BLASTOCYSTIS HOMINIS

Galuh DN Astuti, MD, Msi. Med.

Blastocystis spp.

  

Yeasts? Fungi? Ameboid? Flagellated? Sporozoan protozoa? SSUrRNA gene: Kingdom Chromista, genus Stramenopiles At least 12 species has been identified Human  most commonly infected by subtype 3 Distributed worldwide, but higher in the developing countries Transmitted via fecal-oral route

4 Major forms
Vacuolar: 4-15 um with a central vacuole most frequently detected in the fecal specimens  Granular: intracytoplasmic granules  Ameboid  Cystic

Life cycle

Risk factors

 

Immunocompromise Exposure to contaminated food or water Travel or immigration from developing countries

Clinical manifestations
 

Mostly asymptomatic Symptomatic:  Acute or chronic diarrhea  Bloating  Flatulence  Abdominal cramps  Fatigue  Irritable Bowel Disease (IBD)

Diagnosis

 

Microscopic identification of parasites (cyst-like stage) in stool  Trichrome stain seems to be the most sensitive staining for this parasite  Do not perform Concentration method  false (-)  Electron microscopy can also be used Culture  Jones medium PCR

More specific and sensitive

Therapy

Asymptomatic  mostly self limited  therapy is unnecessary Symptomatic

First line: Metronidazol 750 mg PO 3 times/day x 10days

Prevention
  

Washing hands before eating Avoid water or food that may be contaminated Wash and peel all raw vegetables and fruits before eating Avoid drinking unboiled tap water and avoid uncooked foods washed with unboiled tap water