

\.?~ guard
~ '" ~

~ 0.r- L::....o
// jI

..
/

he stood: he stopped station ~

.~ ~j
//

he went out he went

with the ball chairs attendance

:._J:;.
0

~
~J

queue gate

he understood he wrote

~

:. lesson

Exercise 8: Translate the following extract from the passage on the previous page, replacing masculine verbs and nouns with feminine verbs and nouns where appropriate. Use the names Zaynab and Nadia to replace Hasan and Faisal. Write on the lines provided.
y The bus stopped at the school. Zaynab and Nadia arrived at the station early.

\

-------

--

A

f------

--

't
The bus came late.

The pupils (f. pi.) got down from the bus.

----~They (f. pI.) found the gate locked.

'\
Zaynab and Nadia stood in the queue.

,.
f---------

The guard opened

the gate.

t
The bus arrived at the station.

--

""-

The pupils (f. pI.) went (f. pI.) to the playground and played (f. pI.) with the ball.

"
\'t

--Zaynab and Nadia entered the bus.

0

--

- _._ _---...

__ ---

Then they entered (f. pI.) the classroom and sat (f. pI.) on the chairs.

"\
They (fem. dual) sat down at the back.

21

Attached Pronouns
In Book Two (p. 20), we already came across some singular attached ~~ ,his book pronouns
;;

which are placed

at the

end of a noun to show possession. e.g. my book

~L:S

,

etc. We ore now going to

look at attached pronouns in more detail, beginning with a table which shows the attached pronouns in most of their forms, together with examples of their use with a noun (showing possession), and a verb (as a direct object). Plural Examples our book Pronouns Dual Examples our book Pronouns Singular Examples my book
~/

Pronouns

~L:S
/

/;

,

~L:S
/

/;

/

Gs'
,
/

G
he heard us

'-:?
is' ~
/

"T1

he heard us your book he heard you your book he heard you their book he heard them
---_o

~
/

~
/

G

/

u
(!) (il

(il -+

he heard me

~

0

:::l

~/

L:S

your book
0

rS
jl

jl

~Gs'
/

your book

L:s
he heard you
---

jl

~L:S
~
/

;

,

-

~

~

0

en
(!)

~
---

he heard you
f----~--.

~
/

til

-_-:;.

-.----~

0 0 ::J Q U
(!) (il

~/

L:S
/

your book he heard you

~Gs'
/

your book

~
o

J
0 jl

LS
he heard you

/

jl

~L:S
/ / /

;

/

"T1

.:J

(!)

0

0

3
til

:::l

~
/

~
/
/

/

Jl .Jl ,...

~~

*

their book he heard them
----

4,L:S
/ /

jl jl /

s

r
:;.

jl

€.: ...
/
/

~
-

;

,
/

W
.-

/

j

*

his (its) book he heard him (or it)

~L:S
/ /

jl -»

;

/

jl /

"

*

~
0

_-

\ <>-t-....
----

~
;

til

/

u
(!) (il
"T1

rr Q

-<

jl jl

/

their book he heard them

Cr+!L:S
/

:;.

jl

* their book
he heard them marked

L..r+- .. ..
/ /
/

:;.

;

.:/'

4,L:S
/

/

;

jl

/

,

;

,
/

,

\~<>

..

W

,

jl

*

her (its) book he heard her (or it) changes

4-:L:S
/

~

(!)

0 ::J

,

~<>
/

..
~
~ 0 Yo

3
0

til

* The damma

of the pronouns

with an asterisk sometimes

into a kasra when the letter

before it has a kasra on it, e.g. in his book when the letter before a yaa with sukoon e.g. it is a long

~Gs' ~

under their (fem. pI.) book e.g.

~Gs'

,or ~ ,or is

'-:?

(yaa al-madd)

W, or is a yaa with kasra e.g. ~

~l
'-:?
is added to a noun to show possession, e.g. my book ~ he heard me. The
,...

Note that in the first person singular, but after a verb, the same whether ~

1...s-1Gs'
"/
/

...

is used as a direct object,
.;

e.g.

-,...

'-:?

ending

remains

the word is in the nominative,

accusative

or genitive

case.

e.g. My book is big (nominative): The pen is under my book (genitive,

d ~~
/

~,

He took my book (accusative):
~/

Gs' '..G.-t

""

.....

0

""

Jl

//0

following

a preposition):

~~

~

~\

22

Compare

these with, for example,
.pi

the third person singular where the case changes:

e.g. His book is big (nominative):

d

-"

jJ

~l:S

12

....

j.,..-/

He took his book (accusative):
'" ,.0",;' ,..,,....0

~l:S..G-'

///

The pen is under his book (genitive, following After a third person masculine ~~ attached pronoun, e.g.
0~

a preposition):
jl /

~~

~

~\ before adding an

plural verb, e.g,
/

\~

the final alit is dropped

they heard him. However, the feminine or

Pronouns agree with the nouns they refer to in terms of gender and number. singular pronoun feminine. ~ is used when refering to non-human ~\

plural nouns, whether masculine

e.g. I wrote my name on the books: I wrote my name on them:

.

~~

1:,,_

~

o \ ::.. c~<; .
/

This is similar to the rules governing Book Two.

plural adjectives

and demonstrative

pronouns on pages 42 to 44 of

Attached pronouns in practice

Did you (f. sing.) find my pen in your room? Yes, I found it in it.

Did you (m. sing.) take my eraser? Yes, I took it.

~~\/t:J\ -: U:/ .'-'.0._ '-'.
/

O \

r: '-'~u
"/
/

0

1/"

Did the girls thank the teachers Yes, they thanked them.

(f. plural)?

Did the boys understand the two teachers Yes, they understood them.

(m.)?

23

Practice with Attached Pronouns
Vocabulary

he left he heard he wiped he sat

(~

)

C?

orange good, well around heate

story bell news
'1.11,....
0 jI

Mahmoud pupils (m.)
,.

.)~
.9-.

t:-"
~ ~

~"Y0
/

"',.-

0

pupils (f.) garden

1 ..

::.kL::-.J.j

dining table

Exercise 9: Translate the answer to each question below into Arabic using the appropriate
pronouns, following the pattern of the example given in no. 1.

attached

1. Did you (m. sing.) eat my orange? Yes, I ate it. 2. Did Mahmoud ---------------leave the garden?

--------------

Yes, he left (from) it. 3. Did the girls sit around the dining table? Yes, they sat around it. 4. Did you hear me well? Yes, I hea_rd you (f.) well. 5. Did you (f. sing.) hear the bell? Yes, I heard it. 6. Did the teacher Yes, she wiped it. 7. Did the pupils (m.) hear the news? Yes, they heard it. 8. Did the pupils (f.) hear the story? Yes. they heard it. wipe the blackboard?

24

The Genitive Case
So far, we have encountered the nominative and accusative cases in Arabic, There is a third case that students must also learn, namely the genitive case, It is used to show possession (ownership), as well as after prepositions, We come across it briefly in Book Two, p, 25 where we learnt that singular nouns coming after a preposition usually toke a kosro. We will now look at the genitive case in more detail. Sound (regular) plural e,g, With the teachers Word ending Dual e.q. With the two teachers Word ending Singular e,g, With the teacher Word ending Masculine Feminine

0/

The sentences below show what happens to masculine and feminine nouns in their singular, dual and plural forms when they follow a preposition, Remember that the plural in Arabic starts from three, not two, Examples using regular plural nouns The pupils (rn.) went to the museum with the teacher (rn.).
~-------

-----

------~-

--~

~

The pupils (m.) went to the museum with the two teachers (m.). The pupils (rn.) went to the museum with the teachers (rn.). The pupils (t.) went to the museum with the teacher (f,),
1--------------------------------

o
o
C
U>

. ~\
,;

/~/jo//

c:' ~I
'"

/ojo

Jl..:.>I~1
",,,,, /j ""

,Jii'/

o't!

The pupils (f.) went to the museum with the two teachers (t.).
-------------------

o//~/Jo//

.~.:"~L....J\

c:' ~I

/oJlo

-----------------1

'"

~~

//...,

Jl..:.>I~1

o~

~~

///

--------

----------------------

-----I

The pupils (t.) went to the museum with the teachers (f.): Examples using irregular plural nouns The teacher (rn.) went to the headmaster with the boy.
1------------

The teacher (m.) went to the headmaster with the two boys,
.-------~---

-------------------

.,..u}\c:' !-~I
0/ // 0 / /

//

0

-"',...

J.

0

J~~\
-'" j

~ -'"j

0

/

~~
"""

·0..u}1 c:' !-~I
•~
o

~

0

J~ ~I
/ ~

~/

~

0

/

~~
-

/

/

~ o U>

o
C :::l

1--------

--~-------------------

~~: ~~~~,her(rn.) went to the headmaster with The teacher (f,) went to the headmistress with the girl.
f--------- - ------------------

~o/~\ ~
0 ,/",. /

!-/lJI
wI
j 0

-------

J~ ~~ ~\
---j,/ j 0 // ,/

<D

. ,"

~I"

,/

':

c:' ~f.. /
,II~
.... ------

1.5:
~

1\ ~I '11/

The teacher (f,) went to the headmistress with the two girls, The teacher (t.) went to the headmistress with the girls.

. ;:~ ,....

1........1"

0/ ~lJI
--

J/l tt:JI

~~
~~
....

.
<D
"Tl

:3
:::l :::l

.....

<D

Note: As usual, there are some exceptions to the above-mentioned rules, in particular known as diptotes which take fatha instead of kasra in the genitive,

a group of words

25

Prepositions
Vocabulary
queue fruit sock fridge washing machine drawer ~
/

~

heput
/

~j

he fell

'"

_)_J-!\.b
/ /

bus knife prison building
."A,....

'" 0~
~
'" 0

he peeled

__,...:..; stood he

'"

~u

table policeman criminal (m.) flag
"

r~
~~ ~
/

he slept he got down he took

y _)y-:",A;,

~

0)

airport gift toy, game

'"

_)\..k..o
/ /

~ ':J0

;;i,,-

.s+:

i~
~

.pI;jJ

;'

~..lA
~/o ;

o)~

~/

:i.....,J

he raised

8.

1.

.!thJ\
My sister went with the teacher to the library.

J! ~i
...-!.
0-&

:_;,.~

Q
l__;j

My father went to the airport. 2.

9.

. ~L..;Jlj ~ Y\!JI~
/ /

",;;;i

...-0/

,....:;i::;;i

,....0

...

.51

y)_y.JI .hi....
between

"...0/0

...

//

. 0l.a.>JI rY' ~ _,..:JI
The policeman the horse. 3.

,

0

.... //

J;

The sock fell between the fridge and the washing machine.

got down from

Q

Mahmoud

put the gift under the table.

The criminal entered the prison. 4.

LiJ
~

11 .

/,0,....

0

/

. ~I

J_,j ~I

0

'"

/'

-"...-

0

jI

Jl

0

....

fl/..wl

c!)
//

The headmaster raised the flag above the building. 12.

IJ:l
,...0 ,.... "'".. ~ jI 0 ,... __ //

The girl slept on the bed.

5.

. yWI
The teacher took the whistle from the boy. Mahmoud

~\)j .)~

.__iljj behind

stood behind the door.

13.

,.... ,;' 0

,,0

....

.~)..wl
The bus stopped

i~' ~WI

"" ...

;,.,

,....

0

,.,. ...-..-

~j in front of

6.

.

!;t1JI ~

:;_.;.

r~
at the back of

in front of the school.

Hasan stood at the back of the queue. 7.

14.
--

.uL:lJ
,....,.,.

//0

~/

o~

/-;:;;jJ

~
"..

;/~,..y.o

;-1~1

ul}
",

///

The teacher

(f.) read a short story to the girls.

I peeled the fruit with the knife.

26

Practice with the Genitive
Exercise 10: Fill in the gaps in the sentences below by choosing the correct word from the box on the
left. Then translate each sentence
"...

on the line provided

below each sentence.

~\-~\-~\
,.,'!J.

,0;0

,...oJlo

jI

-,0;0

-----

__ 0,..... '" 0

------

-------------"... ,.....0 jI

JI-1.Jj

....

Jlo

- ~,()L.~ll

c ..... '1J.,.,jlo

...J-:!~~\-----yW\
..... o';il

o'!J.,...

//

j.:/~l:J\~

2.

jI,..

..:,.,U;~ I_..U - ..:,.,U.:-1"U

o~

,/

o~

JI/'!J.

.....

jlo

-------

J'J..u\ ~\

~_r;.

///

3.

-------~\-~\-~\

rlor ~. .:~\:..J)

4.

..... 0,.....0

,9.

0

.... 0

0

...... 0

~\-~\-~\

-------_______

~ ~Y\:J\ C?
~ ~\:.w\
"
/

,.....

JI

.... ;;

..... ,.....""

6.

~)\!J)
jI

7.

..... 0

jI

·~f

______

..... ,J:I

=: r-~~q
0

~ l.~\\ ij
)l
0

'!J./

..........; ,

8.

J

---------------------------~"., 0 -'" 0 ....

o/'

jI

0

//

.~\

~-------Cr=-!
"
/

~j

9.

.~W\

",.

,....0

~-----"
/

'"

,/ ...

jI

0

....,."

~\Jj

l"

.. ~

10.

Vocabulary
hall
/ 0/

~

0/

shoe path

guest guests

~

he explained he left (behind)

~'!!/

between, among month

Cr=_!

voice loud

photographer supporter

J~
~~ ~
.....

J.

museum
,;

k

office

27

Genitive Showing Possession
As we have already explained in books 1 and 2, the presence of tanween
~ ~/ .Jl

with a noun of

indicates that it is an indefinite noun. e.g.
JI

~

a male teacher.

However, the addition

JI

to a noun makes it definite. e.g.

~I

~,..,

J1

0

the (male) teacher.

Since a noun cannot

be both definite

and indefinite at the same time, it cannot accept

JI

and tanween

at the same time. Instead, the

defined word will take a fatha, kasra or dornrno. as grammatically

appropriate.

The rules of the genitive of possession:
When two nouns immediately follow each other in the genitive (e.g. the boy's book) and the second noun is definite (i.e. the book belonging to the boy), the first noun automatically becomes definite and therefore it must not take tanween. However, the first noun does not take "o!" before it.
//%;~/ji

the school's teacher

(fem.)

the school's teacher

(masc.)

~

)wl

~

The following four examples are all incorrect. Can you spot the mistakes and explain why they are wrong?

a) Singular form:
In the singular form, the first noun of the genitive of possession can only take a single vowel i.e. damma, fatha or kosro. depending on its grammatical role within the sentence. case, ~,~

If the first noun in the genitive structure is a singular noun in the nominative e.g. ~ (teacher, m.) or ~

(teacher, f.), it will end with a single damma:

Nominative examples: The school's teacher (m.) entered the train.

}.,kAJI ~ ~ )wl
/'

/'

0

//%ji~/;///

-./ 0

..

~ ~

J>-.)
~.)
case,
iii ///

'"

....
//%;/~/jlo

The school's teacher

(f.) entered the train.

)..,kA.JI ~ )wl ~
~
/ /

If the first noun in the genitive structure is a singular noun in the accusative
~ ~ JI ~ .... ~/ Ji

JI

iJJ

JI

e.g.

~

(teacher, m.) or examples:

~

(teacher, t.). it will end with a single fatha:

~,~

Accusative

I saw the school's teacher

(m.) in the train.

)\..k.ill ~
....
....

....

0

....
0

......

4...,..., y.. WI
,.

,..

....0

'"

0

'"

~

~,..,;

ji

~i)

all

I saw the school's teacher

(f.) in the train.

)\..k.ill ~
28

~

4...,..., )wl
/ /

//%//~/jljI

~

~i)

all

If the first noun in the genitive structure is a singular noun in the genitive case, e.g. ~-~ (teacher, rn.) or

"X (teacher,

f.J, it will end with a single kasra:

X

~

Genitive examples:

! sat with the school's teacher (m.) in the train.

I sat with the school's teacher

(f.) in the train.

)tWJI ~ L yoWl ~
~
..........
,..-

"..

0

/'

'"

0

,/

0

,..,

~/

Jl

/'

~~
'---

..".. Jl

0

,/"

,.

There are certain exceptions to the above rules which apply to a group of nouns known as diptotes. These will be explained later in the series.

b) Dual form:
If the first noun of the genitive of possession is inthe dual form, the dual "noon" (.) is removed.
/~/Jl

Masculine examples:

Nominative
//0 .... 0

case:
/~/jl

0~..,4

/i/)

(two male teachers) becomes

~

:

~ )-L.J\ l...l,v the school's two male teachers
The school's teachers (masculine duol) entered the train.
o,~/_~

)~\
,...
...-

~

-/.~

~~0-LJ\ ~

:y...~
o/~/;i

Accusative
//0/"

or genitive case:
/'!:-/.9.

~

(two male teachers)

becomes

r

L)....L.JI ~
,../~

the school's two male teachers

I saw the school's teachers (masculine dual) in the train.

Feminine examples:

Nominative
//%//'!!,,)

case:

J\.::..~

//~y)

(two tem. teochers) becomes

I.::........Lv
//~/jI

L )-L.J\ l;~
The school's teachers

HIe school's two female teachers

(ternintne dual) entered the train.

j\.,k.;iJI ~
,....

/'0

"

......"..

:;__,., yoWl

//0",0

//V;!

J.o

1~

..:.J.>.,)
~

,'/""

Accusotlve

or genitive case:

~

(two fern. teachers)

becomes

~~°_Ljl

J:.~t:

the school's two femaie teachers

I sow the school's teachers (feminine duai) in the train.

)lk..o.JI J__

.0~0..w\.F~t~
o~

If the second noun of tile genitive of possession is in the dual form, it takes

(y!.

as its ending.

ego

~~I
~~\

O/~,,.,Jlo

jI

y yb
.>

.>:,.-

.. The two
_".

rnale teachers'

computer

O//~/JC)l

and

'-:"J""""L>. The two ternole teachers' computer 29

c) The sound masculine plural form:
If the first noun in the genitive structure is a sound masculine
"..,

plural in the nominative

case,

e.g.

0~
,...

Jl

e:

Jl

(male teachers),
./ 0

it is written without its final "noon" (m.) .

(0) :

4.....,.,)' ..W\

,....0

~

jI

"t!,...

Jl

the school's teachers

Nominative

example:

}.k.i)\ ~
M,

.....

0

4.....,., J..w\
,

........... 0/0

~

jI~/jI,..../

J>-,) The school's
..... ,.",..,.0,...0 ~/j.

teachers

(m.) entered

the train.

Similarly, if the first noun in the genitive structure is a sound masculine case, it is also written without its final "noon". e.g.

plural in the accusative

or genitive

4.....,., J..w\

~
,M,

the school's (male) teachers.

Accusative

example:

J\..k..QJ\ ~

"...

0

..
,..

4.....,., J..w\
,....

,...

"... 0

..... 0

~

'!l, '"

J.

jI

'"

.......

~i
.;

all

J

I saw the school's teachers

(m.) in the train .

Genitive example:

)\..k..QJ\ ~
,.. ....

,....

0

..

4.....,., J..w\

./

.... 0

,

0

~

~/.;

.....

.. '"

e:: ~ ..~
...- '" 0 //

I sat with the school's teachers

(m.) in the train.

d) The sound feminine plural form:
If the first noun in the genitive structure is a sound feminine plural in the nominative
'Ill

case

e.g.

wW"v,

/

'!! /

~

(female teachers),

it will end with a single damma:

Nominative

example:

J\..k..QJ\ ~
M /

,/

0

4.....,., J..w\
,

...

,/

0

,.,.

0

Jl

wW"v, ~,)

,,~/

jl

0

//,...,

The school's teachers

(f.) entered the train.

If the first noun in the genitive structure is a sound feminine plural in the genitive or accusative will end with a single kasra:

case, it

wW"v,
0 ..... '" 0 ,/ 0

.;' e :

jI

Accusative

example:

)\..k..QJ\ ~
o

......

-

4.....,., J..w\
/ /

wW"v, ~I
......

"

'!! ..... jI

jI

0 ..... ,...

J I saw the school's teachers

(f.) in the train.

Genitive example:

J\..k..QJ\ ~
_.. .....

...........

4.....,., )..w\

,/

'"

0

...- 0

wW"v,
.....

e:

jI

e:: ..:. .. I~
".., '" jI 0 ........

I sat with the school's teachers

(f.) in the train.

30

e) The broken plural form:
If the first noun in the genitive structure is a broken plural in the nominative case e.q.
oJ!

,)':1 Ji
0/

(boys),

it will end with a single damma:

~

~~1

Nominative

example:

~:

1'J\

Jl ~~0..lJ\ ~~~1~~
case it will end with a single

The school's boys went to the playground, If the first noun in the genitive structure is a broken plural in the accusative fatha: ~

':1~t

Accusative

example:

~\
.....

~

..

~~oiJ\ ~~~t ::.,o~)
.... '"

I found the school's boys in the playground, If the first noun in the genitive structure is a broken plural in the genitive case it will end with a single kasra: ,)

'9~1 Genitive

example:

,

~\

~ ~~0..lJ\ ,)~~1 .......
.....

...-

t:~

""

I played with the school's boys in the playground, There are certain exceptions These will be explained NOTE: Take note that the two nouns in a genitive of possession must not be separated of this rule, if you wish to describe the first noun in the genitive construction, written after the second noun, Compare the following: by anything, As a result must be to the above rule which apply to a group of nouns known as clptotes.

later in the series,

the adjective(s)

1) I thanked

the new teacher (f,) of the school.
;' "" 'f,/

~/-4~\

~~0..lJ\

'i:t.::::.,~

Here

~;-4~\

J.

is an adjective

for

~

(accusative),

hence it takes a fatha to agree with the noun.

2) I thanked

the teacher
,/

(t.) of the new school.

o~~\

~~:.cJ\ LJ:~ ~~

Here

o~~\

is an adjective

for

~

)W\

....... 0

.... 0

(genitive), hence it takes kasra to agree with the noun.

3) I sat with the new teacher is an adjective for

r
~"

(m.) of the school.

;-4;~\ ~ )W\

,..... 0

........

0

..... 0

r c: ..:....~
~/ ~ ,;' ,.; jI 0 // "" 0 -"~ ......J.

Here

-4~\

,/

0

J.

(genitive, masculine),

hence it agrees with the noun in both case and gender.

4) However, sometimes ambiguity be translated

may occur. e.g.

~-4~\

....

....

0

~ )W\ ~

""

-" 0

c: ~
..... ,/
j

0

//

.

This could

as: a) "I sat with the new teacher

(f.) of the school" or b) "I sat with the teacher

(f.) of

the new schooL" Note how important it is to use the correct case ending in each of the above, as incorrect use may affect the meaning of the sentence.

31

Study the following sentences, The translations in brackets are only included more commonly used in English, I took the new pen of the pupil (t.). (I took the pupil's new pen.) I took the new ruler of the pupil (rn.). (I took the pupil's new ruler.) I took the new pen of the pupil (rn.), (I took the pupil's new pen) I took the pen of the new pupil (rn.). (I took the new pupil's pen.) I took the new ruler of the pupil (t.). (I took the pupil's new ruler.) I took the ruler of the new pupil (t.). (I took the new pupil's ruler.) Examples of ambiguity: I entered through the door of the new mosque or I entered through the new door of the mosque, I entered the new library of the school or I entered the library of the new school.

to show the word order

Exercise 11:
Study the examples above, then translate the sentences below into English paying careful attention the genitive construction and the agreement of adjectives, to

. ~,~I

~~o-cjl ~

~~
2

. ,-4,..GJ
,... 0 0 .....0

IPI ~ ~~
0 //"...

. :-4~1

~I

~.:.r:
'!t,... ~

o~ ..~1 ~..G-i

0

0

JI

0,."",

3
4

.~~~I
,

,

~\

rJ:: ~~

---

-------

-------

-----

. o-4~\

/

",,0

~\
,

/~/jo

,.....oll

;

0,.....,...

4..9_;:.

~

~,

~~

6

.~~~\
,

~~0-cj\

rJ:: ~~

7

32

Cardinal Numbers from 3 to 10
You may recall from Book Two (p.45) that the plural in Arabic starts from number three rather than two. You may also remember that the key rule governing the usage of numbers from 3 to lOis that the feminine form of numbers is used when referring to masculine nouns, and the masculine form of numbers is used when referring to feminine nouns. The noun is usually written after the number describing it, and is used in the plural form. It takes a genitive ending (i.e. a kasra or two kasras). As for the number itself, it is fully declinable and can therefore take a damma, fatha or kasra depending upon its role (and hence case) within the sentence. It is worth noting in passing that, as will be explained later, diptote nouns take a fatha instead of a kasra in the genitive form, though you need not yet concern yourself about this point of grammar.

Numbers (3-10) in practice

Fern.

Mosc.

,

Feminine
f-----

nouns
-------f------

Masculine

nouns

l+ : t----t-

----------

---------

------

2

081

three girls four teachers five clocks six tables (f.)

._:.,~ 0~

//;

....

".-

three houses r-four boys
4
.....

+---,-----;-.,$1,.... ......0....

,,!l,..,o/

---+---1

~)

t=)
c

'"

._:.,~L.... ~

,;'

Jj

0.....

five teachers six doors

(m.)

:.r..

~/~..9/
<) ~ ~

0,/

5
0,... jl:;i

,

"

yly.i ~
,

,/

6
+--------+--

i
~

/~/jljlo/

seven nurses eight pupils (f.) nine cars

"._:.,\_.p 'r+" ~

seven books eight pens

v

-

---11----+

--

~

._:.,IW
,..."

~W

-

i~i ~W
"

0 ...... jl,/

"'

.....

8 9

0W
-VI
0

......

't---+---'------+-"'--+,

,/

~.....

Jj 0

,..,

t---+---f---

ten bikes

._:.,~I_)~

~

ten lessons

.~I~~. .
"

._:., I~
"

,.../ ....

~

..:.,_.,~ 0
,

;;0

;

/' ...../

JI

0

,/

Jlo

Jj

"

._:.,I~
"

~
,

~~

._:.,I_y.- ~
'"
}.o...-;"..,o//

"" ..........

JI

0

.....

jl jl 0

jl

0~

·ki~j

;0"";"...0,...

.....

·ki~)j
33

;0/;//0//

·kl~j

. ~ ...

.

Numbers from 1 to 10 (continued)
Exercise 12: Study the numbers and associated rules given on the previous page. Then translate the
phrases below on the lines provided. Where necessary, refer to the vocabulary find out the plural forms of the nouns. list on pages 66 and 67 to

Practice with numbers (3-10)
English eight Malaysians (m.) _ six beds four stations three gates seven criminals seven Egyptians (f.) six skirts ten classrooms Arabic English Arabic
__

9 ten years
10 five blac kboards

1 2 ------=-

._-.-~

11 _._ three prisons 12 nine rooms 13 five guards 14 nine shelves -15 four bells 16 eight friends (f.)

~----

.

-

3 .. ------=-

_4.
-5

___2_ 7 8

---

Some examples of the uses of 1 and 2 You may recall from Book Two (p.45) that the number 1 can be conveyed through the use of tanween, and the number 2 through the use of the dual. However, there are times when it will be necessary to use the numbers 1 and 2 in a sentence. Note that, unlike the numbers from 3 to 10, the numbers 1 and 2 follow the gender of the nouns they describe. The examples below illustrate various ways of expressing 1 and 2. Masculine examples: A boy and two teachers (rn.) arrived at the station.

I found one boy in the library. I found two teachers The headmaster with the headmaster. two of the teachers.

.~I

~ (..l>-Ij(..Jj ::"o~J
"

~

thanked

Feminine examples: One girl and two teachers (f.) arrived at the station.

. ~I

J10G~j ~~
.~I

::. ~! ::...L,j ~

I found one girl in the library. I found two teachers (f.) with the headmistress. two of the teachers (f.).

~ ~~Ij ~ ~O~j

The headmistress thanked

34

Practice with Cardinal Numbers
Exercise 13: For each of the sentences below, take the sentence number given on the right and insert
the corresponding Arabic number word in the space provided. Pay careful attention to the gender and case ending of the number. Then translate the text into English on the line below each sentence.

___

~~~\~

~

2.
/

1

°

~

O;'G ,,:,,\y.t ----""-;;
~/

J ~
/

3.

o..:.,~)~~I.A
~

""

~/

;"""..

~
~).M

..

~

.....

..

4.
.....

oJLi:JJ~~----~~

~ ..... o

""'o ....}.

J

all

6.

o

0~

~\ ~ ..:.,~
.......
-:::::

~

7.

---------------------------------------

oirU
o ;:;i
.....

... ;

0

.....-;;

j~----\:""~

~
.......

8.

Vocabulary
olI

he arrested he took he paid (to) he succeeded, passed

exam, test

0l>.:..::...o\
tU

/

0

grocer
~

brothers

f

shop, store pound (money)

o IS'~
;:;i J
~ 0 ..... ;

sisters
~

(~)
/

~~
/ /

rooms
olI
0 /

~ ~ ~

policeman
olI

~ ~, ~~

_r;.
0

s

(~)& ~
/

}}

sleep

iY
35

from me

thieves
/

Ordinal Numbers from 1 to 10
Ordinal numbers (e.g. first, second, third etc.) are adjectives and therefore agree with the nouns they describe. They are fully declinable, and will therefore take different case endings depending upon their function within the sentence.
I--------~

Agreement

--~- ------~-

with feminine nouns

Agreement
-~ -...-

with masculine nouns
~--------I

The first year The second year The third year The fourth year The fifth year The sixth year

Jj"~\~\
J .... ~

... s »

--- - ---

t---t--------t----

Fem.
,/

Masc.

~/~

The first day
..-

1st

Jj"~\

jI 0 .......

,
i

4....,j\.:J\ ~\
jI /'

_j./~

The second day
'"

~\.:J\

:;J

)1 / ~

~\

The third day
jI....

The fourth day
Jl ..-'
0 jI 0 ,............ 0

4th
JI ......

~\)\

:;:i...-

JI

C!\)\
~-,/
0 ....

:;:i,/

The fifth day The sixth day
jJ....:;:i

~WI

i_,J\

5th 6th

~W\~W\

.....

0.......

J.

c
I--

The seventh year The eighth year The ninth year The tenth year

~LJ\

jI /:;:i

~\

,....

The seventh day The eighth day The ninth day The tenth day

C;LJ\ i_,JI
JI

s

:;:i

s

0

",0,.....

7th ----+-----t-~--~;

v
G\.;J\
....... ~..JI

~\.;JI i _,J\
;:;:i jI 0 .".0,.....

~

;

0

,/ 0 ....

8th 9th

~\.;J\
::iJ

~

....

~----

A
~

e8\
JI
jI ,..,0

--+-----+------1-- - --~

i_,J\
JI
0 /0,.....

e81
J. '"
jI

-

~W\

i_,J\

'" 0 ....

10th

"WI' .r:

Vocabulary
//

floor, storey year day during in front of from in to

pupil (f.) group supporter author inspector
~

~

" If

/

team session paragraph page exercise question exercise book volume (book)

~~

he left he deleted he opened he wrote

entrance station

J.>- ..l.o
~ ~
~

,.... ,/ 0

he entered edition room
~:;:i

J

thief class

~I

:;i

lesson, period

<L.,a..>

new

36

Practice with Ordinal Numbers
Exercise 14: Taking the number given on the right of each of the sentences below, insert corresponding ordinal numbers in Arabic in the two spaces provided. Each sentence requires one masculine and one feminine ordinal number. Then translate the text into Englishusing the lines provided below each sentence.

_______ ~8:JI ----o_;....JI ~
---------

"' ..... 0

0

~

0jlo i}

/'

/".., '"

1.

____

~..l..JI~~I~

'"

0

,..

0"..

,...

~,...;

0

...-

;

~~I~)

'"

)l

0

,...

0

//..-

2.

_____
-------------

~8:1J

____

;/o~

~I

/'

~

~

oh
/

/'

4.

----..... 0

-------------------

~ _;AJI

J.

0

Jl ~I~)
",

-&

~

/'.....

/'

5.

---------

---

-~-------

-------

-------

---------

----------

____
---------"---------------------

~I~

....

0:';;

~

---/

//~

JI_r_JI _;7. d

)1

0/,/

--

__

~8:1J -

~.~1JI ~
----~I
~/ .9
0 .....

----~~I~rJIJ~

/

o:;J

J.

~/

jI

0

,/

/'

/'

8.

~

//

~I

o;;l

J./'/

0

/'

..........

:i...:..)\.j ~

9.

-

---------

----

---

"--

.....0.....

o;J:i

....

.....

,...

.,-:??) ~----~~I~-----J\_r_JI
/

-&

;I

0/,....

~

~

10.

/

------_---

--

------------------

37

Timetable
; / 0

~\
1------1------+-----+------+---Friday Thursday Wednesday --_--_
--~

~l\
Tuesday
-~--~----

0,...0"

),..

~L.J\
~~----~~---

::;I

-+---~

Monday

Time

Period
.... .9
0 jl::' 0 __

~~ ~---~ ~ ----f-~~---~-_t------__l

w~~)1
f-------t-------+------_+_-----+-------t-----_+-~-------~jl

9.00-9.40 9.40-10.20 10.20-11.00

JJ'~I~I
~~~-~~~~~-

0T_;JI
~

0';

0

;.~O

:;_, .

-

-

0']0

.I

.

'.~O :i...J.
-

c ..

r . ~I
£

s

N WI '---)

~I

j,~o
-

:;_, .
-

0']0 I .
£

f-----'

--t-------+---jI

~~~ ~._~_-~~ --":.._--+----,.---,----t--------+--------I

0L..ly . .ll1

'"

.:»

i:05L~\ ... ~

~ ~I

.9

'---)

wL..I)..u1

"..

/~

i:o~ ~\ .. ,. ~;JI

11.15-12.00

1-----

--t-----~-

~~~-_+_-----+-------t-----_+----____If--------___t

12.00-12.40

~~~----

-~--------i----;

~-J

_ ---_~-JI

f---...0

~I..wl

...

,....0

~I..wl

,... ..... 0

~I..wl

'"

~(GJI 12.40-1.30 o~\
1.30-1.45
- -~ ~~-----~-~
.

I---~-~~~-----t~--

-~~

~I

..II :;i

~_;JI
~I

0 .....,.... 0

y _,.....,l>JI

;

,0

1.45-2.30

Vocabulary
when? time
-f. ,...,...

computer Qur'an

.-

Y

rl>

;

/

Economics History

~W~\I period,
English
) ........

lesson

straight after before after then you have last

o~~
~

,/

jI

"'..-"

prayer noon library subject lunch which?

ON

Geography Arabic

yl~1
; ~

0;10

language
...-... 0

y-t1
~

.-0 ;

~_rJ\

Science Maths Sport. P.E.
jI

.1A..:

;

French

~

~

0 ........ 0

__,..JI
0

;1

~_rJI
~\

,,0

Art break

Islamic Studies

wL..I)..u1

,....

..... ~

i:o£~\
£

38

Dialogue
Working in pairs, read the conversation below. Pretend that one of you is Basim and one of you is Faisal. Then ask each other similar questions for a different day of the week, based on the timetable on the previous page.
...- /'

.!.l~ }.:lLA'fl ,~
./ jlO ;:;J 0

0

;:;J

/'

-&

/'

,/

0/

,/

-"

~ : ~~
0....-00

~J)~:jl ~I
...-

--

~ ~~I

..

iy.. ~
./

0

......

//

..

/

Basim: Faisal, what subject do you have on Monday in the first period?

Faisal: I have maths in the first period.

~~~

/'

,/

~

0

,.... ,/

.!.l~ }.:lLA'fl) : ~~

/'

0

;;J./

-&

//

",-

Basim: And what do you have after that?

.8wI) ~WIWI
...../

~ ..

-'"

o

-&

r

>

_51,

0....-

//

"..

~~I

~~

U)?

:~~

Faisal: I have English language and third periods.
,/ ; 0 /' ./ 0

in the second

Basim: When is the time of the noon prayer?

J.

0/

//

/'

'"

~J)~:jl ~I~~I
Faisal: In the eighth period.

U)?)

:~~

Basim: When is the first break?

Faisal: Immediately Basim: And the seventh period, what is it?

after the third period.

Faisal: It's lunch time. Basim: The fourth period is the first break time?

Basim: And what are the subjects in the last two periods?

'f/~'
;;I;

~1~o~~1
~I
/'

/~).r:~
_5I,;;J"""o

/

0/

,~L:JI
-"
/'

/'

;;J

~I
/," /' /'

;;J

0

;

~ y~WI:~
/'

Jl

/'

0

./

o~

,.j ~WI \
//

/'

"....0

;;J

0

-;;J

~ .......

j
;;J

w~ ~
'"
0

'}I ":"'L..1)...u\ ~
"..

0.9

./

/"!!-

o~WI ~I
...-

0

;;J

0

--

~ ~~)I)
.......

J. ,/

.....!! '

/'

. J.......:lLJI ~I

-"

~ ~.rJI
~
/

Jl;JJ//o.J.

:\.ill\

..... &

Faisal: Computer studies in the ninth period, and P.E.in the tenth period.

Faisal: Yes. And after the break, I have Islamic studies in the fifth period, then Arabic language in the sixth period.

39

Comparative Adjectives
Comparative Comparative adjectives generally regardless of smaller larger shorter taller lighter
.J

Fem. small large, big short toll- long light

Masc.

follow the pattern

~i

.;

'"

0 ......

whether the nouns they are describing are masculine or feminine, singular, dual or plural. To turn an adjective into the comparative form, take the

three root letters and add the prefix

t

"" .
~

"

/

Then add a sukoon to the first root letter.

heavier If the root letters include a doubled consonant, i.e. the second and third then these are form and faster slower e.g. newer older

~i

/

0 .....

heavy new old fast slow narrow wide, broad many few near

root letters are identical, combined

in the comparative

a shadda is added.

...l: ~

/

has the root letters
-& ..- ....

~~C
""
/

and therefore

becomes

~i.

narrower wider more fewer

~

has the root letters

and therefore becomes

.. ~t.

JJJ

We have already come across the word ~ as a preposition meaning 'from'. nearer farther harder easier higher weaker
jl

It can also be used with a comparative adjective e.g. to mean 'than'.

,;

..u.:
...... 0

,." o~

1
'&

far
VI/a", ~
i.~
Or

....a

~I

difficult. hard
.,-

~

~i

j.

easy
....-

c!)
J. ....... 0

high weak ugly,disgusting

~\~~~~i~\\h
/ /

0,...,0"

/

0

),.,0

"" j.

0 ..... 0

..........

/

This house is bigger than that house.

uglier

40

Vocabulary
,l! /

calculation horse sofa train

,-,l..-.,;...
,l!

... (~)

/

0~
~ ~) k'

~ / / j/~\

~io~\o~

/

~I~\\h
__

~/

0 ......;

//0

""

....

)w
1.

u~\

:i~~ ~

Exercise 15: Following the pattern shown above, write a sentence using a comparative adjective formed from the adjective shown in brackets to describe what the arrow is pointing to in each of the pictures.
5.

,l!

/

( -4~)

...

/

(l!~)

--

-~~~-~~-~~-

...

/

(~})

... (~)

/

--------

----~~~

4"\

Exercise 16: Complete the table below by filling in the comparative
lines provided. Then try to write each comparative Comparative prettier, more beautiful uglier cleaner dirtier thicker cheaper more precious greedier happier sadder more famous cleverer, more skilful purer poorer fatter more wicked deeper shallower more merciful kinder ------------------~ --------------forms

forms of the adjectives on the in a sentence of your own in your exercise book. Adjectives (masculine and feminine forms)

pretty, beautiful ugly clean dirty thick (of an object) cheap, inexpensive precious, valuable greedy happy, fortunate sad famous clever, skilful pure, clean poor fat, obese wicked, evil ---------deep shallow merciful kind, generous

--------

----

-----

42

Superlative Adjectives
The superlative form (e.g. the widest, the prettiest etc.) takes the same pattern as the comparative However, it is used as a noun, rather than as an adjective, and is followed by an indefinite singular genitive noun, a definite plural genitive noun, or an attached pronoun. form.

Salma is the tallest girl in the class. Salma is the tallest of the girls in the class. She is the tallest of them. Salma is one of the tallest girls in the school.

Nabeel is the most skilful doctor in the hospital. Nabeel is the most skilful of the doctors in the hospital. He is the most skilful of them. Nabeel is one of the most skilful doctors in Britain.

When comparing ~ form i.e.

people

in terms of their age, the word

o-:

meaning except

'age'

is used in the accusative is in an

L..,... It can be written after the comparative
which cannot

adjective, therefore

when the adjective

idafa (genitive of possession) construction Study the following examples.
fZ

be split, or at the end of the sentence.

.....
/

Hamza is younger than Habib. Hamza is younger than him.

L..,.. ~
~
.s
c

cr" ~i
~

0

Jl ...... 0

;'..9 .....0

o~
.....0,...

...-

,...

0

or
-:;

~

...

.r" L.... ~i
,...
~ jI 0

e;

..$1 .....

0,.,-

JI .....o

.....

o~
0 ,., jl,....

~L....~io~

J .....o

/)

or

L..,..

~~i

J1 .....

o~

0

..-

Fatima is older than Salma. Fatima is older than her.

Hamza is the youngest Hamza is the youngest

boy in the class.
~ ojljl ..... o",..,...jlJI,o ......

of them.

~~~i~o~

Fatima is the oldest girl in the class. Fatima is the oldest of them.

43

:;;

~ ~i

J.;,.....

0,.........

~

J.

..........

~ ~
o
jJ,j.....

.....

0

c-: J_,.bi
jJ .... 0

..... jJ .... 0

.....

0~

.2

0l:..:>-

o,....,_Il:

....

.2

~~i~.l

1. Salma is the tallest of them (f.). 2. Hanan is the shortest of them. 3. Fatima is shorter than Salma and taller than Hanan.

1. Habib is the shortest of them (m.). 2. Hamza is taller than Habib. 3. Muhammad is the tallest of them.

Brothers and Sisters
Hamid: Who is this boy?

Mahir:

He is my brother.

Hamid:

What's

his name?

Mahir:

His name is Jameel.

Hamid:

Is he older than you (mosc.)? No, he is younger than me. Maa shoo Allah! He is taller than you.

Mahir:

Hamid:

Mahir:

Do you (m.) have a brother?

Hamid:

Yes, I have a brother

and a sister.

Mahir: Hamid:

Are you older than both of them? I am older than my brother, and my sister is older than me.

44

Numbers from 11 to 12
The numbers 11 and 12 are formed from the combination of two numbers. Both parts of these numbers agree with the gender of the nouns they define. The noun defined by these numbers takes the singular accusative form. Fern. Neither part of number 11 is declinable: no matter what its Mosc. role in the sentence, it takes a fatha ending. The second part of number 12 (i.e. the 'ten' part) is also indeclinable. 11 ;. 0. / However, the first part (i.e. the 'two' part) is declined like a o~ IS : ------+---1 dual noun or adjective. In other words, it is written with an r--alif ending in the nominative, and a yaa ending in the 12 accusative and genitive. These points are illustrated by the examples below:

/..G..-\

Number 11
- --

------------

Feminine
Nominative Nominative

Masculine

.~\
/

o

""

0

Jl O~~
"" -:;",

;)i

....

//0

o~

-"

"". 0

0

//

,.-

1S..l.>1~)
/

/

Eleven prayer mats have arrived at the mosque.

Eleven new books arrived at the library.

Accusative
,....0 ",,0 ::. ..... ~ /' ........ 0,....

Accusative

. 0~\
./

~

I put eleven prayer mats in the storage room.

-

O,:)~
....

o~

,....0

~

0,...,..-

1S..l.>1..:. -,;:,)
,;

I put eleven books on the shelf.

Genitive

Genitive
.... ,,;'/0....

·4J

~,...

lb

o~

,...

0

//

.........

0,..- 0

y.

0"...

/'

1S..l.>~ ~

iyU"~\"': ,,~)
I wrote my name on eleven books.

I put the pens on eleven tables.

Number 12 ~------------------ --,-------------------~
Feminine Masculine
Nominative Nominative

.~\
./

,.......

Jl ~~~~~>.~ \ 8

~J
"...

Twelve prayer mats have arrived at the mosque.

Twelve new books arrived at the library.

Accusative

Accusative

.j)\ ~
I put twelve prayer mats in the storage room. Genitive

~:;i

//

'--!~ ~

~.....

,., ""

./

0

~\

.... 0

.J
l~

0"...

,.;

..

....0)

I put twelve books on the shelf.

Genitive

I put the pens on twelve tables.

I wrote my name on twelve books.

45

Numbers from 13 to 19
Masculine noun examples:
Nominative: In our school there are fourteen male teachers.

Rules for the numbers 13 to 19
The numbers from 13 to 19 are formed from the combination of two numbers, both of which are indeclinable and take a fatha ending, no matter what the number's role is within the sentence. The 'ten' part of the number agrees with the noun in terms of gender. The first part of the number takes the opposite gender to the noun. The noun following the number takes the singular accusative form. Fern.
,.,0//

Accusative:

I read thirteen small books today.
...... 0 ...... 0 -:; ..... :;,... ...-......,... ............ -",j 0 ...........

'i~\

\~

~~

~

jj~

ui_}

Genitive: I sat with fifteen boys in the hall.

Masc.
//

Feminine noun examples:
Nominative: In my classroom there are eighteen tables.

13 14

;;~

..:..,~
.----+ ~-~-

I---+--~----r----

~~ r---~ .~-----II-----...... 0 ", ,/ 0,.... ""'..... 0

-

15 Accusative: I read seventeen pages today.

;;~~
/o/~

~~
--~-j______~--~
,....... .
//i)J

I-------t----

--_--f--

'0
--

16
17

;;~~
,.... 0 ",

--.--~-+-----",.. 0 .....

,

~~
--

"
-I---~--

f--- --+--~-- --

r---

---

--+---

Genitive: My sister sat with sixteen girls in the hall.

18
'" 0 .... ,,; 0

19

Numbers (13-19) in practice
Feminine nouns
I- ~---~-----

Masculine nouns
--..........

-----------+----'/"'

----------~--

-

thirteen lecturers (f.) fourteen engineers (f.) fifteen headmistresses sixteen doctors (f.) seventeen girls eighteen women

;;~\'::""""'i ;;~
0,.,,; //0",

..... 0;//0

..... ,...

..:..,~
"'

thirteen lecturers fourteen engineers

-:;,....

...... 0'"

~,~;;~~)
'/"..,

L..~_?-~)
~ ),... ..........

'/

0/51

/

...... "'"

//

...... ..... 0

;;~...l,.o;;~

~

........... 0

.....

""

~

0

.....

//0

......

fifteen headmasters sixteen doctors seventeen boys

\~...l,.o~~

-;;//0//0",,,

//

Oif\;;~~W

eighteen men nineteen pupils (m.)

nineteen pupils (f.)

ij~:~(~~
46

Exercise 17: Translate

the following sentences into Arabic,

1. Eleven pupils (rn.) entered the race.

2. Twelve pupils (rn.) got off the
bus in front of the school. 3. My brother found twelve pounds in the playground of the school.
4. The teacher

2 3 4 __ 5

of sport (m.) collected thirteen balls in the basket. published fourteen articles about Islam. her desk. girls.
-------------

5. The newspaper

6. The teacher (f.) put fifteen books on 7. In my sister's class there are fifteen
8. On the school's bus there are sixteen seats. 9. I read the story before sixteen teachers (t.) 10. I wrote seventeen paragraph. after seventeen lines in the

7
-~~~~~-----_----

_8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15

11 . The criminal left (from) the prison
years. 12. Faisal passed in eighteen 13. In my class are nineteen subjects. pupils (m.) ---------

-_---_-----

_

14. In the book are nineteen stories. 15. Eighteen boys and nineteen atfended the party. paragraph criminal prison year in front of, before on, about a topic)
~ 0 ~

girls

party

he published he read he put, placed seat subject basket story

he went out, left he entered he got off he passed, succeeded he found, discovered he ottended he collected, gathered

c)~) C?

i~1
~ 0

race, contest bus newspaper sport orticle line

:f-~
J)
(~)& ~~
(~)~
~~~

after

47

Simple Present Tense Verbs
As we have already mentioned grammar by using the letters

J t. j

in the section on word patterns, it is easier to demonstrate

points of be

to represent the root letters of any word. We will therefore simple present tense verbs, middle root letter vowel when formulating

using this system to explain how to formulate damma. It is very important

As you will recall, the middle root letter in a simple past tense verb may take a fatha, a kasra or a to learn the correct the present

tense, because

it is not necessarily the same as in the past tense. In the vast majority of cases, verbs in the past tense will keep a damma in the present.

that have a kasra on the middle root letter in the past tense will have a fatha on the middle root letter in the present tense, and verbs with a damma

However, verbs with a fatha on the middle root letter in the past tense may take a fatha, kasra or damma in the present. and so must be learnt by heart.

How to make the present tense of a simple verb a) Singular Forms
1. To make the third person masculine singular present tense from the verb fatha on the the prefix Present tense
;

Past tense

j;J

replace the

'He studies He drinks He sits

;0/
/

J

J"JJ..:.
;

He studied He drank He sat

with a sukoon and then add

-:! before it. Change the fatha on the

/ .._,:. 0 . r--:. 0

;

J into

a damma.

~

Remember, the vowel on the second root letter may be a fatha, kasra or damma, the verb. e.g. ~ or ~ depending ,~ on

,.....~

""Jl

J10jlo ~\~~~

~--4

.....-0"...

~~0..LJ\

MOlin goes to school by bike.

2. To make the third person feminine singular present tense from the verb fatha on the
/

Present tense
jI

Past tense
jI 0 ..-

j;J

replace the

She studies She drinks She sits

J"J..;u
,,0

He studied He drank He sat

J"J~
y~
~

j

with a sukoon and then add the fatha on

jI

,/

y~
~

the prefix the

_; before it, Change

J

into a damma.

Remember, the vowel on the second root letter may be a fatha, kasra or dornrno. depending the verb. e.g. ~ on

or ~

,

~oQ;
Layla goes to school by bike,

48

3. The second person masculine singular present tense is formed in the same way as the third

Present tense You (m.s.) study ~ ~
~0 /

Past tense
/ / /

J")J.j
/0
/

He studied
/

U')~

person feminine singular. Starting tram the verb

j.:J

replace the fatha on the

J

You (m.s.) drink with a You (m.s.) sit

y_r.:;
0
/

He drank He sat

y_r;.
/ /

~ ~

sukoon and then add the prefix ~ before it. Change the fatha on the e.g.

~

J:0~

J into

a damma.

e.g. How do you (m.s.) go to school?

or ~

,~

4. To make the second person feminine singular
present tense from the verb fatha on the prefix ~,rePlace the

Present tense You (f.s.) study

Past tense He studied

J

with a sukoon and add the

j

before it. Change the fatha on the

J

You (f.s.) drink

.:_r.:-:_r.:;
~

He drank

y _r;.
~

into kasra and then add
,.... Jlo/ ,..,
0,....

:_r..
.........

at the end.
0 ......

You (f.s.) sit

He sat

e.g.

~or~,~
How do you (f.s.) go to school?

5. To make the first person masculine and
feminine singular present tense trom the verb ~ , replace the fatha on the
/

Present tense I study I drink I sit
s
~0/

Past tense
<
/ / /

J

J" )~I
J
,,0

He studied
/

J")~

with a

sukoon. add the prefix I before it, and change
the fatha on the
J2

~

y _r;.i
"

He drank He sat

y_r;.
/ /

J
0,....

~
~<
/

o

/

into a damma.

\

~

e.g.

~i

Y.

0......

J.

or

~i

'~I

J1

....

0..-

/

If the first root letter at the verb is an alit, the prefix is merged
///

~ I

I go to school by bike.

with the alit and is written as tallows:
JlJI

T
,...../~

e.g.

JSi

(he ate) becomes

JST

(I eat) and

..G-- \ (he took) becomes 49

.Jl;JI

l..;..T

(I take).

b) Dual Forms
1. To make the third person masculine dual present tense from the verb ~ fatha on the ,replace the Present tense They (m.dual) study They (m.dual) drink They (m.dual) sit
.....0 .....

Past tense

0c..~o~
0C°:. /

He studied He drank

J

with a sukoon. add the prefix

~ before it and then add e.g.

01
,0~

.~

at the end.

0~

Hesat

0~

;'0/

or 0~

0,....

Mazin and Tariq go (masc. dual) to school by bike.

2. To make the third person feminine dual
present tense from the verb fatha on the ~ ,replace the

Present tense They (f.dual) study

Past tense

J

0L..... y . .u
"" ;. 0
//0

""

He studied He drank

with a sukoon, add the prefix

j
e.g.

before it and then add

01

at the end.

They (f.dual) drink They (f.dual) sit

0L :.~ :__r-J
""

0~or0~,0~

"..;.0....

....

0"

/"...0,.,..

.~ U

/

° / He sat .

Nadia and Layla go (fem. dual)

to school by bike.

3. To make the second person masculine dual
present tense from the verb fatha on the ~
t

Present tense You (m.dual) study

Past tense

replace the

J

0c..~°..G He studied 0L;__r-J :.~
//0 ",

with a sukoon, add the prefix

j
e.g.

before it and then add

01 at

You (m.dual) drink the end. You (m.dual) sit

He drank He sat

U

.~
/

0

/

.

How do you (mase. dual) go to school?

50

4. To make the second person feminine dual present tense from the verb ~,rePlace the

Present tense You (f.dual) study

Past tense

totho on the

J

0L..... J-U
0L!_r--J :.//0 "..

/510/

....

He studied He drank He sat
/

if J;)

//

with a sukoon. add the prefix

j
e.g.

before it and then add

01

at the end.

You (f.dual) drink You (f.dual) sit
"., "., 0

._,:. .

r-:
,/

.~ u
.... 0 .,;

.
//

e.g.

~~J~\

J10~..:u ~
0 ,..., /

0 ......

How do you (fem. dual) go to school? Note that the second person masculine dual and the second person feminine dual are formed in the same way as the third person feminine dual.

5. To make the first person masculine and
feminine dual present tense from the verb ~ replace the fatha on the
/

Present tense
;.

Past tense

J

We (dual) study with a sukoon. We (dual) drink

if J _lj
...... 0

jI 0

,/

He studied He drank

J.

~

add the prefix the fatha on the e.g.

_j before it, and change

.~

:..

..-

J

into a single damma

JJ

We (dual) sit
..... :;;~

~

He sat

~or~'~

//0/0

e.g.

~\J_U~
/ /

~J~\
/

Jl ~j_;
"..

J.

......0".,

We (dual) go to school by bike.

c) Plural Forms
1. To make the third person masculine plural
present tense from the verb ~ fatha on the j ~ , replace the they (m. plural) study with a sukoon. add the prefix they (m. plural) drink before it, change the fatha on the
.,.. J

Present tense
/

Past tense
J. J
0 ,,;
/ / /

0y)'·4
/

He studied
/

ifJ~
/

J/o

/

0y.~
J.
0"..

He drank He sat

~:.

r'.r"
/

J

into a single damma
"., JlJI
0

J

and then add
,...

0)
J ..... 0
,/

they (m. plural) sit

0~
/

~

at the end. e.g.

0~

,/

or 0~

51

0.....

'0~

-"

e.g. The boys go to school by bus.

51

2. To make the third person feminine plural Present tense present tense from the verb ~ fatha on the ~ ,replace the they (f. plural) study
-" 0

Past tense
JI
0 '"

J

with a sukoon. add the prefix they (f. plural) drink the fatha on the

0-'-"'J--4
... 0,..... 0

He studied
/

/

/

/

J'J;:;
/

before it, change

0-!~
~
/

"

He drank He sat

;....I:'
/

. .r:

J

into a single a sukoon

J and then add

they (f. plural) sit .) e.g.

~

at the end. e.g.

The girls go to school by bus.

3. To make the second person masculine plural present tense from the verb fatha on the ~ , replace the

Present tense you (m. plural) study
....

Past tense

J

.) J...G r
JI Jlo
""

""

/'

He studied He drank

J' J;:;

//

with a sukoon. add the prefix you (m. plural) drink the fatha on the .)
;".. 0

" _j before it, change

y.~
; 0

:."

/'

J

into a single damma

J

and then add

::., J

you (m. plural) sit

-'"

.)~

'"

He sat

at the end. e.g.

e.g. How do you (masc. plural) go to school?

4. To make the second person feminine plural present tense from the verb ~ fatha on the , replace the

Present tense you (f. plural) study you (f. plural) drink
,.... 0 JI 0 "..-

Past tense
/ / /

J

0-'-"'J...G
/ 0,..... 0
/

He studied
/

J'J;:;
/

with a sukoon, add the prefix the fatha on the

...) before it, change

0-!~
~
/

:. "

He drank He sat

I,._.):'
/

r'.rr"

J

into a single a sukoon

J and then add '0
or

you (f. plural) sit

~

at the end. e.g.

J~

J. ,J:.i5
o~

How do you (fem. plural) go to school?

52

5. To make the first person masculine and feminine plural present tense from the verb replace the tatha on the
/

Present tense

j:J

Past tense
;>
/

,

/

We study We drink

;>

0

"

J

with a sukoon,

J'.JJ.:J
s
/0

He studied
/

J'.J~

add the prefix the fatha on the

_j before it, and change

y~
~
/

:.

"

.

He drank He sat

y_;;'
/

/

J

into a single damma

J

We sit

~

We (plural) go to school by bike. Note that the first person dual is formed in the same way as the first person plural.

The Simple Present Tense: A Summary
The table below shows all the different forms of the present tense verb 'to learn', starting with the most basic form, the masculine singular, i.e. 'he learns' or 'he is learning'.

Plural
./

Dual

Singular

they (m.) learn
.-.. ~~ .-~~

J .r:J~
;, jl 0

...-

they (two) (m.) learn
-t--~~~~~~

J l-J ~
~t------

""

;

0

,.."

.9

.9 0

/

he learns
1-----

-~f-----

----+~ ... -~
.9 .9 0

~
/

they (f.) learn
f------ ..
/

~
--f--;

J~
-jI
0 /'

they (two) (t.) learn
--_
/

she learns
t---. /-.9-o-~··

ifJ..0
.9 0
" (f)

r-

--'-~--+~.9

you (pI.) (m.) learn
1-----.

JY J...G
,..... 0 jlo

you (two) (m.) learn
--~~~-._

Jl- J...G
-.. --~
/'
/

you (m.) learn
.9 0
/

o
:J

-~.-~-+-~~~--I---,.,.

-~+~----.-+_-.--__I
_)Io ,..,

o o
o,
IJ
(])

you (pi.) (f.) learn

~

J..0

you (two) (t.) learn

Jl- J...G
.9 .9 0

you (t.) learn

en
.9 .9 0

o
:J

~ ---------r-~-~+_~-~~~~-~---+_We (m. or f.) learn

.. --~~~-~-~~----~-~

if J..G

.9

.9 0

/

We (two) (m. or f.) learn

if J..G

/

I (m.or f.) learn

if J~\ "

/

Vocabulary

for pp. 54-55

year

~

//

<l:.....,..

two brothers
(nominative)

~

0

0-11
0L:.:;..i
~~
/0

another (f.) I have you have with us with you which? same (f.) as well, too, also another (m.)

I~ t.:
~

;>

two sisters
(nominative)

paternal

uncle

~i

/

university academic

'"

(study. adjective)

~\>
-

I my cousin (m.) my cousin (f.) young man young lady

engineering politics

53

Practice with Present Tense Verbs
Practise reading the following conversation with a partner. When you have finished, reverse your roles and read through it again.
,/ /0

.,9:

,....

. w~1

~

..

~11,
.........

U : ~jLo
...-

...

.-

Mazin: I am a student at the university.

Mr. Tariq; In which year?

Mazin: In the first year.

Mr. Tariq: What are you studying?

Mazin: I am studying engineering.

Mr. Tariq: Who is that young man? Mazin: We are studying at London University.
/0,....}.90 ,/ /0 ,/

~ti ~ :J~u,~\ ~
~ ".,,/ ,.....0 ... ....

~'iJ

.....

. 01)/ ~I

,w~1

~ ~~
..,...

........

Y' : ~jLo

/}

..-

---

Mr. Tariq: Do you have a brother?

Mazin: He is my friend at the university. His name is Marwan.

Mr. Tariq: What is he studying? Mazin: Yes, I have two brothers.
,/ /////%jljlo/ .....

~~~I

~, ~ ~

0L.~o~ ~

~

: JJ\.k

. ~.l5'
,

L~I

J")..A.: : ~jLo
,

Mazin: He is studying engineering

as well.

Mr. Tariq: Are they studying with you at the university?

w~ ~
~,

,....,/

0L..)..A.: ~ ,

,.... Jo

,..,

"...

j'/

.:1 : ~jLo

-"

0,....

c', w~1

/

/0

~ 0L..)..;u
~,

,....Jlo/

,

Mr. Tariq: Mao she Allah! You are both studying at the same university! Mazin: No, they are studying at Oxford University with my cousin (m.).
jI

JZo,..,)",

~

....

J")..A.: _;>T ~~

'"

J) .~ :~jLo ..
,... /,/ ,../'

....

.~Q\J:~~~\
Mr. Tariq: What are they studying?
///~ '" )0,... j.jo/ ..,

Mazin: Yes. I have another friend. He is studying engineering with us at the university.

. LL::-JI

r_,..wl 0y)..A.: : ~JLo
Mr. Tariq: At which university are you studying?

Mazin: They are studying political SCience.

54

dialogue on the right as a model. rewrite the conversation in the feminine form, using Mrs. Hanan and Hudo as the two main characters, and Fatima as the name of Hudos friend. The vocabulary you may need is on p. 53. --_

Exercise 18: Using the

.~.u
/

;

_----

--

--

-

--

Huda: I am a student (f.) at the university.

:il 0 J ~ vB t..:.;,..
//

_..

~;}i

_---

_---

---

--

-Mrs. Hanan: In which year?
--

Huda: Yes. I have another friend. She is studying engineering with us at the university.

--

--

--

---------

Huda: In the first year. Mrs. Hanan: At which university are you studying?
----

-

.~---

---

------

Mrs. Hanan: What are you (f.) studying? Huda: We are studying at London University.
------

----_--

-

-----

-

----_

..

-

-Huda: I am studying engineering.

Mrs. Hanan: Do you have a sister?
-- ----------------.--~-----

--- __

.... _--

Huda: Yes, I have two sisters.

Mrs. Hanan: Who is that young lady?

---

-_

..

_-

--

--

---

---

Mrs. Hanan: Are they (f.) studying with you at the unlversltv?
--_--

Huda: She is my friend at the university. Her name is Fatima.
---_----

-------

_---

--

Huda: No, they are studying at Oxford University with my cousin (f.).
---

Mrs. Hanan: What is she studying?

-----

~----

-----

-_--_

--

Huda: She is studying engineering

as well.
----

Mrs. Hanan: What are they studying?
- _--_----

_-

..

_

--

Huda: They are studying political science.

Mrs. Hanan: Mao she Allah! You (f.) are both studying at the same university!

55

Exercise 19:
Complete pages. the tables below using the correct verb forms following the rules set out on the previous

I (masc. or fem.) singular (present tense)

You (masc. or fem.) dual (present tense)

they (masc.) plural

He

He

Meaning

(present tense)

(present tense)
~

(past tense)
0/

(past tense)

JS'4
~ /0/ /

J5i
~
/

he ate he wore

j

~
s
L,

•.1.;

0/

:._,J .

-

he played

~
-

~

he did, worked

~

p
/

he washed

j

J?0/
/

J)

he descended

You (masc.) plural

You (fem.) singular

they (fem.) plural

He

He

Meaning

(present tense)

(present tense)

(present tense)

(present tense)

(past tense)

(past tense)

,
,..-~ --

0/

/

/

/

C;.r..
~
s
, 0 /
/

C::-J
f-

he returned

_ ..

__ -

~
/ /

he looked
--_

-

~.J~
------~- r--j~ o/ to -

~J~
// /

he studied

_-

_ ~

~ ~
~-

~ ~

he peeled

0

he laughed
/ / / /

,
56

~..u
.

.... o .....

-

~~

he went

Exercise 20:
Translate the sentences below into Arabic using the vocabulary provided. The verbs you will need are all listed on the previous page. N.B. The vocative people. 1. Where are you (f.s.) going, [0) Maryam? particle

Vocabulary
Where?

4

(O!. oh!) is used when addressing What?

\
2. I am going to the shop.

Why?

\~W

When?

3. Mazin and Muhammad
-----

are going (m. dual) to the school.
-----------

Shop

-

----

-

..

_-

r

School

4. Why are you (f. pi.) laughing,

[0] girls? Journey, trip

5. Where are you (m. pI.) going,
------_--------

[0] boys?
-.-~ 0

Tomorrow

----------[0] Sarah?

6. What are you (f.s.) eating,

God willing

i
7. When is Khalil returning from the journey?

Newspaper

V
8. He is returning tomorrow, God willing.

Football

Ceiling

A
9. Mazin is playing (m.s.) football in the garden.
-------_

University ~

Medicine

10. Why are you (m. pI.) looking at the ceiling? ------------------

-.----

\

.

Girls

11. What are you (m. pI.) studying

in the university, [0] guys? Boys

\\
12. We are studying medicine.

\

,

Garden

Youths, guys

57

What Are They Doing?
tree -window suitcase, briefcase letter newspaper pear sofa dinner ladder milk ~ Present tense Past tense Verbs Present tense
J2

Vocabulary pp. 58-59

Past tense

y _r:..h...,o

he drank he climbed

j5"4
~

~

0,....

§1

he ate he sat hecarried he entered

A
~

~

hecooked he typed

~

c.;.1
~

y.~
e::~
~~ ~~

heopened he read hewrote

he pushed he went

1)

herode

Exercise 21: Using the appropriate

forms of the present tense, describe what the people in the pictures on this page and the following page are doing. The English translation is there to guide you. Vocabulary that may be less familiar to you is given above. The third form masculine of the present tense of the verbs you will need is also provided as a starting point.

He is writing a letter.

2

She is entering the house.

Example: He is sitting on the table.

They bed.

(I pl.)

are sitting on the

5

She is typing on the computer.

4

They (m. pl.) are sitting on the

3

58

She is eating a pear.

8

They (m. dual) are sitting on the 7 desk .

He is reading a newspaper.

6

.... -.--.-.-------------i

They (m. dual) are sitting under the tree.

11

They (f. dual) are sitting on the 10 sofa.

9

1----------

- .-.- -.------j

He is climbing the ladder.

14

They (m.) are sitting around the 13 table.

They (f ) are eating the dinner. 12

---~-----_-----

----~

They (f pl.) are cooking the dinner.

17

They (m. dual) are going to school.

16

She is opening the window.

15

They if. pl.) are playing football. f!)

20

He is riding the bike.

19

She is drinking the milk.

18

1------_

..

------------1

59

Imperatives
So far we have covered simple regular verbs in the past and present tenses. We will now explain how to give orders using simple regular verbs. The basis for the imperative is the present tense verb form. Obviously, the imperative only applies to the second person singular, dual or plural, masculine or feminine forms.

1. To make the second person masculine
~ 0/

Imperative tense Study! (m.s.) Drink! (m.s.)
0

Present tense

singular imperative remove the damma

from the verb ~ from the third root letter

'-.I')':> I
/0

jj 0 jj

s

~o

/

'-.I')J.:J
~
/0

0

and put a sukoon in its place. Remove the
/

y __':"I
/

y _r--J
~ ~
/ /

:.

/

~

0

0

0

present tense prefix, in this case it with an alif

_j and replace

Sit! (m.s.)

~\
/

I . If the

root letter is damma, imperative
JI )l
0 ,....

vowel on the second ~ e.g. __ then the

alif prefix will also take a damma
0

i.e. ~

changes

into

~I

)l

0

Jl

If, however, the vowel on the second root letter is fatha or kosro. e.g. imperative __ or __ then the

Come in and sit down! (m.s.)

alif prefix will take a kosrc.

changes

into

~I

and

changes

into

j.J1

2. To make the second person feminine
/ 0 /

Imperative tense
; 0 ;

Present tense
; 0 /

singular imperative

from the verb
/

~ Study! (f. s.) Drink! (t. s.) Sit! (f. s.) ~).:>\

remove the present tense prefix _j and replace it with an alif

I . Remove

the final noon

::,. on the

l5-~1 ~
/

/

The vowel on the alif prefix will depend

vowel on the middle root letter, as in (1.) above. i.e.

fo
~
'" JI
0 ,.-

changes

into

~\ ~

/

changes

into

~I

..........

--

~

changes

into

60

3. To make the second person masculine and feminine dual imperative from the verb
/

Imperative tense Study! (m./t. dual) Drink! (m./f. Sit! (m./f. dual)

Present tense

O~

remove the present tense prefix _; and replace it with an alif

I . Remove

the final noon

'0.
on the

CO:. I :_r

The vowel on the alit prefix will depend

dual)

Lkl
changes into

vowel on the middle root letter, as in (1.) above . --"i.e.

O~

............ 0.....

changes into

~I,

...... ....0 .

O~
dual)

......

0/

changes into

~I,

./

0

O~

"'.JoO,

~I

/;0;2

e.g. Come in and sit down! (m./f.

!~IJ

""

0,/

y\':>-..)I
Imperative tense Study! (m. plural) Drink! (m. plural) Sit! (m. plural) Present tense

/520;

4. To make the second person masculine
...... jI 0 .....

plural imperative

from the verb

0~
/

Ir-" )..)1 Iy.__,..::wl
/

JJ

JJ

0

JJ

/

Or )...u
/

Y.

j

0

""

remove the present tense prefix _; and replace it with an alif

J)/o

JJ/o

/

I . Remove

the final noon

0

Oy.~

and replace it with a silent alif:

I
on the

J)

I~I
/

0

0~
/ /

s

0

The vowel on the alif prefix will depend

vowel on the middle root letter, as in (1.) above .
./

--..i.e.

0~

JI ...... 0

......

changes into

lyWI,
/

J.,...

0

.....

0~

y.

0,/

changes into
/

lyWI,

jI

0

/'

0~

jljI

0 ./

changes into

lyWI

;j1

oj!

e.g. Come in and sit down! (m. plural)

5. To make the second person feminine plural imperative from the verb

J~
/

Imperative tense Study! (f, plural) Drink! (f. plural) Sit! (f. plural)
..... 0

Present tense
y.
0 jI

0-")..)1

"

0

jl

0

/'

remove the present tense prefix _:j and replace it with an alif

I.
on the

d.~1
~I

..... 0 ..... 0

,.,.

The vowel on the alif prefix will depend

vowel on the middle root letter, as in (1.) above. --"i.e. ~ changes into

~I,

J~

changes into ~\,
0./,/

~

changes into

0LJf
by any letter, it is

e.q Come in and sit down! (f. plural)

!~\J

.... 0

.).>-..)\
prefix is a weak alif and only However, if it is preceeded

oj!

0;

N.B. As you will note from the examples given above, the alif imperative takes a vowel when it occurs at the beginning of a sentence. will become silent. Hence in the sentence by
,.,.00//0;0;

!~IJ

.).>-..)\

the alif prefix of the second imperative

silent because it is preceeded

J.
61

Do not!
There is no negative meaning imperative as such in Arabic. To say "Do not (do something)" we use the word

'1

"no" followed

by a second person present tense verb. However, the ending of the verb ending.

changes to resemble the imperative Negative ---Don't laugh! (masculine singular) instruction

----/1I
I

Present tense
---------

~

'1 I You are

laughing

(masculine

singular)

Don't laugh! (feminine

singular)

You are laughing

(feminine

singular)

/_ « "_ ~ O._
~

Don't laugh! (masculine

dual)

You are laughing

(masculine

dual)

Don't laugh! (feminine dual)

You are laughing

(feminine dual)

0~

1(/'

o.

::

Don't laugh! (masculine

plural)

You are laughing

(masculine

plural)

,

0~

(-'''_ 0._::

Don't laugh! (feminine

plural)

You are laughing

(feminine plural)

Vocabulary for exercise 23 on pages 64 and 65. Remember that imperatives are formed from the present tense. Please refer to the list of verbs on page 68 to obtain the present tense of the verbs given below.
oJ!

voice loud, raised on from in, with before I (am)

..:.,., ~
"sI:

entering
_;

J~.)
/'

jl

jl

he opened he read he wrote he got down ~
I

he was tired

~ .r
/ ~

..... 0

~..... ~ I carpet board table

o.)~

r)

he sat he took off (e.g. shoes) he went he returned

o_).rr:

J)
~
oJ! ,

-: ~

classroom chair

~

helooked

~~
oJ!

he hurried
,
; -' 0 /

Gr
, ,jl

mosque playground

~
VIi

wall
/'
0 .....

Ml:>/ i

he hurries

there

~~

~ .J_"

shoe milk

;\~
~

I he

drank at

\ window

ti.;G

I he knocked

62

the table below by writing the Arabic imperative and negative forms of the verbs shown on the left. Make sure the verbs you write agree in both gender with the present tense verbs provided. Present tense form

Exercise 22: Complete

imperative and number

Negative imperative

(Don't!)

Imperative
"

e.g.

you (m. pI.) request, ask
Yo
0 /

_Qon't ask! (m.pl.)
"

I~

jlJlo

/'

_'1__ A.§k!_;.oCm_'_'_'_t::.p,-,-,-I.L_) __ -___cI.r.l1l_
;;0
jI

1.
2. 3. 4.

you (f. s.) go out you (m. dual) wipe you (m. s.) shave

~_T<-J
,

1-----------

--

0~
/

0

f------Y. Y.o

~
/

0

Y.

o/

you (t. pI.) draw you (f. dual) raise

~.r
0W_;
/

1--------,/

.--

"" /0

5. 6, 7, 8. 9,

/

Y.

/0

/

you (rn: pt.) swim you (t. s.) return you (rn. dual) shout you (m. s.) knock you (m. pl.) cross

0~
/ 0 /

I-

-

-

1-----------

--

------il---------

--

------~

1---------------+--" J.)o "" 1------------0 ..-

.--

10,

0J~
JI ;

11, 12. 13,

you (m. s.) chase away you (t. s.) sit you (m. pI.) leave

.)~

-

~
r-----------~I______----

---------_

14,

you (t. pl.) open
jI

1-------------1---------

------------

15.

you (m. s.) spread you (m. dual) thank you (t. pi.) do you (t. dual) type

'-' J / ~o ~~

.::.~
jI
0

.,..

c---

---------~

16, 17. 18,

01~

- -----l-------

-j

------+----------~
--------f---------------l

63

Exercise 23: Study the rules governing the positive
and negative imperative forms. Then translate the English sentences into Arabic on the lines provided. The vocabulary you may need for this exercise is listed on page 62. Examples: Open the door, [0] Fatimah!

Sit

if sing.) on the chair, and do not sit on the table!

Do not play (masc. plural) in the road! Play in the garden!

Do not (m. sing.) write on the wall! Write on the hoard! 5

Sit (m. pl.) on the carpet and do not stand there'

2
----

_._-

---------

Sit (f. pl.] on the chairs! ~~_._.----------------

Open

if sing.) the door and do not open the window!
3

6

_ -_._ ---.-~-

_._---

Do not look (m. sing.] at the window! Look at the board! ------_._-------

Do not sit (m. dual) on the table! Sit on the chairs!

7

4

64

Read (f sing.] in a loud voice! 12
----------

Get down (m. sing.)jrom the window! --------------

8

--------

----------------

Knock (m. sing.] at the door before entering! 13

Return (f. sing.] to the classroom! Do not go to the playground! --- -~ ------------

9

Return (f pl.] to your classroom!
14

Sit down (m. sing.) and drink the milk! 10

Don't hurry (m. sing.}! I'm tired. 15

Take off (m. sing.] your shoes before entering the mosque!

11
-_.
------

._-

---------

65

Nouns and Their Plurals
Plural
dolls sessions, courses trips shelves sports questions blackboards
."R...... ~ ,.
"

Singular
~...-o
ji

Plural
newspapers pounds (money)

Singular

Plural

Singular

4......4~
"R: .....

o.J)~

0

,....

~~

.

brothers sisters
"

0')..;... .J
/ 0

I

~\

0

)

J.J

guards computers

"

J'.J l>/

sofas names
~.....

"/

/

~~)

"

J Iy
/;

attendees

"
O~~
.v1

breaks, rests
/

~I .r-: I ~

0

/

0~l>-

/
carpets prisons beds
,.A.....
0./

I
I

exams, tests doors

scarves

~\

o~

ji

ji

."R

0

I

~

gardens shoes crafts subjects horses po rti es

"/

/

~..l>"

oranges grocers girls caretakers
" 0

_r..r
~

~I..l>-

<,

lines happy

"

/

fUr
4...,a..:>-

~

" ...L...-...
.,.Il,....

dining tables
~

0.r--0 jI 0 /

"

0l.a.:>/

gates houses dates apples

roofs, ceilings! knives

._j_A_."..\

;

0

,-

"

._j_A_."..

'\II ....0

,-

~

news

baskets well-being years cars

" J)G
/

"/

bad, evil (adjective)
/ /

;i,_,o)G

good, studies

best

.rr":

pupils (m.) pupils (f,) exercises

"

"//
~

~

0

"/

~\.J~

/

"

0

/

trees policemen

"/

o~
/

/

drawers lessons
"

"

0;

skirts

0

/

fridges

months

"

;;

.J-*"

exercise books

universities
,.A.

friends (rn.)

J;~

shops

0l5'.,:,

:II J

bells

66

Nouns and Their Plurals
Plural
headmasters patients competitions
; ..... __ 1$1
0,.-

Singular

Plural
;

Singular

Plural classes,
pages

Singular

~

f.,..l,4

poor people arts

~

~
".

grades; rows

~/

~\:9
~o

/

prayers boxes voices storeys, floors queues
~

mosques rulers supporters

~l-..A
j. __ __ .

~
~/./

monkeys
0

::J}

..,bl-..A J~
./ Jot .... ;

I

o~
~

stories trains
jI

~~
~

~\y+'i

..... 0,...,

~

0,...

~_rP

~~/j1

~
j
~;;

l,kj
/

/

photographers airports teachers teachers inspectors (rn.) (f,) (rn.)

J)j~

.9 ~ '"

y.

~~.....

j~

books
/ /

.._..::s
/;

~

._,I_:S
~, ;

j\.k,o
~
~,..... '!! ....
j.

~

balls chairs thieves

~

~\_?

o_?
0

students (rn.)

~\}'

~

~_?
~

s tables doctors (rn.)
;.

~

J~
jI

jl

~ '"

jI

.pi

~ ~

'f-",.9

toys languages meetings

"" ..... 0

~

tall (oo].)
/

seats offices iibraries playgrounds corridors; paths
"

~\.i....
~

//

.,sl_,.o,...

~

W

;

flags

~~

0G..:

~

,
subjects buildings magazines
VI

~\;
. i
'" "

~;Ii

o::J1..A

,.-

lunches rooms washing machines

~
0~
"

JC
j.

~. ~ J/,
/

...

0~W

engineers authors windows lights presents, gifts times days

o.r" ~
jI

0,....:;'

"R

J' ~
."sl

0 ....

J

,,:;,..-

volumes
-t-,....9

i
I

VI;;;,...
~

;

0\~
, 0 j

fruits
0 ,

....il Y
~l;G
J_J-l

~

criminals stations storage rooms
;I

if':<-"

can openers chances

~

J jl>....o

//

-PI

J~
~

..... o'"

teams
;

:~ ~)

teochers schools entrances

(rn.)

I

'\$I

o:J..l,4
__

'"

dresses
~

"R ..... ,..... 0

:i_., J..l,4

classes

J
~!

j

j

.

paragraphs
,

67

Past and Present Tense Verbs
For easy reference we present below a table listing all the verbs introduced son masculine singular past and present tense forms. in this book in their third per-

Present tense

Past tense

Present tense

Past tense

Present tense

Past tense

he stood (up) he opened
;. '" 0 '"

~ ~

helived he fell he heard he was full (of food)

/.G.-t

he took he ate he left he was tired

j5'i
!j)
I...,...JU

he was happy he spread

jI

j.

0

....

J:J
I}

he did, he made he understood he read he peeled he wrote he grew (in size) he wore, he put on (clothing)
;. ji ~ 0 /

~ y:.,
/G .r:
~
JI
0 ....

he drank he explained he thanked he was patient he shouted
~

~

~Ihesat he collected, gathered
0 /

J..l>Yo y.
0 ,/

he deleted he attended heshaved he went out he took off (clothes, shoes)

~
~

0

/

.2

~

~ ~

),..,0,....

""

""

jI

jI 0

....

~
..... 0 '"

~ ~

he climbed he laughed
y.

~

12

~

'"

0 ....

:___,j

he played he wiped he slept he succeeded, passed he went down; he got off (a vehicle)

~.A ~ri:'
~

he hit, struck hecooked he typed he chased (away)

J>---4
y.
0

....

~~
~~ ~

he entered

,;

.JI

0

....

J')~ he studied
he pushed; he paid

~~Ihewent
; 0/

j.j.

he knocked (at a door)
.9 JI
0",

r:::-)
r-'.J

he returned he drew he raised

0",

he published he found he arrived he put, placed he stood; he stopped

he requested, asked for he crossed he discovered, found he did, made, worked he washed

~~

he rode he swam he was quiet

~

~

~

:.:L

68

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