----

-~~--~~-'------~'-~- -

I
ENGLEZAPENTRUINCEPATORI
In eeonomia ~i soeietatea romfmeasea sehimbarile survenite in ultimii ani au adus eu ele multe probleme, dar ~i multe oportunitati. Pentru a putea profita de aeestea, este foarte importanta eunoa~terea unei limbi de eireulatie internationala. In domeniul relatiilor eeonomice internationale, al turismului ~i al eulturii, eunoa~terea limbii engleze este indispensabila. De aeeea, in cele mai multe tari europene limba engleza se preda deja la nivelul institutiilor primare de edueatie. Metoda introdusa de EUROCOR, se utilizeaza de mult timp cu sueees in tarile vest-europene ~i in Statele Unite. Dupa cateva. Ieqii ~i dumneavoastra yeti eonstata ea obtineti rezultate rapide eu eforturi relativ miei. Este de ajuns sa invatati zilnie 15 minute. Nu va pierdeti rabdarea in eursul rcpetarii sistematice a excrcitiilor ~i atunei Yeti progresa in mod garantat. Pareurgeti odata eel mult 0 jumatate de lcqie. Fieeare parte a unei leqii contine 0 cantitate suficienta de material nou pentru a exersa. Cursul pentru incepatori este alcatuit din 32 de leqii grupate in 16 caiete. Fieeare Iectie are doua parti. In prima parte a fiecarei Jectii, se introduce materia noua, pentru a carei intelegere ~i fixare va sunt prop use diferite tipuri de exercitii. Partea a doua a celei de a doua leqii nu cuprinde euno~tinte noi, aiei fiind inserate doar exereitii de verifieare. Fieeare leqie se termina eu reeapitularea noilor reguli gramatieale ~i eu tema pentru acas3. La snir~itul caietului de curs se afla voeabularul introdus in leqiile respective eontinand euvintele ~i expresiile noi, prezentate in ordine alfabetica, precum ~i transcrierea lor fonetica. Atunei cand rezolvati pentru prima data un exereitiu, nu folositi de la ineeput filtrul ro~u. Folosirca aeestuia are sens doar daea ati repetat exercitiul deja de trei-patru ori. Daea tcxtul seris cu litere ro~ii este aeoperit eu filtrul ro~u, raspunsul eoreet devine invizibil iar dumneavoastra va trcbui sa apclati la euno~tintele nou introduse. Prin indepartarea filtrului, puteti veri fica daea ati rezolvat eoreet exereitiul. Atat filtrul ro~u cat ~i easeta care va este trimisa impreuna eu eaietul de eurs va vor aj uta sa verifieati pronuntia cuvintelor invatate. Profesorii no~tri sunt gata sa va aeorde tot sprijinul ~i va a~teapta sa deveniti cursant EUROCOR.
\

INDRUMAR PENTRU REZOLVAREA TEMEI
1.
Va sfatuim sa incepe1i rezolvarea temei pentru acasa numai dupa ce a1i parcurs intregul material prezentat in caietul de studiu, dupa ce ati repetat cuvintele
~i

ati

rezolvat ~i ultimele exercitii de verificare. Daca incepeti prea devreme sa rezolvati tema pentru acasa, nu yeti putea folosi corect intregul material al unei leqii
~i

yeti

fi nevoit(a) sa recapitulati. Inainte de a inccpe rezolvarea temei, va recomandam sa studiati eu atentie
~i

sa parcurgeti inca

0

data regulile pe care Recapitularea Ie

accentueaza prin punctare.

2.

Atunei dnd invatam

0

limba straina, trcbuie sa exersam

~i

sa recapitulam cu

perseverenta. In acest scop v-au fost propusc anumite exercitii. Va sugeram sa revedeti din cand in cand materialul deja parcurs. In scurt timp va yeti convinge ca acest lucru nu este lipsit de sens. De altfel, rezolvarca tcmei implica intotdeauna ~i repetarea materiei din leqiile anterioarc. va improspateaza
~i Obi~nuiti-va eu

acest mod de lueru, care

consolideaza

euno~tilllelc

fara sa fili nevoit(a) sa faee(i

eforturi deosebite. Urmfmd metoda de studiu pe care v-a propunem nu ave(i nevoie de un talent deosebit pentru a ob(inc rczultate bune in invatarea limbilor straine. Persoanele mai in varsta, precum
~i

ccle care sunt mai putin talentate in

invatarea limbilor straine, vor ajunge dupa cfttcva luni de studiu la un nivel la care nici nu au sperat. Rezolvand in "cioma" exerci(iiIc pcntru acasa, va va fi mai u~or sa va corecta(i ~i sa propuneti mai muIte posibi1c raspunsuri, iar, la sfaqit, sa alege(i raspunsul care vi se pare a fi eel mai bun.

3.

4.

Cfmd sunteti siguri de rezolvare, trimiteti tema pe paginile destinate corecturii

~i

observatiilor profesorului. Pentru expedierea temei, folosi(i paginile tiparite in aeestscop!

5.

Nu uita(i sa va scrieti numele, prenumele, adresa, numanll de cursant sub care ati fost inregistrat
~i,

mai ales, codul profesorului! Acesta din urma se

gase~te

in

scrisoarea care eonfirma participarea dumneavoastra la curs.

6.

Va rugam, scrie(i citep

Veti vedea, eforturile dumneavoastra VOl' fi displatite. Va dorim mult succes!

Pentru a va u~ura invatarea, pe marginea fiecarei pagini am plasat 0 serie de simboluri grafice. Acestea vor indica diverse genuri de exercitii sau seqiunile de gramatica, fiindu-va astfel mai u~or sa Ie localizati sau sa Ie recapitulati.

Pe marginea paginilor yeti intiHni urmatoarele semne:

in dreptul acestui semn, textul cules cu litere inclinate puncteazii no{iunile gramaticale vocabular care sunt nou introduse in lectia respectivii.

# de

Exercitiu pentru verificarea materialului lexical

~i

gramatical

insu~it

Cuvinte noi

Problema aparuta in acest exercitiu este tratata

~i

in leqia 3 la pagina 21

Observatiile cele mai importante care se refera la regulile gramaticale sau la pronuntie, vor fi intotdeauna reliefate prin acest semn grafic.

Tcxtul care urmeaza dupa semnul ,,>" tiparit cu ro~u (care nu se vede in cazul folosirii filtrului ro~u) arata ca exercitiul trebuie rezolvat conform indicatiei, de exemplu, completarea unui text sau traducerea unei propozitii.

In final, 0 remarca. La radio ~i televizor auziti adesea conversatii sau ciintece in limba engleza. Uneori pronuntia acestora difera de ceea ce va propunem noi in cadrul lectiilor. Aceasta se intiimpla deoarece exista diferenle de pronunlie intre engleza vorbita in Marea Britanie, in SUA ~i cea din Australia.

LECTIA 1 ,

" " PARTEA INTAl

Cititi cu atentie transerierea fonetiea, tiparita eu ro~u, aflata in paranteze drepte. Pentru sunetele care nu exista in limba romana, folosim semne speciale: shopping street - strada cu magazine

- eumpariituri shopping > [~opin(g)] Complexul de sunete n(g) eorespunde sunetelor similare din limba romfma, dar "g" se aude slab, ca in euvantul romanesc "lung". in cuvintele din Jimba engleza formate din mai muite silabe, una dintre silabeeste accentuata. In transcrierea fonetica, vocala scrisa cu litera ingro~ata semnaleaza silaba accentuata: > [~opin(g)). shop Semnul [0 J este un "a": > [~op]. street
,,0"

> [~op]

- magazin, praviHie
-----·TU

scurt. Se roste~te ,,0" cu deschiderea gurii ca i > [stri:t] - strada

Consoana [r] din limba engleza difera de "r"-ul romanesc. Rostiti "r" lara sa atingeti cerulgurii cu Jimba ~i lara vibrarea limbii. Astfel, obtineti un "r" englezesc. Semnul [i:] se pronunta ca un "i" lung, ca in cuvintele "vii, mii": >[strit]. railway station - gara, statie

- cale ferata railway > [rei] L1 ei] Semnul fonetic [U] indica litera "w" care, de obicei, nu se pronunta. In cazurile In care se pronunta, rotunjim gura ca pentru "u" ~i spunem "v": >[ rei! liei]. station > [stei~n] - statie

Semnul fonetic [i] indica un sunet moale, asemanator grupului de vocale "iu", "ea", "ei" din limba romana. Se pronunta ca primul sunet din cuvin!ele: "iute, ea": > [stei~n]. church tower - turn de biserica

church > [t~a:' t:;;] - biserica Sunetul notat prin [t~] este 0 consoana asemanatoare cu "c(i)", "c(e)", "cere, zece" din limba romana. in Iimba engleza insa sunetul [t~J poate fi urmat direct de orice vocala, tara a mai fi nevoie de un "e" sau "i" intermediar. Sunetul [a:J se pronunta ca "a" lung. Semnul [I] (r ridicat) indica un ~,r" care se aude foarte slab: >[t~a:'t~]. tower > [taua'] - turn

Diftongul [auJ se pronunFi la fel ca ~i in limba romana: "dau, sau". Sunetul raj este neaccentuat, scurt. La sfar~itul cuvantului, "r"-ul se pronunta doar daca este urmat de un ait cuvant: > [taua I ] . street door u~a

care da la strada

door > [do:IJ - u~a Sunetul [0: J este un ,,0" lung ca in interjectia din limba romana "oo!": , , > [do: I ).

Folosindu-va de sistemul de transcriere fonetica descris anterior, familiarizati-va cu pronuntia corecta a urmatoarelor cuvinte: shopping shop street railway train station church tower house door - cumparaturi - magazlD - strada - cale ferata - tren - statie - biserica - tum - casa - usa >
[0opin(~)]

> [0 0 P] > [stri:t] > [rei/"ei] > [trein] > [steisan] > [tsJ:'t S] > [t3L1J']
> [halls]

> [do:']

Cititi cu voce tare unnatoarele expresii in limba engleza: church tower railway station shopping street street door

> [tsa:'t 0 taLla']
> [rei/"ei stelsan] >
[sopin(~)

> tum de biserica
> gara, statie > strada eu magazine > usa care da in strada

stri:t]

> I etll

lllo" '

l

Sit cxcrsam noile cuvinte; II\i atcn\i la pronulI\ic si sensu I lor in limba romana:
shopping shop street railway train station church tower house door

>
>

1

~,OJ1III("11

- eumparaturi - magazin - strada - cale ferata - tren - statie - biserica - tum - casa - usa

l~()pJ

> [5t1I.t] > [rei/"ei] > [trein] > [steisim] > [1.)a.'ts]

> [taLl<:l']
> [h<:lLls]

> [do:']

in limba englezii, inaintea Cl/wlntului care define!jte un lucru sau 0 noriune (adicii. inaintea unui substantiv) stii un articol. Articolul nehotiirat a se ajlii inaintea euvintelor care definesc lueruri sau noriuni despre care vorbim la modul general. Corespunde artieolelor: un, 0, dar de multe ori niei nil se traduce inlil1lba romanii. Atunei eand ne referil1lla un anumit lucruJoiosil1l inaintea,substantivlIlui articolul hotiirat the.

Articolul hotiirat the se pronun{ii [Dza]. Acest sunet nu existii in limba rom{mii [DZ] se pronun/ii ea "z" cu limba intre din {i. Pronunra{i "z" de cateva ori. Acum, u~OI; cu gura intredeschisii, pronun/ari "z" cu limba intre din/i, retriigi1l1d limba i/l momentul in care s-a produs sunetul [D z]. Acesta este un sunet sonor; punand degetele pe gat, veri simri vibrariile corzilor vocale.

Articol a the >[aJ >[D'aJ

Pronun!ia vocaHi scurta limba intre dinti

Tipul articolului nehotanlt hotarat

Exersati cuvintele in limba engleza folosind articolul: a shop a street a train a station a church a tower a house a door > [a
~opJ

I!

the shop the street the train the station the church the tower the house the door

> [D'a $Op]
> [DZa Stll:t] > [D'a trem] > [DZa stel$an] > [D'a t;;a:'t;;] > [D'a taua'] > l [Ya halls] > [Dla do:']
~

> [a stn tJ > [a ttemJ > [a
sH'l~an J

> [a t;;a.'t;;] >

la taua']

> [a haus] > [a do.']

Acum intr-o alta ordine: the door a house the station a tower the train the shop a street a church > [Dla do.'] > [ahaus] > [DZastct;;an] > 1,11aua'J > I [)!d llClIlJ > ([Ya sop I > [a stll > [a
t~a

a station the church a train a shop the house the street the tower a door

>

ld slcl~an]

> llYa

t~a.'t;;]

> [a trem] > [a $Op] > [Dla haus] > [D'a stJi:t] > [D'a taua'] > [a do:']

tI
'tsJ

Sa repetam inca 0 data cuvintele, dar intr-o alta ordine, impreuna cu traducerea. Pronuntati cu voce tare urmatoarele cuvinte: the house a station a door the tower > [DZa hausj > [a
stcl~aIl]

- casa
0

statie

> [a do:'] > [D'a taua']

0 u~a

- tumul

the shop a train a church the street a house the train a shop the station a tower the church the door a street

> [DLa ~op] > [a trem]
>[at~a:'t~]
>[[Ya~tnt]

- magazinul - un tren
0

biserica

- strada
0

> [~I

1];\1I~]

casa

>[IY~1

trein]

- trenul - un magazin - statia - un tum

>[a~op]

> [D/ a ~t{,l~,m] >[aI3ldj >[D/a tsa
't~]

- biserica u~a

> [D/a llo"'] >[astritj

0

strada

Ati repetat de mai multe ori cuvintele noi deci, probabil deja le-ati invatat. Incercati sa traduceti in limba engleza: o casa
u~a

> a house > the door > a shop > the station

> [a

hall~j

> IIYa do:']
>[a~op]

un magazin statia

> [[Ya

stci~all]

-----_._--------

- -- -

I
I:

I
o biserica casa o strada turnul o
u~a

> a church > the house > a street > the tower > a door > the shop > a train > the church > a tower > the street > a station > the train > the church tower > the street door > the shopping street > the railway station

> [a

t~a:lt~]

> [D/ ahalls]
>[astri:t] > lOLa taLla l] > [a do:']

magazinul un tren biserica un tum strada o statie trenul tumul de biserial
u~a
1
,1

> [D/ a~op]
>[atrell1] > [D/a t~a > [a taLla'] > [D/a stri :t] > [a stei~an] > [IYa trell1] > [[Ya
t~a:'t~ taLla']
't~]

-"

dinspre strada

> [IY;\ stITt do:'] >
(1)/;1 SOpllll~) stiTt]

strada cu magazine gara

i

!
i
J

1

> llYa I el1"ei stei~an]

I
()
:j') t'

Iar acum vom i'nvata cateva verbe. eu ajutorullor putem forma deja propozitii simple:

II
,r

"

I

Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprimii 0 acriune, 0 intamplare, ca de exemplu: a vizita, a deschide etc. in limba englezii, cand verbulnu este conjugat (cand inaintea lui nu apar pronumele personale eu, tu, el, noi etc.), verbul este la modul infinitiv si este precedat de particula to [tu]. in limba romanii, infinitivul este indicat de particula a, ca de exemplu: a vedea, a intra etc.

l
':

1
~
I

Exersati cu voce tare pronuntia urmatoarelor verbe, cu ajutorul transcrierii fonetice: to see to visit to open to enter > [tLl si.] > [tu vizit] > [tLl aLlpn] > [tu enta'] - a vedea - a vizita, a merge la - a deschide, a desface - a intra to see to visit to open to enter > [tu si:] > [tLl vizit] > [tLl aupn] > [tLl enta']

J
''II

;

I

I
j

Sa Ie repetam acum intr-o ordine diferita: to visit > [tuvizit] > [tu aLlpn] > [tLl si:] > [tLl ental] - a vizita, a merge la - a deschide, a desface - a vedea - a intra to visit to open to see to enter > [tu vizit] >[tLlaupn] >[tLlsi:]

I I
I

to open to see to enter

In urmatorul exereitiu yeti intalni verbele nou invatate impreuna eu substantivele. Cititi eu voce tare expresiile ~i retineti tradueerea acestora: to see the train to visit the station to enter the house to open the door to enter a shop to see the street to open the door to visit a tower

> [tll

,j

D'a trein]
stei~n]

- a vedea trenul - a vizita statia - a intra in easa - a deschide
u~a

> [tll \ i/lt D'a

> I tlll'nLl' D/a haus] > [tll allpn D/a do:'] > [tll cnU a sop] > [til :;) IYa stn:t] > [tll ,illl'n D/a do:'] > [tll IflZJ1 a lalla']

- a intra intr-un magazin - a vedea strada - a desehide
u~a

- a vizita un tum

Ati reu~it sa invatati cuvintele? Cu urmatorul exercitiu puteti veri fica acest lucru. Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele expresii, incerdind sa Ie pronuntati cat mai eoreet: a intra intr-o biseriea a deschide usa a vedea tumul a merge la magazin a intra in statie a vedea
0

> to enkr a church
> [tll alll'n D/ a do:']
> [tu si: D" a tauf)']

> to open the door > to see the toIVer > to
VISit

the shop thc ,1,1tI01l

> [lll

l'111.!'

I)/;1

stl'{~,llli

> 1(1

c'lltCI

cas a

a vedea strada

in limba eng/eza. cand un verb este conjugat, este precedat de pronume persona Ie ca de exemp/u: eu, tu, noi, voi etc.

Sa invatam ciiteva pronume personale in limba engleza.

Aten,tie: in limba eng/eza you inseamna ~i tu,
> [ail
you we you they - eu

~i

dumneavoastra,

~i

voi.

>[al]
you we you they

> [ill:] > [ul.] > [IU:] > I, D/ei]

- tu, dumneavoastra - nOI - dumneavoastra, voi - ei, ele

>[IU.] >[U 1:] >[II'.J
>[IYei]

- - - - . _ - - - - - ---

Pentru a forma propozitii in limba engleza, avem nevoie de cuvinte ca: often always every day every mornmg seldom Sa repetam inca des intotdeauna in fiecare zi in fiecare dimineata
rar
0

>[ oftal1, ofl1] >[o:l"elz] >[cvndel]

- des - intotdeauna - in fiecare zi - in fiecare dimineata

>[seldamJ data: >[ otbn, oln] >[O:]"CI/J
> [c\ 11 dCl]
> [e\ II
1110 '11111(~IJ

- rar

- often - always - every day - every morning - seldom

> [sclc1am]

Cuvintele "often, always, seldom" stau intotdeauna intre verb ~i pronumele personal, pe cand expresiile "every day, every morning" stau la inceputul sau la sfar~itul propozitiei.

Acum vom construi cateva propozitii simple. Fiti atenti la pronuntie: I often enter the church_ They seldom visit the tower. We always see the train. You open the door every day.

> tal Ofll enta' D ' ;\

t~a:'t~]

- (Eu) intru des In biserica. - Ei viziteaza rar tLlrnLil. - Vedem Intotdeauna trenul. - (Iu) deschizi
u~a

J

I I
j

I
!

!

~

> [07el scldam vizit 07 a taLla'] > lUi: o:lUclz si: D 7 a trell1]

> I III

iju pn

O/a do ' cvn

dL:/1

in fiecare zi.

Exersati cuvintele noi:

,
j

i

Re(ineri: in limba romGmi, (de obicei) nu fo!osim inail/tea verbu!ui pronume!e persona!, ceea ce nu schimba sensu!; de exemp!u: eu vad = vad. ill Iimb(J el/g!ezii, insa. este ob!igatoriu sa indicam printr-un pronume persona! persoanG care de~fii,warii (Jeri/I/lea: de exemp!u. I see.
(eu) vad > I scc > you opcn > we entcr > they VISit >[al Sl:] >[iu: aupnJ > [Ui: cnta']

!

(tu) deschizi (noi) intram (ei, ele) viziteaza

>[O'ei viZl!]

(noi) vizitam (ei, ele) intra (eu) deschid (tu) vezi

> we VIsit > they enter > I open > you see

>[U I: vizit] >[DZei enta'] >[ai iiupn] >[iu: si:]

~

Nu uitati! Cuvantul "I" se scrie intotdeauna cu litera mare.

Acum sa aplicam cele invatate. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii din limba romana in limba engleza. F olositi filtrul ro~u: (Noi) intotdeauna vedem tumul. (Eu) intru in magazin in fiecare zi. (Tu) vezi statia in fiecare dimineata. Viziteaza rar biserica. > [ui. o.IU c/z si: DZa taua'] > We always see the tower.

> [ai enta' DZa
del]

~op

evri

> I enter the shop every day.

> [/U: Sl: DZa mo:'nin lg )]

stei~n

evri

> You see the station every mornll1g. > They seldom \ iSlt the church.

> [DIl'l seldam vizit DZii
t~a:'t~]

(Ell) deschid intotdeauna (Voi) intra\i des in casa.

u~a.

> [al

0

I"eli' aupn rYa do:']

> J always open the door. > You oncn cnlci
jill'

>1"101111'111.1' IV,I h.llIsl

1101lse.

(Ei) vad strada in fieearc zi.

> 'Iliey

sec

111,' :-;[Iccl evelY day.

Conjunctia ,,~i" se traduce in limba engleza prin "and"ll:ndJ. [E] este 0 vocala care nu are corespondent in limba romana. Se situeaza intre "e" ~i "a". Se roste~te "e" cu deschiderea gurii ca pentru "a".

Acum putem forma deja propozitii mai lungi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare: We often enter the railway station and I see the train. You always open the door and 1 enter the house. >[U I: ofn enta' DZa reil"ei stei;;i\l1 End ai si: DZa trein] >[iu: o:l"e/z iiupn DZa do:' Ene! ai enta' DZii h,lUS] - (Noi) intram des in gara ~i eu vad trenul. - (Tu) deschizi intotdeauna u~a ~i eu intru in casa.

LECTIA 1 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
In continuare, yom i'nvata expresii ~i cuvinte noi: entrance

> [entrans]

- intrare

Sunetul "a" aflat in silaba neaccentuata se pronunta ca un "a" scurt:

> [entrans]
car - ma~ina, automobil

Semnul [a·.] se pronun~a ca un "a" lung la fel ca 'in cuvi'mtul romi'mesc "mare". SunetuI "r" aflat la sfar~itul cuvi'mtului se pronunta doar atunci dind acesta este uonat de un aIt cuvant care 'incepe cu se pronunta: > [ka:'] bus
0

vocala, 'in rest nu

> [bas]

- autobuz

In cele mai multe cazuri "u" se pronunta "a" scurt: > (bas] woman - femeie

Fi~i atenti la prima silaba accentuata: > [U uman ]

side-walk

- trotuar

Acesta este un cuvant american, Accentul cade pe prima silaba, de aceea ,,1"-uI de Ia sfar~ituI cuvantului nu se pronunta: > [sa:iduo:k] building > (bildin lgl ] lgl ] - cladire

Se accentueaza prima silaba: > (bildin

Sunetul "g" de la sfiir~itul cuvantului nu se pronunta, iar "n"-ul premergator este mai lung ~i mai moaIe: > (hilclin(gl] the apartment - apartamentul

$i acesta este un cuvi'mt american. Accentul eade pe silaba a doua,
Daea substantivlli pronllntat Ineepe eu
0

vocala, de exemplu [apa:rtmantl

atunci artieolul "the" care II precede se pronunta (D'i] La fel, In locul artieolllllli nehotarat "a" se atla "an" [an] pentru a fi lI~urata pronllntia~ > [an apa:'lmantl boy >

I hoi]

- Miat

Cititi cu atentie transcrierea fonetidi a noului set de cuvinte: the entrance the car the bus the woman a side-walk a building an apartment a boy
> [D/i entrims] > [O/a b.'j > [r)l,1 bas] > [IYa"ulllan] > [il"lId"o.kj > [a
bildJJ](~lj

- intrarea ma~ina,

automobilul

- autobuzul -femeia - un trotuar
- 0

cladire

> [an <lI,a '(Illant] > [:1 bOil

- un apartament - un baiat

Sa repetam acum cuvintele noi intr-o alta ordine; ave~i grija sa va insu~i~i corect pronuntia ~i traducerea lor in limba ramana: entrance car bus woman side-walk building apartment boy
> [en(r,lnS 1 > [LI 'j > l bas] >

- intrare ma~ina,

automobil

- autobuz - femeie - trotuar - cladire - apartament - baiat

l "11111,1111

> I ,aid"" L I > I hil,IIII''''1 > 1;'1';' > IhOiI
'111l.11111

Cititi cu voce tare urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

I see a car.
You often enter the building. They always visit the woman. I seldom see the bus. We see the boy every day. You enter the apartment every momlllg. I see the side-walk. They see the entrance.

> [al si:

a ka"

j

- (Eu) vad

0 ma~ina.

> [Ill: ofn enUl' Ola bildin(glj

- (Tu) intri des in cladire. - Ei intotdeauna Ii [ae vizite femeii. - (Eu) vad rar autobuzul. - (Noi) vedcm baiatul in fieeare zi. - (Tu) intri in apartament in fieeare dimineata. - (Eu) vad trotuarul. - Ei vad intrarea.

> [07e i o.l"cIZ viZlt
Olil Uuman j

> [aiseldam

Sl:

O"a bas]

> ["1.

SI'

[Ya bOI evri deij

> [ill. rilla' 0'1 apaItm:'lnl
C\ I! 111 / 1:'11In IC1

J

-- --- ------

----------~

Acum unneaza cateva verbe noi. Fiti atenti la pronuntia corecta: to walk to go to have to look to drive to go to to look at >[tuUok] > [Iu gau] > [tuhE\] > [tu 1uk] > [tu dI<lIv] > [tLl gall tll] > [tLl lLlk El] - a se plimba, a merge pe jos - a merge - a avea - a se uita, a privi - a conduce - a merge la - a se uita, a privi la ceva

Nu uitati!

In limba engleza folosim
1. 2.

cuvantul "to":

Daca preceda verbulla infinitiv. Pentru a desemna
mi~carea 1ntr-o

anumita directie (la, spre, catre).

Cititi cu voce tare urmatoarele propozitii:
1 often drive a car.

- (Eu) conduc des

ma~ina.

We always go to the house.

> [ul.

0 !U C/Z gall tll D/ a halls]

- (Noi) Intotdeauna mergem pana acasa. - Ei au un apartament.

They have an apartment. You seldom look at the side-walk. 1 have a car. We look at the building every day.

> [Ill. seldam JlIk Et D/a S3ICi"o.k]
> lalhFvaka'] >

-

Prive~ti

rar trotuarul.

- Am

0 ma~ina.

I "I

luk Lt D';I hildll(·!

"'llckll

- Ne uitam la c1adire In fiecare zi.

lata he she

~i

celelalte pronume personale:

> [hi
>
[~I

- el
J

- ea

La timpul prezent. dupii pronumele personale he, she, it sau substantivele pe care Ie inlocuiesc, verbul prinJe$te termina!ia -so
he drives she walks
>[ hi: draivz] >[ ~i "o:ks]

- el conduce - ea se plimba

Cititi propozitiile de mai jos; incercati sa Ie pronuntati cat mai corect: The woman often drives a car. > [O/a "um~l11 ofn draivz a b:'] She looks at the building every mornmg. He sees the car.
>[~J:

- Femeia conduce des
ma~ina.

Iliks Et D'a bildm lg )

{'HI Illo:'nin lg )]

- Ea prive~te cladirea in fiecare dimineata. - (EI) vede
ma~ina.

> [hI.

51 Z Ol;}

ka: r ]

Terminatia -s se pronunta(s] dupa consoanele surde (de exemplu p,
t, k, f):

looks :::{ luks]. Terrninatia -s aflata dupa consoanele sonore se pronunta [z]: drives >[ draivz].

Dacii inain tea verbului to go stau pronumele personale he, she sau it, atunci -s prime$te $i vocala de legiiturii -e. Acesta nu are nici un 1'01 in pronun!ie.
he goes

>1

hi

)',;Ill/

I

- el merge

Si vcr/1II1 to havc slIji'ui al/IIII/ilc l1IodijiCliri:

he has she has

- el are - ea are

Pronuntati dar propozitiile urrnatoare: The woman often goes to a shop. The street has a side-walk. She goes to every day.
~hurch

>[ D/a Uuman ofn gauz
tll

a ~op]

- Femeia merge des la magazin. - Strada are trotuar. - Ea merge la biserica jn fiecare zi. - (Eu) merg rar la statia de autobuz. - EI se uita intotdeauna la apartament. - Biserica are un turn. - Magazinul are
0 u~a.

>[DZa stri:t hez a said"o:k] >[ ~i: gilUZ tu evri dei]
t~ii:'t~

I seldom go to a bus station.

>[ al seldam gau ttl a bas stei~n ] >[hi: o:l"eiz luks Et D/~I flpa:'tmant] >[ D/ a t~il:'t~ hEz a tauil']
>[I)!a
~op

He always looks at the apartment. The church has a tower. The shop has a door. We see a boy and a woman.

hE;: a do:']

>["i: 5i: a hOI hld a "11Illan]

- Vedem un baiat

~i 0

femeie.

~--~--- -~----

1/1 expresia to go to church (a merge]a biserica), inaintea cuvantului church nu sefolose~te articolul.

Repetati de eateva ori urmatoarele propozitii. Yeti vedea ea in curand Ie veti invata: Peter often goes to Bucharest. He goes by train. When the train enters the station Peter looks at the buildings. He has no car, so he walks. He visits a church tower. The tower has a door. He visits the tower and looks at Bucharest. Then he goes to a shop.
> [pi tCtI ofn gauz tu bl ukarest hI. gfluz bai tI ein] > ["en DIC\ trein entalz D' a stei~an pLta' luks Et DZa bildidg)zj
> [hi hEz nilu ka r sau hi: "o:ks]

> I hi viZlts a > I hi \ izits

t~a:lt~

taua'

Dla talla' hEz a do:']

Dlj

taua' End luks Et biucarest] tu
a ~opJ

> II h'll hi

gall!

--

in textul de mai sus apar cateva cuvinte noi, Cititi-Ie de mai multe ori pentru a Ie retine: to go by by train no so when He has no car.
> [tu gau bal] > [bal tJClIlj > [n<\lI] > [Selll] > ["en] > [hi: hEz nau ka:IJ

- a calatori, a se deplasa eu - eu trenul - nu, niei un, niei - astfel,
0

a~adar, a~a

- eand, atunei eand - EI nu are
ma~ina,

by bus

by train

Semnificaria cuwintului no este nu sau nid un, nid 0 $i dii propozi!iei sens negativ. De aceea propozi!ia "He has no car." 0 traducem: "Nu are (nici 0) ma~ina."
Daca gasiti cuvinte care va par necunoscute, atunci recititi prima parte a leqiei.

Dupii cum a!i putut observa, in cazul cuwintului buildings, pluralul se formeazii prin adiiugarea unui -s final.Aceastii regulii este valabilii pentru cele mai multe cuvinte:
shop street train tower car magazm strada - tren tum
ma~ina

shops streets trains towers cars

- magazme - strazi - trenuri - tumuri ma~ml

>[ ~ops] >[ stri :ts] >[ treznz] >[taua'z] >[ka.'z]

Pentru prolllln!ia termina!iei -s sunt valabile acelea$i reguli ca $i la verbe.

Acum sa exersam cuvintele noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare toate cuvintele din leqia 1: tumurile el merge un apartament ea vede trotuarul a se uita, a privi la o cladire a conduce
ma~ina

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie. Yeti intl'ilni aproape

>the towelS
>1 iii, 1',111/ I >1;111 ,11';1 '1111.11111 >1',1 \1 >11)

> he goes
> an apartment
> she sees

,I
',;lId".. L 1

.1

> the side-\\" Ik > to look at >a building

>1111 [IlL I 11

>1111

Til ,III ,I

L.J 'I

>10

dll\c a car

strada cu magazine nici un autobuz apOl merg a privi tumul femeia
prive~te

> 1he shoppIng street >[nau b;ls]
>110

bus

>then [ go >[tu luk Et Df a taLla'] des >(1)1::1 '''uman ofn luks] >[ tLi gau] >to go
>111<' ,'11111' Ii

>to look at the towel

a merge biserica euam
ma~inile

> [I)fa

[S,\.' t~ J

>[;11 hh]

>I

11,1\'1<

>1

[Y,I

k;I.'/j

astfel intotdeauna
u~a

> [sau o:l"eIZ] > [Dl a t~a
't~

> so alwavs > the
ChUll It dool

bisericii

do.']

baiatul o statie de autobuz a vizita easa un tren
~i

> [DL aboil > [a bas
stel~an]

> the boy > a bus station > to visit the hou,,·

> [tu vizit D/ a halls] > [a trem l:nd a bas J >
["I. SI.

un autobuz

> a train and a bus > we see every
d~l\"

vedem in fieeare zi gara

eVrI del]
stel~an]

> [rell"el

> railway statIon

Cititi urmatoarele euvinte. Vocalele din fieeare eoloana serise eu litere sunet:

ingro~ate desemneazil accla~i

--.. [ai] by side-walk drive

[ i:]
we see street she

[e] then enter entrance

[el]
train station they

[ 3.] car apartment

[ au] so no

16

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 1 ,
A

Reguli gramaticale

1.1.

In limba engleza, articolele stau inaintea substantivelor:
a

- articol nehotarat - articol hotarilt

the

1.2.

Articolul se schimba inaintea substantivelor care incep cu

0

vocala:

in acest caz "a" devine "an" I ;1I1J, iar articolul hotarat "the" se pronunta [DziJ. a bus the car
[a bas]

an apartment the entrance

[an apa:'tmant]
[011 entransJ

[DI[IIu'1

1.3.

Daca inaintea verbului se ana pronumele ,,1, you, we, they" sau cuvinte care Ie inlocuiesc, atunci fonna verbului nu sc schimba.
1 see [ al s i: J
[Ill: Sl: J - ell

vad

we see they see

[Ui: si:J [D/ el Sl. J

- noi vedem - ei vad

you see

III vezi
"Cll"

Pronumele personal "I" -

sc scrie intotdeauna cu litera mare.

IA.

Daca inaintea verbului se alla pWlllImele "he" sau "she" sau substantive proprii sau comune, atunci verbul primqk Icrminatia ,,-s": she visits he opens the woman looks the boy walks

I '> I

\ i/II',

I

ea viziteaza eJ deschide
IlIk"

1111 :l1I1"1/ I II)
,I "III1LIII

I

femeia

prive~te

I 1) ,I

IWI ",I

"s]

baiatul se plimba

1.5.

In cazul verbelor ,,10 go" ~i "to have" are loc ~i .de pronumeJe "he" sau "she": he goes
I go

0

alta schimbare, daca sunt precedate

-el merge

she has
I have

[~j:hEzJ

- ea are - euam

I ;ll gauJ

-eu merg

[ai hEvJ

1.6.

Cuvintele "often, always, seldom" stau inaintea verbului, in schimb "every day", "every morning" se giisesc fie la inceputul, fie la sfar~itul propozitiei; de exemplu: I often see the boy. I see the boy every day. - Eu il vad des pe haiat. - Viid biiiatul in fiecare zi.

1.7.

Particula "to" atunci cand se aDa Inaintea verbului, indica infinitivul, dar folosit ca prepozitie, inseamna "Ia, in, spre". to the hotel to see -Ia hotel - a vedea

1.8.

Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei ,,-s": a building a tower a car a shop - buildings - towers - cars - shops [bildm(g)z] [taua'z] [ka:rz]
[~ops]

B.

Pronuntia 1.9. Daca un cuvant se termina Intr-un din consoanele surde, (de exemplu, "k, f, p, 1") atunci telminatia "s" se pronunta [-s]. Daca un cuvant se termina Intr-o consoana sonora, sau Intr-o vocala, atunci terminatia ,,-s" se pronunta [-z]. [-s] looks walks visits shops streets [ luks] ["o ks] [ viZlls]
[~ops]

I

I

[-z] drives has opens towers cars [ dr~llvz] [hEz] [aupll71 [taua'/l [ka'/]

[Sill

Is]

lata cateva exemple de consoane sonore ~i echivalentele lor sur-de In cuvintc I ol1l,lne~ti. Intelesul difera datorita faptului ca acela~i sunet se pronunta 0 data sonm, apoi surd. Controlati In care din cazuri vibreaza corzile vocale ~i In care cazuri nll vibrcaza:
b
v

baM vata dare gara

P

papa fata tare

f

d
g

c

cara

1.10. Dupa cum ati putut observa, exista 0 mare diferenta Intre limba scrisa ~i cea vorbita. Unele sunete nu se rostesc clar, exceptie Iacand doar cele din silabele acccni \llIlc. Acest lucru are 0 mare semnificatie ~i in pronuntia propozitiilor. Vocala silabci acccntuate este tiparita Ingro~at; de exemplu: [entrans] Alte semne pe care Ie Intalniti de-a lungullectiilor: r La pronuntia sunetului "r" in limba engleza, limba nu vibreaza, 11Ir "r"-lil de la sIar~itul cuvantului se pronunta complet, doar In cazul In carc cstc lIrlllat de un cuvant care Incepe cu 0 vocala. In transcrierea fonetica am folosit nota\ia ['] Este varianta pe care am folosit-o pentru a nota varianta sononl a grupului "th" din limba engleza.

DZ

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 1
Rezolvati
~i

trimiteti pentm verificare urmatoarele exercitii:

A

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii In limba ramana: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. I often ga by bus. She has no car. So she visits the bay every day. We have an apartment. He seldam gaes to the shopping streets.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

I.
2. 3. 4.

Baiatul deschide rar

u~a.

(EI) se plimba intatdeauna pana la turn. Ai (a) ma~ina. (Eu) merg des cu trenuJ. (Nai) vedem cladirea.

5.
C.

Alegeti raspunsul carect ~i incerclIi(i litera corespunzataare (exista un singur raspuns careet, de exemplu: la, 2c etc.):
l.

Care este cuvantulla care 1I1111na lilerll se pronunta [-z]? a. side-walks

b. shops c. stations

d. streets 2. Care este propozi(ia corcc!a'!
a.
I often go and she go.

b. He has and she has. c. d. 3. We seldom goes and he goes. I look and we looks.
gre~iUI?

Care este propozitia a. She has an car.

b. We have a car. c. They have an apartment.

d. He has a car.

LECTIA 2 ,

" " PARTEA INTAI

Incepem lectia cu setul de cuvinte noi: hotel room window restaurant

> [hautel] > [ru:m] > ["inclau] >
[rest~lrant]

- hotel - camera - fereastra - restaurant

[restro: nt) traffic bicycle school factory office

> [trEfik] > [baisikl] > [sku:1] > [tEktari] > [OflS]

- circulatie - bicicleta ~coala

- fabrica, uzina - birou, oficiu

Pronuntia sunetului [LJ este 0 vocaHi care nu are corespondent In Iimba romfma (vezi ~i la pagina 9); se situeaza 'intre "e" ~i "a". Se prommV' "c" cu gura deschisa larg ca pentru "a": >[ trEfik], > [tEktari].

Sa repetam cuvintele, dar intr-o alta ordine: school office factory restaurant

> [sku:1] > [OtIS] > [tEktari] > [restarant] [ restro:nt) > [hautel] > [null] > [Uindau] > [trEfik] > [baisikl]

-

~coala

- birou, oficiu - fabrica, llzina - restaurant

hotel room window traffic bicycle

- hotel - camerll - fereastra - circula\ic - bicicleHt

Acum va propunem unnatorul exercitiu. Cititi cu voce tare cuvintele de mai jos: factory room window traffic restaurant office school hotel bicycle >
[J1~ktariJ

- fabrica, uzina - camera - fereastra - circulatie - restaurant - birou, oficiu ~coala

>[IIII11J > I"illdau] > 1111'I]k] > 1I(':-,1;11 al1t1 > lolls I > 1 :-,kll II >111,1111('11 > 1h:II',ILJ 1

- hotel - bicicleta

Sa introducem cuvintele noi in propozi(ii. Cititi-le cu voce tare We seldom go to the factory. >1
"I ,,('1,1,1111 1'.111 IELl.IIII

~i

verificati-va pronuntia:

III IYa

- Mergem rar in fabrica.

The room has a window.
I have a bicycle.

>11 )'" III III III /

,I

"il1d<lllJ

- Camera are

0

fereastra.

- Am 0 bicicleta. >1"1',1
>1111
I)

We see the traffic. He sees a hotel. A school and an office. You seldom go to a restaurant.

,1111,111,1
\',1111('11
011\

- Vedem circulatia. - El vede un hotel. I
- 0
~coala ~i

"1 ,. ,I

>1:1""" I I 11,1.\11
>1111 ;,('ltI,1I11

un birou.

1'.1l1

111 ,I

- Mergi rar la restaurant.

I (",I, \ I ,II \ I

I

Cu unniitorul exercitiu puteti veri fica daca v-ali din limba romana in limba engleza: fabrica, uzina camera fereastra circulatie restaurant birou, oficiu
~coala

insll~it

cuvintcle noi. Traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte

> I,ll 1"1 \' > II \('"1 > II'II\(I,,\\' >tl,IIII' > 1,';,1.1111.1\11 > oil \( \' > S\ \'0,,1 > holl'! > IJIl:yck

>[ fEktariJ >[rll:mJ >[ L1indauJ >[ trEtlkJ >[ restarillltJ >[ ofisJ >[sku:lJ >[ hautelJ >[baislklJ

hotel bicicleta

71

"acesta este" sau "acela este" in limba engleza se reda prin: "it is" III Cititi urmatoarele propozitii
It is an office. It is a hotel.
~i

1/

J.

unnariti traducerea lor:
>
[It IZ
1Z

an O[IS] a hautel]

- Acesta este un birou. - Acesta este un hotc1. - Aceasta este
0

> [It > [it

It is a station.

1Z

a stel~,lIl]

static.

Unneaza alte cuvinte noi:
III

>[111] >[nia']

- in, la, inauntrul - aproape, in preajma, aproape de, Ifmga ~ ~i,

near

also not

>[ olsau] >[not]

de asemenea

-nu

"este, se afla, exista" se traduce in limba engleza prin: there is [Olea' 1/ I. Incepem propozitia cu aceasta constructie cand vrem sa exprimam ca ceva este, exista. Propozitia este completa daca raspunde la intrebarea "unde?". Inaintea substantivului sta articolul "a", iar inaintea adverbului de loc sta articolul "the".

Cititi unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza. Fiti atenti la sensullor: There is a bicycle in the house. There is an entrance in the building. There is a factory near the station. > [D7ea' lZ a bUlsikl in DZa haus] >[DZea' IZ an entrans in DZa bildm(g)] > I [Year
lZ

- Este

0

bicicleta in cas:!.

- Este 0 intrare in cladire. - In apropierea s(a!ici sc afla o fabrica.

a fEktan

TIl a'

1)/.1 stCl~;lIl]

in mod curent, expresia it is se prescurteaza it's [Its J, tot astfel ~i expresia there is: tltt'J'e'sll ) (·.I ' z] .
lata diteva exemple: It's a restaurant. It's an office. There's a school near the station. There's a window in the room. >[lt5;1Il OIISJ >[DZea'z a sku lilia' DZa stel~al1] >[DZearz a "indau DZa ru.m]
In

- Acesta este un reS(i\l\l ant. - Acesta este un birOlI. - Este 0 statiei - Este
0

~coala

in vecin~l(atea

fereastra In camera.

in urmatoarele propozitii Yeti regasi cuYintele ~i expresiile noi. Cititi propozitiile, fiind atenti la pronuntie: There's a hotel near the station. You also see the car. It's not a school. There's a boy in the house. > [IYea' a hautel nia' Of a stei~an] > I ill: olsbll si: aka:'] > Ills not a sku:l] > IIVe;\'/. a boi in 1)/;1 h;llls] - Este un hotel In apropierea statiei. ~i

tu yezi

ma~ina.
0 ~coala.

- Aceasta nu este

- Este un Miat In casa.

~i ~i

In urmatoarele propozitii yeti Intiilni cateva dintre cuYintele noi. Cititi propozitiile In limba rorpiina Incercati sa Ie traduceti In limba engleza:
0

Este

bicicleta In cladire.

> Thcl,"" ;1 "ICicle in I hc' I>I111<lll1g > I orlL"11

> [D/ea' a baisikl in D/ a bildin(g)] > [ai ofn si: DZa boiz] > ["i: olueiz gau niii' DZa sku:l] >
[~i:

Ii yad des pe baieti. Mergem intotdeauna In apropierea ~colii.
~i ea 0 Yiziteaza In fiecare zi pe femeie.

",c

tlic hoys.

> WL' ,i1I\ .I\S!-'O lIear the s,' hoo I > Shc
,liso IISI1':
d,l\"

thl' woman

c)'c'\ \'

alsau vizits DZa uuman everi dei]

Cladirea nu este un oficiu.

> Th,' Illllidlll.I' ;111 or! \C('

I', IJ<II

> [07a bildin lgl iz not an oris]

Acum veti invQ!a toateformele conjugate ale \lcrbului aft - to be I1II hI: I:

..-<

lam you are he is she is it is weare you are they are

- eu sunt - tu
e~ti,

>
dumneaYoastra sunte\i

1.11 lilll

I am you are he is she is it is we are you are they are

> [ai Em] > [ill: a: r ] >[hi:iz]
>[~i:iz]

> [Ill. ;\.'J > [hi: \z] >
[~i:

- el este - ea este - acesta, asta este (genul neutru) - noi suntem - yoi sunteti, durnneayoastra sunteti - ei sunt

iz]

>[itiz] > ["i: a:'] > [ill: 3:'] >[D/cia']

>[itiz] > [Ui: a:'] > [iu: a:'J > [D/ei
;1 '

I

Sa exersam verbul "to be". Cititi Cll voce tare urmatoarele propozitii:

1 am in the house.

> [ai Em m D7 a halls] - Eu sunt in casa.

You are a boy. - Tu

e~ti

> [It I ;1.',11'"1\ baial.

He is near the door. > [hl: iz nla' DZa do.') - El este langa ll~a.
It is a car.

She is in the street. > I ~I 1/ 11\ I) - Ea este pe strada. - Aceasta este
0 ma~illil.

,I

stlI:tJ

> [it iz aka:'] > lUi: a.' in D/ a bildin(gl] > [iu: a:'in biUcarcst] > [D'zei a r boiz]

We are in the building. You are
In

- Noi suntem in - Sunteti in

cladin~.

Bucharest.

Bucure~11.

They are boys.

- Ei sunt baieti.

Traduceti in limba engJeza urmatoarele propozitii. Nu uitati sa folosili pronumele persollal, dl:oarece in limba engleza pronumele nu se omite: El este in camera. (Noi) suntem in apropierea (Eu) sunt in birou. Sunteti la
Bucure~ti.
~colii.

> He is in the room. > We are near the school. > I am in the otlice. > You are in Bucharest

Ea este a femeie. Ei sunt pe strada.

> She

IS

a woman.

> They are in the sll l:cl.

Aceasta este
E~ti

0

statie.

> It is a station. > You are near the station.

aproape de static.

$i celelalte forme ale verbului to be asel1uinator lui it is, se pot prescurta: lam you are she is he is it is weare you are they are - I'm - you're - she's - he's - it's - we're - you're - they're > [all11] > [iua l] >
[~i:z]

> [hi:z] > [its] > ["ia l] > [iua l] > [Dlei']

---Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii folosind f()l"Jnele prescurtate:


El este in camera. Suntem in apropierea Sunt in birou. Sunteti la
Bucure~ti.
~colii.

> He's in the room. > We' re near the school. > I 'Ill in the office. > You're in Bucharest. > She's a woman.
> Ihey're ill the street.

Ea este 0 feme ie, Ei sunt in strada. Ei sunt in strada. Aceasta este
E~ti
0

> TI1l"\" re

III

the street.

statie.

> II is;1 s(;lliull.

aproape de statie.

> \'''11 ;11<' Ill:;!r tile statioll

Acum sa invaVim ciiteva verbe noi: to work to get to know to wait to speak to like
> 1111
";\

'1,1

- a lucra - a primi, a obtine - a ~ti, a cunoa~te - a
a~tepta

> IIU

~l'11

> 11UIl<lU] > [tu"ed] > l tu spik] > [tu laik]

- a vorbi - a(-i) placea, a indragi

lar acum yom folosi aceste verbe in propozitii. Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu verbele care lipsesc. Folositi filtrul ro~u: Ea intotdeauna obtine El
a~teapta des
0

camera la hotel.
~colii.

- She always >gets [gets] a room in the hotel. - He often >waits ["eits] near the school. - 1 seldom >speak [spi:k]. - We >work [" a:lk] in Predeal. - They >like [lalk] the
wom~n.

in apropierea

Vorbesc rar. Lucram la Predeal. Lor Ie place femeia.

UrmiHoarele expresii se folosesc destul de des: to wo'rk at/in to wait for to speak to to like to > l tu "a:'k Et/ll1] > [tu "el t fa,'] >[tllspd] > [tu lalk tll] - a lucra la - a
a~tepta

pe cinev", ceva

- a vorbi Cll cineva - a-i placea sa faca ceva

Completati verbele care lipsesc din textul in Iimba engleza:

Ii place sa mearga la Bi.lCllre~ti,
A~teptam

- She >lJkes to llalks tll] go to Bucharest. - We always >.vait for [Ueit 1'0 'I the bus, - He >works in [" a:'ks m] the oHice,

intotdeauna autobuzul.

Lucreaza In birou.

in exercitiul urmator, exersati-va inca 0
to work in a factory to get a bicycle to like to speak to wait for a bus to speak to a boy to know the entrance

data pronuntia ~i traducerea:
111 d

>(tu lJa:'k

IlJJan]

- a lucra intr-o fabrica - a primi
0

>[tu get ,I balslkll >[tll 1<1Ik tll spl.kJ >[tll LICit Co:' a bas] >[tll sJ!l.k tu a bOI] >[tu nau
D7j

bicicletil

- a-i placea sa vorbeasca - a
a~tepta

un autobu/

- a vorbi cu un biliat - a
eunoa~te

entJans]

intrarca

Traduceti In limba engleza propozitiile de mai jos. La pronuntia: El merge des la hotel. El se afla in camera. Ea se uita rar la
ma~ini.

sffir~it,

nu uitati sa va verilical i ll'llducerea

~I

> 1J e often goes to the hote I. > lie
IS 111

>[hl olil g,lll/ >[11l: iz
111

III

I) " 11.1111<'11

the

roOIll

1)/,1

III III

I

> Sill' sL'll!ol111ooks at the C,II', >I
sp\.'ak
tIl 111l'

>[~i: scld.lIII Illk , I I

D/a k.l'/I >[al
111()

Vorbese eu baiatul in fieeare dimineata. Intotdeauna primim camera. El a~teapta trenul in fi ecare zi.

boy

Spl k III I)

.1

1',,1

1'1

II

C\ ('J) \11\\\ \1\1\).'.

'nlll l "'1
0 1'\'1/ "1'1 I)
,I III

> \Ve ail, ays

,!el

th\.'

100111,

>[L1 1:

1111

> He \\-alts I'm the every d'lY.

11',!II1

>[hl: "\.1h III ' I) \.'\'\\ dell

,I 111'111

Merg des la biserica. Este aproape de
~coaHi.

>

J

orten go to church.

> [ai ofn gau tLl

t~a:'l~]

> It's ncar the school. > There is a factory in Buzau, > I Ilk,'
10

> [its nij' D7a sku:l] > [D"ea' izj fEkEui in buziiu] > [ai laik tu"a:'k] > [hi: olsau nauz DZii hautel] > [at olsau enta' D7a bildin lgl
{'vri mO:'nin(gl]

Este 0 fabrica la Buzau. Imi place sa lucrez.
~i
~i

work,

el cunoa~te hoteluL

> I Ie ;J1so kllOws the hotel. > I ;J1:;o c'IIll'l the building
CI

eu intru in cladire in fiecare dimineala. Ea merge des cu autobuzul.

CI \ IIIOrJlIllg,
"~lies

> ,\/rl' "IIL'I!

by bus.

>

[~l:

ofn gilliz baf bas]

Unele verbe au aceea!ji forma ca !jf suhstalltivele:
to walk a walk to work work > I III " 0 k I > l a " 0 J.: I > [Ill
";1

,
- a se plimba
- 0

'

plimbare

'J.:

- a lucra - munca

> [";1'1,1

Exista !ji substantive pe care Ie formam dill verhe:
to drive driver to speak a speech > I III dr;lfl

I

- a conduce ~ofer,

> I dlafl ;,' I > >
Illl

conducator auto

SI)IJ.: I

- a vorbi - vorbire, discurs

I;, 'phi

Cititi urmatoarele propozitii: The driver goes for a walk every day. We go to work every morning. There is also a speech. They speak about everything. ~oferul

merge la plimbare in fiecare zi.

- Noi mergem sa lucram in fiecare dimineala. - Este
~i

un discurs.

- Ei vorbesc despre orice.

In expresiile to go to work (a merge la mUllcd) ,\'i to go to school (a merge la !jcoala) omitem articolul, ca!ji In cazul expresiei to go to church (a merge la biserica).

..,..,

lata cateva cuvinte noi: morning in the morning evening in the evening > [i: Vllll1(g)j

> [mo:'nin lgJ ]

- dimineata - dimincata (ca pCllOada de timp) - searii - seara (ca perioada de limp) ro~u

>

[Ill D/I

i:vnin lgl ]

red
white good

> [red]

> ["a't]
> [gud]

- alb

- bun
- rau

bad
five two there

> [bEd]
> [ fa/v]

- cwei
- doi
- acolo (cuvantul "th~'l\'" cste adverb de lac, de aCl:ca sc afla la sfar~itul propOZi\IL'j)

> [tlL]

> [D'e~l']

Acum citili cuvintele invajate antenor, intr-o alta ordine: in the morning red five good evening bad

> [111

[)/a

mO:'nll1(gl]

- dimineata (ca perioada de limp)
~ ro~u

> lied] > [fa/v] > [gud] > [i.vnm ,gl ]
> [bEd]

- cinci - bun - seanl - rau - doi

two
morning there in the evening white

>1

111

.1
'11111 1 "))

> !1ll0

- dimincaja - acolo - scanl (ca per!oada de limp) - alb

> [I l'Ld') > lin D'I i:\JlIJl1"lj
> ["a'l)

28

Completati propozitiile In limba engleza:
~i ~oferul are 0 ma~ina ro~ie.

- The dri ver also has a >red [red] car. -It's a >good [gud] speech. - He often walks >in the evening [in D/i

Acesta este un discurs bun. El se plimba des seara.

i: vnin lg 1]Noi vedem cladirea alba. Ea nu este In Bucure~ti dimineata. - We see the >white [" a it] building. - She is not in Bucharest >in the morning [in D'a mo:'nin lgl ].
~i

ei au cinci ma~ini.
~colii.

- They also have >five [faiv] cars.

Vad doi baieti in apropierea
Ea este
0

- I see >two [tu:] boys near the school.
- She's a >bad [bEd] woman.

femeie rea.

Merg des acolo.

- I often go >therc l Olea'].

In exercitiul care unneaza, cuvintele din limba romana trebuie traduse In limba engleza: cinci ferestre doua seri
~coala

> five windows > two evenings > good school > l hl.d ";, 'k I

buna

munca grea langa turnul ro~u In magazinul alb nu dimineata I ~I este un baiat rau.
I ':1I merge des la lucru.
hllll ~i nlU

> bad work
> ncar the red tower

>

1111 [)':I

"aft

~()P J

> in the white shop > not in the morning > He's a bad boy. > She often goes to work: > good and bad > He is also in the white building. > not in the evening

> [not in IYa mo:'nin lgl ] > [hiz a bEd boi] >
[~i:

ofn

gi:llIZ

tu "a:'k)

> [gud End bEd]
cl~\direa

~i

el esle in

alba.

> [hi: iz ii!S,lll in IYa "ait hildin,glJ

1111

St'arll intr-ull birotl

a

11Il'1':I

> I III ":I:'k

III :11,

ollsJ

> to work in an oHice

")0

LECTIA 2 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
J

in aeeasta parte a leqiei nu mai introdueem materie noua; doar repetam eeea ee am invll\at pana aeum. Cu ajutorul exercitiulul de citire yeti invata care este structura unei propozitii In limba engleza. Repetarea permanentii a material ului asigura consolidarea cuno~tintelor, dar ~i utilizarea lor eu unei propozitii. Citind eu voce tare, invatati mai mult dedit ati erede. Va veti Insu~iti mult mai repede expresiile ~i eonstruetia propozitiei. ce in ce mai repede
~i u~urinta.

Dupa un timp veti observa ea nu mai trebuie sa faceti eforturi pentru a va aminti un clIv[mt sau topiea

in acest fel, yeti inva(a kCllile din

mai

u~or!

Cititi dar, pronuntand cat mai corect urmatorul dialog. Repetati exercitiul pana cand

IHI VL(I

l11ai fa,

niei a gre~eala. Daca nu sunteti siguri In legatura cu pronuntia unul cuvant, cautati-l In vocahularul de la sIar~itul eaietului de curs. Pentru u~urarea pronuntiei. am tiparit silabele accentuate culikrc ingro~ate. Repetati cu voce tare: Barbara: Peter: There's a church in the shopping street.
I know the church. It's near the railway station. We go there every mOl'lling.

Mary: Tom:

I often go to school by bus. I know the driver. He likes the traffic in thc

~f rl'cl~.

I go to work by bicycle. I always see Peter. He walks on the sidc-w:dk IIr goes to

school.

Mary: John:

Peter likes to go to school. When he enters the building he goes

to

a

1'1I011I,

Then he

opens the red window and looks at the boys and girls in the street. He also likes to go to the hotel. He knows five rooms in the hotl'!.

Tom:

There's a good hotel

In Bra~ov.

The hotel has a white entrancc. The hoft'! also has a
10

restaurant; it's a good restaurant. I work there. I like there. I like Barbara: there in the morning. John also likes to go to the restaurant. He goes there every day.

work there. I go

Peter: Mary:

You go to the restaurant every day. John waits for you in the cwning. I often see you in the traffic. We go to school in the evening l

Acum repetati tot ce ati invatat pana acum. Daca nu sunteti siguri de pronuntia sau intelesul unul cuvant, cautali-l in vocabularul de la sIar~itul caietului de curs. Folositi filtrul
ro~u.

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii, apoi verificati-va.

Efectuati tema pentru acasa numai dupa ce ati rezolvat acest exercitiu, tara gre~eli. Daca nu ati reu~it, nu intrati in panica; citili de mai multe ori propozitiile in limba romana ~i reveniti asupra elementelor de gramatica sau de vocabular care va ridica inca proQleme: Barbara deschide intotdeauna
u~a.

> Barbara always opens the door. > Then she goes to work.
> She knows the work. > In the evening she waits for the car. > There's traffic in the street.
> The boy often looks at the tower.

Dupa aceea ea merge sa lucreze. Ea
cunoa~te

munca.

Seara ea

a~teapta ma~ina.

Este circulatie pe strada. Baiatul se uita des la turn. EI vede doua ferestre. Lui ii place sa mearga la turn. Este
0

> He sees two windows. > He likes to go to the tower. > There's a red and a white entrance. > The house is near the church. > He often goes to church. > They also visit the office every day. > Then they go by car. > Barbara always drives the red car. > She seldom looks at the traffic. > He likes to drive a car. > 1 always open the door. > You walk to the building every day. > When we wait for you we look at the traffic in the street. > In the evening she always goes by bus. > Then she goes to the railway station > In the restaurant she speaks to the hoy.
> Thl" boy goes by train every lTIornillv.

intrare in

ro~u ~i

una in alb.

Casa este aproape de biserica. EI merge des la biserica. $i ei viziteaza biroul in fiecare zi. Dupa aceea ei merg cu
ma~ina.
ma~ina ro~ie.

Barbara conduce intotdeauna Ea
prive~te rar

circulatia.
ma~ina.

Lui ii place sa conduca

Intotdeauna desehid u~a.
j n fiecare zi te plimbi pana la cladire.

( 'i'\lId Ie a~teptam, privim I' ircula\ia de pe strada. Sl'ara ca merge intotdeauna cu autobuzul.
I\POI ca mcrge la gara.

III ll'sl:llIrallt ea vorbe~te cu baiatul.
Ilaiallllilingl" eu trcnul in fiecare diminea\:1. 0l"o,da
l'sll'

ill Strada Sla\iei.

> The school is in Station Street.

> There is also a factory ncar thl"
31

sl:lIioll

Tom lucreaza acolo.
~i

> Tom works there.
> The factory also has
~lJl

fabrica are un birou.

ullll'C

EI deschide intotdeauna birou1 ~i vorbe~te cu Peter. Tom il Este a
a~teapta des
ma~ina

> He always opens the Uj'lllT and speaks to Peter. > Tom often waits for Petel

pe Peter.

proasta.

> It" s a bad car.
> John is not in the apal tllll'lll
> He is in the ShOpplllg stlcl'l

John nu este In apartament. EI este pe strada cu magazine. El
prive~te

rar

ma~ini1e.

> He seldom looks at the

eli'

iJ a~tept

pe John in fiecare zi.
ma~ina

> ] walt for John every day > Tom has a good car. > It's a Rolls Royce, > He also has two red blcyck ' > In the evening he visits
vede hotelurile
Illil 11.11\ I

Tom are a

buna.

Acesta este un Rolls Royce. E1 are
~i

doua biciclete

ro~ii.

EI viziteaza seara

Bucure~tiul. ~i

Dupa aceea merge cu trenul ~i restaurantele.

> Then he goes by train ami and the restaurants.

',ll'

III\" Illllcls

Citi~i urmatoarele cuvinte. Literele din fieeare coloana tiparite cu caractere Ingro~a!l', dcscmneaza
aeela~i

sunet: [e] hotel restaurant get red white five

[u]
school room two you

[ail
like

[I:]
evening speech he see

32

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 2 ,
2.1. "Acesta este" sau "acela este" se traduce In limba engleza prin "it is"l it if I . Accs!:! sc prescurteaza In vorbire, dar ~i in scris; astfel, scrierea corecta ~i pronuntia este "it's"! '1:;1 . in unniitoarele expresii nu se folose~te articol: to go to church to go to work
to go to school

2.2.

- a merge la biserica

- a merge la lucru
- a merge la ~coala

2.3.

Dad vrem sa exprimam eil ceva cste, exista, folosim expresia "there is", a carei forma prescUliata este "there's". There is a red car in the street. - Este
0 ma~ina ro~ie

pe strada.

Daca cuvantul "there" se afla la sfjr~itul propozitiei, are rol de adverb de loc ~i se traduce "acolo". She works there. - Ea luereaza acolo.

2.4.

Formele conjugate ale verbului lam you are I'm you're

,,10

be" (a fi) ~i variantele prescurtate sunt urmatoarele: we are you are we're you're noi suntem voi sunteti

- ell slInt - tu e$tl, dumneata e~ti - dUl11ncavoastrii sunte\i

he is she is it is

he's she's it's

- el estc
- ea cstc

they are

they're

-

ei sunt

- acesta, asta este

2.5.

Uncle verbe Ie folosim des in combina\ie cu anumite cuvinte: to wait for to speak to to work at/in - a
a~tepta

pe cineva, ceva

- a vorbi eu cineva - a lucra undeva - EI 0 a~teapta Intotdeauna pe Barbara. - Vorbim eu Peter in fiecare zi.

He always waits for Barbara.
We speak to Peter every day.

2.6.

lata ciiteva substantive formate din verbe: to drive to speak to work to walk to enter - a conduce
- a vorbi

driver speech work walk entrance

- ;;ofer, conducator auto - discurs, vorbire - munca - plimbare - intrare

- a lucra - a se plimba - a intra in, a pa~i in

:

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 2
Rezolvati ~i trimiteti spre verificare unnatoarele exercitii: Indicatiile referitoare la rezolvarea temei ~i modul lor de trimitere Ie gasiti in indrulllarul de la sIar~itul caietului de curs:

A

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Is he near the railway station? No, he always goes by bus. The driver waits for Peter every morning. He also likes to speak to Barbara. There's a good restaurant in the hotel. I walk to work every day.

B.

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ea merge des seara la restaurant. Vedem gara in fiecare zi. Camera are ferestre. Fabrica este in apropierea oficiului. Cunosc cladirea alba. In fabrica este un birou.

C.

Construiti propozitii in limba engleza folosind cuvintele de mai jos: I. 2. 3. 4. like to, I, drive, car, a the driver, often, speak to, we by car, she, goes, every day, to work has, windows, the building, five

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 1 SI 2 , ,
a also am an
>ldj
>[~lls,lllJ

- un (articol nehotariH) ~i,

la fel

~i ...

de asemenea

> l Em J >[<lnl

- sunt - un (articol nehotarat, se folose~te Inaintea cuvintelor care Incep cu 0 vocala) - Intotdeauna, mereu

always and apartment apartment-building are bad to be bicycle boy building bus bus station by car church church tower door to drive driver to enter entrance evening in the evening every every day factory

>[0:]'\:1/]

> [End] > [apa:'tJll;ln\ I
- apartament - bloc

> [a:']
>[bEclJ
> [tll bl.l

-

e~ti,

sunte\i, suntem, sunt

- rau -afi - bicicleta - baiat - cladire

> [ba/slkll

> [bo/]

>[b;lsi

- autobuz sta~ie

de autobuz

> [b;\/]

- cu, pe (a calatori) ma~ina,

>[b:']
>[t~il:'t~]

automobil

- biserica - turn de biserica

> [t~ii:'t~ (alia']
> [do:']

> [tLl dra/v] > [dra/va']
>[tll ellta']

- a conduce ~ofer,

conducator auto

- a intra In, a patrunde In - intrare - seara

> [entrails]

> [in IYi

i\1l111','lj

- seara (ca perioada de timp) - fiecare,
to~i,

>[e\ril

toate

- fiecare zi
>11'1<"(;1111

- fabrica, uzina

.
five to get to go to go to good to have he he's hotel house

-

> [fa/v] > [tLiget] > [tu gall] > [tu gau tLl] > [gud] > [tu h£\] > [hi:] > [hl:z] > [hautel] > [haus] > [a/]

-cmci - a primi, a obtine - a merge - a merge la - bun - a avea - el - el este - hotel - casa -eu - eu sunt - in, la, inauntruJ - este, e - acesta, asta (pentrll obiectc, notiuni abstracte, animalc, gellul neutru) - asta este - a ~ti, a cunoa~te - a(-i) placea, a i'ndragi - a-i placea sa faea eeva - a privi, a se lIita - a se uita la, a privi la - dimineaFI - dimineala (ca pcrioada de timp) - aproape, - nu, - nu - biroll, oliciu - des - a dcschide, a desface - cale ferata
stel~lI]
111

'--.

I'm
III
IS

> [aim] > [111] > [IZ] > [It]

it

it's to know to like to like to to look to look at morning in the morning near no not office often to open railway railway station red

> [ItS] > [tLi Hau] > [tLi lark] > [Ill laik tu] > [tu lllk] > [tLl luk Et] > [Illo:'nin(g)] > [in DZa mo:rnin(g)] > I ilia'] > [Ilau] > [noll > [otis] > [oftan], [ofn] > [tu aUfln] > [reil"ei] > [led"el > [red]

preajma l1ici
0

I1ICI 1111,

- gara ro~u

restaurant room school to see seldom she she's shop shopping shopping street side-walk so to speak to speak to speech station street the then there there's they they're
to

> llestarant],[restro:nt] > [ru:m] > [skull > [IU si:] > [seld:ull]
> lsi]

- restaurant - camera ~coala

- a vedea - rar - ea - ea este - magazlll - cumparaturi

> [sopin"'l stri:l] > l s:)/d"() L I

- strada cu magazine - trotuar - astfel,
a~adar

>[Iu spiLJ >[Iusprklul

- a vorbi - a vorbi cu cineva, cuiva - vorbire, discurs - statie - strada - (articol hotariit)

> [Spl"] > [slci:;n]
> [slii
II

>

I [)Iell]

- atunci, dupa aceea, apoi - acolo - acolo este - ei, ele
- ei/ele sunt

> [IYea'] > [[Yea'z]

> lD/el] > [D"el'] > [tll]

- 1.
2.

la, spre, catre indica modul infinitival verbelor; de exemplu: to speak

(ower

> [tawl'] > [trEfik] > [Ireln] > 111I1 >
[Ill \'i/ill

-tum - circulatie - tren -doi - a vizita, a merge la - a a~(cpta
1

IralTic (rain
Iwo
(0

vi:;i(
wail

(0

:- 1111",/11 '. 1III
", '/1 [" '

to wait lor

.. a

a~tepta

pe cine va, ceva

to walk walk we we're when white window woman to work to work in/at work you you're

> [tu uu.k]
:>

- a merge pe jos, a se plimba - plimbare -noi - noi suntem - dnd, atunci cand - alb - fereastra - femeie, solie - a lucra - a lucra la -munca - tu, voi, dumneavoaslra
- tu
e~ti, voi suntc\i, dumneata e~ti, dumneavoastra SlII11c(i

["o:k]

> [Ui'] >[Uia'] > [lien] > [t/att] > ["ind:H1] > [" um im] >[tu"a"k] > [tll "a "k ,nlEt]

>(Ua.·kJ
> [ill: 1 > [ilia']

1'n cazuri/e in care aufost prezentate dOUG prol1un(ii d~(erite pentru ace/a!j! cuwln(.

11IS('(1I1II1U

cd pot

fi folosite ambele variante.

INVATAREA SISTEMATICA ,
Deseori, intre cl~tigatorul probei de zeee mii de metri doar ciitiva metri.
~i

restul eoneurentilor e

0

diferenta de

Aeesta este rezultatul unui antrenament mai sustinut, al unui mod de viata mai sanatos si al unei ..' , " pregatiri mai laborioase. Aee~ti faetori hotarase rezultatul final ~i ii difcrentiaza pc cl~tigatori de restul eoncurcn~ilor. Dumncavoastra a\i hotanit sa partieipati ~i sa absolvi(i eursul dc limba cngleza pentru ineepatori, pentrll a fi mai bine pregatit pentru restul vietii. Exersa\i in ficcarc zi un sfert de ora! Nu este mult, dar cstc foarte important sa faeeti aeest lueru eonsecvent ~i sistematico Nu va pierdeti elanul Inlllpta ell grijilc cotidiene ~i nu va abateti de la Invii\arca zilnica. In eunind yeti eonstata ca cforturile dlll11nCavoastru dau rczultate. Veti fi mai l11ai lI~or 111!clc~i dc persoanele straine, yeti plltca vedca fill11e, yeti putea eiti in limba engleza. Cllnoa~terea acestei limbi de eireulatie international a va poate influenta ~i aetivitatea profesionalil, precllm ~i alte domenii ale vietii dumneavoastra, indiferent daea este yorba de petreeerea limplIllii liber, de viata soeiala sau de eariera.
A~adar,

aveti numai de ea~tigat.

Va ureaza mult sueees, Profesorul dumneavoastra

© Copyright by

EUROCOR - Institutul European de Cursuri prin Coresponden1ii S. R. L. 1998

INDRUMAR PENTRU REZOLVAREA TEMEI
1.

va rugam, incepe~i rezolvarea temei pentru acasa numai dupa ce a~i par-curs intregul material, ati repetat cuvintele ~i ati rezolvat tara grqeli ultimele exercitii de verificare. Inainte de a incepe rezolvarca acesteia va recomandam sa studiati cu atentie ~i sa recititi inca 0 data textul, urmarind reguli1e pe care reeapitularea Ie accentueaza prin punetare. Atunei cand Invatam olimba straina, aceasta trebuie exersata ~i repetata eu aceea~i perseverenta cu care am Invatat sa mcrgem. In acest seop v-au fost propuse 0 serie de exereitii. Va sugeram sa revedeti din cand "in dnd materialul deja parcurs. In scurt timp, eursantul se va convinge di accsl lucru nu cste lipsit de sens. Tema implica intotdeauna ~i repetarea materiei din Icqiile anterioare. Obi~nuiti-va cu acest mod de lucru, care, in mod spontan ~i tara eforturi deosebite, va improspateaza ~i consolideaza cuno~tintele. Pentru a putea obtine rezultate in invatarea limbilor straine cu ajutorull11etodei noastre, nu aveti nevoie de un talent deosebit. Chiar ~i cei care sunt mai putini receptivi in invatarea lil11bilor straine, vor ajunge dupa cateva luni de studiu la un nivella care nici nu au sperat. Deci, fiti gata de lucru!

2.

3.

u~or

Propunerea noaslr~l cste sa Incepeti rezolvarea temei folosind ciorna. Va fi l11ai sa va corccta\i ~i sfl propuncti mai multe posibile raspunsuri, iar la sfar~it sa alcgeti varianta care vi sc parc a fi cea l11ai buna.

4.

Transcrieti tema "pc curat" doar cand sunteti siguri de rezolvare. Pentru trimiterea temelor folositi forn1Ularele tiparite in acest scop. Nu uitati sa va scrieti numele, prenumele, adresa, codul profesorului ~i numarul de cursant sub care ati fost inregistrat. Acesta din urma se gase~te in scrisoarea care confinna participarea dvs. la curs. Va rugam scrieti citet! Alaturati temei pentru acasa un plic timbrat autoadresat. In acest plic yeti primi tema corectata. Este foartc important Sil nola\i pc plic numarul de cursant sub care ati fost inrcgislrat! In cazul In t:al"l: WlllaIH!a\i matcrialc noi de curs, sau aveti alte cereri legate de rcla(iilc t:u puhliclIl, st:ric(i-Ic scparal pe 0 foaie de bartie ~i trimiteti-le pe adresa noastra ImprcLilla t:1I lcma. In wI\lIl din stflllgajos al scrisorii, scrieti "Relatii cu publicul". Dumneavoastra suntcti cel care stabile~te termenul de trnmtere a temei. Independent de acesta, lUCl-area dUl11neavostra va fi intotdeauna controlata ~i retrimisa de catre profesor.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

1O.

Veti vedea, eforturile dumneavoastra vor fi rasplatite. Va dorim mult succes!

LECTIA 3 ,

PARTEA INTAI

Ineepem eu invatarea catorva euvinte noi: town table clock on day girl time afternoon mother usually >[taun] > [teibl] >[klok] > [on] > [dei] >[ga:rl] > [taim] > [a:ftarnu :n] >[maDZa'] > [iu:juaJi] ora~

- masa - eeas, orologiu - pe - Zl - fata - timp, vreme - dupa-amiaza - mama - de obieei, in mod obi~nuit

Iar aeum sa exersam intr-o alta ordine euvintele noi impreuna eu artieolul. Rcpetati:
the day usually

> r IY~l dci]
;;. IlIljllali I

-ZlUa - de obieci, III mod obi~nuit - omasa - dupa-amiaza - mama - timpul, vremea - un - pe - un eeas, un orologiu
- 0
ora~

a table the afternoon the mother the time a town on a clock a girl

> I a (tilll] > [O/i a:fht'nu:n] > [DZa maDZa r] > [DZa taim] > [a taun] > [on] > [a klok] >[aga:'l]

fata

In acest exercitiu yeti intalni cuvintele noi in expresii. Cititi textul ~i fiti atenti Ia pronuntie: the boy and the girl the clock on the table in the afternoon Mother usually looks at the clock.
It is a good day.

> [DZa bOI End DZa ga: rI] > [DZa klok on D'a teibl]

- baiatul

~i

fata

- ceasul de pc masa - dupa-amiaza

> [maDZa r iu:juaiJ luks Et DZa klok]

- Mama se uita de obicei la ceas. - Aceasta este
0

> [it iz

a gud dell

zi buna.

Nu sc folose~te articolul lnaintea cuvantului town atunci cand reiese clar din context la care ora..~ se refera vorbitorul. ill cursul lectiei vom Intalni mai multe exemple In acest sens.
I ar acum unneaza propozitii in care yom intalni cuvintele noi. Inainte insa, inca un lucru important:

At i /nvii(at ca particllla to precede verbul fa modul injinitiv, lnsii ea este folosita indica directia, tradllcClIldu-se prin la, spre, catre.

~i

pentru a

I have no time to visit Barbara. He goes to school the afternoon.
1D

> [al hEy
ba"bla]

n~lll

taim ttl vizit

- Nu am timp sa Barbara.

0

vizitez pe

> l h l:

ga 11 / (II S k II: I

In

- Dupa-amiaza el merge la ~coala.

(YI ;l.lta'lIl1

111

She likes to go to town. The girl usually waits for the train. It's a good day to work. The boy has two tab les in the room. Mother is in the room.

>

[~J.

l;lIks

III L;\II to 1.\11/1

I

- Ei ii place sa mearga in - Fata a~teapta de obicei trenul. - Aceasta este munca.
0

ora~.

> [Dla ga:rlllJ:Jllall ''l'lls fo: r DZa trelll] > [its

a gud del tll

ua:'k]

zi buna pentru

> [Dla boi hEz tu: te/blz in DZa nnn] > [malY,Y
17. III

- Baiatul are doua mese in camera. - Mama este in camera.

"\

D'a ru:m]

----------------

--_..

-------------

Dupa cum ati observat, inaintea cuvantului "mother" nu este necesara folosirea articolului.

-'

Cunoa~te!i deja

cuvintele noi? Citi!i cu voce tare propozi!iile in limba engleza

~i

completa!i-Ie:

Aceasta este

0

zi buna pentru plimbare.

- It's a good> day [dei] to go for a walk. - I have no > time [talm] for shopping. - > Mother [maDzii"] is in the building.

Nu am timp pentru cumparaturi. Mama este in cladire.
A~tept

des cate

0

zi in

ora~.

- I often wait> in town [in taun] for a day. - We go to church> in the afternoon [DZi a:ftarnu:n]. - There are two> clocks [kloks] in the room.

Dupa-amiaza mergem la biserica.

in camera sunt doua ceasuri.

in propozitiile anterioare ati putut observa cd putem combina cuvantul for cu diferite cuvinte ~i astjet fntelesul lui diferd de la caz la caz. to wait for -a
a~tepta
0

pe cineva, ceva
zi,
0

for a day
to go for a walk to look for

- pentru

zi, timp de

0

zi

- a merge la plimbare - a cauta

Yom invata din nou cilteva cuvinte noi. Fiti atenti 1a pronuntie!
p~opk
IIIC(;

>1

pi 1 11

1

popor, na\iune, oameni placlIl, f"llIllIOS, dragu\, sil1lpalic
111(\1l',

people nice big first

>[ pi:pl]
>11I<l/S] >[bigJ >[fa:rst] >[sam] >[kantri]

·111.1/',1

big first some country

>Illlt'l >[ta:'st] >[sam] >[kantri]

voltlll1il1os, Ill<lsiv

- prim, intai - ceva, cateva, - tara, stat
ni~te,

ciltiva, unii

some country

in urmatoarele propozitii yeti vedea felul in care folosim aceste cuvinte. Cititi propozitiile ~i verificati pronuntia.

She's a nice girl.

>[ ~i:z a nals ga:rl]

- Ea este

0

fata draguta.
0

First he sees a white building. >[ta:rst hi: si:z a Uait bildin(g)] - intili el vede There's a big factory there. I know some good shops. Shc's there. >[DZearz a big tEktari DZea r] >[ ai nau sam gud
>[~i:z ~ops]

cladire alba.

- Acolo este

0

fabrica mare.

- Cunosc ciHeva magazine bune. - Ea este acolo.

DZei:'F]

It's nice to see Mary.

> [its nais

tu

si: meari]

- Este placut sa 0 vad/ vedem pe Mary. - Aceasta este
0 ma~ina

It's a big car. Some people have houses and some have apartments. It's a nice country.

> [its a big ka: r] >[sam pi:pl hEv hauziz End sam hEv apa:rtmants] > [its a nais kantri]

mare.

- Unii oameni au case, iar unii au apartamente. - Aceasta este
0

tara frumoasa.

In limba engleza diteodata nu se folose~te articolul inaintea substantivului, daca substantivul este la plural, de exemplu: "Some people have houses and some have apartments." Daca cuvantul "some" se afla inaintea substantivului, atunci nu folosim articolul.

Citi~i

urmiltoarele expresii

~i

propozitii

~i

incercati sa Ie traduceti:

I have somc clocks. We usually go first. He sees a big station. Some girls like to walk. He drives a big car every day. Bucharest is nice. a big country the first building

>[al hEv sam kloks]

> Am cateva ceasuri. > De obicci mergem primii. > El vedc
0

statie mare.

>1 sam

ga:'!/ lalk III "o'k]
,1 hIL', ka:' eVil dCI]
II:

> Unor fcte Ie place sa se plimbe. >El conduce zilnic 0 ma~ina mare. > Bucure~tiul este frumos. >0 lara mare >prima clad ire

>[ hi: (!I-alv/ >[ bukarest

n,lls]

>[a big kantri] >[DZa fa:rst bildin(g)]

Sa exersam cuvintele noi. Traduceti-Ie in limba engleza:

cateva ceasuri mari o tara frumoasa doua mese mari prima zi frumoasa cateva fete cinci
ora~e

> I S;II11 hi!', k lob I
>1"
11"1',

- some big clocks - a nice country - two big tabks

kalllill

>[lu. hlg 1('/111/1 >[DZa
f~l:'st 11,11:,

d"11

- the first nice day - some girls - five towns

>[sam ga:'lz] >[falV taunz]

Vorbese des eu mama. Este timpul sa pleeam. Ea merge cateva dupa-amieze la birou. Nfaria este des aeolo.

> [ai ofn spi:k tu maDZiF] > [its taim tu gau] > [~i: gauz tu DZi ofis sam a:fUFnu:nz] >[meari iz ofn D'eiF]

- I often speak to mother. - It's time to go. - She goes to the office some afternoons. - Mary is often there.

Sa verifieam daea

~titi

deja euvintele noi. Tradueeti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Noi suntem primii. Dupa-amiaza mergem des in El este un baiat dragut. In birou este
0

> We are first.
ora~.

> We often go to town in the afternoon. > He's a nice boy. > There's a big table in the office. > Some rooms have five windows. > I have no tlme to go for a walk. > Mother enters the shop every day. > It's a town ncar Bucharcst. > The clock is nice, > It's a big country. > So 11](' pcople go for a walk
111

masa mare.

Cateva eamere au einei ferestre. Nu am timp sa merg la plimbare. Mama intra in magazin in fiecare zi. Aeesta este un
ora~

aproape de

Bucure~ti.

Ceasul este fmmos. Aceasta estc a tara mare.

Unii Oal11Cnl I11crg Sl'ara la plimbare.

the evenings.

In leetia anterioara am diseutat deja despre vcrbul "to be" - "a fi". In aceasta leqie vom prezenta formele interogative ~i negative ale acestui verb.

in cazul formiirii interogativului verbului to be se schimbii ordinea cuvintelor din cadrul propozitiei, adicii substantivul sau pronumele personal oJi verbul loJi schimbii locul lntre ele. Acest pro'cedeu se numeoJte inversiune. Ajirmativ:
I am a girl. He is a boy. They are in the room. The girl is nice. - Eu sunt (0) fata. - El este (un) Miat. - Ei sunt in camera.

In terogativ:
Am I a girl?
Is he a boy?

- Eu sunt (0) fata? - Este el (un) Miat? - Ei sunt in camera?

Are they in the room? Is the girl nice?

- Fata este draguta.

- Este draguta fata?

Transformati urmatoarele propozitii afirmative in propozitii interogative:

She is a mother. We are in town.

>Is she a mother? >Are we in town?

- Ea este mama? - Suntem in
ora~?

It's a big car. You are a good boy. They are big buildings. I am in the house. He is in the office. The car is nice.

> Is it a big car'?

- Aceasta este E~ti

0 ma~ina

mare?

> Are you a good hoy') > Are they big buildings?
> Am I in the house?

(un) Miat bun?

- Sunt cladiri mari? - Sunt in casa? - EI este in birou? - Este frumoasa
ma~ina?

> Js he in the officc'? > Is the car nicc')

Cfllld rrispunsulla int'rebare este ajirmativ, acesta este fonnulat cu ajutorul cuvantului yes [ies] - da, urmat de pronumele personal9i de catre verb. Substantivulfolosit in intrebare vafi inlocuit de catre pronumele personal. Iar acum unneaza diteva exemple in care raspunsul este pozitiv: Are you in the house? Is he a nice boy? Are the people in the hotel? Are they in the office? Are the cars white? Is the boy in the room? Is the girl nice? Is the house big? E~ti

in casa?

Yes, I am. Yes, he is. Yes, they are. Yes, they are. Yes, they are. Yes, he is. Yes, she is. Yes, it is.

- Da. - Da. - Da. - Da. - Da. - Da. - Da. - Da.

- Este un Miat dragut? - Oamenii sunt in hotel? - Ei sunt in birou? Ma~inile

sunt albe?

- Baiatul este in camera? - Este draguta fata? - Este mare casa?

It illiocuie,~tesubstantivele ajlate la persoana a treia singulQl; daca ne referim la obiecte, animale

sau abstrac{iuni. In celelalte cazuri folosim pronumele he sau she; they inlocuie9te substantivul la plural. Raspundeti la Is it a church? Are they in the street? Am I in the office? Are we near Bucharest? Is she a good girl? Is the boy in the building? Is the bicycle white? Are the people in the restaurant?
--.. 'I
t'"

url11~\toarcle

intrebari:

> Yes,

It

is.

I

,1111

>

Yl"" he

is.

> Ycs, it is. > Yes, they are.

Cand raspunsul este negativ, folosim cuvantul no [nau] urmat de pronumele personal, apoi de verb, urmat de cuviintul not [not}

Sa vedem cateva exemple: Are you a girl? Is he in the house? Are they first? - Tu
e~ti

fata?

No, I am not. No, he is not. No, they are not.

- Nu. - Nu. - Nu.

- EI este in casa? - Sunt primii?

Raspundeti negativ la unnatoarele propozitii dupa modelul descris anterior:

Are you a boy? Is he in the car? Are we near Bucharest? Is it a big car? Is the factory big? Is mother in the shop? Is the boy in the car? Are the people nice?

> No, I am not. > No, he is not. > No, we are not. > No, it is not. > No, it is not. > No, she is not. > No, he is not. > No, they are not.

"is not" se prescurteaza "isn't" [iznt], iar "are not" se prescurtcaza "aren't" [a:fnt]. "am not" de obicei se prescurteaza numai in cazul construqici "I am not" care poate fi inlocuit cu fonna prescurtata "I'1lI not". la! aClllll S[l rCpC!£11ll cxcrci\iul anll'l"JOr l(lloslI1<1 In r£lspllllS f'ormclc prcscurtatc ale vcrbului: Are you a boy? Is he in the car? Are we near Bucharest? Is it a big car? Is the factory big? Is mother in the shop? Is the boy in the car? Are the people nice? > No, "Ill Ilot > No, he Isn't. > No, we aren't. > No, it isn't. > No, it isn't. > No, she isn't. > No, he isn't.

> No, they aren't.

Acum unneaza cateva cuvinte cu ajutorul carora putem forma intrebari: who what where when >[hll:] >[Uot] >[ UCaf] >[U en ] - cine, pe cine - ce - unde, pe unde, incotro - cand
7

who what where when

>[ Ill!:] >[ "ot] >[ Ueaf] >[ Uen]

In fntrebari, cuvintele interogative who, what, where, when stau fnaintea verbelol~

rar acum sa Ie vedem

~i

in propozitii interogative:
>[ 1m: iz it]

Who is it?
What is it? Where is the boy? When are you in the building?

- Cine este? - Ce este? - Unde este Miatul?

>[Uotizit]

>[Uen a: f iu: in bildin(g)]

1)/;1

- Cand

e~ti

in cHidire?

Sa exersam cuvintele noi. Completati propozitiile Unde este biserica? Cine este? Ce este pe masa?

Cli

pronumele interogativ corespunzator:

- > Where ["car] is the church? ->Who[hu:] is it? - > What ["ot] is on the table?

Folositi cuvintele noi la traduccrca urmatoarelor propozitii: Cine este [ata? Ce este in cladire? Unde este Cand
e~ti ma~ina?

> Who is the girl'l

>What is in the building? > Where is the car? > When arc you in the office?

in birou?

Acum urmeaza cateva verbe noi. Repetati-le cu VOce tare:

to ask to live to want to think

>I III
>{ III

.I.sk I
IIV

- a intreba, a cere (cuiva, ceva) - a trai, a locui - a vrca, a dori - a gandi, a sc gilndi la

to ask to live to want to think

>{tu a:sk] >(tu liv]
>[lu " on l)

I

>{ tu uontj
>etu Tsin(g)k]

>1 til T'lII(l')kj

La transcrierea foneticii a ultimului verb v-afi illlii/nil cu notarea grupului th, asemamitor semnului [ IY I.

/1/1

semll

!lOU,

l' 1"]. Este folosit la

Desigur nu ali uitat semnul [DZ] . Semnul [TsJ este Ioarte asemiiniitor, cu deosebirea cii nu este sonor. Se roste~te ca t, cu limba fntre din (i. In timp ce ne retragem limba dintre dinfi, pronun!iim un s. In acest caz corzile vocale nu vibreaza.
to think

.8

Sa repetam verbele noi. Traduceti unnatoarele expresii in limba engleza ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie: el este eu vreau ei gandesc noi traim/locuim
tu intrebi

>he is > I want >they think >we live >you ask > they ask > you are > he bves >we want >you think

>[hi: iz] >[aIUont]

>[DZel TSin(g)k]
>[Ui: liv]

>[iu: a:sk] >[DZei a:sk] >[iu: a: r ]
>[hi: livz] >[Ui: Uont] > [iu: TSin(g)k]

ei intreaba
tu e~ti
ellocuie~te

noi vrem voi ganditi

Sa vedem daca ati

reu~it

sa vi Ie

insu~iti.

Cititi

~i

completati unnatoarele propozitii:

Ne place sa locuim la

Bucure~ti.

- We like to> live [liv] in Bucharest. - 1>think [TSin(g)k] he wants to be first.

Cred ca vrea sa fie primul.

o intreb des pe Maria.
Ea vrca sri locuiasca la
Bucure~ti.

- I often >ask [a:sk] Mary.
- She >wants [Uonts] to live in Bucharest. - We >are ['lor] always there.
- I >w.l11i
0 ~coala

Suntcm intotdeauna aeola. Vrcau sa al11
0 l11a~ina.

I"oldl to have a car. I I' 111("lk I it is a bad school.

Eu cred ca aceasta nu este

buna.

- 1 >tiJlIlk

In propozitiile atributive, cuvintele relativ-interogative who, where, when pot fi omise.

Folositi cuvintele noi in traducerea urmatoarelor propozitii:

Cred ca ii place sa locuiasca la ora~. Ea vrea sa vada strada comerciala. Apoi ea vrea sa mearga la biserica. Traim intr-o tara mare.

> I think she likes to live III town. > She wants to see the shopping street. > Then she wants to visit the church. > We live
III

> [al TSin(g)k ~i: laiks tu liv in taun]
>[~i:

Uonts tu si: DZa ~opin(g) stri:t]

> [Dzen ~i: Uonts tu vizit Dza t~iLrt~] >[Ui: liv in

a big country.

a big kantri]

9

LECTIA 3 - PARTEA A DODA ,
In propozi~iile urmatoare ve~i intaIni un cuvant nccunoscut. Pentru inceput, sa exersam pronuntia lui: through through

Citi~i

propozitiile

~i re~ineti

traducerea noului cuvant: - Privesc rar prin geam (pe fereastra). - de la un capat la celalalt (de-a lungul de-a latul) - Accsta este un tren direct spre Londra. - Este
0

1 seldom look through the window. through and through It's a through train to London. It's a street for through traffic. lata inca un cuvant nou: behind She's behind the building. He usually walks behind John. The office is behind the school. >[bihaind]

~i

strada pentru circulatie continua.

behind - Ea este in spatele cladirii.

>[bihaind]

- De obicei merge in urma lui John. - Oficiul este in spatele
~colii.

"He usually walks behind John."

Sa exersam cuvintele noi eu ajutoruf cfttorva cxcmplc. Rcpctati propozitiile
pronun~ie:

~i

fiti atcnti la

She is behind the shop.
I know the town through

- Ea cstc in spatclc magazinului.
>[ainall IYal.lllll End TSru:]
>[~i:
1

1'111

and through. She sees a red car through the window. You often go to the church behind the station. He goes by bicycle through the town every day.

- ClInosc ora~ul de la un capat la celalalt. - Ea vede 0 ma~ina pe fereastra.
ro~ie

si:z a red ka· I "ILl: DZa Uindau]

>[iu: ofn gau tu DZa t~a:rt~ Qihamd DZa stei:;;n] >[hi: gauz bal baisikl TSru: DZa taun evri dei]

- Tu mergi des la biserica din spatele sta~iei.
- E1 merge cu bicicleta prin ora~ in fiecare zi.

In prima parte a lectiei am clarificat regulile de formare a intrebarilor ~l raspunsunlor cu ajutorul verbului to be. lnversiunea nu poate fi folosita in toate cazurile de formulare a intrebarilor.

La timpul prezent, daca verbul de conjugat nu este to be, intrebarea se fonnuleaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do.

in propozifiile aflrmative intalnite pana aeum, verbul era folosit la timpul prezent simplu (the Simple Present Tense [DZa simpl prezant tens]). in propozi{iile interogative, toate verbele cu exceptia lui to be, sunt illsofite de auxiliarul verbul to do [tu du]. in aeest caz verbul to do [tu du] sta inaintea subiectului dupa care urmeaza verbul de conjugat. Sa urmarim exemplele:
Verb + pronume personal + auxiliar Do Do Do sau substantiv they you the girls like want live the town? a car? in Bucharest? - Lor Ie place - Vrei 0
ora~ul?

verb

+

ma~ina?
Bucure~ti?

- Fetele locuiesc la

Comparati propozitiile afinnative cu propozitiile corespunzatoare interogative ~i repetati: I like the town. Do I like the town?
You go to the shop every day.

>[ai laik DZii taun] >[du ai lalk DZa taun]

- Imi place ora~u!. - Imi place ora~ul? dC!] - Mergi la magazin in fiecare zi. - Mergl la magazin in licearc zi'! A~teptam

>1 Ill.
'1
dll
('I'll

gdll tll

1)1a sop

eVIl

Do you go to [he shop every day? We always wait for the train. Do we always wait for the train? You often go for a walk. Do you often go for a walk?

III

1',111

III I Va sup

dul
liCit 1'0:'

>l"" O:I" CU
DZa trein]

intotdeauna

trenu!. A~teptam

>[ du "i: o:l"eiz "eit fo:[ OZa trein] >[iu: ofn gau fo:[ a "o:k] >[ du iu: ofn gau fo:[

intotdeauna

trenul? - Mergi des la plimbare. - Mergi des la plimbare?

a "o:k]

Transformati unnatoarele propozitii in propozitii interogative: They often go to church. We seldom see the boy. I visit Mary every day. You always work in the big building. We usually walk to work. The boys like the town.
11

>Do they often go to church? >00 we seldom see the boy? >00 I visit Mary every day? >00 you always work in the big building? >00 we usually walk to work') >00 the boys like the town'?

Daca in intrebare figureaza pronumele he, she, it sau un substantiv, verbul auxiliar va fi does [daz), iar verbul aflat in propozitie nu prime~te terminatia ,,-s".

~i

acum, prin intennediul exemplelor urmatoare yeti vedea cum folosim verbul auxiliar "does":

She often goes to Bucharest. >[~i: ofn gallZ tu bubrest] >[ daz ~i: ofn gall Does she often go tu bukarestJ to Bucharest? He se ldom visits Mary. Does he seldom visit Mary?

- Ea merge des la Bucurqti?

>[hi: seldam vi71ts mean] >[ daz hi: scldiill1 vint mcari] - El

0

viziteaza rar pe Maria?

Peter goes to school every day. >[pi:tar gauz tu sku:1 evri dei] >[daz pi:ta r gall tLi sku:l Does Peter go to school - Petre merge la every day? evri dei) in fiecare zi?

~coala

Ca ,~i in cazul verbului "to be ", in intrebiiri fo!oslIn ~i cuvinte interogative (" where ", "when ", etc.) care stau inaintea verbe!or auxiliare !a inceputu! propozifiei, de exemplu: >["ea r du iu: iu:juali gau in DZa mo:rnin(g)] >["en du LU: iu:juali aupn D7 a ~op] >["ot ka:rz daz
~i:

Where do you usually go in the morning? When do you usually open the shop? What cars does she like? When does he visit the girl? Where do they walk every day? What school do you like')

- Unde mergi de obicei dimineata? - Ciind deschizi de obicei magazinul? - Ce fel de
ma~ini

lalk]

ii plac (ei)?

>["en daz hi: vizll [Ya ga:'I]
>["ca' du lYcl "o.k eVil dC11

- El cand viziteaza fata? - Unde se plimba (ei) in fiecare zi? - Ce
~coala iti

>1"01 sku.1 <Ill

Ill:

lalk]

place?

Completati unnatoarc!e propozitii:

John walks to work every day. They often visit the woman.

- Where ><Iocs .lohn walk every day? - When >do they woman?
VISII

- Unde se Jplimba Ion in ficcare zi? - Ei cand viziteaza fendeia? - Ce vedem rar? - Ciind deschide (el) magazinul?

the

We seldom see the buildings. - What >do we seldolll see? He opens the shop in the morning. - When >does he open the shop?

12

!ntrebarea se formuleaza altfel cu ajutorul cuvfmtului who.

Constructia interogativului fonnulata cu ajutorul cuvantului "who" ("cine?") este asemanatoare cu cea a propozitiei afirmative, numai ca pronumele personal sau substantivul este inlocuit de cuvantul "who". In acest caz, verbul va fi conjugat la persoana a treia singular, deci va primi intotdeauna tenninatia ,,-s".

$i acum sa vedem ciiteva exemple in acest sens: Propozi!ie afirmativii: John opens the door every day. They seldom see the station. You like cars. Propozi!ie interogativii folosind "who": Who opens the door every day? Who seldom sees the station? Who likes cars? >[hu: aupnz DZa do: r evri del] >[hu: seldam si:z DZa stel~n] >[I1U: laiks ka:rz] - Cine deschide in fiecare zi? - Cine vede rar statia? - Cui ii plac
ma~inile?
u~a

Formula~i

intrebari cu ajutorul cuvantului "who":
Cll

Cine vorbqte rar Cui Ii place casa? Cine vrea sa

Maria?

> Who seldom speaks to Mary') >Wlw
lIkes Ihe !lousc'!
W;lliis

mcarg~l

la plimbarc?

> WI1()

!() ~'()

I()I ;1

w;Jik'!

Cine il viziteaza pe Richard III ficcarc zi?

>WlJo

VISits 1~lchaJ(1

every day'!

"
Dacii riispundem afirmativ la 0 fntrebare care fncepe cu do/does, atunci dupa cuvantul yes punem pronumele personal corespunziitor, apoi verbul auxiliar. in eazul raspunsurilor seurte do se pronun!a cu "u" lung.

Do you like the girl? Does she live in Bucharest? Do we go to school in the morning? Does he visit the woman every day? Does the boy like cars? Does mother go to work every day?

Yes, I do. Yes, she does. Yes, we do. Yes, he does. Yes, he does. Yes, she does.

- Da. - Da. - Da. - Da. - Da. - Da.

Dacii riispunsulla fntrebare este negativ, pronumele personal se aflii dupii cuvfmtul "no ", urmat de verbul auxiliar ~i cuvantul "not ", de exemplu:

Do you like the girl? Does she live in Bucharest? Do we go to school in the morning? Does he visit the woman every day? Does the woman like Bucharest?

No, I do not. No, she does not. No, we do not. No, he does not. No, she does not.

Nu. Nu. Nu. Nu. Nu.

Fonna prescurtata a lui "do not" este "don't" [daunt], iar a lui "does not" este "doesn't [daznt].

Acum sa folosim formele prescurtate. Dati raspunsuri negative la urmatoarele intrebari: Do you like the girl? Does she live in Bucharest? Do we go to school in the morning? Does he visit the woman every day? >No, I don't. >No, she doesn't >No, we don't. >No, he doesn't.

In continuare vom exersa formarea interogativului la timpul Simple Present. Traduceti in limba engleza: Unde mcrgi adesea? Ei
0

> Where do you often go') > Do they visit the woman every day? > When do you usually go for a walk? > Who likes to look at the traffic? > Do you often open the window? > Where is Peter'.' > I )(WS lill' I' Iii ;lIso
W;lllt

viziteaza pe fcmeie In fiecare zi?

Cand mergi de obieei sa te plimbi? Cui Ii place sa se uite la eirculatie? Deschizi des fereastra? Unde este Petre?
~i

fata vrea sa mearga cu trenul?
a~teapta

to go

hy train?

Cine 11

intotdeauna pe biilat? > I )\) II\cy scc lhe bus through the window? >Who
IS

Ei vad autobuzul pc fereastra? Cine este In cladire?
Cuno~ti

in thc building?

hotelul din strada Garii?

> 1)0 you know the hotel in Station Street? > Do you want to go there in the afternoon? > Where do you want to go by bus? >When does she want to go to Bucharest?

Vrei sa mergi aeolo dupa-amiaza? Unde vrei sa mergi eu autobuzul? Cand vrea ea sa mearga la Aeesta este un birou?
14
Bueure~ti?

> Is it an office?

Sa continuiim cu fnviitarea exprimarii posesiei, deci cu adjectivele posesive:
my your his her its > [mail > [ LO: f ] > [hiz] > [ha: f ] > [its]
-

meu, mea, mei, mele tau, ta, Uii, tale allui/sau, a lui/sa, ai lui/sai, ale lui/sale al ei/sa, a ei/sa, ai ei/sai, ale ei/sale lui, sale, ei (pentru obiecte, notiuni abstracte, animale)

-

our your

> [ aua f ] > [ io: f ] > IIYl'I' I

-

nostru, noastra, vashTI, voastra, dumncavoastra lor

no~tri,
vo~tri,

noastre voastre,

their

-

Polosim accs(e ./iJrme ale adjectivului posesiv atat pentru singular, cat exemplu:
my shop - magazinul meu my shops

~i

pentru plural, de

- magazinele mele

Cititi urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind adjective posesive. Fiti atenti la pronuntia corecta: It is my house. Our car is red. Your clock is nice. It is a nice house. Its windows are big. His shops are big. >[it iz mai halls] >[aua f ka: f iz red] >[io: f klok >[it iz
~l
17 IlaIS]

- Aceasta este casa mea. Ma~ina

noastra este

ro~ie.

- Ceasul tau este frumos. - Aceasta este
0

nais haus]

casa frumoasa.

>[its Uindauz a: f big] >[hiz
~ops

- Geamurile sale sunt mario - Magazinele lui sunt mario

a: f big]

Their school is in Station Street.

> [DZel' sku:1 iz in stri:t]

stei~n

-

~coala

lor este pe strada

Garii. - Tara voastra este mare. - Aceasta este bicicleta ei.

Your country is big.
It is her bicycle.

>[io:' kantri iz big] >[it iz ha:' baisikl]

In limba engleza, daca se folose~te adjectivul posesiv, articolul este omis.

Completati propozitiile de mai jos cu pronumele posesiv corespunzator. Unde este
~coala

ei?

- Where is > her school? - Does she often go to > his house? - > Our fathergoes to the shop every day. - We seldom visit> their mother. - Where is > your bicycle?

Ea merge des in casa lui? Tatal nostru merge la magazin in fiecare zi.

o vizitam rar pe mama lor.
Unde este bicicleta ta? Acum urmeaza cuvinte noi: green blue short long >[gri:n] >[blu:]
>[~o:rt]

- verde - albastru - scurt, mic, scund - lung, indelungat, mare

>[gri:n] >[blu:]
>[~o:'t]

green blue short long

>[lon(g)]

>[Ion(g)]

Cititi propozitiile cu voce tare, articulat: I have a blue car. It's a green house. I often go for a short walk. It's a long table. We always wait for the bus for a long time. Retineti urmatoarea expresie: for a long time - timp indelungat, pe/pentru timp indelungatl multa vreme In limba engleza adjectivele (ca de exemplu: "big", "nice", "long", "short") nu se conjuga, forma de la plural fiind aeeea~i cu cea de singular.
16

>1 ,If ilLv
>llls:t
>1,11

(l

bill: ka:'] il,IlIS]
lu
I d:;;U

- Am

0 ma~ina

albastra.

1',11'11

- Accasta este 0 casa verde.
'I

(1111 !'dll

"u.k I

- Adesea merg sa fac scurta.

0

plimbare

- Aceasta este omasa mare/lunga. >[ lI i: o-I"ci/ '\'11 Ill' 1)/,1 h,IS fo:' a IOIl(~') 1.111111 - Intotdeauna a~teptam mult timp autobuzul.

Traduce1i in limba engleza urmatoarele propozi1ii: Nu imi place albastrul
~i

verdele.

> I don't like green and blue. > There are also short streets in the town. > There is a blue r00111 > It's a long street.
Il1

In ora~ sunt ~i strazi scurte. Este
0

camera albastra in casa.
0

the house.

Aceasta este

strada lunga.

In acest ultim exercitiu al leqiei vom recapitula cuvintele noi ~i gramatica. Treceti la rezolvarea temei doar daca efectuati acest exercitiu tara gre~eIi ~i credeti ca ati reu~it sa va insu~iti materialuI. Traduceti in limba engleza: Tara voastra este mare? Nu avem timp sa vizitam fetele. Unde locuiqti? Merg des la
Bucure~ti
0

> Is your country big? > We have no time to visit the girls. > Where do you live?

pentru

0

zi.

> I often go to Bucharest for a day. > There is a school behind the station. > Do some people go for a walk in the evening? > Who usually enters the building first? > There is a nice clock on the table. >Our mother thinks we are in the house. > I like to speak to his mother. >There are some big clocks in the town. > When do you wait for your mother? >What is it? > I think it's a nice hotel. > Her mother often looks through the window. >Their mothers are in town. > There is through tranlc
III

In spatele statiei este

~coala.

Unii oameni merg seara la plimbare? Cine intra de obicei primul in cladire? Pe masa este un ccas frumos. Mama noastra crede ca suntem in casa. Imi place S~l vorbesc cu mama lui. Sunt eateva orologii mari in Cand a
a~tepti ora~.

pc mama ta?

Ce este? ered ca este un hotel dragut. Mama ei se uita des pe fereastra. Mamele lor sunt in
ora~.

In ora~ este un trafic permanent.

tile town.

Urmeaza un exercitiu de pronuntie. Literele at1ate in aceea~i colmma scrise ingro~at desemneaza accla~i sunet:
[all

[ei] day table wait railway they

[a: ] car are

[au] know window

[11 J

nice time five like white side behind

school you blue through
two

afternoon go ask

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 3 ,
A. Reguli gramaticale 3.1. Nu se foloseste articolul inaintea cuvantului "town" daca ~tim precis despre care ora~ este Yorba, de exemplu: We often go to town. 3.2. - Mergem des in
ora~.

Ati observat mai devreme ca particula "to" precede verbulla modul infinitiv, insa ea se mai folose~te ~i pentro a indica directia, (traducfmdu-se prin "la", "spre", "catre") sau pentro introducerea unor prepozitii. I usually go there to visit the boy. - De obicei rna due acolo sa vizitez baiatul.

3.3.

Nu folosim articol inaintea cuvantului "mother" daca ~tim precis despre cille este yorba: Mother is in the room. - Mama este in camera.

3.4.

Cuvantul "for" poate fi folosit atat cu verbe, cat ~i cu substantive: to wait for for a day to go for a walk to look for for a long time -a
a~tepta
0

(pe cineva) zi

- pentro

- a merge la plimbare - a cauta - timp indelungat, multa vreme

3.5.

Intrebari ~i raspunsuri cu verbul "to be" la timpul prezentul simplu (Simple Present): 3.5.1. Fonnulam intrebarea cu ajutorol verbului "to be" inversancl ordinea propozitiei afinnative, deci substantivul sau pronumelc personal schimba locul cu verbul. Acest procedeu se nume~te inversiune: She is a girl. The boys arc nice. - Is she" girl" - Arc Ihl.' boys nice?

3.5.2. Daca dam un raspuns afirmativ, allinci propozitia incepe cu "yes", unnat de pronumele personal ~i verb. Slibslan(ivul care figureaza in intrebare va fi inlocuit cu pronumele personal corcspllnzator: Is she a girl? Is the boy in the office? - Yes, she is. - Ycs, he is.

3.5.3. In cazul negatiei cuvantul "no" este urmat de pronumele personal, verb ~i cuvfmtul "not": Is she in the office? - No, she is not.

3.5.4. "is not" sepoate prescurtaca"isn't", iar "are not" ca "aren't". Forma "am not" nu se prescurteaza. Doar fonna "I'm not" poate fi folosita in locullui "I am not". 3.5.5. In intrebari care cer un raspuns descriptiv, pronumele interogative stau la inceputul propozitiei:
1Q

What is it? 3.6.

- Ce este aceasta?

Intrebari ~i raspunsuri la timpul Simple Present: 3.6.1. Formulam intrebarea eu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare "do" sau "does" care sunt unnate de un pronume personal sau substantiv ~i apoi de verb. Verbul nu se conjuga. "does" se folose~te in cazul persoanei a treia singular, in rest folosim "do": Do you like the girl? - Does he visit Mary every day?

3.6.2. Cuvintele interogative "what", "where", "when" stau inaintea verbelor auxiliare "do/does": When does she go to work? 3.6.3. Construetia intrebalilor care ineep eu "who" este identiea eu eea a propozitiilor afinnative, cu deosebirea ca in locul pronumelui personal sau al substantivului sta cuvantul "who". Vcrbul se afla intotdeauna la persoana a treia singular, deci prime~te tenninatia "s": Who looks through the window? 3.6.4. Daca dam un raspuns afinnativ la 0 intrebare care incepe eu "do/does" atunci raspunsul incepe ell "yes" fiind unnat de pronumele personal ~i de verbul auxiliar: Yes, I do.
:1. (1.5

Yes, he does.

R:lspunsu I llcgativ incepc cu "no", apoi unneaza pronumele personal ~i verbul auxiliar ~i sc lumina ell "not": No, I do not. No, he does not.

3.6.6. "do not" se prescurteaza "don't", iar "does not" se prescurteaza "doesn't": No, we don't. 3.7. Adjectivele posesive: my - meu, mea, mei, mele your - tau, ta, tai, tale our - nostru, noastra, no~tri, noastre your - vostru, voastra, vo~tri, voastre, dUl11itale, dumneavoastra thclr - lor No, she doesn't.

his her its

- allui/sau, a lui/sa, ai lui/sai, ale lui/sale - ei, sau, sa, sai, sale -lui, sale, ei (pentm obiectc, notiuni abstracte, animale)
nu-~i

3.7.1. Adjectivele posesive It is my chair. They are my chairs.

sehimba fonna la plural: - (Acesta) este scaunul meu. - (Acestea) sunt scaunele mele.

19

3.7.2. In eazul folosirii pronumelor posesive nu punem artieolinaintea substantivului: He often visits his mother. 3.8. - EI
0

viziteaza des pe mama sa.

In limba engleza adjeetivele, ea de exemplu: "big", "niee", "Iong", "short" nu se aeorda in gen ~i numar eu substantivul detenninat. It's a nice boy. The boys are nice. - Este un baiat dragut. - Baietii sunt draguti.,

B.

Pronuntia 3.9. Pronuntia grupului de sunete [TS], eorespunzatoare lui "th", este asemanatoare eu pronuntia eomplexului de sunete [D Z ], eu deosebirea ea primul nu este sonor. [TS] se rostc~te ea "t" eu limba intre dinti. In timp ee ne retragem limba dintre dinti, pronuntam un "s". In aeest eaz eorzile voeale nu vibreaza: think through 3.10. In raspunsurile seurte "do" se pronunta eu "u" lung [du:]

20

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 3
Rezolvati exercitiile A.
~i

trimiteti-le spre corectare.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I think he wants to be first at work. There is a big building behind the station. Where does his mother work? The girl wants to visit Bucharest. Who often sees your mother? Are the clocks on the table in the room?

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cred ca ea vrea sa locuiasca intr-un Unde vor sa mearga baietii seara?
ora~

fmmos.

a roaga pe mama sa sa mearga la plimbare.
A~tepti

des trenul?

Cand merge ea de obicei la biserica? Cui ii place sa viziteze hoteluri Ie?

C.

Urmatoarele propozi(ii sunt I. 2. 3. 4. 5.

gre~ite.

Serieti-le corect:

I orten goes to the school behind the station. Where do he wants to live? I usually go to school in afternoon. We also are in her big house. He often want to go by bus.

21

LECTIA 4 ,

PARTEA INTAI

Vom invata acum alte cuvinte noio Cititi-le ~i straduiti-va sa Ie pronuntati cat mai corect. hour minute father chair today six o'clock the second square statue >[aua r] >[minit] >[fa:Dza r] >[ t~carJ >[tadei] > [siks aklok] >[DZa sekand] >[ skUea'] >[ stEtiu:] - ceas, (ora) - minut - tata - scaun - azi, (astazi) - ora
~ase

- al doilea - piata - statuie

Repetati aceste cuvinte in alta ordine: father square hour six o'clock statue chair the sccond today minute >[fa:DzarJ >[ skUea'] >[ aua'] >[ siks aklok] >[stElill:l >lls\o:\' I
°11 )/"
sd.;llld

- tata - piata - ceas, (ora) - ora
~asc

- statuic - seaun
I

- al doilea - azi, (astazi) - minut

--II;lIk/l

>lllIillill

Important! an hour >[all aua']
- 0

ora

Aici nu "a", ci "an" [an] sUi inaintea lui "hour", deoarece pronun!ia cuvantului incepe cu 0 vocala: [aua'] .

Cititi urmatoarele propozitii

~i

fiti atenti la traducerea lor:
>[ its siks aklok in D Z mo:rnin(g)] :'! >[DZea'z a stEtiu: Z III D :'! skUea r ] >[DZea' a:' sam in DI[( ru:m]
t~ea'z

It's six 0' clock in the morning. There's a statue in the square. There are some chairs in the room.
1 wait for the bus five minutes every day.

- Este ora ~ase dimineata. - In piata este
0

statuie.

- In camera sunt diteva scaune. - In fiecare zi a~tept autobuzul cinci minute. - A doua
ma~ina este ro~ie.
ora~

>[ al "cit fo:' DZa bas faiv minits evri dei] >[ Dl[( sekand ka: r iz red] >[U 1: seldam gau tu taun fo:' "an aua']

The second car is red. We seldom go to town for one hour.

- Raeori mergem In pentru 0 ora.

Traduceti cuvintele noi in limba engleza:
aZl

>today >square

scaun ora
~ase

>chair >six o'clock >thc sccone! >milllllc

al doilca
minut

tata statuic ora >statlJC >hour

Inainlca cuvantului ,,father" nu folosim articolul, ca si in cazul eu vfllllU lui "mother".

Iar acum vom forma propozitii folosind cuvintele noi. Traduceti propozitiile In limba engleza verificati rczolvarea: Al doilea autobuz merge in piata? EI are un scaun albastru. Intotdeauna 0 a~tept pe Maria cinci minute. Este ora ~ase seara. Statuia este in piata?
0

~i

> Does the second bus go to the square? > He has a blue chair.

ora ~i

> I always wait for Mary one hour and five minutes. >It's six o'clock in the evening. > Is the statue in the square?

Am invatat deja aproape toate numeralele de la unu la zece. Acum Ie vom completa cu numeralele care lipsesc. one two three four five > [U an ] > [tu'] >[TSli:] >[fO:f]
>[falv]

-unu - doi - trei - patru - cinci

SIX

> [siks] > [sevn] > [elt] > [nam] > [ten]

-

~ase

seven eight nme ten

~apte

- opt -naua - zece

Pentru a vi Ie

insu~i,

cititi cu voce tare urmataarele randuri de cifre: one-twa-three four-five-six seven-eight-nine-ten > [fa: f falv siks] > [sevn elt nam ten]

1-2-3 4-5-6 7-8-9-10

Traduceti unnataarele cifre in limba engleza. Fiti atenti la pronuntie!

2-4-6-8 1-3-5-7 1-2-9-10 3-1-6-9 10-8-3-6

> twa-faur-six -eight > ane-three-five-seven > one-two-nine-ten > three-one-six-nine > ten-clght-thrcc-six

CunosC(]nd acum ciJrele, vam lnviifa cuvintele necesare pentrll exprilllare(/ orei. lata cliteva:
half past half an hour half past one >Iklll - jumatate

:-- II ).1

.J

I
.III

- trccut (de);
all,l'l

~i

>1 Ii.l I

- jumatate de ora - unu
~i

>llw·l"p<l:-.t ",1111

jumatate

Observa{i ca In limba engleza exprimarea lui unu ~i jumatate: (half past one) ar lnsemna, printr-o traducere cuvant cu cuvant, "cu jumatate de ora trecut de ora unu ". Expresia o'clock apare In propozifie cand ne referim la orejixe.ln alte situafii nufolosim aeest euvant. Atunei eand menfionam ora $i minutulnu este obligatoriu safolosim $i cuvantul minute. Dadi vrem sa spunem ea la 0 anumita ora se lntampla ceva, folosim prepozitia at lllaintea orei respective:
la
~apte

- at seven - at ten

0' clock

la zece

0' clock

in vorbirea eurenta adeseori se lIeglijeaza euvantul a' clock.

$i acum sa vedem toate acestea in propozitii:

It's ten past six. I usually go to school at seven in the morning. She thinks it's nine
0' clock.

- Este ora
0' clock

~ase ~i

zece minute.
~coala

- De obicei merg Ia ~apte dimineata.

Ia ora

- Ea crede ca este ora noua. - Trenul meu este la doua - Este ora noua.
~i

My train is at half past two. It's nine.

jumatate.

Nu uitali cii ill lilli/ill el/,l!,/e::;u /Jro/JOzitiile de tipul Este ora zece incep cu cuvantul it: It is ten. in leclia anterio(/l"ii till josf illfroduse cu riispunsurile scurte care se dau la timpul Prezentul Simplu (Simple Presclll). Acum vom vedea cum se jormeazii negafia en cazul riispunsurilor dezvo Ita te.

I'm not in the office. You aren't a father. She isn't in the building. He isn't in the square.
It isn't a chair.

- Nu sunt in birou. - Tu nu
e~ti

tata.

- Ea nu este in cladire. - El nu este in piata. - Acesta nu este un scaun. - Nu suntem in - Nu
e~ti
Bucure~ti.

We aren't in Bucharest. You aren't first. They aren't nice.

primul.

- Ei nu sunt draguti.

In acele propozitii [n care nu folosim verbul to be situatia este asemanatoare. Nu uitati ca not sta dupa verbul auxiliar, iar verbul nu prime~te terminafia -so
Observati propozi!iile de mai jos: I don't like blue. You do not usually go to work in the evening. He does not know Mary. She doesn't see her father. We don't often visit our mother. You don't go for a walk every day. - Nu-mi place albastrul. - Tu nu mergi de obicei seara la serviciu.

- Nu

0 cunoa~te

pe Maria.

- Ea nu-I vede pe tatal ei. - Nu
0

viziUim des pe mama noastra.

- Nu mergi in fiecare zi la plimbare.

Sa vedem ~i restul exemplelor, de data aceasta in exercitii. Completati propozitille formeIe scurte de negare: Ea nu vrea sa mearga la plimbare. Nu ne plac Nu sunt In
ma~inile. ora~.
a~tept.

~i

folositi

- She> doesn't want to go for a walk. - We> don't like cars. - I> am not in town. - I > don't want to wait.
- It > isn't my train.

Nu vreau sa

Acesta nu este trenul meu. Nu Ie place sa mearga la Nu este mama lui. Nu iti place tatal meu.
~coala.

- They> don't like to go to school. - She> isn't his mother. - You>
(1011'1

like my father.

Traduceti urmatoareJc propozilii In limb:! englez:!: Nu imi place tatal lui. El nu sunt in casa. Ea nu este in strada. El nu vrea
ma~ina.
.>

I d'"I'1 like
~lIen 't

IllS

father.

> Illl"v

in the house.

>Sllc' Isn't in the street. > lie doesn't want the car. > It Isn't their house. >We don't visit her mother every day. >He isn't a nice boy.

Aceasta nu este casa lor. Nu 0 vizitam pe mama ei in fiecare zi. EI nu este un baiat dragut.

Daca In Intrebarefolosim verbul to have (a avea), utilizam inversiunea (schimbarea locurilor) lafel ca ~i [n cazul verbului to be. in cursul negatiei cuvantul not se leaga de verbul have/has.

Sa vedem exemplele: I have a car. Have you a car? Yes, I have. No, I have not. She has a nice house. Has she a nice house? Yes, she has. No, she has not. - Am - Ai
0 ma~ina.

ma~ina?

- Da (am). - Nu (nu am). - Ea are
0

casa frumoasa.
0

- (Ea) are - Da. - Nu.

casa frumoasa?

"have not" se prescurteazii "haven't" [hEvnt], iar "has not" se prescurteazii "hasn't" l hEznt].

$i in propozitiile afirmative se potfolosiforme prescurtate de negare:
I haven't a car.

- Nu am

ma~ina.

She hasn't a house.

- Ea nu are casa.

Propozifia I haven't a car are aceea~i semnificafie ca ~i propozifia I have no car. Varianta din urmii exprimii insii mai accentuat acela~i lucru.
In exercitiul urmator comp1etati propozitiile eu fonnele interogative sau afirmative eorespunzatoare: Ai un restaurant? Nu am
ma~ina

- > Have you a restaurant?
- I > haven't a big car.

mare.

Nu au tata. Ai timp? Ea nu arc bicickta. Baiatul are un ceas?

- They> haven't a father. - > Have you time? - She> Iwsll't a bicycle. ->
11~\s

the boy a clock?

Aeum urmeaza alte euvinte noi. Pentru inceplit cllvantlll "into" I illill J eare inseamna "in", "spre", "inspre", "eu". Repetati:

into

[iutu]

- into

[intu]

in propozifie cuvantul into stii dupii verb, de exemplu:
to go into They always go first into the house. - a intra undeva >[DZei o:IUeiz gau fa:rst intu DZa haus]
?7

- Ei merg intotdeauna prima data in easa.

Cititi cu voce tare unnatoarele propozitii This car is red. That girl is nice. These people are in the building. Those boys like to go by train. >[DZis ka:'

~i
lZ

observati semnificatia cuvintelor noi: red] Ma~ina

aceasta este

ro~ie.

>[ DZEt ga:'] iz nats] >[DZi:z pi:pl a:' DZa bildin(g)]
lJ1

- Fata aeeea este draguta. - Oamenii ace~tia sunt in cladire. - Aeelor baieti Ie place sa mearga eu trenul.

>[DZauz b01Z lalk tu gall bal trezn]

APROAPE (aici) singular plural this >[JYis I these >[IYi:z]

DEPARTE (aeolo) that >LD'Et] those >[D'i111Z]

Pronumele ~i adjectivele demonstrative this, that, these, those rae posibilii stabilirea preeisii a persoanelor sau a altor substantive. Nu uitafi: dacii 0 persoanii sau un obieet sunt aproape de noi, atunei folosim pronumele demonstrativ this (singular) sau these (plural). Daeii persoana sau obieetul sunt departe de noi, atuneifolosim la singularpronumele .Ji adjeetivul demonstrativ that, iar la plural pronumele .Ji adjeetivul demonstrativ those.
this these that those >[ Dlis] >[ DZi:z]
>[DlEt]

- acesta, aeeasta ace~tia,

acestea

- acela, aeeea - aeela

>[DZauz]

Cu ajutorul tabclului de mai sus introdueeti in propozitie pronumcle corespunzfltor. Acesta este un ccas frumos. Masa aeeea este alba? Aceasta este mama lui. Tu cand deschizi de obicei ferestrele acestea? Cui ii plae fetele aeelea? . Cred ea este autobuzul acela. Ei merg adesea in aeest hotel. Scaunele aeelea sunt verzi?
- .'-' I III'.

~i

adjcctivele demonstrative

is a nice clock. table white?

- Is> ->

111.11

IIII~,

is his mother.

- When do you usually open> these windows? - Who likes> those girls? - I think it's> that bus. - They often go to > this hotel. - Are> those chairs green? - Do they like> these towns?

Le plae aeeste

ora~e?

28

Ati

reu~it

sa invatati toate pronumele? Daca nu, repetati inca 0 data partea corespunzatoare a lee\iei.

In limba englcza sunt doua cuvinte al caror inteles este asemanator. Observati deosebirile dintre aceste cuvinte: home house
>[haum] >[haus]

- casa, tara, locuinia, camin - easa

Cuwilltlll home poate fi intililit ill diferite expresii:

at home to
1',0

>l J:t

h,IUl11]

- aeasa (unde?) - a merge acasa

home

>1 tll gall hilum]

Propozitii exemplificative: He likes to be at home. When do you usually go homc'} There are five rooms in this house. It's a big house.
Cuvalltul at se
at six o'clock
at
fllt6fl1e~te

- Lui ii place sa fie acasa. - De obicei ciind mergi acasa? - In aeeasta casa sunt cinci eamere. - Aceasta este
In mai l11Ulte expresii.
0

casa mare.

- la ora ~ase - acasa
-b
~coala

home

at school

to look at
at work at first

- a privi, a se uita la ceva - la lueru - la illeeput, pentru inccput Icqie vom 11lai inva\a doar trei verbe noi. Cititi-Ie eu voce tare: - a multumi (pcntru eeva)

In accast~1

to thank (fol)

to write (to) to take Repetati cuvintele a serie (cuiva) a lua, a prinde
~i

>jIll 1:1111

- a serie (cuiva) - a lua, a prinde

>[ tu

fait]

>[tuktkj

>(tu teik]

traducC\i-1c In Jimba englezii: >to write (to) >to take >to thank (for)
~i:

a multumi pentru ceva

Observati cd semnificatia cuvantului you poate ji pe dumneavoastrii.

tie, voua, dumneavoastra, pe tine, pe voi,

Tradueeti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Iti multumese pentru aeeasta ma~ina. Ea ii serie des Mariei. De obieei
i~i

>Thank you for this car. > She often writes to Mary.

due eartile la

~eoala.

>Thcy usually take their books to school.

Dadi verbul thank (for) se ajla la persoana illtai singular, atunci nu este precedat de pronumele personal r.
~i

Cititi urmatoarele propozitii
It takes an hour to go home.

fiti atenti la sensullor in limba romana:

>[ it teiks an alia' III gau Mum] >[ al iu :jual i ua:[k]
lei k

- Ii ia 0
acasa.

ora sa ajunga

I usually take a bus to work.

a bas tu

- De obieei ma due la lueru eu autobuzul. - Iti ia eeva timp. - EI te ia drept
~ofer.

It takes some time.

>[it telks sam lann] >[ hi: teiks Ill: fo:[ a dralvii.']

He takes you for a driver.

In ultima propozitie semnifieatia verbului "take" poate fi interpretata in felul urmator: to take (...) for... . - a lua dreptJa eonsidera/a eonfunda eu

Cu urmatorul exereitiu puteti eontrola daea v-ati insu~it euvintele noi Tradueeti propozitiile de mai jos in limba engleza: Elmcrgc intotdcauna eu al doilea autobuz. Ea are ccas In camera ei? Cind ii serie el tatalui sau'! Ei merg la lueru la ora naua diminca\a. Cine vrea sa mearga aeasa? l[nde merg
aee~tia

~i

regulilc gramatieale.

'11.,'.

',1"

,1,1\1\ kill Ilel
WrIte

room?

·''vVII\'II IIm's he
:. III\'Y

to his father?

go to work at nine in the morning.

>WIIO wants to go home? >Whcl c do these people go by this bus? >TllOSC girls always wait for this car. > Are you at home at half past nine? >It takes an hour to write to Mary.

oamenii eu aeest autobuz?

Fetele aeelea a~teapta intotdeauna aeeasta ma~ina.
E~ti

aeasa la noua

~i

jumatate?

Dureaza 0 ora pana ii serie Mariei. (are nevoie de 0 ora) Unde sunt ei? Strazile acestea sunt lungi?

>Where are they? >Are these streets long?

30

Mama

~i

tatal1ui sunt la serviciu toata ziua.

> His mother and father are at work for a day.

iti mu1tumesc pentru aceasta bicicleUi. El ia intotdeauna autobuzul ace1a. Nu Ie place sa mearga in aceasta piata. Azi vreau sa mcrg 1a p1imbare. in aceasta camera sunt cateva scaunc. EI nu are timp sa vorbeasca eu mama lui.

> Thank you for this bicycle.

> He always takes that bus. > They don't like to go to this square. > Today 1 want to go for a walle > There arc some chairs in this room.
> He hasn't time to speak to his mother.

I

I

i

<I

LECTIA 4 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
In aceasta parte a leqiei vom recapitula cele invatate pfma acum. Repetati cu voce tare urmatoarele
propozitii: Silabele accentuate sunt tiparite
ingro~at:

Peter: Mary: Peter:

Where is the driver? He's there, behind that bus. Do you see? I think it isn't the driver. He's behind this big building.

Barbara: John:

Have you time for a walk? No, I haven't. I want to take these green chairs and clocks to the school.

Mary: Tom:

Are the boys in the shop? No, they aren't. This shop is for girls.

Barbara: Peter:

Where is she? In the shopping street. She usually waits for her mother in the shopping street.

Barbara:

I think she's at home.

Mari; John:

Do you want to write to your father? No, it isn't a good time to write.

Tom: Barbara: Tom: Barbara:

Where is her father? Where do you think he is? He's at school at three every day. [Ie isn't there today. [Ie is in the restaurant. Ilc has a table near the window.

Mary: Peter:

It's good to be at homc.

1)0

you often work at home?

No, I don't. I usually work in the ofl'ice.

John: Barbara:

It's half past five. Do you want to speak to their father? He is usually at home at six in the evening.

Mary: Tom: Mary:

Have you a big white car? Yes, I have. It's behind the house. I think it isn't. Your car is near the white entrance.

Peter: Barbara:

Who wants to speak to my father? The two girls in the big blue car.

32

Mary: John: Mary: John: Tom: Barbara:

When I look through the window I always see those boys in the street. Have they a blue car? Yes, they have. Then they are Tom and Peter.

Do you often see her mother? We visit her mother every day. Our mother and father are also there. We usually take a through train to Bucharest.

In ultimul exercitiu alleqiei putem recapitula din nou cele invatate. Incepeti rezolvarea temei doar dupa ce ati rezolvat acest exercitiu rara gre~eli: Cand merg la Bucure~ti vizitez intotdeauna aceasia piata ~i ma uit la aceasta statuie. Scaunul meu este in camera a doua. Intotdeauna merg acasa cu autobuzul. Cand rna uit pe fereastra vad acele magazine de pe strada comerciala. Este ora trei
~i

>When I go to Bucharest I always visit this square and look at this statue. >My chair is in the second room. > I always go home by bus. > When I look through the window 1 see those shops in the shopping street. >It's eight (minutes) past three. > He wants to write to his mother today. >They usually wait for their father at home. > Do you see those blue cars') > Where does he go in the evening? > Do you go for a walk every day') > Mary opens her shop ;iI"ighl III the morning. >11
1;lkl'~ ,III Illlm III
11';11 ns

opt minute.

EI vrea sa scrie azi mamei sale. De obicei il Vezi
a~teapta pe

tatal lor acasa.

ma~inile

acelea albastre?

Unde merge el seara? Mergi la plimbare in fiecare zi? Maria deschide magazinul sau la ora opt dimineata. Drumul pana acasa durcaza
0

orr\.

go home.

Uncle trclluri sunl trcnuri dircclc. Acestc strazi sunt
e\I

> Sll Illl'

arc through trains.

circula\ic continua.

>Thcse streets arc for through traffic. >Do you think he's there? > No, he isn't there. > We haven't time to speak to you. > Who thinks this building is nice? > There are two clocks in this room. > Does this train always go into the station in the morning?

Crezi ca cl cstc acolo'l Nu, el nu estc acolo. Nu avem timp sa vorbim cu tine. Cine crede ca aceasta cladire este frumoasa? Sunt doua ceasuri in aceasta camera. Acest tren intra intotdeauna dimineata in gara?

11

Locuiese in spatele aeelui blue eli apartamente.
Cuno~ti

> I live behind that apartment builcling
> Do you know those shopping streets?

:

aeele strazi comereiale?

Cred ca el vrea sa viziteze aeest turn. Intotdeauna II a~tept catva timp. Nu imi plac baietii aceia.

> r think he wants to visit this tower.
> I always wait for him for some time.

> I don't like those boys.

acela~i

Repetati urmatoarele cuvinte. Literele scrise sunet. [ei'i'] chair square where there [i] live minute visit

ingro~at,

aflate in

aeeea~i

coloana, desemneaza

[u: ] you blue two

[IS]
three thank through think

34

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 4 ,
4.1. Folosim prezentul simplu (Simple Prezent) daca este yorba de 0 actiune obi~nuita sau care se repeta sistematico Pentru aceasta utilizam urmatoarele complemente de timp: always often seldom usually every (day, morning ... ) 4.2. - i'ntotdeauna - des - rar - de obicei - in fiecare (zi, dimineata ...)

Definirea timpului se face in felul unnator: 4.2. I. In engleza "unu ~i jumatate" este "halfpast one", care tradus cuvant cu cuvant inseamna "cu jumatate de ora trecut de ora unu": It's half past ten. - Este zece
~i

jumatate.

4.2.2. Cuvantul"o' clock" se folose~te doar daca ne referim la ore fixe. In celelalte situatii acest cuvant nu se folose~te: It's seven o'clock. - Este ora
~apte.

In vorbirca curenta nu este necesara folosirea cuvantului "o'clock" nici macar pentru orele fixe. It's seven. - Este ora
~apte.

4.2.3. In comunicarea timpului, cuvantul "minute" poate fi omis: It's five (minutes) past two. - Este doua
~i

cinci minute.

4.2.4. Daca vrem sa spunem ca la 0 anumita ora se intampla ceva, atunci inaintea orei respective se pune prepozitia "at": at six 4.3. - la
~ase ~i

Forml'le de negare prezentate in leqia a treia pot fi utilizate He isn't al homc. I don't likc you. - EI nu este acasa.

in propozitii i'ntregi:

- Nu-mi place de tine.

4.4.

Daca [()l"IlIulalll Itllrebarea ell vcrbul ,,10 havc", utiliz[uTI inversiunca (schimbarea ordinii in propozi!ic). Negatia sc (llmeazil lcgand dc vcrbul ,,10 havc" cuvantul "not"; "have not" se prescurleaza "havcn 't", iar "has not", "hasn'I". Have you a car? - Yes, 1 haye. - No, I haven't. 4.4.1. Fonnele de negare pot fi folosite scurte. She hasn't a car.
~i

in propozitii i'ntregi, deci nu numai in raspunsuri
ma~ina.

- Ea nu are

4.5.

Pronume demonstrative: APROAPE singular plural this (acesta) these (acestea) DEPARTE that (acela) those (acelea)

4.6.

In limba engleza cuvantul "house" inseamna "casa", iar "home" inseamna "patrie", "casa", "camin". 4.6.1. Cuvantul "home" poate fi intalnit ~i in anumite expresii: at home to go home - acasa (raspunde la intrebarea "unde?") - a merge acasa

4.7.

Cuvantul "at" se intalne~te in mai multe expresii: at six at home at school to look at at work at first - la ora
~ase

- acasa (unde?) - la
~coala

- a se uita la ceva - la serviciu - pentru prima oara

4.8.

Nu uitati ca "you" poate semnifica ~i: "tie", "iti", "ti", "dumitale", "durnneavoastra", "voua", "pc tine", "pe dumneata", "pe dumneavoastra", "pe voi", de exemplu:
I likc you.

- Imi place de tine.

4.9.

Daca verblll "thank" (Iilr) se alla la persoana Intfli singular atunci nu folosim pronume!E personal ,,1" : Thank you for the car. - Mliitumese pentru
ma~ina.

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 4
Rezolvati exercitiile
~i

trimiteti-Ie pentru verificare.

A.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana:
I.
2.

Do you think she wants to be there at first?
It isn't a nice day to go for a walk to that square.

3.

I don't often see Mary at work.
It takes half a day to go to Bucharest by car.

4.
~.

f

S.
6.

She hasn't time to visit her mother and father in the evening. Who is the woman in the window?

B.

Traducqi urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: I. 2. 3. 4.
S.

Dc ohicci dimineata merg la

~coala.

In ficcarc scarf! la ~apte ~i jumatate lucram acasa. Baiatul aeda
1111 ~tie

ca eu nu am

ma~ina.

Acest scaun sc alla In spatelc aeestei mese albe. Aveti CillCi minute sa sla\i de yorba cu mine? Nu vreau sa
0

6.

vizitez pc kmcia aceasta.

C.

Urmatoarele propozitii sunt 1. 2. 3. 4.

grc~ite.

Scrieti-le corect:

It's nice to sec those nice boy at work. Does he goes hOl1le at six Who want
(0

0' clock

in the evening?

go by train?

Do you be in Bucharest today? The table isn't blue, they are red.

S.

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 3 SI 4 , ,
afternoon in the afternoon to ask > [a:ftarnu :nJ >[in D'i a:ftafnu:nJ > [tu a:skJ - dupa-amiaza - dupa-amiaza (dnd?) - a intreba, a cere (cuiva, ceva), a ruga (pe cineva) - a cere a intreba de - la - la ora cinci - la serviciu - in unna, in spate, indaratul, dupa - mare, voluminos, masiv - albastru - scaun - ceas, orologiu

to ask for

>[tu a:sk fo:'J

at at five o'clock at work behind big blue chair clock o'clock country day for a day eight father first

> [EtJ > [Et falv aklokJ >[Et ua:rkJ > [billa ll1d J > [bigJ >[blu:J > [t~ea'J >[klokJ > [aklokJ > [kantriJ > [deiJ >[fo:radeiJ > [eitJ > [fa: D'a'J
:- 11.1 'sll

- (de exemplu 6) ora fixa
- tara, stat
- Zl

- pentru - opt - taUI

0

zi, (timp de)

0

zi

- prim, i'nlai, primul, pentru pri ilia oara - la i'nccput, intaia data, mai intai - pcntru - patru - fata - verde - jumatate
- 0

at first for four girl green half half an hour her his home at home

>11-11.1'''11

>[lo.'J >[fo:rJ > [ga:rlJ > [gri:nJ > [ha:f] > [ha:f an auarJ > [ba: f] > [hiz] > [baum] > [Et haUtn]

jumatate de ora

- (adj. posesiv) ei, sa, sale - (adj. posesiv) lui, sau, ii, -i - camin, casa - acasa

38

hour into its

> [aua'] > [intu] > [its]

- ceas, ora

- in (arata mi~carea), spre, inspre
- lui, sale, ei (pentru obiecte, notiuni abstracte, animale) - a trai, a exista, a loeui - lung, prelung, de durata, prelungit - minut, clipa, moment - mama - Ineu, mea, mei, mele - placut, frumos, dragut, simpatic, agreabil - noua - nu; nici un, nici a - pe, la, in - unu - nostru, noastra,
no~tri,

to live long minute mother

>[tu liv] > [lon(g)] > [minit] > [maDZa'] > [mail > [nais]

my
nIce

t1lne
r--

> [nain] > [nau) > [on] > [" an ] > [auar] >]pa:st)

no on one our past

noastre

- (care a ) trecut, ~i (In exprimarea orei) - oameni - al doilea ~apte

people the second seven short SIX some

> [pi:pl] >
[[Y[\

sekcllltil

> [~CVII] >
[~o: 't]

- scurt, scund ~ase

> [siks] > I sam]

- ceva, cativa, cateva, - unii, unele

ni~te

statue square table to take to take (...) for

> 1·c,II':lJu:] > 1 sk"ea']
:> I Ie/hi :>

- statuie - piata - masa - a lua, a imprumuta (de la) - a lua drept, a eonfunda eu - a considera

I

11\1 I\'/k I

> 1111 leik fa:']

ten to thank (for) that their

> [Iell] > [Ill T S I~n(g)k] > [[YEt] > [Old]
39

- zeee - a multumi (pentru ceva) - acela, aceea, - lor
~a;"aceast::r'

these to think this those three through

>[Dzi:z] >[tu TSm(g)k] >[DZis] >[D1auz] >[ Pri:] > [Tsm:]

-

ace~tia,

acestea

- a gandi, a se gandi la - acesta, aceasta - aceia, acelea - trei
- 1. prin, printre, peste

2. (tren) direct, (circulatie) continua

through and through

> [Tsru: End TSru:]

- de-a lungul ~i de-a latul de la un caprH la altul - timp, vreme - catre, spre, la - astazi, azi
- Qra~

time to today town two usually to want what when where who to write (to) yes you

>[taim] > [tu] >[tadel] > [taun] >[tu:] >[Iu:juah] >[tuUont] > [Uot] > [Uen] > [Uear] >[hu:] > [tu rait1

- doi - de obicei, in mod - a vrea, a dori - ce - cand - unde, pe unde, incotro
. . - cme, pc CIne
Qbi~nuit

- a scric (clIiva)
- lIlI
- (ie, i(i, (i, dumitale,

"1 1\",1
'1
III

I

dumncavoastra, voua, pe tine, pc dumncata, pe dumneavoastra, pc voi your >[10:'] - tau, ta, tai, tale, dumitale, dumneavoastra, vostru, voastra, vo~tri, voastre

40

IN INTRODUCERE CATEVA IDEI SI SFATURI , DIN PARTEA PROFESORULUI
Este mai u~or sa intelegi 0 eonvers:nie Intr-o limba straina, dedit sa partieipi aetiv la ea. Prin repetarea eu voce tare a exereitiilor ve\i rqine euvintele ~i pronuntia. Daea exersati in mod eonseevent, in fieeare zi, atunei dupa un limp vqi reu~i sa asimila!i materialul nou eu u~urin!a. Nu trebuie neaparat sil ~ti!i pe de rost tot ce :1\i inv:ll:ll In Icqiile preeedente, atunei eand merge!i mai departe. Dar nu uita!i, inv~ltarca ~i repel:IIT:1 perlll:lnenta sunt mai importante decal progresul rapid, dar care nu are un fundament solid. Daea nu ave\i pre:1 mlill lilllp, :IIIIIICi parClII")~l'\i doar c;lle 0 .i II 111:\1:11 e de Icqie. In mod sigur ve\i g~\si penlru aeeas1a lin sICr1 de or,1 In I"I(T,lre i'.i I I)lIpa c,"lIl'va Illni ve\i ohserva ca Inl.elcget,i texl111 in limba engleza ~i 1:lra sa-l tradllce\i: Cli :lile clivinil" 'incl'IWli S:1 g:ln<li(i inlr··o limha straina' In1ui\ia vajuea un rol din ce In ee mai Illan.: In illsll~lre:1 ClIl]()~lin\clor inlroduse In 1cC\lile url11atoare. Daeil nu sunte!i obi~nui\l eu Inva\area de 21 eu zi, va lrebui s:\ va aU1oeduea\i vointa, S~l fiti mai eonseeventi, Oricine poale S:l exerseze sistem31ie' Aceasta esle 0 investitie e3re va da roade in viitor. Pe masuril ee progresa\i, studiul va da 0 satisfaqie din ee in ee mai mare. De aeeea fiti intotdeauna perseverenti' in felul aeesta yeti reu~1 sa ob!inqi eu u~urinta rezultate remareabile in invatarea limbii engleze.
Va ureaza mult sueees,

Profesorul dumneavoastra

© Copyright by EUROCOR - Institutul European de Cursuri prin Corespondenia S,R.L.

INDRUMAR PENTRU REZOLVAREA TEMEI
1.
Va rugam, inccpcti rczolvarea tCl11ei pentru acasa numai dupa ce ati parcurs intregu1 material, ati repctat euvintclc ~i ati rezo1vat 1';1ra grqeli u1time1e exereitii de verificarc. Inainte de a incepc rczolvarca aecsteia va reeomandam sa studiati eu atcntic ~i sa recititi inca 0 data textul, urmarind rcgulile pe care recapitutarea Ie aeeentueaza prin punetare. Atunci dind invatam 0 limba straina, aceasta trebuie exersata ~i repetata cu aceea~i perseverenta cu care am invatat sa mergem. In aeest scop v-au fost propuse 0 serie de exercitii. Va sugeram sa revedeti din Cfllld in ciind materia1ul deja pat·curs.ln seurt timp, eursantu1 se va eonvinge ea aeest 1ueru nu este lipsit de sens. Tema impliea intotdeauna ~i repetarea materiei din leetiile anterioare. Obi~nuiti-va eu ileest mod de lucru, care, in mod spontan ~i tara eforturi deosebite, va improspi\teazfl ~i eonsolideaza eUl1o~tinte1e. Pentru a putea obtine rezu1tate in inVa\areil limbilor strfline cu ajutorul metodei noastre, nu aveti nevoie de un talent l!<:osehil. ( 'hiar ~i cei care sunt mai putini reeeptivi in invatarea limbi10r straine, VOl' ;\junge dupa eil !eva lun ide studiu la un nivella care niei nu au sperat. Deei, li!i F.<II<1 de Illcrll! 3. Pmpuncrc<I IHl;\slra l~Stc sa incepc\i rczolvarca temci folosind ciorna. Va fi mai u~or sa va corecla!i ~i sa 11ropunc!i mai l11ultc posibilc raspunsuri, iar la sfiir~it sa alcgCli varianta care vi se pare a {I cea mai bema. Transcric\i ICI11:1 "pc eurat" doarcftnd suntcti siguri de rezolvare. Pentru trimiterea telllelor I'olosi!i !(lI"Illldarelc tiparite in aeestscop. Nu uita\i s;\ va sloril:\i nUlllck, prcnumelc, adresa, eodul profcsoru1ui ~i numarul de cursanl SUll can: ;qi Ii lsi llIrl:gisl rat. Acesta din urmil se gilse~te in scrisoarea care conlinna parlicipan:a dvs. [.te\ll's. Vii rugilm scric\i cilc!, Alatura\i tCl11ei pentru acasa Ull plie timbrat autoadresat. In aeest plic yeti primi tema eorectata. Este foalie important sa notati pc 1)lic l1umilrul de cursant sub care ati fost inregistrat! In eazul in care comandati materialc noi de curs, sau aveti alte eereri legate de rdatiilc Cll rublicul, serieti-le separat pe 0 foaie de hartie ~i trimiteti-le pe adresa lloas( ra imprcuna eu tema. In eo1tul din stanga jos a1 serisorii, serieti "Relatii eu j1ublicul". Dumneavoaslra sUl1lc\i eel care stabile~te tel1l1enul de trimitere a temei. Independent de aeesta, Iucrarea dumneavostra va fi intotdeauna controlata ~l retrimisa de c~ltrc pro l'csor.

2.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

l)

10.

Veti vedea, efOliurile dumneavoaslril vor Ii rasplatite. Va dorim mult sucees!

LECTIA 5 ,

PARTEA INTAI

Sa incepem prima parte a leqiei noastre de engleza cu cateva cuvinte noi. Repetati-le acordand 0 mare atentie pronuntiei: letter book post-office pen kitchen week man Romania son the third
> [ leta']

- scnsoare - carte - oficiu po~tal - stilou - bucatarie - saptamana - barbat - Romania - fiu - al treilea, a treia

> [buk] > [paust ofis]
> [pen] > [kit 9an] > [ ui:k] > [mEn] > [rumeinia] > [san] > [DZii TSa:'d]

Acum exersati Romania kitchen post-office son pen the third week book letter man

acelea~i

cuvinte in alta ordine: - Romania - bucatarie - oficiu - fiu - stilou - al treilea, a treia - saptamana - carte - scrisoare - barbat
po~tal

> [rul11einia] > \ kit~al1] >

I pall,t uri,]

> l,allJ > [pen] > [DZa TSa:'d] > [Ui:kJ > [buk] > [ leta'] > [mEn]

I

I

I
Verificati in ce masura ati cuvinte: al treilea, a treia bucatarie carte barbat fiu sCflsoare stilou oficiu
po~tal reu~it

sa relineti cuvintele noi. Traduceli in limba engleza urmatoarele

> the third > kitchen > book > man > son > letter > pen > post-office > week > Romania

saptamana Romania

lata cateva propozilii The third car is red.

~i

exprcsii Cli clivintele nO!:
'·\1)',1 I
>llllal
,I

't! kd'

1/

Icdl
kil\'dlll

- A treia

ma~ina este ro~ie.

Mother is in the kitchen. This man has a book. 1 live in Romania. 1 often go to the post-office. My son is at the school. a long letter a nice pen a good week

)':1' 1/ III 1)'.1

- Mama este in bucatarie. Binbatul acesta are a carte. - Traiesc In Romania.
po~tal.

>llYis

1111'.11 111

Iii / ~I ['lIkj

>[al Iiv

rLll11ClI1ldj

>[ai ofn gau tll D"u paust ofis] - Merg des la oficiul >[mai san iz Et DZa sku:l] - Fiul meu este 1a
0

~coala.

scrisoare lunga

- un stilou frumos
>1:1 L'.lItl
"1

k1

- 0

saptamana buna

In exerciliul unnator completali propoziliile In limba cng[eza: Ea lucreaza la oficiul Romania este
0

po~tal.

- She works at the >posl--o/llcc. - >Romania is a nice coulltry. - He always takes this >pt'll to work. - It's >the third house in the street. - Our >son goes to school. - A >week has seven days. - This >man has a red car. - 1 want to write >a letter to my mother. - There is >a book on the table.

tara frumoasa.

El ia i'ntotdeauna acest stilou la serviciu. Aceasta este a treia casa de pe strada. Fiul nostru merge la Saptamana are
~apte ~coala.

zile.

Acest barbat are Vreau sa scriu Pe masa este
0 0

0 ma~ina ro~ie.

scrisoare mamei mele.

carte.

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Acesta este un stiJou verde. Acest barbat ~i fiul sau merg in fiecare zi la serviciu cu autobuzul. Oficiul
po~tal

> It's a green pen. > TJ1JS lTI8n and hIS son go to work by bus every day. > The pO':l-oUic,: > There are
fUliI

se aila in apropierea statiei.

10:

near the station.
111

In bucatarie sllnt patm caz1i. Sunt ci'iteva
ora~e

books

the kitchen.

frumoase in Romania.

> There are some nice towns in Romama. > Th is letter is for you. > I like the thIrd house.

Aceasta scrisoare este pentru tine. Imi place a treia casa.

Aeum vom invata zilele saptamami. Observa\i ca fiecare poate fi pronuntat doua feluri: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday >[ m3nclI] >[tll.l:zdi] >[ "enzdl] >[T'a:'zdi] >[ fraidi] >[sEta'dJ]
>j";\I1<111

>[mandel] >[ tiu:zdei] >["enzdel] >[T'ii:'zdc: ] >jfra I c!cJ J
>j ,E1:I'i!c'lj >j";!l1lkl!

-luni - marti - miercuri
- JOI

- vineri - sambata - duminica

Inaintea zilelor saptiim[mii folosim prepozitia "on". In limba engleza zilele saptamanii se scriu intotdeauna eu litera mare.

Sa exersam cuvintele; completati eu ajutorullor propozitiile de mai jos: Miercuri de obicei merg acolo dimineata. Vreau sa-l vizitez pe tatal meu sambata. Mergi duminiea la biserica? Marti suntem intotdeauna acasa. De obicei vineri seriu mamei mele a scnsoare. Nu-mi place sa merg luni la servieiu. Unde mergi de obieei joi? - On >Wednesd,ly I usually go there in the morning. - I want to visit my father on >Saturday. - Do you go to church on >Sunday? - On >Tuesday we are always at home. - I usually write a letter to my mother on >Fnday. - I don't like to go to work on >Monday. - Where do you usually go on >Thursday?

Daca inaintea zilelor saptamanii se afla cuvantul "evely", nu folosim prepozitia "on": every Monday every Sunday - fiecare luni - fiecare duminica

Sa invatam cateva verbe noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare: to talk (to/with) to read to come to love to understand > [tu to:k] > [tu ri:d] > [tll ":lInJ > l tll 1:lvJ > - a vorbi, a conversa - a citi - a veni, a ajunge - a iubi - a intelege, a pricepe

l (u anda'slEndJ

lar acum L1nneaza to talk (to/wi th) to understand to read to love to come

acelea~i

cuvinte, dar in alta ordine. Cititi-le cu voce tare: > 1III > I tll
(0

LI I',lld I

-- a vorbi, a conversa - a intelege, a pricepe - a citi - a iubi - a veni, a ajunge

,1I}(1.J'~1

> l (li ri:d] > [tLl lay] >[tukam]

Sa folosim cuvintele noi in propozitii. Traduceti din limba engleza in limba romana: She reads a book every Sunday. This man loves his son. He comes to the post-office every Thursday. We often talk to our sons. Do you understand it?
> I :;;i: n.d;:.1 hll" sandul
eVil

- Ea cite~te a carte in fiecare duminica. - Acest barbat
i~i

> IIYls ml':n lavz hiz san] > [hI: kamz tu D7 a pallsl ofis
eVrJ

iubqte fiuI.

pa.'zdel]

- El vine la oficiul po~tal in fiecare joi. - Vorbim des eu fiii -lntelegi?
no~trii.

> [til: ofn to:k tu aua' sanz] > [du iu: anda'stEnd it]

Completati urmatoarele propozitii:
Vorbe~ti

des cu mama ta?

- Do you often >(alk to your mother? - When does he usually >come to the offiee? - What books do they like to >read?

Cfmd vine el de obicei la birou? Ce fel de carti Ie place sa citeasca?

imi place sa merg in aceasta piata.

- I >\ove to go to this square.
- Do you >llnderstand your mother?

o 'intelegi pe mama ta?
Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Ea il
iube~te

pe fiul nostru.

> She 101 e~ our s(ln. > He comes to Y(lUI house every Sunday. > I often talk to thclr lather. >

El vine in fiecare duminiea la voi. Vorbesc des eu tatal lor. Nu inteleg (acest lueru). Vreau sa citese aceasta carte.

r don't

understand it.

> I want to read this book.

Cititi cu atentie propozitia urmatoare: I always visit my mother at five on Sunday.
0' clock

- 0 vizitez intotdeauna pe mama (mea)

duminica la ora cinei.

Daca in propozitie exista doua complemente de timp, atunci pe primul loe trcee dcfinirca cxaeta a orei (invers ea in Iimba romana): seam la oril oJll Iuni 1,1 ora ~ase at eight in the evening at SIX on Monday

lar acum yom invata un euvant al earui inteles depinde foarte mull de context: right all right to the right to be right on the nght > [rait] > [0:1 rait] > [tll D'a rail] > [tu bI: rart] > [on D/a rait] - drept, dreapta, potrivit, coreet - in ardine, in regula - la dreapta - a avea dreptate - in dreapta, in partea dreapta

Sa vedem eateva exemple:

Is this the right bus?
Look to the right! There is a school on the nght. All right! We are going there now.
J think
V()II'r~ ricrht

- Acesta este autobuzul potrivit? > [Iuk tu DZa rait] >[D/ea' IZ a sku:l on D/a rait] >[0:1 raitllI: a·' DZea' nall]
gaLlin(~)

- Prive~te la dreapta! - in dreapta este
0

~coala.

- In regula! Acum mergem acolo.

In lectiile antenoare ati Il1vi1\at timpul prezent sll11plu, cu ajutorul caruia putem exprima aqiun;le zilnice ~i cele care se rereta In mod regulat.
Pentru descrierea ac(iunilor care Iltl au loe zill1 ic sou /1U se repetcll/1 mod regulat, ci se desfii.,ward i/1 momentu! vorhiril, foIosim timpul prczent continuu (Present Continuous Tense). Acest timp se folose~{e 111 trei ca:lIri pe care le Fe(i swdia in cursuI /ec(iiIor 5-6, In pril1lul rind I'a vedem din ce se compul1e, cllm se cOl1struie$te propozipa la t/lnpu/ prezent continllu:

I am opening the door.
He is going home These people arc reading books.
> I hi
II .~',IIIIIII 'L,IIIIIII

- Deschid

u~a.

- El merge acasa - Acqti oameni citesc cat1i.

- I:!' 1
II 1111'

I" III
I

,I '

1111 k

'.1

Propoziriile la timpul prezent continuu se

COIl1PUI7

din:

Subiect +

forma corespunzatoare a verbului "to be" am

+

verb (cu + termina,ia ,,-iug") openmg gOIng reading

complement direct (sau alta parte de propozitie) the door, home. books.
0

He These people

is are

Dadi f%sil11 acest timp, verbu/ "to be" 1111 se traduce ill aceste caZUrI. Vel bu! "to be" este predicatuIui -Ii Ql'em nevoie de eI doar pel1tru expril71area til71pului.

parte

0

Deci, timpul prezel1t continuu se f%seo?te pentru acrulI1i/e ('(Ire se desfli,wara in mOl7lell{u/ vorbirh. Accentuarea acestuia este posibiW eLI ajutoru!urmatoarelor comp/e1nente de (imp:

now at the moment just

>
>

Il1<1l1l

- acum - in acest moment, chiar acum - tocmai, chiar acum "'"'

II

I [) ',1111.11\1\1.11111

Sa exersam timpul prezent continuu in propozi,ii:
We are visiting the church

now. She is walting for her mother at the moment.

> lUI: a:' vizitin(g) nau]
>

DZ~\

t5a:'t5

- Acum vizitam biserica.

l ~i:

iz "('Itin lg ) 1'0:' ha: r maD/a' Et DZa ll1aul11~ll1t]

- in acest moment ca pe mama sa.

0

a~teapla

They are just reading hooks My father is going
for a walk now. He is driving to work at the moment.

- Ei citcsc
> [mal fa:fYa ' J/. gallin lgl fo" a "o :k nUll] > (hi: iz dralvin lg ' tll "alk Et DZa mallmanl J

ni~tc car~i

chiar acum,

- Tala\ meu merge Ja plimbare acum.
- Chiar acum merge la serviciu cu ma~ina,

"Just" sta inaintea verbului la aspeetul eontinuu (eu tenninatia ,,-ing''), iar "now" ~i "at the moment" se gasese Ia ineeputul sau la sfiir::;itul propozitiei.

Sa exersam prezentul eontinuu. Completati propozitiile de mai .ios eu formele eorespunzatoare ale verbului "to be" ~i ale verbului eu tenninatia ,,-ing"; Maria merge aeum Ia magazin. (Chiar aeum) ne plimbam in piata. Te a;;teapta toemai pe tine. Tatal meu eite;;te aeum aeeasta carte. Fata aeeea toemai prive;;te aeeasta easa Chiar aeum 11 due pe fiul meu Ia
~coala.

- Mary

>J~. t'0lll.'!

to the shop now.

- We >are w,l1kll1g in the square at the moment. - They >are just waiting for you. - My father >is readIng this book now.
ro~ie.

- That girl >Is J list looking at this red house. - At the moment I >tun taking my son to school.

Dupa cum desigur atl observat deja, in eazul verbelor care se termina eu litera ,,-e" (ea de exemplu "write") Ia adaugarea tenninatiei ,,-ing" ,,-e"u1 se amite.

Tradueeti unnatoarele propozi(ii in limba engleza: Aeum vizitam aeeasta piata frumoasa. >\\'L
:lIC \ J~,j(II1.~.'

this nice sqllare now.

Ei toemai intra in ;;coalii.
in acest moment mama mea desehide magazinul. Fiii no;;tri eondue (ma;;ina) aeum. John toemai
vorbe~te eu

>Th")i

:\Il

)Ihl entering the school.

> My mother IS opening the shop at the moment. >Our sons are drivi!lg !lO\\' >Juhn >1
;> :1111

Maria.

IS

illst

LilLIII" \\ Ilh Mell)'.

Aeum Iuerez aeasa. Chiar aeum il a::;tepti pe tata1 tau.

\\(lILI"." .111"'lllc·!l\J\V
111111',1, II! yUlI :Ile

'\1 II"

waiting

I() I

\ ( II II 1.11/1

c: l.

Va mai amintiti de fonnarea interogativului verbului "to be"?

Forma interogativti a timpului prezent eontinuu se ob{ine prin acelaii procedeu (inversarea ordinii).
Sa vedem exemplele:

John is reading a book now. We are just going home. She is taking the bus to work at the moment.

Is John reading a book now? Are we just going home? Is she taking the bus to work at the moment?

>i i l dion ri:dm lg1
,i

huk 1l,\lI]

- John eite~te o earte aeum? - Mergem aeasa ehiar aeum? -Ea merge eu autobuzulla serviciu chiar acum?

>/ ,; , "I dj,iSl gauin(g)
kill/III

>111

~I

lCILJIl 1"1

IY,i b,iS

1u "c1"k 1'1 IY,I
]]1;]umantJ

Iar aeum e randul dumneavoastra. Tradueeti urmatoarele intrebari: Ea
vorbe~te

ehiar in elipa aeeasta eu baiatul? pe tine in aeest moment?

> h ,he talking to the boy at the moment? > ;\IL' they waiting for you at the moment?

Ei te

a~teapta

Aeum luerezi aeasa? Aeum mergem la plimbare? El prive~te aeeste fete ehiar aeum?

> Ale you ""'iking at home now?
> ;\Ie we gOlllg for a walk now') > Is he looking at these girls at the moment')

La inceputul propozi{iilor interogative putel11 folosi ii pronume interogative:
John is going for a walk now. You are reading a letter at the moment. My mother is just working. Where is John going now? What are yOll reading at the moment? Who is just working?
>l"ea'
17

d.lol1

giiulnl'c' nauJ

-Unde merge John aeum? -Ce eite~ti (ehiar aeum)? -Cine luereaza? (ehiar aeum)

>1"01 a'

Ii.dll1 lg1 1:1 IYiI maumant]
IU
17

>1 hu

djast "a:'kin(gl]

Exersati fonnularea intrebarilor. Tradueeti in limba engleza propozitiile de mai jos: Ce iau ei aeum? Ce viziteaza el aeum? Unde merge ea eu
ma~ina in

> What are they taking nO\\,"1 > What is he
aeest moment?
VIsiting Ilmv"l dlll'llll:'ill

> Where is ,he

the moment?

Cine serie toemai aeum a serisoare mamei?

> Who is .Iusl Wrltlllg a letter to mother?

Riispllnsunle sClirte afirmative ,vi negative incep Cli euvintele yes/no care sunl urmale de pronumele personal !iiforllla eorespullziitoare a verbullii to be. La aeeasta se adallgii cuvill1tulnol daca raspunsul expril1lii 0 nega{ie. in propo:::i{iile negative forma eorespunziitoare a verbului to be este urmata de clivantul not.

lar acum sa exersam aceste reguli in propozitii: Are you going home now? Yes, I am. No, I am not. I am not going home now. - Mergi acasa aCllm? - Da. - Nu. - Acum nu merg acasa.

Is she looking at this building at the moment? Yes, she is. No, she isn't. She is not looking at this building at the moment.

- (Ea) Privqte chiar acum aceasta clad ire? - Da. - Nu. - Ea nu
prive~te

aceasta cladire chiar acum.

Are they visiting the church now') Yes, they are. No, they aren't. They aren't visiting the church now.

~

(Ei) viziteaza biserica acum?

-- Da. - Nli. - Ei nu viziteaza biserica acum.

~i acum vom veri fica in ce masura ati propozitiile negative:

reu~it

sa retineti regulile. Completati raspunsurile scurte

~i

Are you going for a walk now? Is she just entering the school? Are you driving home now? Is my father talking with Mary at the moment? Are they reading letters now?

- Yes, I >am.

- No, I >am not.

- I >am not going for a walk now.

- Yes, >she is·

- No, >she Isn·t.

- She >isn'tjust entering the school. - We> aren't driving home now. - My father >isn't talking with Mary at the moment. - They >are not reading letters now.

- Yes, we >are.

- No, we >arcn ·t.

- Yes, >he is.

- No, >hc isn't.

- Yes, >they are.

- No, >they aren't.

Is John working in the office now? Are you just taking a bus to school?

- Yes, >he lS.

- No, >he Isn't.

- John >is not working in the office now. - I >am not just taking a bus to school.

- Yes, I >am.

- No, I >am not.

Iar acum urmeaza cateva cuvinte noi: England Romanian English to speak Romanian to speak English what time ... ? here > [ingland I > [rumcflll:lllj >
[ingll~]
Spl

- AnglIa - roman eng\ez

> [tu >

k IIIIll(·/lll.lllj

- a vorb! - a vorhl

roll1ane~te engleze~te

l III "Ill k illgll,.,j

> [\lot t<lIm] > [hid'] > [Iitl] > [t"enti]

- la ce ora? - alel - mic, un pic, putin - douazeci

Ii ttle
twenty

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba romfma: England isn't a big country. I love Romanian towns. This is an English car. My father is speaking Romanian now. > [ingland iznt a big kantri] > [aI lay rumeinian taunz] > [Dtis
17.

- Anglia nu este

0

tara mare.

- Iml plac ora~ele romane~ti. - Aceasta este 0 Talal meu
ma~ina

all illgl is k<t :r]

englezeasca.

> Im:11 fa IY.I' 1/ ,pi klll 1"1 Illllll' /l11.lll II.lll I

vorbe~te

romane~te aeum.

Their son doesn't speak > II YCI' S;1Il da/1I1 Spl k English when he's in Romania. illgiJ~ "ell hi /. III rUl11elllia] What time is it now? My son is here, in this room. I have little time to visit you. Ten and ten is twenty. > ["ot taim
IZ

- Fiullor nu vorbe~te engleza atunci cand este in Romania. - Cat este ceasul acum? - Fiul meu este aici, in aeeast[\ camera. - Am putin timp ca sa te vizitez. - Zece
~i

It nau]

> [mai san lZ hia r in D'is ru:m] > [ai hEv litl taim to vizit iu:] > [ten End ten a: r tUenti]

cu zece fac douazeci.

Um1eaZa dm nou un exercltiu, in care trebUie sa completati propozitii: Mama lui este in Anglia acum. Vorbiti
romane~te?
engleze~te. Bucure~ti?

- His mother is in >England now. - Do you speak >Romaman ? - No, we don't. We >speak English. - >What tllne
IS

Nu. Vorbim

La ce ora este trenul spre Cartea ta este aiei. Traim intr-un
ora~

the train to Bucharest?

- Your book is >here. mic. - We live in a >]lttJe town. - There are >t\\'cnty letters on the table.

Sunt douazeei de serisori pe masa.

Dacd din propozirie reiese ciaI' cd acrillnea se desfcl~oarriin l71ol7lentlll vorbiril, clIvintele now, at the moment ~i justfi pot Ol1l1se.

lata cateva exemple: Where are you going? We're going home. Are they waiting for John? Yes, they are. - Unde mergetl? - Mergem acasa.

- II a~teapta pe John?
- Da.

"Are they waiting for John?" "Yes, they are."

"Where are you going?" "We're going home."

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza, folosind prezentul continuu: Ii scrii Da. Unde duci acest scaun? Duc acest scaun in bucatarie. Ce
cite~ti?
0

0

scrisoare Mariei?

> Are you writmg
> Yes, I am.

3.

letter to Mary')

> Whc] c are you taking this chair? > I" J1l iakmg thIs chair to the kItchen. > What arc you readmg') > I'!l1 Icadmg a book.

Citesc

carte.
~coala?

Mergeti la Da.

>

All'

you going to school')

> Yes, we are.

in ultimul exercitiu al acestei parti vom recapitula materialul nou. Traduceti in limba engleza: ACllm fiul lor merge cu Acum merg la oficiul
ma~ina

in Romania.

> Their son is driving to Romania now.

po~tal.

> I an\ going to the post-office now.
> L like English kitchens.

Imi plac bucatariile engleze~ti. El are doua stilouri verzi. Unde merge barbatul acesta acum? Nu-mi plac zilele de luni. Miercurea este a treia zi a saptamanii. El citqte acum
0

> He has two green pens.
> Where is tl1lS m<ln gomg now? > I don't like Mondays.

> Wednesday is the third day of the week.
> Is he reading an English book now')
> My Il\other docsn't usually understand
I1\Y

carte in engleza?

Mama mea de obicei nu-mi intelege scrisorile. Trenul nostru tocmai
sose~te.

lelkls [rain IS just eoming.

>

()UI

loi la ora opt il vizitez intotdeauna pe fiul meu.
Cine te
a~teapta

> 1 always visit my son at eight on Thursday. > Who is waiting for you now?

acum?
~coala

La ce ora mergi la
Ace~ti

in fiecare zi?

> What time do you go to school every day?
> Are these boys talking to those girls now') > Do you speak English')

baieti vorbesc acum cu fetele acelea?

Vorbqti engleza?

LECTIA 5 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
Ca ~i pana acum, ineepem partea a doua a aeestei leqii ell eateva euvinte nOl: eye mouth daughter baby mouth tomorrow desk bed >[ a/] >[maliT'] >[ do:ta'J >[ be/bi] >[maliT'] >[tCm1orilll] >[ desk] >[becl] -ochi -gura - fiica
-bebelu~

- gura -maine - birou, banea -pat

Sa repetam cuvintele noi in alta ordine: eye tomorrow daughter month desk mouth bed baby >[ ai] >[tamorau] >[ do:til'] >[ man l"] >[desk] >[ maul"] >[bedJ >[beibi] -ochi -maine - fiica -luna - birou, banca -gura -pat
-bebelu~

Sa folosim cuvintele noi In propozltii. Cititi-le cu voce tare, urmarind eu aten!le pronuntia: She has blue eyes. My baby is in the third room. Your mouth is red. My daughter is reading a book now. It is Monday tomorrow. One month has four weeks. There are three beds in the room. Her desk is good.
>

hI: hEz blu:
nun]

alz]

- Ea are ochi Bebelu~ul

alba~tri.

> [mai beibi iz in O/a T'a:'d

meu este In camera

a treia. - Gura ta este
ro~ie.

> [10:' mauT' iz red]

> [ma; do:ta' iz a buk nau]

ri:d/l1(~)

- Fuca mea cite~te acum 0 carte. - Maine este luni.

> [it iz mandel tamolau]

> [U an manT' hEz fo.' "l:ks]
> [O/Ca.' a:' T'ri: bedz /11 Df;} ru:m]
> [ha:' desk
IZ

- a luna are patm saptamani.
- In camera sunt trei paturi. - Biroul ei este bun.

gud]

Completati propozitiile urmatoare: Aeum
vorbe~te cu

fiiea sa.

- Now she is talking with her >daughter. - Is the >baby all right? - Father is in his> bcd. - It is Friday >tomorrow. - My >desk is big.
- It is a nice >month.

Este bine

bebelu~ul?

Tata este In patul sau. Maine este vineri. Biroul meu este mare. Este
0

luna frumoasa.
~i 0

Ea are ochii verzi

gura mica.

- She has green >eyes and a little mouth.

Nu uitati, expresia "to go to bed" se interpreteaza In doua feluri: "a se baga In pat" sau "a merge la culcare".

Folositi expresiile noi In urmiHorul exercitiu de traducere: Acest bebelu~ are ochii verzi o gura mare. Fiica lui are doi fii. Vreau sa merg la culcare. Nu am bHOU in camera. Maine este marti. Ce luna este acum?
~i

> This baby has green eyes and a big mouth. >
HIS

daughter has two sons.

> I want to go to bed. > I have no desk m the room. > It is Tuesday (( 'morrow. > What month is it now?

Am invatat deja cil prepozItia "into" inseamna in lunba romana: "in, spre, inspre". Opusul aeesteia, adiea notiunea "afarn din, din" se exprima prin "out of' [aut He is coming into the kitchen now, He is going out of the kitchen now. She is taking the baby out of the car now,
0\

J:

El intra acum 'in bucatane,

El iese din bucataric.
Ea seoate <lCllm
bcbelu~ul

din

ma~in3.

i/1 aceasta parte a leC[iei vom invata despre 11/7 alt tip de silllatii in carc sc IIlifl:eazti timpuf prezent continuu. Acesta poate expnma timpul viitor, caml este vorba desprc 0 ([Crilllle pe care am pliil1uit-o
deja, de aceea i/7 mod sigur eo va (/\'eo loc. Acesle pro]Jozirii se pot traduce in limba romana la timpul prezenl sau viitor

Sa vedem cateva exemple: Tomorrow I'm going to my mother. On Friday we are writing the letter to you. Tomorrow we are opening a shop, On Thursday they are work II1g al home.
> l t:111101 au alln gauin(g)

tu lIla' maD/a']
> [on fi aidi "}; a I raitll1 1g1
D/~l

- Maine merg la mama mea. - Vinel i iti
SCI iem

serisoarea.

Ict,I' tu lU:] - Maine yom desehide un magazm.
- JOl

> [tall1orau "i: a:' 3UPllllll:')
a :;op]
C'!lllll'al/!lll)'ci
d '

el

VOl'

lucra aeasa.

"a 'k 1/1 1 'I I

1 11.1111111

Penlru indicarea viitomfui jJutem folosi urmcltoarele cuvintc: next
In

> [nekst]

- urmalor, care urmeaz3, viitor - in, peste, in deeurs de, dupa

>[ in]

Aeeste euvinte se folosese de obicei in unnatoarele expresii: next week next month next Saturday in an hour in two days in three weeks - saptamana viitoare - luna viitoare - simbata viitoare - peste
0

ora

- peste doua zile - peste trei saptamani

Cititi propozitiile urmatoare in care figureaza aeeste expresii: Next Monday I'm taking you to England. I'm going to Romania in two days.
>[nekst mandel ann tClkll1 lg }

iu: tu ingland]

....: Lunea viitoare te due in Anglia. - Merg in Romania peste doua zile.

>[ aim

gaLlIl1 l g) tLl

rumeima

111 tLl: dC1Z]

$i acum

urmcaZL7 in!orma(ii 1I0i ill legiitllul
VOila,

eLI

pronumele pcnonalc !il adjectivele pronominale

posesive.

in leeria anterioarii a11l srl/diat pronllmelc you fa aeLlzativ, eLi ill!efesul "pe tme, pe voi, pe
dllf}/!7em·oastrd'·. far aellm sci l'cdem ~i ce[e[a{te prol1ume fa cazlinfe

dumncavoastrii, tie,

1I0011inatil' ,I'i acuzatil' preCtl111 :;;i adjectivele pronominale posr?sil'r? Nomillati]' Adjective prol1omi!7a!e posesivl? ACII:::ativ (~'i Dativ)

- eu you - tu, dumneavoastra he -el

she - ea it -cl, ea (pt. obiecte, l101iuni abstracte, animale) - nOI . voi, dvs.

we you

meu, mea, mei, mele your - ta, tau, tai, tale, dumitale, dvs. his lui/sau, lui/sa, lui/sai, (lui/sale) her ei/sau, sai, sale its lui, sale, ei (pt. obiecte, notiuni abstracte, animal e) our - nostrll, noastra, no~tri, noastre voslru. vO!lslrfl, your Vll~t ri, VO:lstl'I.:, (hllnitalc, dvs. my their -lor

me you

>[1111

I

-pe mme, ma, mie, iml, mi-, -ml
pc tine, te, tie, iti, Ii, dumitale, dvs,

>[/LI I

him

>[lillllJ

- pc d, ii, 1-, lui, ii, i-

her it

>[l1a:'] >[ it]

- pc ea,

0,

ci, il

- pc el, 11, 1-, lui, 1i, i-, pe ea, 0, ei, ii

us

>[ ~\s]

- pe noi, ne, noua, ne, 111 - pe voi, va, pe dllmneata, pe dvs. voua, va, vi - pe ei/ele, lor, le, Ii

you

>jlll )

they - ei, ele

them

>[ D/em]

Sa exersam formele accstor pronume pentru cazurile acuzativ, respectiv dativ:

1'm just talking to him.
She loves me.

- Tocmal Ii vorbese. - Ea - Nu

rna
0

\Ube~te.

I don't understand her.
His father likes us.

1nteleg.

- Tatal lui ne place. - Acum le scriu
0

I'm writing a letter to them now.
We are talking about it now. In ultima propozi(ie al11 inta/nit about
0

serisoare,

- Acum vorbim despre aceasta. prepozitic noua: - despre, de

:>[abaut]

In exerci(iulurmator, completati propozitiile eli pronumele eorespunzatoare:
Te iubesc. Tocmai vorbesc despre el.

- I love :>YOLI.

- I'm just speaking about >him.
- Do you know >her?

o cuno~ti pc ea?
Maine mergi la
~coala

ell noi?

- Are you going to school with >lIS tomorrow? - Who is looking at :>me now?

Cine se uita la mine acum?

Maine Ii due la

Bueure~ti.

- I'm taking >them to Bucharest tomorrow. - I'm just reading about >it. - Is Mary going for a walk with >you tomorrow?

Toemai eitese despre aeeasta. Maria merge eu tine maine la plimbare?

Iar aeum urmeaz3 trel verbe noi: to give to send to show > [tu giv] > [tu send]
>[tu~au]

- a da, a darui - a trimite - a arata

Exersa(i verbele noi In propozi(ii. Citi(i eu voce tare: He is givll1g me his pen now. 1 am just sendmg a letter. They are showing me their apartment now.
> [hi: iz givin(g) hiz pen nau]
l1l1:

- Aeum Imi da stiloullui.

> [ai Em djast sendin(g) i\ leEl'] > [Olel 3:' ~allin(gl mi: OZei' apa:rtmimt n3u]

- Toemai trimit

0

scrisoare.

- Ei Imi arata aeum apartamentullor.

in unnatorul exereiliu eompletali propoziliile In limba engleza eu adjeetivele pronominale posesive ~i pronumele personale eorespunzatoare 1a nominativ ~i aeuzativ: Aeum IIi dau eartea mea. EI toemai Ii serie ei
0

- >1 am giving >YOll my book now. >11c is just writing a letter to >her. - >\Vc are not talking about >them and >(iJeir cars. - In a week >1 am taking >YOll to my mother.

serisoare.
~i

ma~inile

Nu vorbim despre ei lor.
0

Peste

saptamana te due la mama mea.

in eontinuare, iata eifre1e de 1a lIla 19:
II

- eleven - twelve - thirteen - fourteen - fifteen - sixteen - seventeen -- eighteen

> [ilevn] > [tllelv] > [T'il:rti:n] > [fo:'ti:n] > [fiftin] > [siksti:n] > [sevnli:n] >[eiti:n]

12 13 14
15

16 17 18

Sa exersam aceste numere traducand in limba engleza unnatoarele expresii: 17 zile peste 16 saptamani >
SCI ClltCCIl

days

> in sl,icl'll weeks
>tWClll'

12 luni
peste 18 zile

!llollths

> in C1ghllTll CldYS

15 baieti
11 minute 13 cladiri 19
ma~ini

>flftccn > eleven

h\)I~
ll1111l1lL",

> thirteen

buJidl[I~\

peste 14 luni

> In fourlccn

ll101l111s

Inaintea tenninarii leqiei sa recapitulam cele invatate pana acum. Traduceti in limba engleza: Maine mergl la el (la casa lui)? Umlt: trimi(i scrisoarca ci? Saptamfllla viltoarc 11 duccmln Anglla pentru cincisprezccc zilc. A treia casa din dreapta are douasprezecc camerc. Eu tocmai duc
bebelu~ullor in

> Are you gOll1g to his bouse tomOLTOw? > Whcre :lIc
yOLl ~cndll1g

her letter')

:> "C'\! II ,'L'k II l' ;\rl:

l:\k11lg them to England

I ()I I illL'L' I1 d, I V '.

> I Ill' thlld

hOLlSl' 011 1Ill' II~ht lidS

twclve rooms.

bucatarie.

> I'm Just taking thell baby to the kitchen. > There
IS

Pe biroul tau este un stilou. Acest barbat are doua fiice. Nu inteleg engleza. Vreau sa-ti dau cartile mele. Ne place sa mergem la plimbare duminica. In fiecare vineri 11 vizitez pe fiul meu. Acum ei nu se uita la noi. Cine are ochi frumo~i? Nu citesc aceasta carte acum. Tocmai scriu
0

a pen on your desk.

> ThiS man has two daughters. > I don't understand English. > [ want to give you my books. > We love to go for .\ walk on Sunday. > I visit my son every Friday. > They aren't looking at us now. > Who has nice eyes? > I'm not reading this book now. > l'mJust writlllg a letter to our father. > Arc they talklllg aboLlt your daughter now? > At the moment we are not showing her our house. > On Saturday we always come to you. > Where
IS

scrisoare tatalui nostru.

Ei vorbesc acum despre fiica ta? Momentan nu-i aratam (ei) casa noastra. Sambiitii venim intotdeauna la tine. Unde este?

it?

lar acum, la sfaqit, urmeaza exercitiul de pronuntie. Cititi cuvintele grupate dupa vocalele identice:

[ai]
Friday all right behind

[i: J
we see read

[aLi J

[e]

[E]

post go tomorrow moment

enter seven
every

man understand

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 5 ,
5.1. In limba engleza zilele saptamanii se seriu eu litera mare: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday - luni - marti - 1111ereun - J01 - VInen - sambata - duminiea

5.1.1. Daea inaintea zilelor saptamanii se afla euvantul "every" (fieeare) atunei nu se folose~te prepozitia "on": on Monday every Monday 5.2. - luni - in fieeare luni

Daca intr-o propozitie sunt doua complemente cireumstantiale de timp, eel care determina timpul mai exact, treee pe primulloe: sambata la ora cinei - at five on Saturday

5.3

Present Continuous Tense (timpul prezent continuu) 5.3.1. Timpul prezent continuu se folose~te pentru exprimarea unei activitati care se desra~oara in momentul vorbirii. In propozitiile la prezentul continuu se folosesc urmatoarele complemente eircumstantiale de timp: now at the moment Just - acum .., chi'll' acum, in acest moment tocmai, chiar

"Just" sta inaintea verbului eu terminatia ,,-ing", iar "now, at the moment" se'itfla la inceputul sau la sfiir~itul propozitiei: I'm just talking to them. He is working at the moment. They are writing letters now. - Tocmai vorbesc cu ei. - Ellucreaza chiar in clipa aceasta. - Ei scriu acum scrisori.

5.3.2. Prezentul continuu se folose~te ~i pentru exprimarea acelor evenimente care sunt planuite in viitorul apropiat ~i se vor desra~ura in mod sigur. In aceste situatii folosim urmatoarele complemente de timp: tomorrow next (week, month) in (two hours) - maine - unnator, care unneaza (saptamana, luna) - in, in decurs de (doua ore)
sfar~itul

Aceste complemente de timp se afla la inceputul sau la I'm going to England in two days. Next week they are opening a shop.

propozitiei:

- Peste doua zile merg in Anglia. - Saptamana viitoare ei deschid un magaZln.

5.3.3. Ordinea partilor de propozitie la timpul prezent continuu este urmatoarea: + "to be" + verb + complement direct (sau Subiect prezent cu terminatia ,,-ing" alte parti de propozitie) He is
gOl11g

home now.

Interogativul se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii: He is going home now. Is he going home now? - EI merge acum acasa. - Acum merge acasa?

Negativul se formeaza adaugand particula "not" la "to be": He isn't going home now. - Acum nu merge acasa.

5.3.4. Daca verbul se termina in ,,_e", atunci la adaugarea tenninatiei ,,-ing" se omite ,,-e"_ul: to write to take 5.4. - writing - taking
~i

Cazurile nominativ, acuzatlv ~i dati v ale pronumelor personale precum pronominale posesive sunt cup rinse in tabelul unnator: Nominativ Adjective pronominale posesive my you he she
it

adjectivele

Acuzativ

(~i

Dativ)

me you him her it

- pe mine, ma, mie, imi, mi-, -ml - tie, iti, -ti, dumitale, pe dumneavoastra, pe tine, te - pe el, iI, 1-, lui, ii, i- pe ea, ei, ii - pe ea, 0, ei, ii, pe el, ii, -I, lui, ii, -. (pentru obiecte, natiuni abstracte~ animale) - pe noi, ne, naua, ne, ni - pe voi, va pe dumneavoastra, voua, va, vi - pe ei, ele, lor, Ie, Ii

your his her its

we you they

our your their

us you them

I visit him every Monday. He often talks to them. They like me. We are talking about her.

- 11 vizitez in fiecare luni.
Vorbe~te

des cu ei. (Le

vorbe~te des.)

- Ei rna plac. - Vorbim despre ea.

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 5
-Rezolvati exercitiile de mai jos
A.
~i

trimiteti-le pentru verificare.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Next week we are going to England. Who is speaking at the moment? She is just sending a letter to our mother. He wants to speak English. Their sons are just going out of this big building.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:
I.

Le dai maine aceasta carte? Cine conduce acum Marti la ora
~apte ma~ina

2. 3. 4. 5.

noastra?

fiica noastra vine la noi.

In ficcarc micrcuri scricm scrisori ullor o;lmcni.
In clip<1 aCC<1s!a
I1U

lucrez in biroul mcu.

C.

Alcatuiti propozitii foJosind urmatoarele cuvinte: 1. 2. 3. who, us, next, Friday, visiting, is when, they, Romania, to, coming, are boy, the, love, girl, the, does

D.

In fiecare din urmatoarele propozitii exista 0 gre~eala. Rescrieti propozitiile, corectand gre~elile:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On every Tuesday I visit my mother. What time are you takeing this book tomorrow? Where do you go now? Who is usually reading books? We are just going to see his.

LECTIA 6 ,

PARTEA INTAl

lncepem lec(ia noua prin invaiarea catorva cuvinte noi. Repetaii cuvintele ~i fiii atenli la pronuntia corecta: sister hand money question way garden fish suit animal to eat > [sista'] >[hEnd] > [mani] > [k"est~an] > [lief] >[ga:'dn] > [fl~] > [su:t] > [Enimal] >[tui:t] - sora - mana - bani - intrebare - drum, cale - gradina pe~te

- costum de haine - animal - a manca, (a se hrani)

Repetati aceste cuvinte in alta ordine: garden way to eat question fish money animal sister hand suit > [ga:'dn] > [Uef] >[tui:t] > [k"est$<lIl] > Ills I
>[manij

- gradina - drum, cale - a manca, (a se hrani) - intrebare pe~te

- bani - animal -sora -mana - costum de haine

> [Enjmal] > [sista'J > [hEnd] >[su:t]

Jar acum sa invaiam to ask a question

~i

cateva expresii:

> [tu a:sk a k"est~an]

- a pune 0 intrebare, a intreba ceva - pe aici, pe aceasta cale - pe unde

this way which way

> [DZis Uef] >
[Uit~

Uef]

Sa vedem acum ciHeva propozitii cu cuvintele noi. Cititi cu voce tare: My sister is a nice girl. > [mal sista' iz a nais ga:' I] - Sora mea este
~ >ll~II1l0raU lli:
(li

0

fata draguta.
pe~te.

I don't want to eat this fish.
Tomorrow we are going to her garden. Do you want to ask him this question? a: r gauJI1(g)

Nu vreau sa mananc acest

ha:' ga:'dn]

- Maine mergem in gradina ei. - Vrei sa-I pui lui aceasta intrebare? - Nu am bani. - Costumele lor sunt verzi. - Femeia aceea are maini frumoase. - Ai acasa animale? - Drumul spre acest este lung.
ora~

>[dlllll: "on t tu a:sk him [Y IS k "est~im] > l al h Evnt mani] > l lYe? su:ts a:' gri:n]
> [DIEt Uum[m hEz

I haven't money.
Their suits are green. That woman has nice hands. Have you animals at home? The way to this town is long.

nais hEndz] > [hL:\'
IU:

Enimfdz Et haum]

> [Dzb. "el tll D 7 1S taun IZ lon(gl]

Substantivul "bani" se folose~te intotdeauna la singular: VVhereis Inylnoney? - Unde sunt banii mci?

Completati propozitiile in Iimba engleza cu cuvintele care lipsesc: Tatal meu are dOli a surori. Banii ei sunt pe masa. Mama ~i tatal nostru se plimba acum in gradina. Cine ii pune acum
0

- My father has two /SIsters. - Her :>money is on the table. - Our mother and father are walking in the >garden now. - Who is asking him a Xjllcs(lon now? - I want to give them these >suits. - We are >eatlllg fish at the moment.

intrebare?

Vreau sa Ie dau aceste costume. Acum mancam
pe~te.

Peste 0 saptamana duccm animalele noastre in gradina. Fratele tau are in mana cartea mea. Eu merg pe aici.

- In a week we are taking our :::iJ.nimals
to the garden. - Your brother has my book in his :>hand. - I'm going this >way.

Traduceti din limba romana in limba engleza: Acum sunt in gradina noastra. Surarii tale ii place sa manance
pe~te.

:> I'm in our garden now. :> Your sIster likes to eat tish.

EI are bani In mana. Costumul tau este frumos. Nu Inteleg Intrebarea tao Pe unde mergi la serviciu de obicei? Iubese animalele mario

> He bas money > Your SUIt
IS

Il1

bis hand.

IlIce.

> I don't understand your questIon. > Whicll way do you usually go to work') > I love bIg animals.

Si acum sa vedem cel de-af treilea caz in care se folose-$te timpul Present Continuous. Prezentul continuu se folose:~te -$i atunci cfmd ac!iunea se desfa-$oara in prezent -$i se refera la 0 activitate excepfionalii. l~l acest caz folosim urmiitoarele complemente de timp:
today this (week, month)
aZI

- aeesta, aeeasta/ln aceasta (saptamana, luna)

Sa vedem eateva exemple: I usually go to work by bus, but today I am going by car. >[ai iu.Juali gau tu L1 a.'k bai bas bat tildei 31 EIll gauln lg ) bal ka:'] >["i: iu:juaII l.t Et haum bat DZis "i:k "i: a I i·tln lg ) Et - De obieei merg la lueru eu autobuzul, dar azi merg eu ma~ina. - De obicei maneam aeasa, dar In aeeasta saptamana maneam la restaurant. - In aeeasta luna scriu scrisori surorii mele. - De obieei seara el eite~te earti, dar azi elmerge la pi imbarc.

We usually eat at home, but this week we are eating at a restaurant. This month I'm writing letters to my sister. He usually reads books in the evenings, but today he is going for a walk.

a restront]

> [DZI s manT' aim raitin lg ) leta'z tu mai sistarJ >[hi: !U'juali ri:dz buks in D'I i:vnin lgl bat tadel
hi: 17. gauI1l 1C1 f'O:' a "o :k I

"I usually go to work by bus, ... "

..... but today I am going by car."

Inainte de a trece la exercitiul urmator, yom invata un cuvfmt nou: but

>l hatJ

- dar, insa,

totu~i

Completa(l propozi(iile de maijos cu verbele la timpul corespunzator, prezentul continuu sau simplu: Mama mea de obicel lucreaza panil la opt, dar azi lucreaza pfma la cinci. Dimineata merg des la ~eoala, dar in aeeasHi dimineata merg la eumparaturi. Tatalui lor ii place sa eitcasca carti dupa-amiaza, dar azi a viziteaza pe mama sa - My mother usually >\\'orks to eight, but today she >1:' \1 ell kmg to five.
- 1 often >go to school in the morning, but

this morning 1 >all1 gum!:! shopping. - Their father >likcs to read books in the afternoon, but today he >is \'isitlng his mother. - This month 1 >aml1ot driving the car. - Today we >are not working but we are laking our son to Bucharest.

In aceasta luna

IlU

conduc ma~ina.

Azi nu lunam, dar II duccm pc fiul nostru la Bucurqli.

Dupa aceasta pregat!re exerci(iile de traducere nu mai pot constitui De obicei merg pe jos la lucru, dar azi tatal meu ma va lua eu ma~ina. Nu-mi place sa-I vizitez pe aeest baiat, dar saptamana aceasta ma duc la e1. De obicei ei merg la lucru dimineata, dar azi merg dupa-amiaza. Nu-mi place sa 0 dar azi 0 a~tept.
a~tept

0

problema:

> I usucdly walk to work, but today my lalher i:, I;lkmg me by car.

> I dOll'! like \ll 11:'11 thiS boy. but thiS \Veek ['m gOing tll hll11.
> They u;,ua\\y go III wOlk. in the morning. but today they are gOing in the afternoon. > 1 don't like to wait for his sister, but today [ 3m waiting.
> This month I'm takmg him to England.

pe sora lui,

in accasta luna il due in Anglia.

lar acum urmcaza vcrbe noi: to fly to bring to smile (at)

>

flU

11:1/1
hllll' '/

- a zbura (a calatori eu avionul) - a aduee - a zambi (euiva)

> 11\1

Sa vedem aeeste verbe in propozitii:

Tomorrow 1'111, flying to Berlin. He often brings her books. That girl is just smiling at you.

> [tamorau ~'")) !lalll/ g )

tll bil '11I1J
> [hi: orll brill/elz ha:'

- Maine ealatorese eu avionul la Berlin. - EI..u.aduee des eartiGei.

buks]
> [DZEt garllz djast ~lI1a'lill(gl Et iu:]
- Fata aeeea tocmai iti
zambe~te.

Sa verificam daca ati asimJ lat cuvintele no1. Traduceti unnatoarele propozitIi in limba engleza: Maine calatoresc cu avionul la Londra. Acest baiat imi zambqte intotdeauna. Tata aduce masa In a doua camera.
> Tomorrow 1'm tlyl11g to London.

> This boy always smiles at me. > Father is bnngll1g the table to the second room.

Acul11 va vom prezenta din nou cateva cuinte no1. Repetati-le plane aeroplane name bedroom sometimes > [plelll] > [earaplell1] > [nelln] > [bedru.m] > [samtaimz]

Cli

voce tare avion

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie:

~

- aVlOn - nume - dormitor - uneori, cateodata

In limba engleza atat "Eu ma numesc .... " cat ~i "pe mine ma cheama" se traduc prin "my name is ...".

Sa exersam cuvintele noi; completati propozitiile in limba engleza: Cateodata
0

vad pe sora lor.

- I >sometimes see their sister. - There are three> bedrooms in this house. - What is your >name? .- What are their
'>11,ll1ll"."

In aceasta casa sunt trei dormitoare. Cum te cheama? Cum il eheama? Imi r1ace sa merg ell aVlOnlil.

I like to go by 'I'LIIIC.

lar acum in cadrlll disCII{iel despre timpul p"ezent conlinuu illlYJ{am 0 regula gramaticala foarte importanta Cll privire la folosirea verbelO1: Exista verbe pe care nu Ie putem folosi ia acest timp. Acestea sunt verbe care exprima senza{ii sau sentimente. lata cateva exemple dinlec{lile anterioare:
to see to know to like to think to want to have > [tll si:] > [tll nall] > [tll lazk] > [tll T'in(glkJ >,[tu "ont]
> [tu hEv]

a vedea a
~ti,

a cunoa~te

a-i placea, a indragi a crede a vrea a avea, a poseda

"'

to understand to be

> I tll anda'stlnd]
>[lu bL]

- a intelege, a pricepe

- a f1

lata cateva exemple:
1 know his sister.

>1,\/11,1\1 hlz >/
:11 <I,llll)j

sist~ll]

- 0 cunose pe sora lui.

I don't understand h1m.
I like you,

anda'st£nd hJJlIJ

- Nu-linteleg.
- Imi placi.

>Iu Lllk ru 1

Ciliar 1i /n cazlil /n ('(//"c pc Idngcl aceslr: verbe in propozi{ie se afld expresiile now, just, at the moment /n mod o!Jligll!ul"//I \'(' Iduse,.,·e timplll Prcscnt Simple.

At the mO!llcnt I d(\n'1 sec hil11.
I don't know it nov..
I don't understand you now.

>11
~;j:

I l)l,l

millunant ai daunt

-l\'u-l vad acum.

him]

>[ ai daunt nilu It Ilau] >[ ai daunt anela' 51 End ill: nau]

-- Acum nu ~tiu.
- Acum nu te Inteleg.

Completati propozitiile Cll verbele corcspunzatoare: Aeum
~tiu

ea maine elmefge la

Bucure~ti.

- Now J >kJj()\v he >IS going to Bucharest tomorrow. - This week 1 >see her on Tuesday.
- Our father >is not working in the garden now,

in aceasta saptamana

0

vad marti.

Tatal nostru nu lucreaza acum In gradina. Unde merg eu avionul surorile lui maine?
Acc~ti

- Where >are his sisters flying tomorrow? - These people always >work on Saturdays. - They >don't want to go there with us. - Who >i, working in the second room now? - Our son usually >comes home at five in the afternoon, but today he >is coming at two. - She >doesn't want to go to school. - ThIS clock >is usually in my room, but today it >is in his bedroom.

oamcni luereaza Intotdeauna sambata.

Nu VOl' sa meal'ga eu nOI aeolo.
Cine lucreaza in a doua camera aCllm?
Fiul nostru vine acasa de obicei la ora cinci dupa-arniaza, dar azi vine La doua.
Ea TIU vrc<.!

sa mearga ~a ::;coala.

Aces! ceas estc de obicci in camera mea, dar azi este ill d()fmitoruLLui.

in cele ce urmeaza ne vom ocupa de plumlul substantivelOl: Acele substantive care la singular au termina{ia -s, -sh, -ch, -x, la plural primesc termina{ia -es, care se pranun{a liz]:
bus church >{ bas] - buses - churches >{baSlz]

Daca substantivul se term ina In -e, la plural prime:;te doar termina{ia -s :;i se pronun{ii la Jel [iz]:
house office >{haus] >{ oris] - houses - offices >{hauZlZ] >{ ofislZ]

Aceea~i

regula este valabila >{tu
tl.l~]

~i

pentru verbe: - a Invata (pe altii), - a preda he teaches >[hi:
ti:t~IZ]

to teach

Termina{ia -es se Jolose:;te la persoana a treia singular :;i In cazul In care verbul la infinitiv se term ina In -0.
to go >{ tu gau] - a merge she goes
>[~i:

gauz]

Sa exersam regulile. Completati propozitiile In limba engleza pronun\ie! La
Bucure~ti autobuzele

~i

cititi-Ie apoi cu voce tare. Atentie la

sunt

ro~ii.

- In Bucharest >buses are red. - >Houses in Station Street are nice. - My mother >teachcs English in a school. - There are eleven >offices in this building - My sister wants to visit those >churches. - Peter >gocs there every Tuesday.
~

Casele de pe strada Garii sunt frumoase. Mama mea preda engleza Intr-o
~coala.

Sunt unsprezece birouri In aceasta clad ire. Sora mea vrea sa viziteze acele biscrici. Petre merge acolo In fiecare marti.

lata cateva verbe noi: to keep to pay (for) to hear to try >[tuki:p] > [tu pel] >[tUhlll'] > [tu trail - a tine - a pillti - a auzl - a lncerca, a proba

Citili urmatoarele propoziFi Mary keeps an animal at home. Her sister teaches them to read every day. Who pays for the books? Do you hear my father in the garden? They are just trying to ask you a question.

~i

fili atenli la pronunlie: > lmean ki:ps an Enimal 1:1 hilUm] > l 11<1:' snstii'" ti:t~iz DZem III n d ('vri dei]
> I hLl:
PClZ

- Maria tine acasa un animal.

- Sora ei ii invata in fiecare zi sa citeasca.
~

fo:' DZa buks]

Cine

plate~te caI\ile?

> I dll ill: hia' mai fa:Dza' III [Ya ga:'dn]
> l IYel a: r djast traiin(g) tll a:sk iu: a k"est~an]

- iI auzi pe tatal meu
in gradina? - Ei tocmai incearca sa-ti puna 0 intrebare.

Traduceti in lil1lba cnglaa propozitiile de mai jos: Aculll (ci) inccarca sa scrie lllal1lci lor. Ai animale acasa? Maine piatim aceste case. Tatallui are birouri in aceasta cladire. Cine incearca sa iasa din
gr~lliina?
Bucurc~tl.
0

scrisoare lunga

> They are trying to write a long letter to their mother now. > Do you keep animals at home? > Tomorrow we are paying for these houses. > H is father has offices in this building. > Who is tlying to go out of the garden?
>
1'11CIl' ;IIC SOII1C 11ICC

Sunt cateva biserici frumoase in

churchcs in Bucharest.

Urnuitoarea regula se refera la pluralul substantivelor care se termina In -yo Daca Inaintea sunelului 0 consoana, atunci la plural terminatia -y se schimba In -i, ~i va fi urmal de lerminatia -es.
-y se afla (Ia singular)

baby country factory

- babies - countries - factories

> [beibiz] >lkantriz]

Dadi ter-millaria -y a lI/llli sllhstalltiv la singular este preceda,ta de 0 vocala, alunci cuviintul prime~te la plural doar termillatia -s:
boy way boys ways >[boiz]

Aeeea~i

regula esle valabila -?i penlru verbele eu terminatia -y:
he tries she pays > [hi: tralz] > [~i: peiz]

to try to pay

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza. EI incearca intotdeauna sa fie bun Ea tocmai
plate~te

- He always >tlles to be good. - She is just >paymg for these books. - His father has some >factones. - These >babies don't hear their mothers. - These >boys want to visit some >countnes.

pentru aceste car-ti.

Tatallui are cateva fabric!. Acqti
bebclu~i

nu Ie aud pc mamcle lor.

Acqh baieti vor sa viziteze cateva tari.

~

Atentie: verbul ,.to hear" nu poate fi folosit la timpul prezent continuu.

in exercltiul urmator yom veri fica notiumle insu~ite pima acum, refelitoare la pluralul substantlvel<!!."..

~i la ortografia corecta a verbelor conjugate. Traduceti in limba engleza:

j

Acqti baieti nu vor sa mearga acasa.
Bebelu~ii

> These boys don't want to go home. > His babies are m the garden now > She tnes to read one book every day. > E\'ery week we send tht:1l1 flvc > In those > I don't
II

lui sunt acum in gradina.
0

Ea incearca sa citeasca

carte in fiecare zi.

in fiecare saptamana Ie trimitem cinci scrisori. In acele tari oamenii traiesc in case mici. Nu vreau sa Ie cer acestor baieti sa scrie despre aceasta. Imi plate~te lunar 20 de dolari. Aceste fabrici sunt mario far acum s(i lnwi!(illl lIIodllllmpcnlliv.

IcttCIS.

C()lIntnt:~ 11l'UI'!c

11\t:

III

IIttlc houses.

,lilt

III ,I,k

thc,,,t: hoys to write about it.

I Ie- I'.IY:-'

'ilL'

20 dollars every month.

> I ht::-.e factories are big.

Dacd exprimal11 tin ol"din, verbulnu este precedat de particula to: Go home! > l gau haumJ - Mergi acasa! Mergeti acasa! Read this book! > [n:d DZ\s buk] Cite~te

aceasta carte!

Cititi aceas(a carte! Bring me a chair! - Adu-mi
Ull

scaun!

Aduceti-ml lin scaun!

Look at my sister!

> [luk Et mai sista']

-

Prive~te-o pe sora mea! Priviti-o pe sora mea!

Think about it'

> [T'mlg1k abaut it]

- Gande;;te-te la asta! Ganditi-va la asta!
~ Invata-ma!

Tcach mc l

> [ti:t;; mi:]

Invatati-ma.

In limba engleza pentru persoana a daua atat la singular, cat ~i la plural, falosim aceea~i expresie imperativa.

nuni "r(,171 sci expril71am
Ask him for it, please.

0

rugaminte, atunci se adallga cuvantlll pleasel pk?] -te rag, va rag:
> [a:sk him fa:" it pli:z] - Cere-i lui, te rag. - Platqte aceasta bicicleta, te rag.

Pay for this bicycle, please.

> [pei fa:' DZis baisikl pli:z]

Doni
PIII/i'

\'/'('11/ .1'(/ ordollclm cuiva sau sa rugam pe cineva sa lUI faca ceva, atunci i'naintea verbului se lorII/O I/egative! a allxiliarului do (don't).:ji aici putemfolosi verbul please:

Don't open the window' Don't go out of yOlll' roo 111. Don't think about iI, pk:ls\'. Don't show me this book, please.

> I (LlLInt aupn DZa Uindau]

- Nu deschide fereastra! - Nu ie~iti din eamerele voastre. Nu tc giindi la asta, te rag. . Nu-mi arata aeeasta carte, te rag.

> I daunt gau aut av io:' rll:l11j
>- I <I:lllnl T'lnl"lk :,b:lIll
,1,1.111111 ' .. III 1111 II

pll

/1

I

)'1',

hilI.

I >II /

I

Sa eXl'lsalll Desehidc

ill'l1l't':\IIVltll'l1

:ljlltmul exerci(iului de mai jos: >Open this door!

1I~:1

an'asla'

Du-te la plimhare! Nu merge eu
ma~in:l,

>Go for a walk!
k rog. >Don't go by car, please. >Try to buy it! >WclIt for me, please. >Don 't take my car!
j~lta,

Incearca sa-l cum peri I
A~teapta-ma te

rag'

Nu lua ma~ina meal Nu vorbi eu aeeasta te rag!

>0011' t ta Ik to this girl, please.

Nu lucra seara!
Multume~te-i

- >Don't work in the evening! - >Thank her for it! >Send this letter, please.

pentru asta!

Trimite aceasta scrisoare, te rag.

"Open your mouth, please!"

LECTIA 6 - PARTEA A DaDA ,
In a<.:ea'IS!<1 parte vom recapitula reguJile gramaticale ~i cuvintele noi pe care Ie-am Invii\at In cele dOlla leqii. In prillllli cxcrcitiu silabele accentuate sunt scrise cu Jitere Ingro~ate. Pentru Inceput ascultati doar <lialogllrilc. Apoi ascultati-le Inca a data ~i repeta\i diaJogul. Mary: I'clel: Ilarh:lra: John: Ilarhara:
.I 0 11 n:
TOIIJ:

What is your name? My name is Peter. Is it Sunday today? No, it is Monday, the second day of the week. Isn't Monday the first day of the week? No, Sunuay is the first day of the week in England. Do you like Saturday? Yes, I do. On Saturday I always go to town so I usually have some time to visit my sister. \"II('n do you usually go shopping? I go into some shops on Tuesday and Wednesday. \Vhal is her name') ller lIallll' IS Sheila. ll's a Jlin' name. Some little babies have nice names. She is smiling at you. Slie always silliles al me to show me she loves me. \Vho is working herc'! I alll wlII'king hen:, l'nl \\Tiling a letter, Tomorrow they ,Ire going 10 Bucharest to pay fur the houses, But where are they uow'! This morning they are going 10 the post-ofTice. They are going there now. I want to ask you a questioll: whk-h way arc Tom and Peter going to the office now? Ask my father, please. I think he knows it. What do you see now? I see a man, a woman and a little boy. Is she talking to the man at the moment? Yes, she is. All right. I'm going there now, Wait for me in the garden. When do you want to go to England? I want to go there next year, but I don't know English . Is the first house your house'! No, Peter has the first house and John has the third. Our house hasn't a garden. It is the second.

Mary: TOIll' Mary: John: Barbara: John: Barbara: Mary: Peter: Tom: Barbara: Tom: Mary: John: Peter: Barbara: Peter: Barbara: Peter: Mary: .I ohn: Ilarbara: I ()Ill:

Jar acum yom verifica intregul material nou din aceste doua Jectii. Traduceti in limba englez3 propozi1iile de mai jos: Vreau sa trimit aceste scrisori vineri. Aceasta carte este pentru tine. Cred ca aceasta scrisoare este lunga. Tine acest stilou ~i scrie-i
0

> J want to send these letters on Fnday. > This book
IS

for you.

> I thmk this letter is long. > Take this pen and write a letter to her. >
Rom~lIlla

scrisoare.

Romania ~i Anglia sunt tari frumoase. Sambata voi merge la plimbare. Mancam des in gradina. Cui ii place sa citeasca carli? Miercuri la noua sunt intotdeauna acasa. Tocmai iqim din casa. Acum incearca s-o citeasca? Maria nu viziteaza aceasta biserica acum. Cat este ceasul acum? $tiu romane~te, dar nu ~tiu engleza. Cine
vorbe~te engleze~te?

and England are nice countries.

> On Saturday I'm gOll1g for a walk.

> We often eat in the garden.
> Who loves to read books? > At nine on Wednesday I'm always at home. > We are just going aLIt of the house. > Is he trying to read it now? > Mary IS not vIsiting thlS church now. > What time is it now')

> I know RonWIII:lIl hut I dOll't know English.

Ace~ti bebelu~i sunt

aici.

> I Ill'Sl' lillie

h~lbles

are here.

In dormitorul mcu se alla un pat ~i un hirOlI. Fiica lui are ochi
alba~tri ~i

- I hl'l C

~lIC

a bed and a desk in my bedroom.

() gura

ro~ie.

> His daughter has blue eyes and a Icd IIlouth. > My mother is working
In

Mama mea lucreaza acum in bucatarie. Luna viitoare (ei) zboara cu avionul in Anglia. Peste zece zile ne ducem la ei. Maine ne iei
~i

the kIll hCIl IlOW.

> Next month they are flying hy pl:llIe
to England.

> We are going to them III tell d:IYS > Are you taking us With you tomorrow?

pe noi cu tine?

Da-i lui aceasta bicicleta, te rog. Sora ei se plimba acum in gradina. EI are un costum verde. $i pe~tele este un animal. Vrei sa ma intrebi ceva?

> Give him this hicyck, pkase.
> Her sister IS walking > He has a green suit. > A fish IS also an animal.
III

the garden now.

> Do you want to ask me a question'!

Crezi ca este ace~ti bani?

0

cale buna de a obtine

> Do you think it's a good way to get (h is money') >I
l\:,u~d]y

De obicei lucrez luni, dar azi nu lucrez. Cine imi Adu-mi
ziimbe~te?

work on Monday but today I am

not work j ng.

> Who is smiling at me') > Bring me tills money > What is his name'! > I don't see it now.

ace~ti

bani.

Cum il cheama? Acum nu-I vad.

lar acum, sa exersam prol1llI1tia vocalelor din urmatoarele grupuri de cuvinte:
(u]

I ei I
way pay day baby

Ii] keep teach eat read

[ E] hand man animal

[ ai] try my

[ i]
sister office this

good book look

five

visit

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 6 ,
6.1. Cuvimtul "money" este Intotdeauna folosit la singular. My money is on the table. 6.2. - Banii mei sunt pe masa.

In limba engleza atat "ma numesc", cat ~i "pe mine ma cheama" se traduc prin "my name is. " What is your name? My name is Mary. His name is Peter Smith. - Cum te cheama?/Cum te
nume~ti?

- Ma numesc Mana.lMa cheama Maria. - El se numqte/pe el Jl cheamalnumele lui este Peter Smith. - Cum Ii cheama.?

What are their names? 6.3.

Exista verbe care nu pot fi folosite la timpul prezent continuu. Acestea sunt verbele car __ exprima senzatii sau sentimente: to see to know to like to think to hear to want to have to understand to be I don't understand you. I think you are right. - a vedea - a ~ti, a cunoa~te - a-i placea, a i'ndragi - a crede
a aUZI

- a vrea, a dori - a avea, a poseda - a i'ntclcgc, a pi iccpe

-- a fi
Nu te i'nleleg. - Cred ca ai dreptate.

6.3.1. $i i'n cazul In can: i'n propozi(iile care conlin aceste verbe figureaza expresiile "now, just, at the moment", trebuie folosit timpul prezent simplu: Now I don't understand him. - Acum nu-l i'nteleg.

6.3.2. Daca din context reiese ca aqiunea se desfa~oara tocmai i'n momentul vorbirii, atunci expresiile "now, just, at the moment" pot lipsi din propozitie: Where are you going? We are going to school. 6.4. Pluralul substantivelor 6.4.1. Daca substantivulla singular se termina in ,,-s, -sh, -ch, -x" pluralul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei ,,-es" care se pronunta intotdeauna [1/ J : bus church - buses - churches - Unde te duci? - Mergem la
~coala.

Daca in afara de terminatile de mai sus cuvantulla singular mai are ~i terminatia ,,-e", atunci la plural prime~te doar un ,,-s" ~i pronuntia este de asemenea[ IZ].

6.4.2. Daca intr-un cuvant la singular tenninatia ,,-y" este precedata de 0 consoana, atunci la plural ,,-y" -ul se transforma in ,,-i", la care se adauga tennina(ia ,,-es":
baby factory - babies - factories

6.5.

Fonnarea timpului prezent simplu la persoana a treia singular prin adaugarea la verb a sufixului
,,-es".

6.5.1. Daca la infinitiv verbul are terminatia ,,-s, -sh, -ch,-x" sau ,,-0", atunci la persoana a treia singular prill1e~te sufixul ,,-es" care se pronunta intotdeauna [iz]:
teach go - teaches - goes

6.5.2. Daca infinitivul vcrbului are tenninatia ,,-y" precedata de 0 consoana, atunci la persoana a treia singular ,,-y"-ul se transforma in "i", la care.se adauga sufixul ,,-es":
try - tries

6.6.

f'ropozi(iilc imperative
(1.(1.

I. ()aca vrCI11 sa expnmam un ordin folosim forma de infinitiv scurt a verbului,

fara particula "to":
(,0

home!

- Mergi acasa!

()aca vrcm sa nc cxprimam politicos sau vrem doar sa cerem ceva, atunci se adauga cuvanlul "please": Open the door, please. - Deschide
t~lca
u~a,

te rag.

6.6.2. Daca ordonam cuiva sa nu (don't) inaintea verbului:
Don't go home!

ceva, atunci forma negativa a verbului auxiliar "do" - Nu merge acasii'
0

Putem folosi cuvantul "please" pentru Don't take it, please. 6.6.3.

exprimare politicoasa:

- Nu-l lua, te rog.

In limba engleza, aceea~i forma de imperativ se poate referi aHit 1a singular cat ~i 1a
plural: Go home! - Mergi acasal Mergeli acasii'

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 6
Rezolvati
~i

trimiteti pentru verificare exercitiile de mai jos:

A.

Traduceti unniHoarele propozitii in limba romana:
1.

We don't want to visit that man today. Don't try to take this book! Who teaches Romanian in this school? Are the babies at home? What are their names? Where is your money?

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

B.

Traduce1i urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. El ii aude in clipa asta? Aceste doua fabrici sunt in apropierea statiei? Mergi la tata
~i

cere-i bani!
0

Cine vrea sa puna

intrebare?

Unde sunt aceste biserici? Maine nu am timp sa
0

scriu

c.

in propozi\iik: unnaloan: ex Isla gn:~eli. Corecta\i-le ~i rescrieti fiecare propozitie:
1.

He isn't knowlI1g lhis girl. In eighteen days I go to Bucharest. He's name is Peter. Our bois are good. Her daughter trys to get the car. You don't read this book, please.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 5 SI 6 , ,
about aeroplane animal to ask a question at the moment baby >
l~lhaut]

despre, de, eu privire la - aVlon - animal - a pune
0

> ll'ar~lpleinJ
/

I EJ1im~d]
I III <i:sk a k"est~aJ1]

>

intrebare

> I Ll [Va maumant] >

- ill acest moment, chiar acum bcbelu~

I [wi\) )]

bed
,
~

> [ heLlJ
> lbcdrll:m]

- pat
~

bedroom book to bring but to conle daughter desk dollar to eat eighteen eleven

dormitor

>

l bukJ

- carte - a aduee (eu sine) - dar, i'nsa,
totu~i

> [Ill hrin(gl]

> [batJ > [tu kam]
> I do: 1;I'J
>

- a veni, a ajunge - fiica - masa de scris, birou, pupitru, banea - dolar - a maoea, a se hril11i - optsprezece - ullsprezece - Anglia - englez - ochi - cincisprezece pe~te

I desk I

> 1(101:\',
>

I tll ill

> [eiti:nJ > [ilevn J > [ ingland] > [ingli~ J > (all >
;

,,-.

)

England English eye fifteen fish to fly fourteen Friday garden to give

I Ii It i 111
I t 1,1

> 1111

li"'1
'Iinj

- a zbura - paisprezece - vmer! - gradina - a da, a dami - mana - a auzi - pe ea, ei, ii, -i; ei/sau;sai, sale

>

I r"

> Ilraid i j. l frairiei] > [ga.'dn]
> [tL! glvJ

hand
to hear her

> [hEnd] > [tu hia'] > [ ha:']

':

here him
In

>[hia'J >[hllnJ >[II1J >[ ItJ

- aici, pe aici - pe el, ii, 1-, lui, ii, i-, - in, la, inauntrul - aceasta, asta (pentru obiecte, noti uni abstracte, animale)

It

just to keep kitchen letter little to love man me Monday money month mouth name next nineteen now out of to pay (for) pen plane please post-office question to read right all right

>[ dpstJ >[tu hpj >[ kit~an J >[ leta'J >[litIJ >[tu lavJ >[mEnJ >[mi:J >[mandl], [mandelJ >[m3mJ >[manT'J >[mauT'J >[neim] >[nekstJ >[nalilti 111 >1 '1.l1I1

- tocmai, chiar - a tine - bucatarie - scnsoare - mic, un pic, putin - a iubi, a-i fi drag - barbat - pe mine, ma, mle, imi, mi, -mi -luni - bani - luna (calendaristica) - gura - nume lIrma(or, care urmeaza l10uasprezece - acum - din (de ex. a scoate ceva din cev?-'-. - a plati (ceva/pentru ceva) - stilou - avion, aeroplan - te rag, fii amabil - oficiu
po~tal

·'1 ,1111 :1 \ 1
.~ II I

I

11\'/1

>1 pL'1l1 >lpklnj >[plnJ > [paust ofisJ > [k "est~anJ >[tu ridJ >[raltJ >[o:lraltJ

- intrebare - a citi - drept, potrivit, corect - in ordine, in regula

on the right to the right to be right Romania Romanian Saturday to send to show seventeen sister
A

>[ on [Ya rait] >1 tll [Ya ral1] >[ tu bi. ralt] >[rumemia] >[ rumeinian] >[sEta'di], [sEta'dei] >[ tu send] >[ tu
~au]

- in dreapta, in partea dreapUi -la dreapta - a avea dreptate - Romania - roman - sambata - a trimite - a arata ~aptesprezece

>[sevnti:n] >[ sist~l'] >[sikstin] >[ tu smail l:tJ >[ samtaimz] >[ san] >[su:t] >[ sandi], [sandel] >[tu to:k] >[tu
ti:t~]

- sora ~alsprezece

sixteen to smile (at) sometimes son suit Sunday to talk (to/with) to teach them the third thirteen

- a zambi (cuiva) - cateodata, uneori - fiu - costum de haine - duminica - a vorbi, a conversa - a preda, a invata (pe altii)
-

>[IYcm]
>11 )1;1 I ';1

pc ci/clc, lor, Ie, Ii al treilea

'<II

·1

;1 IIi

III

- treisprezece - joi - maine - a incerca, a proba - marti - doisprezece - douazeci - a intelege, a pricepe - pe noi, ne, noua, ne, ni - drum, cale, direc(ie - mlercun - saptamana -la ce ora?

.-......

Thllrsday lOlllO'l'OW to try Tuesday twelve twenty to understand us way Wednesday week what time...?

:1

'/dll.1 I ·:t.'/(!c/J

·ll.lfllOI<lllj

··1

t 1I 11';\ i I

'1I/lI/(li j, [tiuzdei] "11 ''L-I \' I >11"clllll >[ tll :IIHL!'stEnd] >[ as] >[ Uei] >["enzdi], [Uenzdei] >[Ui:k] >[ Uot taim]

whIch way? with you

>

["lt~

"el ]

- pe care drum, in ee direetie? - eu, ilTIpreuna eu - tie, Iti, \1, dumneavoastra, voua, va, vi, pe tine te, pe dumneata, pe dvs , pe voi, va

> ["iDzJ

> [iu")

DINCOLO DE PRIMII PASI ,
Ati lacut deja primii pa~i in invatarea limbii engleze. Ati constatat probabil, ca va este din ce in ce mai u~or sa intelegeri propozitiile simple. S-ar putea sa averi greutari cu unele structuri gramaticale sau cu unele cuvinte, dar aceasta este ceva obi~nuit. In curand veti putea folosi lara nici 0 dificultate ~i aceste forme mai complicate. Pentru a va ajuta, de aCU111 inainlc, 1a inceputul fiecarui manual, vom prezenta 0 recapitulare a regulilor gramaticalc inva\alc in caiclul precedent. Repetarea sistematica a celor invatate va ajuta sa vii t1xa\i no\illnilc deja s{lldiate ~i (o(odata, va stimuleaza dezvoltarea cuno~tinrelor de limba cnglcza.

-

Mull sucCt,:s' [>rofcsorul dUl11l1cavoaslra

© Copyright by EUROCOR - lnstitutul European de Cursuri prin Corespondentii S.R.L.

2000
ISSN 1453-8474

INDRUMAR PENTRU REZOLVAREA TEMEI
1.

Va rugam, incepcti rezolvarea temei pentru acasa numai dupa ce ati parcurs intregul material, ati repetat euvinteJc ~i ati rczolvat lara gre~eli ultimele exercitii de verificare. Inainte de a Ineepe rezolvarea acestcia va reeomandam sa studiati eu atentie ~i sa reeititi Inc(\ 0 data (cxlul, urmarind regulile pe care recapitularea Ie aeccntucaZ~1 prill plillclarc. Atunci c;\lld Illva\,1I1l (l I iII lila sl ra inil, accasta trebuie exersata ~i repetata cu aceea~i perscvcrcn\a Cll can.: am lllva\at sa ll1crgem. In acest scop v-au fost propuse 0 serie dc cxerci\ii. Va slIgcr,lnl sa rcvedqi din cand In cand matcrialul deja parcurs. In sClIrt limp, cllrsantlll sc V:I cOllvinge ca aeest lucru nu estc lipsit de sens. Tema implica Illtotdeauna ~i repclarca maleriei din JcqiiJc anterioare. Obi~nuiti-va cu acest mod de Jucru, care, In mod spontan ~i f<ira eforturi deosebite, va improspateaza ~i consoJideaza euno~til1tcJe. Pentru a putea obtine rezultate in invatarea limbilor straine cu ajutorul metodei noastre, nu aveti nevoie de un talent deosebit. Chiar ~i cei care sunt mai putini receptivi in invatarea limbilor straine, VOl' ajunge dupa cateva luni de studiu la un nivella care nici nu au sperat. Deci, fiti gata de munca!

2.

3.

Propunerea noastra este sa incepeti rezolvarea temei folosind cioma. Va fi mai u~or sa va corectati ~i sa propuncti mai multe posibile raspunsuri, iar la sfar~it sa alcgeti varianta care vi se pare a fi eea mai buna. Transcriqi tema "pc curat" doar cand sunteti siguri de rezolvare. Pentru trimiterea temelor folositi fonnu]arelc tipilrite In aeest seor. Nu uitati sa va seriqi numeJc, prel1ume!e, adresa, codu! profesorului ~i numarul dc cursant sub care ati fost inregistrat. Acesta din urma se gase~te in scrisoarea care confirma participarea dvs. la curs. Va rugam scrieti citet! Alaturati temei pentru acasa un plic timbrat autoadresat. In acest plic veti primi tema corectata. Este foarte important sa notati pc pJic numarul de cursant sub care ati fost Inrcgistrat! In cazulln care comandati matcriale noi de curs, sau aveti alte cereri legate de relatii1e eu publicul, scrieti-Ie separat pe 0 foaie de hartie ~i trimiteti-le pe adresa noastra impreuna cu tema. In coltul din stanga jos al scrisorii, scrieti "Relatii cu publicul". Dumneavoastra sunteti cel care stabile~te termenul de tnmltere a temei. Independent de acesta, luerarea dumneavostra va fi intotdeauna eontrolata ~i retrimisa de eiltre profesor.

4.

5.

6. 7.

R.

9.

10.

Veti vedea, eforturile dumneavoastra vor fi rasplatite. Va dorim mult succes!

LECTIA 7 ,

" " PARTEA INTAl

Pentru inceput iata cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi cu voce tare: brother friend horse ship cigarette the fourth year foot radio song music family
> [braDZa ' ] > Ifrend] > [ho:'s] >
[~ip]

- frate - prieten - cal - nava, vapor - tigara - al patrulea, a patra - an (calendaristic) - laba piciorului - radio - dintec, melodie - mUZlca - familie

> [sigaret] > [Dca fo:'T'] > [iia ' ] > [fut] > [reidiau] > [son(gl] > [l11iu:zik] > I IF, 111 iii]

Acum repcla\i clivintele in alta online:

year ship family horse friend radio musIc brother cigarette song the fourth foot

> Ild\ > I sip] > [fEmili] > [ho:'s] > [frend] > [rcidiau] > 111I1IL/ik I > I hral)/:I'J > I sigaret] >

- an (calendaristic) - nava, vapor - familie - cal - prieten - radio - muzica - frate - tigara - dntec, melodic - al patrulea, a patra - laba piciorului

l ~Oll(gl]

> I D'a fo:'P] > l fut]

Sa folosim aceste cuvinte in propozltii: My brother is looking at a big horse. Bring me your cIgarettes! I hear a song on the radio. We are gOlllg to England by ship tomonow. Our family likes to visit London. My friend is coming to me tillS year. [ live In the fourth house in this street. Look at
11lS

> [mal bi aDl~l' IZ luklt1(gi Et a big ho 's] > [bnn(g) mI:
10:'

- Fratele meu se uita la un cal mare. - Aduceti-mi tlgarile voastre! - Aud
0

slgarets]

> [al hia:' a son lg ) on DZa rCldliiu] > [L1 I: a:' gault1(g) tu in(glgland
bal ~IP

melodie la radIO.

tamorau]

- Maine mergem cu vaporul in Anglia. - Familiei noastre ii place sa viziteze Londra.

> [aua! fEmill lalks tu villt land an] > [mal frend DIIS 11'1']
IZ kallllll lgi

lu

1111:

-

Prietenul meu vine la mine anul acesta.

>['1111\ In IYa (c).'T' haus IIJ O/IS stn:t] > [luk Et hlz rait fut] > [dull! la/k miu zik]

- Locuiesc in a patra casa de pe aceasta strada. - Uita-te la piciorullui drept! - Iti place muzica?

right foot!

Do you hke music?

intI-una din propozltiile anterioare ati intalnit expresia:
011

the rad 10

~ (JI)

I

I Vd I "f(!I.1I11

-la radio

Acum, cOl11pletati propozitIle in limba engJeza. Folositi filtrul Este/Exlsta un radio in aceasta fabrica? Nu
cunoa~tem aceasta

ro~u:

- Is there a >radio in this factory? - We don't know this >family. - I see a >horse through the window. - Does your >foot hurt? - I'm going to school in a >yeal. - Their
>CIg~\l cttes

familie.

Vad un cal pe fereastra. Te doare piciorul? La anul merg la
~eoala.

Tigarile lor sunt pe birou. Lui ii place sa mearga cu trenul
~i

arc on the desk.

cu vaporul.

- He likes to go by train and by >sIll 11 .

El este eel de-al patrulea frate al meu. Mamei tale ii place muziea? Prietenul meu nu are surori. Imi place mult aeest eantec.

- I-J e is my >1 (JlIII h brother.
- Does your mother like >music? - My >Ji"iend has no sisters. - I love this >song.

2

Oupa cum ati observat, inamtea substantivulUi music (muzica) nu se pune nici un fel de articol.

Urmariti cu atentie felul in care este folosit cuvantul of in urmatoarele expresii: a cup of coffee a lot of cars a piece of paper some of my friends
>
[,1

kilp

<IV

kofl]

- a

cea~ca

de cafea
ma~ini

> I a lot av ka:'z]

- a mu1time de

> [a

pl.S

ilV peipa']

- a bucata de hartie
- cativa prieteni de-ai mei

> l sam a V mal frendz]

lata cuvintele noi din expresiile de mai sus: cup coffee a lot of > [kap] > [koti] >[alotav] cea~ca

- cafea

- a multime de, foarte mult,
foarte multi

pIece paper
('111'(/11111/

> [pJ:S] > [pelpa']
of ('.I'll' /oIO.l'ill)('1I11'1I
('II

- bucata - hartie (ceva/cineva aparline cuiva).
f)(' iI,\'('/I11'Il1'il, pul1'/n

iI nj!l'Il1/iI IJO.l'(',\iil

exprill/il ,,\'i ('illIllIl//('1/

illlllol'lIlll1l

(If f)('

(,H'II/IJlII:

a cup of coffee

() cca~ca de ca rea (dill toata cantitatea de cafea)

Of poate fi intiilnit ii in expresia de mailos:
some of - catva, cativa,
ni~te,

ceva

lata denumirea catorva alimente in limba engleza: tea beer water sugar pm honey cheese bread butter > [tl ] > [hJa'J
'>

- ceal - bere - apa - zahar - gem, dulceata - miere (de albine) ca~caval,

1"0

"I'I

. . . I \llll:,1 I

> I dll III1

>111.11111 > I hi /1 > l hledl >lbaUJ

branza

- paine - unt

Sa exersarn aeeste euvmte. Tractueep in Illnba engleza: eafea paine
~i
~i

eeai unt (piiine eu unt) dulceata

> cotfe and tea > ,bread and buller > cheese and jam

ca~cavaI ~i

bere

~i

apa

> beer and water
> sugar and honey

zahar ~i rniere

1"'_~

Cuvintele de mai sus sunl slIhslanlive carl' IlU au plural. Existii ~i in limba romdnii asemenea substantive: de exemp/u, za//(11: j'aso/I', SI'II', l11iere Aceastti categorie cuprinde - printre altelesubstantivele care denul11esc materia; de exemplu: 1. 2. 3. 4. lichide, de exemplu: coffee, tea, water, beer, milk substante solidI', de exemplu: sugar, coffee gaze, de exemplu: air [ea' ]- aer produse ca: bread, cheese etc.

Nu uitati ca inaintea aeestor substantive nu folosim artieolul nehotarat "a/an". SubstantivuI "money" faee parte tot din aeeasta grupa. (Atentie! Denurnirea monedei (exemplu: "dolar", "leu") are plural.

Sa folosim in propozitii substantivele rara plural. Tradueeti in limba engleza: Vreau sa am a rnultime de bani. Vrei eafea? Vrei sa manallei paine eu dulceata?
4 > I want tu have a lot of money, > Do you want coffee? > Do you want to eat bread WIth jam')

Baiatul acela manfmca piiine cu miere. Banii mei sunt pe
mas~l.

>

Th~lt

bo')

IS

eatll1g bread wIth honey.
lS

> My money

on the table.

Pentru expril11area cantitiitii folosil11 urnuitoarele douii cuvinte:
many
> [menll

- multi, multe, numero~i, numeroase (se folose~te doar cu substantIvele care au plural) - mult, multa (se folose~te cu substantivele care nu au plural)

much

Sa vedem ciiteva exemple: She has many cars. 1 haven't much money.

> [SI hL/ mcnJ ka 'z]
> [al hE\ nt llldt 0 mal1l]

- Ea are multe

ma~ini.

- Nu am multi bani.

lntrebiirile referitoare la cantitate in limba englezii sunt:
How many?
> [hau mel1l]

- cati? cate? (in cazul substantivelor care au plural) - cati? ciite? (in cazul substantivelor care nu au plural)

How much?

>[haumats]

DL: L:xL:nlplu:

How many people do you know? How much sugar do you want?

> 111.\1\
till III

I\}\"\I'

I" I"

. Ciiti oameni

cuno~ti?

1],111\

> [hall mats suga' du Ill: "ont]

- Ciit zahar vrei?

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Ea are multe carti Nu am mult ceai. Ciita piiine vreti sa miincati? Ciita bere vor sa aduca? Avem multi prieteni. Ciit ceai vrei? Cite
ce~ti

engleze~ti.

- She has >many English books. - I haven't >mLlch tea. - >How much bread do you want to eat? - >How much beer do they want to bring? - We have >m.lIly friends. - >How llluch tea do you want? - >How many cups of tea does your sister want? - >HO\\ many pieces of cheese are on the plate?

de ceai vrea sora dumneavoastra?

Cate bucati de pe farfurie?

ca~caval

sunt

Expresla a lot of po ate fi folosita atiit cu substantivele care au plural, cat ~i cu cele care nu au plural.

Sa invatam cateva cuvinte noi: cheap expensIve together a little
>[t~I:p]

- ieftin - scump, costisitor - impreuna - putin, catva, ceva (cu substantive care nu au plural) - caine
IVI'Il[

> [Ikspenslv J > [tageOZa'] >[alitl]

dog more than

>Idog] >lllw
I

- mai mult/mai muM decat, mai mulWmai multe decat - pentru ca, fiindca, deoarece - mai putin deciit, mai putin de - in jurul, prin apropiere - repede, iute, rapid - ce ar fi sa",? cum starn cu.. ,? , ? ce mal e cu '' u~or,

because less than around fast what about

>[blkozj > [les OlEn] > [al allnd] >[fa:st] >["ot abaut]

easy to buy

>1 i /11
,>1111 h.lll

simplu

- a cumpara, a face cumparaturi

Iar acum sa folosim cuvintele noi in propozi(ii, Cititi-le cu voce tare The chairs are around the table, These ships are fast English is easy, I have more cars than you. Buy me this bicycle I It's cheap. I'm not buying this house, because it's expensive. He has less money than his brother. >[Dla t~ea'z a:' arallnd DZa te/bl] >[OZI:Z
~IPS

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie:

- Scaunele sunt in jurul mesei.

a:' fa:st]

- Aceste vapoare sunt rapide. - Engleza este
u~oara. ma~ini

>[in(g)gli~

IZ i.zi]

>[al hEy mo.' ka:'z OZEl1/lL] >[bal mi: OilS baislklJ
>(1\:' t~1

- Am mai multe

decal tine.

- Cumpara-mi aceasta bicicleta! - Este ieftin. - Nu cumpar aceasta casa, deoarece este scumpa. - El are mai putini bani decat fratele sau.

pJ
II~ Ibl'(,II\I\'

>1;\lIllIlI>t h,I/IIl''') 1)'1\ 11.ltlS

blko/

I

>[hl' h[z k~ III all I [YEn hiz bl aD!;j' J

6

Give me a little beer, please. What about Mary? Do you love your dog? Are we going there together?

>[gIV 1m: a litl b1a' plI:z]

- Va rag, dati-mi putina bere. - Ce mai face Mary? - Va iubiti cainele? - Mergem impreuna acolo?

>["ot abaut meari]
> [du
IU

lay io:' dog]

>[a.'"1. gauJl1(g) OZea' tagerYa']

Refinefi deosebirile dintre expresiiIe de mai jos. Ambele suntfolosite cu suhstantive care nu au plural. a little little De exemplu: I have a little money. I have little money. - Am ceva bani. - Am putini bani. - putin, catva, ceva - mic, putin

Cuvantul little poate ji folosit ii ca adjectiv, ii atunci se traduce prin: mic, infim . In acest caz, fnaintea lui poate sta ii un articol; de exemplu: She has a little dog. - Ea are un caine mic.

Comrletati rrorozitiile in lirnba engleza cu cuvintele noi:
AI11 doi cill1li
~i

Ii iuhl:sc.

I have two ><1",,,, and] love them. The first ear is
IS -T\lll'II';IVl·.

Prima ma~ina este iertina, a dona

>1'111'.11)

and the second

este scumpa. Peste 0 saptamana mergem impreuna in Anglia.

- In a week we are going to England >together.

"Peter has less money than Mary."
7

Am mai putina bere decat Peter. Este u~or sa scrii? Vreau sa mananc putina paine. Vreti mai multi bani? El se plimba in jurul acestei cladiri. Merge intotdeauna repede? Cu mine cum ramane?

- I have >kss beer than Peter. - Is it >easy to write? - I want to eat >;) lIttle bread. - Do you want >11101 c money? - He is walking >around this building. - Does he always walk >fast? - >What about me?

lata cateva verbe noi: to sit to smoke to worry
> [tll SIt] > [tu sm3uk] > [tu"ori]

- a se

a~eza,

a

~edea

- afuma - a se nelini~ti, a se ingrijora,
a-~i

face griji

to sing

- a canta

$i acum sa introducem verbele noi in propozitii. Cititi cu voce tare:
Where do you want to sit? How many cigarettes do you smoke every day'! Mother always worries about her daughters. She is singing a nice song on the radio now.
>

I ",.,,'

till

III

"0111

III ',(11

~

Unde vrei sa stai?

~> 111,1111111'111 '.1".11 ('I'· till III
"II. II iI.

(' \I

I

(lc-rl

- Cate tigari fumezil fumati zilnic? - Mama se ingrijoreaza intotdeauna pentm fiicele sale. - Acum ea canta 0 melodie placuta la radio.

>

11l1a1Y~I'

O:I" CIZ " onz aballt

ha.' do:t<.l'z] >
[~i:

iz sin(glin(g)

a DaIS

son(gl on DZa reidiau nau]

Incercati sa traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Ea fumeaza mai mult decat tatal ei. Nu-ti face griji!/Nu va faceti griji! El vrea sa cante Vrem sa ne
0

- She

smokes !11ore t h:lIl hel Lithe!.

- DOll'1

\\'0111' I

melodie

u~oara.

- I Ie \\:ln1s to Slllg all C<.lSY song.

a~ezam aici.

- We want to sit hele.

8

far acum vom Inviirajolosirea genitivului cu apostroj 's, (the Saxon Genitive l [Y<\ Se joloseite de obieei pentru persoane.
1.

s~<:k s 111

dJenitiv

n.

La singular: Genitivul se jormeazii punand Injarii posesorul urmat de un apostrof ii litera s. Apoi urmeazii obieetul posedat:
Ma~ina

Mariei.

- Mary's car - Mary's father

Tatal Mariei.

2.

La plural: Daeii substantivul este la plural ii se terminii eu litera s atund se adaugii doar un apostrof:
ma~ina fratilor

mei

- my brothers' car

Dadi substantivul aflat la pluralnu se terminii In -s atul1ci se adaugd atat apostroful cat Ifi litera s:
casa acestor oameni - these people's house

> [ozl:Z pi.plz ballS]

De exemplu: My mother's brother has a nice car. Where is your father's office?
This is Illy li'iends' house.

- Fratele mamei mele are 0

ma~ina

frumoasa.

- Unde este biroul tatalui tau? Aeeasta estc casa prietenilor mei.

Do you like Mary's dog? Do you know our driver's sister? Their brother's bicycle is very good. I always take my friend's son with me. Our family's friends are young.

1\1 place eflinclc Marici?

- a cuno~ti pc sora ~oferului nostru?
- Bicicleta fratelui lor este foarte buna. - lntotdeauna il iau cu mine pe fiul prietenului meu. - Prietenii familiei noastre sunt tineri.

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Prietenul fratelui sau este
~i

prietenul meu.

• - >H IS hi othCI',,; - >TllIS
~lrl's

1'1

lend is also my friend.

Cartea acestei fete este pe masa. Vad casa surorii mele. Vrei sa ma duci la apartamentul fratelui tau? Cine vrea sa vada birourile tatalui nostru?

book is on the table.

- I see >my slster's house. - Do you want to take me to >your brother's apartment? - Who wants to see >our father's of1]ces?

9

Dacii substantivul (posesorul) nu denume~te 0 jiin!ii, atuncl se folose~te cuvantul of pentru exprimarea gemtivului:
the window of this room
> [DZa L1indau av
DZ1S

ru m]

- fereastra acestei camere

Pentru jiin!e, se pot folosi ambele construc!ii, cu
my father's room
=

acela~i

in!eles:

the room of my father

my friends' car = the car of my friends

in limba englezil, genitivul cu apostrof este mal des falosit.
In exercitiul urmator, transformati genitivul cu apostrof in genitivul format cu prepozitia of. Daca transformarea nu este posibila, repetati propozltia originala: my brother's daughter a cup of coffee my father's book the house of Mary the bicycle of my brother my son's room
a month of the year
> thc daughter of my brother > a cup of coffee

> the book of my father > Mary's house > my brother's blcycle > the room of my
SOI1

> a month of the year

the rooms of the house the mouth of" the horse two pieces of bread their friend's sister

> the lOoms of the house
> tllc
hOI ~c'~

1l1Oulh

> thl'

~Istcl of

thclI fllcnds

$i acum sii invii!iim un nou verb: can [kEn] - a putea, a fi capabil, a

~ti.

Acest verb face parte din grupa verbelor modale, ceea ce inseamnii cii forma lui este ldentlcii la toate persoanele, iar verbul care-l urmeazii I1U are particula to.
lata cateva exemple:
I can drive a car.

> [al kEn dralv aka:']

-

~tiu

sa conduc

(0 ma~il1a).

She can give you this book. My brother's friend can sing this song. They can sit on these chairs.

>

[~I'

kLn glv

IU.

IYls hukl

- Ea poate sa-ti dea aceasta carte. - Prietenul fratelui meu poate sa cante acest cantec. - Ei pot sa stea pe aceste scaune.

> [mal bralYa'; IIL'IH! kEn SIl1'SI lYls SO\1(' IJ

> [OZel kEn Sit on IYJ.z t$ea' z]

10

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii: Pot sa mananc zece mere. Sora mamei mele
~tie

> I c:ln
engleze~te.

C:l(

ten apples.
EIlg:II~1J

sa vorbeasca

> My mother's sister can speak > They c:ln pay for our tickets. > \Ve cfln
~Ill()kc III

Ei pot sa plateasca biletele noastre. Putem sa fumam in aceasta camera. Poti sa
vorbe~ti

this room.

cu noi despre asta.

> You can t:llk with us about It.

Interogativul se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii verbului can :ji a subiectuilli; de exemplu:
I can sing.

Can I sing? Can her sister drive? Can we take the car? Can they go for a walk? Can his friends speak English?

- Pot sa dint? - Sora ei
~tie

Her sister can drive. We can take the car. They can go for a walk. His friends can speak English.

sa canduca?
ma~ina?

- Putem sa luam

- Ei pot sa mearga la plimbare? - Prietenii lui ~tiu sa vorbeasca engleze~te?

Traduceti prapazitiile urmataare in limba engleza:
Pot sa vina (ci) aici dupa-aillia/a'?

>

(',111

Iii, Y ,'''JIll' h,'ll' '"

III,' ,ilil'In"OIl')

. (

,III

I 1.11 "

illl'.

I"" ,L '.

Fratclc dUI11JIl::lvoaslra ~lic sa varbeasca engleze~te?

Fiullui

~tie

sa cante?

> Can his son sing?

Rdspunsllrile seurte se jormeaza eu ajutorul pronumele personal :ji a verbului can, in rdspunsuri negative verblll can este urmat de euvGntul not, iar forma preseurtatd este can't[ ka:nt], Retineti cd se pot serie:ji fmpreuna: cannot [kEnat],

Cititi urmataarele raspunsuri scurte in limba engleza: Can your daughter sing? Yes, she can. No, she can't. Can you drive? Yes, I can. No, I can't.

> [kEn > [Ies
>[nall
> [kEn

10:'

do:ta'

sm(~i]

- Fiica ta

~tie

sa cante?

~i:

kEn]
ka.nt]
draiv]

- Da.
- Nu, - $titi sa conduceti?

~i:
IU:

>[lesalkEn] >[nall al ka:nt]

- Da.
- Nu.

l!

Forma negativii cannot sau can't se folose$te $i In alte tipuri de enunturi:
I can't sing. She cannot open the door.
> l al ka:nt sn/ SI ] >
[~i:

- Nu pot sa dint. - Ea nu poate deschide
u~a.

kEno! aupan DZa do:']

~i

acum sa exersam ce am invatat pana acum. Traduceti In limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii:

Pot sa te vizitez maine. Ea nu poate manca aceasta branza. Pot sa fumez in aceasta camera? Poti sa-l
a~tepti.

> I can \'IS1t you tomorrow. > She can't eat this cheese.
> Can l s1110ke > >
l:Ol!
(";IIJ

111

this room')

Celn walt for hl111.
tlln "how me their house')

Pot sa-mi arate casa lor? Tatallui nu poate vorbi acum cu dumneavoastra. Putem sa scriem aceasta pentru tine.

> I liS fathcI celn't talk wIth you now. > We can v. rite It for
Y0l!.

intrebiirileformulate cu verbul can pot Incepe $i cu prol1ume interogative; $i In acest caz se inverseaza ordinea, de exemplu:
Where can I see these books? Who can read this letter? When can she come to us? Who can't go there? - Unde pot vedea aceste carti? - Cine poate citi aceasta scrisoare? - Cand poate veni ea la noi? - Cine nu poate sa mearga acolo?

Sa exersam interogativul cu verbul can. Traduceti in Ill1lba cngleza: La ce ora poate sa vina? Ciind pot sa iau aceste scrisori? Unde putcm sa va Cine
~tie
a~!cptam?
;> \\'

kit tlmc can he come'?

> When can 1 take these letters? > Where can we wait for you? > Who can
Sl11g')

sa din!c'!

Cine nu

~tie romane~tc'!

> Who can't speak Romanian?

IaNi ultimele cuvinte noi din aceastii parte a lectiei. Cititi-le cu atentie:
better the best why which whose how

> [beta'] > [DZa best]
> ["ai]

- mai bun, mai bine - eel mai bun, eel mai bine - de ce? pentru ce? din ce cauza? - care, pe care, ce - ai, a, ai, ale cui carui Icarei Icaror - cum?, in ce fel? 12

> ["it~]
> [hu:z]

> [hau]

Urmari\i felul in care se folosesc aceste cuvinte in propozi\ii: Which car is better? How can I write this letter? Why are you worrying? You are my best friend. This plane is the best. Whose is this bicycle? > l "I\~ ka
I

IZ

beta l ]

'.

- Care

ma~ina este

mai buna?

> [h.lll L1:11 al ralt IYI" Ieul i l > l ":11
:1 ' III

- Cum pot sa scriu aceasta scrisoare? - De ce te ingrijorezi? E~ti

"orill1'~I]

> [Ill cl I Illdl best ftend] > [IYI" plt:t'l I;' DZa best] > [hu /
1/

prietenul meu eel mai bun.

- Acest avion este cel mai bun. - A cui este aceasta bicicleta?

:/1:; b21lslkl]

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Al cui stilou este acesta? Aceasta carte este cea mai buna. Care scaun este mai bun? De ce nu poti manca asta? Nu
~tiu

- >Whose pen is this? - This book is >the best. - >Vvhlch chair is better? - >Why can't you eat this?
- I don't know >how to write it.

cum sa scriu asta.

Am ;\.iIlIlS la recapitularca materiL:i din accastfl parte a lectiei. I'ra<lucqi ill limba L:llglcza: Ale cui cantece Ie can(a ei acum'! De ce nu poti merge acolo cu vaporul? Peste trei ani voi cumpara 0 - \\' hy Glll't you go there by ship'! - In three years I'm buying a car. - How much bread and butter can you eat? - Which book can I take? - How many dogs has your friend's sister? - How much
- I
C\11

ma~ina.

Cilta paine cu unt poti manca? Care carte pot sa a iau? (Ce carte pot sa iau?) Cali caini are sora prietenului tau? Cat zahar donli? Nu pot fuma aici, deoarece fratelui lui Mary nu-i place. Dati-mi doua
ce~ti

~lI~al <10

you wanP

I :'11l0kc hcre, because Mary's brother

dOL'SII'1

IlkL:

It.

de cafea.

-- ( ; I \ ('

me (wo cups of coffee. a little money.

Am bani putini. Avem putina branza. Putem merge acolo impreuna? Ferestrele acestei camere sunt mario

- i

Ild\'C

- \Ve

have little cheese.

- Can we go there together? - The windows of thIS room are bIg.

LECTIA 7 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
Urmeaza alte ciiteva cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare: poor rich cat tonight
> [plla'] [po:'] >
[rit~]

- sarac, sarman, biet - bogat - pI sIca - diseara, asta seara, in noaptea asta - a bea - vara - parc - copac, arbore, pom - mar

> [kEt]
> [lanail]

to drink summer park tree apple

>

I III

drin(glkJ

> [sama'l

> [pa:'k]

> [tri:] > [Epl]

lata

ace1ea~i

cuvinte, intr-o alta ordine:

cat summer apple poor
tonight

> [kEI] > Isandl
11<[111

-. plslca - vara - mar - sarac, sarman, biet - diseara, asta seara, in noaptea asta - parc - bogat - a bea - copac, arbore, pom

> [pLdJ [po:'] > [lanait]

park rich to drink tree

> [pa:'k]
> [rit~]

>

(tLi

dr1l1(glk]

> [tri:]

14

..

Sa folosim cuvintele noi in propozltii: Her mother's brother is a poor man. That rich woman has three houses. Can we go to the park? I want to have many trees in my garden. I can't drink beer tonight. I like to eat apples in summer. What do cats like to drink? > [ha ' ma D"{\I Z braDza' a po' mEn] > [IYFt
T'11

II

- Fratele mamei ei este un om sarac. - Femeia aceea bogata are trei case. - Putem merge in parc? - Vreau sa am multi copaci in gradina. - Nu pot sa beau bere diseara. - Lmi place sa mananc mere vara. - Ce Ie place pisicilor sa bea?

Ilt~

"l.IIman hEz

!l,lL1ZIZ]
"l.

> [kLIl

gau tu DZa pa:'k]

>la'"ollt tll hEv meni tri:z 11l mal ga:'dn] > [:Ij b nt drin(g)k bia' tanait]
.8

> [al talk tll i:t Eplz in samal]

Retineti expresia: in summer - vara

COl11pletati propozitiile in limba engleza; folositi filtrul Ei vin la noi diseara. Vrcti sa fiti boga!'> Aceasta sannan{\ pisica nu are casa. Ea de ce paate bea bere
~i

ro~u:

- They are coming to us >tonight. - Do you want to be >rich? - This >poor cat has no home. - Why can she >drIllk beer, and I can't?

eu nu?

Vara mergem des in pare. Aceste mere sunt scumpe. Lmi place sa privesc copacii.

- In >SLlI11l11Cr we often go to the >park.
- These >apples are expensive. - I like to look at >trees.

Adverbul never [neva'] fnseamnii - niciodata, nicicand. In limba englezii acesta este un adverb de nega!ie, de aceea, aliituri de el nu poate fi folositii nici 0 alia negatie in propozi!ie.
I never drink beer. She never goes to work in the morning.
>
1';1 Ill'\ ,I' !'dll/ III ",I

-- Eu nu beau niciodata bere.
'k

111 1)',11110 '11111""1

- Ea nu merge niciodata la lucru dimineata.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii folosind adverbul never - niciodata: Ei nu pot niciodata sa conduca
0 ma~ina.

> They can never drive a car. > I never go for a walk to that park. > I never sing songs. > They never buy cheese.

Eu nu rna plimb niciodata in parcul acela. Eu nu cant nieiodata cantece. Ei nu eumpara niciodata branza.

lata cateva adjective noi: tall short large big great
> [to.l]

- inalt, marc - scurt, scund - mare, spatios, larg - mare, volummos - mare, maret, remarcabil

> [W't]

> [la:'dJ]
> [big] > [grett]

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Nu intru niciodata in cladirile inalte. Ei cauta Tu
e~ti
0

- I never enter> tall buildings. - They are looking for a > large house. - You are a > gleatfriend. - Look at this> big building! - Her letter is > short

casa spatioasa.

un prieten remarcabil. cladire mare!

Prive~te aceasta

Scrisoarea ei este scurta.

Sa invatam cateva verbe noi: to forget to stop to listen (to)
> [til forget]

- a uita, a

nu-~i

aminti

> [tu stop]
> [tu lisn]

- a opri, a inceta, a Intrerupe - a asculta, a fi atent (la)

Sa folosim aceste verbe in propozitii:
I always forget to write > [al o'j"elz forget a leta' III ha ' I >
III 1;111

I ntotdeauna uit sa-i seriu
(ci) () serisoare.

a letter to her. We often stop near this shop. Listen! Pink Floyd are singing. I like to listen to the radio in the evening.

I"!
,I

0111

slop
1

111.1'

I)

1'0

',oil I

Ne oprim des langa acest magazin. Asculta! Canta Pink Floyd.

> III
I

,II 1'111

"'1. 110/.1

,j J ) I 'I J II ( 'J J

~

I ,1/1.111
III 1)'1

III li',11 III

I)

,I 1l'ldl,1I1

-

i \

lIlli'

II

Seara imi place sa aseult radioul.

Refinefif Verbul to stop are dOUG infelesuri: a se opri pcntru a face ceva, sau a inceta sa faca ceva.

She wants to stop to smoke. She wants to stop smoking.

- Ea vrea sa se opreasca ca sa fumeze. -- Ea vrea sa se lase de fumat.

Atunci cand verbul to stop inseamna a inceta, el este urmat de un verb eu terminatia -ing rara particula to. Daca to stop insearnna a se opri, atunei verbul eare-l urmeaza este insotit de particula to ~i nu are terminatia -ing.
16

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Vreau sa ascult melodiile acestea acum. Nu uitati ca pot s-o seriu pentru dumneavoastra. Ma opresc intotdeauna aiei ca sa privese aceasta clad ire. Nu mai vreau sa merg eu autobuzul, ci vreau sa eumpar 0 ma~ina.
> 1 W~lJ11
(0

Ilsten to these songs now.

> Don'( I'orgct I can WrIte It for yOLi.

> 1 ah\ay' .',1'111 thlS bLlIlcllll!;
> I want to slop and buy a cm.

11CIC

to look at

gOIII;' h~ hLis

lata aite euvinte noi. Repetati-Ie: without something too ever forever between or good night

>1 "iI Valli I > [,ami 'Ill("'] > l tLl:] > [eva'] > [foreva'] > [blt"i:n] > I (, 'I / I "1111
(Lltil

- lara, lipsit de - ceva - prea, foarte - vreodata, candva - pentru totdeauna, mereu,
ve~nie

- intre (doua obiecte), dintre - sau,
-

Of)

no(\ptc bUlla

Exersati euvintele noi intr-o ordine diferita: ever or without too forever good night something between

> [eva'] > [0:'] > ["iD"aLlt] > [tLl.] > [fore\a'] > [gud >
1l~111]

- vreodata, candva - sau, on - lara, lipsit de - prea, foarte - pentru totdeauna, mereu, - noapte buna - eeva - intre (doua obieete, persoane), dintre
ve~nic

[salll'l'IIlI~JJ

> [bit"ll,n]

Sa folosim acum aceste cuvinte in propozitii. Cltitl cu voce tare My office is between this building and the restaurant. We can't buy this car because it's too expensIve. I can't work without musIC,
I want to talk with you

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntia corecta:

> [mal ofis

IZ

bltllj n DZ1S

- Biroul meu este intre aceasta cladire
~i

biJdm lsl End DZa rest{lrantJ
> [lit. ka.nt bal DZIS ka:'

restaurant.

- Nu putem cumpara aceasta
ma~ina deoarece

blkoz Its tu lkspenslv]

este prea scwnpa.

> [al ka:nt lI a .'k lI l D Z aut I11IU.ZJk] > [al "ont tu to.k "IDZ abaut sam Pm lg )]
Ill:

- Nu pot Iucra lara muzica. - Vreau sa vorbesc cu tine despre ceva. - N u pot a~tepta ve~nic (0 ve~nicie)! - Noapte buna! Merg acasa.

about something. I can't wait forever! Good night l home. Does he ever read books? Do you want tea or coffee?
['m

> [a1 ka nl lI ef t forev3']

going

> [gud nail ann gaulll 1S1 haum]
> [daz hi: eva' n.d buks]

- EI

cite~te

vreodata carti?

> [du

IU:

"ont tl:

0:'

kofI]

- Vrei ceai sau cafea?

Completatl in urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu cuvintele care lipsesc: EI este prea sarac ca sa zboare cu avionul. FrateJ.e meu sUi intre aceste doua fete. Au sa-(I arale el:va Noaptc buna! - He is >too poor to fly by plane.
~

My brother IS sitting >hl:lwccn these two girls. They have . ",'1I11l'l11111~' to show you.

o gradina lara capac I nu este fi·umoasa.
Vreau sa cumpar cartea aceasta sau aceea. Ellucreaza vreodata acasa? Nu pot sa-l caut mereu.

A garden >wlthout trees isn't nice. - I want to buy this >01' that book. - Does he >ever work at home? - 1 can't look for it >forever.

Unneaza un exercitiu de recapitulare. Traduce1i in limba engleza: Fratele prietenului meu poate sa cante aceste cantece. Ea vrea sa-mi arate calul ei. Da-mi doua
ce~ti

> My Jllcnd's brother can sing thcse songs > :::;!lc wants to show me her horse.

de cafea

~i

putina paine.

> ('Ive me two cups of coffee and a lIttle bread. > ThiS
IS

Aceasta este cea mai buna muzica.

the best musIc.

18

Pot (ei) sa scrie scrisori lungi? De ce nu poti veni diseara? Ciiti bani poti sa-mi dai? Dati-mi cinci felii de paine. Ea are multe
ma~ini,

> Can they write long letters') >\Vhy can't you come t011lght'1 > How much money can you gJve IllC') >Glvc Illl' fIve slIces of bread. >She
]);1'

dar prea pu\ini bani.

Illdll'y
'Ih

(',11\

but too little money

EI sta intotdeauna pe scaunu] acela. Vreau sa rna las de fumat. Sunt ingrijorat pentru fiul surorii mcle. Acestea sunt caseIe prictcnilor lui'! Camerele acestei case SUlIl l11icl Nu pot sa scriu
asl~l,

>He ahva\',

(lIl [hat chair.
'IIII)"JI]!!

>1 want to ,lop

>1'm worried abolll Illy \1,tCI"S son. > Are these hIS ti JCll( I,' 11< II I'C") >The rooms of thIs IWlI'L'
,IIC

Iiltlc.

dar pol sa Inccrc.

> 1 can't wnte it bUll can II y > 1 think thIS park is bettel. >Can a rich man understand a poor > Tonight we are going to John. > Call you come to us > I nevcl
C~lt
111
111<1 n 'l

Cred ca acest pare esle JIlai bUll. Un am bogat poalL' lll(elcgc un am sarac? Discara I1lcl"l:"cI1l 1'1 John. Po\i velli la lloi vara? Diminca(a nu mananc nlciodala Illiere. Ea a viziteaza vrcodata pe mama sa? Nu poti sa uiti asta. Aceasta camera mare este a mea. Ciind lucrez, imi place sa ascult muzica. Vreau sa caut ceva.

summer')

honcy

111

the moming.

> ])oe, shc evel \ IS/I hel mother? > You can '( fOigel about it. >This large room IS mme. > 1 like to listen to music when 1 work. > I want to look for something.

In incheierea leetiei, va propunem un exercitiu de pronuntie: II ~l J hear near

I0 I
talk walk daughter

I II
rich sit listen fish kitchen

lauJ know show open

[E]
cat can

1l)

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 7 ,
7.1. Cuvantul of se folose~te pentru expnmarea posesiei (a, ai, ai, ale cui). In limba engleza putem exprima cu aceasta structura atat cantitatea, cat ~i proportia (cat din ceva): a cup of coffee 7.2. Substantivele care nu au plural
~l
0 cea~ca

de cafea

denumesc materia (Ii chide, solide sau gaze).

7.2.1. Inaintea substantivelor care nu au plural nu folosim articolul nehotarat a/an: Do you like cheese? - iti place branza? 7.2.2. Aceste substantive nu se folosesc la plural: . She eats a lot of bread. - Ea mananca multa paine. 7.2.3. Aceste substantive apar intotdeauna la persoana a treia singular: - Mierea este buna. Honey is good. 7.3. Many/much: 7.3.1. Cuvantul many inseamna un mare numar de, multi/multe, numero~i/ numeroase, o multime de - se refera la substantivele care au ~i singular ~i plural: - multe carti many books Pronumele interogativ how many - inseamna cati?, dUe? - se folose~te in intrebarile referitoare la 0 cantitate masurabila, exprimata de substantive care au ~i plural: How many cars do you have? - Cate ma~ini aveti? 7.3.2. Cuvantul much - inseamna nu au plural: much bread
~i

mult sau multa; se - multa paine

folose~te

cu substantive care

lar how milch arc semnlf"lca\ia de di!i'!, calc'! se relCr<t la substantive J;tra pllllal' ('iita calCa vre\i? Ilow much coffee do you want'! 7.4.

0

cantitate exprimata de

Cuvintele a lot of ~i some relCritoare la cantita\i, se folosesc atat in cazul substantivelor cu plural, cat ~j al celor Tara plural: a lot of books some books
- 0

multime de carti

a lot of beer some beer

- multa bere ni~te

- cateva carti

bere

7.5.

Little inseamna putin, a little se traduce prin catva, ceva. Cand stau inaintea substantivelor eu plural, little inseamna mic:
I have little money.

- Am bani putini. - Am ceva bani. - Am un
catelu~.

I have a little money. 1 have a little dog. 7.6. Genitivul cu apostrof 's 7.6.1. Genitivul 's se animale).
folose~te

doar eu substantivele care desemneaza fiinte (oameni

~i

20

7.6.2. Singular: Genitivul cu apostrof se formeaza prin adaugarea apostrofului dupa substantivul care denume~te posesorul ~i a consoanei s. Apoi urmeaza obiectul posedat: Mary's car Mary's father 7.6.3. Plural: I. Daca substantivul la plural are terminatia s, se adauga doar un apostrof dupa accsta: my brol hers' car
2.

-

ma~ina

Mariei

- tatal Mariei

-

ma~ina

fratilor mei

cat

Daca snbstantivulla plural nu are terminatia s, atunci se adauga atat apostroful ~i terminatia s: - casa acestor oameni

these people's house 7.7.

Daca suhslalllivnl lin (!l;sclIlllcaza fiin\e, atunci folosim cuvantul of pentm cxprimarea genitivllllli: ferestrelc acestci camere - the windows of this room
~ti:

7.R.

Verbul can - este un verb modal, care se traduce prin a putea, a fi in stare, a fi capabil, a 7.8.1. Forma lui can este acea~i la toate persoanele, la singular urmeaza nu are particula to. 7.8.2. Structura propozitiei:
I.
~i

plural, iar verbul care-I

Propozitia afirmativa: He can drive. - El
~tie

sa conduca.

2.

Interogativul se formeaza prin inversarca ordinii: Can he drive? - ~tie sa conduca? Raspunsuri: a) afirmativ: yes + pronume personal + can Can he drive? Yes, he can. - Da.

3.

b) negativ: no + pronume personal + cannot sau can't Can he sing? 7.8.3. Forma negativa can't se 7.9. No, he can't.
folose~te ~i

-Nu.

in propozitii dezvoltate.

Cuvantul never este un adverb de negatie care nu poate fi folosit in propozitie impreuna cu aite negatii: I never drink beer. - Nu beau niciodata bere.

7.10. Verbul to stop are doua sensuri:
I.

a inceta, a intrerupe -in acest caz, dupa el urmeaza un verb cu terminatia -ing:

I want to stop smoking. 2.

- Vreau sa ma las de fumat.

"a se opri" -in acest caz, dupa el urmeaza un verb la infinitiv: I want to stop to smoke. - Vreau sa ma opresc ca sa fumez.

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 7

A.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitli in limba romana:
1.

1 want to drink two cups of tea and eat two slices of bread with Jam. Give me some water to drink. How much money do you want to give him? My brother's friends are nice. Who can sing that song? I will never forget that day.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii In Iimba engleza:
1.

De ce nu-I poti uita pe baiatul acela? Ei nu merg niciodata Ia piata. Fiii acestui
~ofer ~tiu

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

sa conduca

(ma~ina).

Cat zahar doriti? Ferestrele acestei case sunt mario Vreall sa Incclcz sa ma gfllldcsc la accst lllcrll.

C.

Corecta\l grc:;;cll!c lim propOl:I\ll!c Urlllatoarc:

1.

Car my father's is big. I want to listen music. How much books can you read every day? Why can't he to go there with Mary? Whose are these breads? I don't never worry about my father.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

22

LECTIA 8 ,

PARTEA INTAI
~i

Ca ~i pani\ acum, incepem leqia cu invatarea cuvintelor noi. Cititi-Ie atenti la pronuntie: east west date winter leg shoe barber hair the sun weather snow ram to
SIlOW

fiti

> [i:st] > [Uest] > [delt] > I "inta'] > [leg]
>

- rasarit, est - apus, vest - data - iama - plclOr - pantof - frizer, (barbier) - par - soarele - vreme - zapada - ploaie - a ninge a p!olla

I,ll I

> l ba:'ba'] > [he,ll] > [D'3 san] > [UeDZa'] > [snau] > [rein] > I III sn;llI]
.. jlllll'lIll

to rain

lata

acelea~i

cuvinte in alta ordine:
> [DZa san] > [Uinta'] > [i:st]
> [~u:]

the sun winter east shoe barber to rain leg date snow hair to snow weather ram west

- soarele - iama - rasarit, est - pantof - frizer, (barbieI') - a ploua - plclOr - data - zapada - par - a nmge - vreme - ploaie - apus, vest

> [ba:'ba'] > [tu rein] > [leg] > [deit] > [snau] > [hear] > [tusnall] > [UeD'a'] > [rein] > [Uest]

lar aCllm sa folosim aceste cllvinte In It usually snows in winter. I can't buy these expensive shoes, She has long legs, He is going from the west to the east. Is the weather always nice in summer? Do you know what date it is today? Can you see the sun? My hair is short. I'm looking for my green shoes. It's raining so we can't go to the park. He is a barber.
> [it

propozi~ii:

Ill.j llah

snClLlZ in lIinta r ]

- lama de obicei ninge. - Nu pot cumpara pantofi scumpi.
ace~ti

> [ill ka:nt bal D/J'z lkspensiv ~u:z] > [SJ: hEz
jon(~'

legz]

- Ea are picioare lungi.

> [hI. IZ galll11(~1 from DZa lIest - El merge de la vest tLi D7 j 1.st] la est.
>
[IZ

DZa "eDl a' o:llleiz nais in sama']

- Vara vremea este intotdeauna frumoasa? ~tii

> [du iu: nall lIat delt it lZ tadel]
> [kEn
Ill: S1.

ce data este azi?

Dla san]

- Poti sa vezi soarele? - Parul meu este scurt. - Imi caut pantofii verzi.

> [mal hea'

IZ ~o:'t]

> [aim ]ukm(gl fa:' mai

gn:n

~u

z] - Pioua, deci in pare.
ilU

> [its reinll1(g) sau lIj: ka:nt gall tu DZa pa: 1k] > [hI: iz a ba· 11Ja'J

putem merge

- EI este frizer,

Retineti felul in care se jormeazd construcriile cu verbele to snow, to rain. Fiti atenti in specialla jelul in care sejolose,l·te cuvcintul it:
It is raining. It is snowing. It often rains in summer. It often snows in winter.

Plolla. Ninge, Yara ploua des. - lama ninge des,

r
I

I
(

/,

,-

/

-'
1/

/
" I
/
/

/

I

/

I

/
.f

1/

/
r

1/ ,
/
._(~~-

/
/

/ /

,/ I
I

i

/ )

I,

,

i

r

',5')
<..!

I

I

I

I

/,

.1/ ,.

/

'7':'
I /
I

/
/
I

',)

. v' ' /--../
/,
1
1 /

,

I

,

"

1:"-

/
I

"It is raining."

"It is snowing."

24

Completati urmiHoarele propozitil In limba engleza; folositi filtrul Cumpara-mi
ace~ti

ro~u:

pantofi'

- Buy me these >shoes! - What >date is it today? - She has long >haJr. - I don't see the >SUJ1 now. - Do you want to live in the Near >East? We have nice >weather today. - ('an it >\Il\lW in summer?
frUl11os.

Ce data este azi? Ea are parullung. Acum nu vad soarele. Vreti sa traiti In Orientul Apropiat? Azi avem vreme frumoasa. Poate sa ninga vara? Frizerul crede ca paml meu este Nu vreau sa merg spre vest. Acest caine are picioare scurte. Uneori ploua mult iama.

- The >1,;\1 her thinks my >bair is nice. - I don't want to go to the >Wl:st. - This dog has short> kgs. - There is much >rain in >winter sometimes.

Acum, sa Invatam lunile anului: January February March April May June July August September October November December > 1til En/u,m] >11l'11I11;11'1 ·1,11., '1.1 - lanuane -.- februarie Ilwrtit: aprilil:
111al

I "I '"' I
'\11111\ > I "Ill
Il J

- IUDle - iulie - august - septembrie - octombrie - noiembrie - decembrie

> l dJula/] > [o:gast] > [septemba'] > [oktaubii'] >[niiu'vcmba'] > [disemba' J

In exercitiul urmator completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu numele corespunzatoare ale lunilor anului:

o vizitez intotdeauna in martie,
In iulie mergem in Anglia. Vrei sa mergi la
~coala

- I always visit her in >March. - We go to England in >July. - Do you want to go to school in >September?
-It often snows in >January.

in septembrie?

In ianuarie ninge des. Aprilie este cea mai buna luna a anului. Nu te pot lua la Londra in maio

- >April is the best month of the year. - I can't take you to London in >May.

25

...

- We \Nant to 'emy tnis nouse i1\ >No\lem'ber. Pot sa plec In Grecia, dar In iunie. In decembrie, II vizitam Intotdeauna pe prietenul fratelUi nostru. Nu-mi place luna august. In februarie deschldem un magazin mare pe aceasta strada. Pot sa gasesc de lucru In octombrie.
-~

I

I can go to Greece, but in > June.

- In >Decemberwe always visit our brother's friend. - I don't lIke> August. - In >February we are opening a big shop in this street. - I can get work in >October.

palUi aeum am invdtat cd in limba engleza pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin addugarea terminatiei -s sau -es. EXlSta insii !ji substantive eu plural neregulat. latd eateva exemple:
man men woman women foot feet > [mEn] > [men] > [U uman ] > [Uimin] > [fut] > [fl.t] - barbat - barbati - femeie - femei - laba piciorului - picioare (labe)

Traduceti urmatoarele expresii: patm barbati trei fcmci doua plcioare
>
I()III 1lll'1l

:- IIIIC'(' \\()IlIC'!l

>

1\\

II

ILL!

Iar acum vom Invata cateva numcrale noi In limba engleza:

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

- thirty - forty - fifty - sixty - seventy - eighty - ninety - a hundred

> [T'a:'ti] > [fo:'ti] > [fifti] > [sikstl] > [scvntl] > [Cltl]

> [nalllti]
> [a handrid]

26

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarcle numcrale:

10-20-30 60-40-50 90-100-80 70-30-50

> tcn-twenty-thirty > slxty-forty-fifty

> ninety-a hundrcd-eighty > scventy-tlmty-flfty

lata ~i diteva numeralc

COIl1j1usc:

61 28 42 97
lOS

sixty-one twenty-eight Corty-two .- ninety-scven a hundred and five

> [ siksti "an]
> [t"enti eit) > [fo:rti tu:)

> [nainti sevn]
> [a handrid End faiv]

('Ilill ell alt'lIl,ll' ~I ell VOCl' I:lll' 1Ir111:llo:IIC!c 111 I 1lll'r:i1c:

99

. Illrwl\

Ill/ll

36 44
71

>

Ihnly ;,,,

> forty-four > seventy-onc > eighty-three > a hundred and seventy-two > a hundred and elcvcn > >
Crlly
SI:\ II1lCl'

83
172
III

53 65

ty- CI VC

Dupii cum ali putut ob.l'l:'rva, in cazul numeralelor compuse, hundred este urmal de and, iar cifrele de fa unu fa zece se leaga prin liniu{ii de cifrele care exprirnii zedle.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozi1ii: August are treizeci
~i

una de zile?

> Has August thirty-one days? > This barber is my friend's brother. > Some men like long hair. > We don't live in the west, but in thc east.
> Does It often snow in December')

Acest frizer este fratele prietenului meu. Unor barbati Ie place parullung. Noi nu traim in vest, ci in est. Ninge des in decembrie?

Aceste femei au parul scurt. Ce data este azi? Soarele se arata rar in februarie. Trei luni au nouazeci de zile?
Cite~ti ~i

> This \NOmen have short hair. > What date
10

today'.'
1Il

> The sun seldom shows
0

February.

trei sau

suta

> Are thlee l11onil-l s 11111ety-three or a hundred days'l > Do you read mell1) books')

multe carti?

Sa

inva~am

cateva cuvinte. Cititl cu voce tare:
> lbIClUI,J
> [bIFk]

brown black else what else almost difficult soon all from time to time yellow

- mara, cafeniu, brunet - negru, neagra - mai, inca, alta - altceva? (mai doriti ceva?) - aproape ca - dificil, complicat - curand - tot, toata,
to~i,

> reb] > ["ot .::1,] > [0 [m,llIst] > [difikalt]
> [su.n] > [o:IJ

toate, intreg

> [from > 1/l'1.1I11

ldlln

tu

t~1!11l]

- dill cand in cand galben

Urmeaza difficult yellow brown soon what else

aeelea~i

cuvinlc, um Inll-o ordine uilcrila:
> l dirlbltJ

- dificil, complicat - galben - mara, eafeniu, brunet - curand - alteeva? (mai doriti ceva?) - din cand in cand - tot, toata,
to~i,

> [Iclau] > [braun] > [su:n]

> ["at els]
> [from talm tu talm]
> [0 I]

from time to time all else almost blaek

toate, intreg

> [el s]

- mai, inca, alta - aproape ca - negru, neagra

> [o:lmaust]
> [bIEk]

28

Sa foJosim cuvintele noi in propozitii: She has black shoes. Do you want this brown suit? From time to time we go for a walk to that parle She's f1ying to England soon. What else do you want? All people like apples. This is somctlllllg else. Do you tllIllk yellow cars are nlee'l This book to read.
IS 100

>lSI hEz blEk 0U.Z] >[du iu: "ont Df ls bl<lllJ1
Sli

- Ea are pantofi negri.
11

- Vrei aeest costum cafeniu'? - Din cand in cand ne plimbam in parcul acela. - In curand, ea va merge in Anglia cu avionul. - Mai doriti ceva? - Tuturor oamenilor Ie plac merele. - Asta estc altceva. - Crezi ca ma~inile galbene sunt frumoase? - Aceasta carte este prea dificiJa pentru a fi citita, - Aproape tuturor femeilor Ie plac barbatii inalti.

> [fl om taim tu tall11 "I. ~:I\I fo:' a "o:k tll D/Et pa.'k I
>[~i:z

filllm lS } tu in(g}gland

su:n] >["ot els du iu: "ont] >[0:1 pi:pllalk IEplz] > [DZis iz samT'm(g) els] >[du iu: T'm(g)k ielau ka:'z a: nais] >[DZIs buk iz tu: difikalt tu ri:d] > [o:]maust 0:1 "imin ]aik to:1 men]
I

difficult

AlnlOsl all women like tall Illel1.

TladllCC!1 urlllalO,lIclc propozi!ii In limba engleza: in call1era IIlC,' cslc llll hirou ncgrll. Iti place sa citqtl eaJ'\1 diricilc? Pisieile sunt galbene sau mara? Este aproape seara. In curand vizitam (vom vizita) toate aeeste tari. Este dificil de Inteles asta? Ce alteeva mananca cainele tau? Aproape ca Iml place de el. Vrei sa ici toate cartile? Ce altceva pot sa beau? Din cand In cand ascult muzica la radio. > It' s a Imost even mg. > We are visitmg all these countries soon. > Is it dIfficult to understand it? > What else does your dog eat? > I almost like him. > Do you W,lI1t
10

take all the books?

> W!J,11 L'lse c:ln I dnnk'i > I 10111
Oil 1liliC (0

tllne 1 lIsten to music

llic I "dIU.

lata cateva verbe noi: to put to do to cut to shine > l (u
1111

1

1

a pune, a a~eza, a pIasa a face, a se ocupa cu a taia, a tuncle a straluci, a lumina, a luci

>[tudll I

> [tu k:lll

> [tu 0all11

29

Unneaza to do to shine to cut to put

aeela~i

verbe dar intr-o alta ordine: >[tudu:]
>[tu~am]

- a face, a se ocupa cu - a straluci, a lumina - a taia, a tunde - a pune, a
a~eza,

> [tukat] > [tuput]

a pIasa

Va prezentam in continuare verbul to do - a face. Acest verb are -?i rot de auxiliar ce ajuta la formarea timpului Simple Present, (propozi{ii interogative -?i negative).
Unnariti exemplele de mai jos: What are you doing now? What cio you do every Saturday? What else does she want to do?

> [ll ot a:'
:>

ill.

du:in{g) nau]

- Ce faci acum? - Ce fael in fiecare sambata? - Ce altceva vrea ea sa mai faca?

[lIO!

du Ill: dll: eVrI sE!a'del]
~r

> [lIO! el s daz tll du:]

"ont

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii din limba engleza in care figureaza verbul "to do": What do they usually do in the afternoon?
It doesn't snow in summer.

> Ce fac el de obicel dupa-amiaza') > Vara nu nmge. > Nu ne place berea. > Vrea sa faca asta m211ne'7

We don't like beer. Does he want to do it tomorrow?

Completa(i propozi(iile In IlInba cllgleza Nu vreau sa-mi
f~le

ClI

vcrhele care lipsesc: .. I dOll' t want to ><.!o my homework today. .. The barber wants to >cut my hair. - Look! The sun is >shining! - >Put this book on my table.

tcma azi.

Frizerul vrea sa rna tunda. Priviti!
Straluce~te soarele!

Pune aceasta carte pe masa mea.

"The sun usually shines in July"
10

Sci vedem eliteva verbe a diror consoana finalii se dubleaza la adaugarea termina{iei -ing:
get sit stop put cut forget - getting - sitting - stopping - putting - cutting - forgetting > [getin(gl] > [sitll1(g)] > [stopm(gl]
> [putin(gl] > r kalll1(g)j
> [ rorgetll1(g)]

Jata 0 reguhi ill1j)ol'li/nfd eu privire la adriugarea termina{iei verbului, Daeri ultima silaba a verbului este aeeelllllllili ,~'i confine 0 vocalii seurta (scrisa cu 0 singurri litera) ~i 0 singura consoana, prin adaugarl'a lermillllfici -ing, aeesta consoanri fin ala se dubleazri,

Sd VCl!I'11I cli/n
stop

,1'1'

aplica aeeastri regula:
> [stop]

- cuvant format dintr-o singura silabii, de aceea, in mod automat este aecentuata; - la mijloc confine 0 vocalii scurta; - fa sfiir~itul verbufui sta 0 singura consoana: stop-stopping.

ACCi/.I'/(i I'cglllti J!0i/IC
forget

Ii l%.l'illi "I'i in ('azul verhelor formate din mai multe silabe:
11(!I)'l'll

>

ClIlIII1I1 COI11J!II.1' dill doua silabe, a doua silabri este accell tlli/ IIi: - silahi/ i/CeCIlIIli/lli COli filiI' 0 voca/ii scurta; - la sfar'~'itul wl'hlllui .1'1' alia 0 singura consoanri: forget-forgetting.

Jar acum urmeazri un alt tip de verb:
keep >lkipJ

- cuvant compus dintr-o singura silaba, silaba este accentuata; - fa sfiir~it se afla 0 singurri consoanii,' - vocala este lungri; - in acest caz ultima cOllsoana I1U se dubleaza: keep-keeping.

Un alt exemplu:
work

- silaba accentuata; - fa mijloc are 0 vocalri scurta; - la sfar~itul cuvantului existri doua consoane, care nu permit dublarea consoanei: work-working.

$i iata inca un verb:
look
> [Iuk]

- silaba accentuata; - la sfan;it eXlsta 0 singura consoanii, vocala scurta din myloc se scrie cu ,,0" dublu. De aceea ultima cansoana nu se dubleaza: look-looking.

~i acum, incercati sa adaugati verbelor tennmatia corecta. Completati unnatoarele propozitii in Innba engleza:

Tatal meu se plimba acum in gradina. Ei tocmai taie copacii in parc. Prietenul meu tocmai
opre~te ma~ina.

- My father is >walkmg in the garden now. - They are just >cutting the trees m the park. - My friend is just >stopplng the car.
- 1 am >looking for my yellow shoes now.

Acum imi caut pantofii galbeni. Cine sta pe scaunul acela? Ea trimite scrisori la oficiul po~tal. Ei viziteaza acum aceasta biserica mare. Nu uiti ceva?

- Who is >sltting on that chair? - She is >sending letters to the post-office. - They are >vislting this big church now. - Aren't you >forgettmg something?

in continuare. sa invalam un alt verb modal, must [mast] - a trebui. Asemanator lui can iiforma lui must este identica pentru toate persaanele. iar verbul care-l urmeaza nu are particula to.

lata cum sc

loJosc~tc

in propozi\ii:
> I,ll >
l:)1
11101'1 k,11 111.11 "L'cI'

1 must cut my hair.

I

- Trebuie sa rna tund. - Ea trebuie sa-I uite. - Ei trebuie sa se gandeasca la copilullor.

She must forget about him. They must think about their baby.

mels! iOlget abaut han]

> [DZez mast f'mlg1k sbaut D/ez' belbJ]

lnterogativul se formeaza prin inversarea verbului must cu subiectul:

Mary must go to school. My father must buy a car.

Must Mary go to school? Must my father buy a car?

- Mary trebuie sa mearga la ~coala? - Tatal meu trebuie sa cumpere o ma~ina? - Ce trebuie ea sa citeasca?

She must read this book.

What must she read?

32

Iar aeum sa verifieam notiunile invatate. Tradueeti in Jimba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Maine trebuie sa mergi la lueru. Trebuie sa fae asta azi? Cine trebuie sa-ti dea aceasta scrisoare? Ale cui ciintcce trebuie sa Ie cantam? Trebuie sa-mi arati casa tao Ea trcbuic sa predea la
~coala

> You must go to work tomorrow. > Must 1 do It today') > Who must gwc you this letter"

> Whose songs mllst we sing')
> You must ShOll me
YOU!

house.

engleza.

> She must teach EnglIsh at school.

in ineheierc, sa recapitulam materialul acestei parti a lectiei. Traduceti in limba engleza: in martie trebuie sa merg la Londra. Azi eslc 30 noiembrie. Vara vrcmea este frumoasa. Ninge? Pot sa vina in februarie? Uita-te la aceste femei
~i

> In March I must go to London. > Today's date is November 30. > The weather IS nice in summer. > Is it snowing?
> Can they come in February?

la

ace~ti

barbati.

> Look at these women and these men. > I Illust have forty-five minutes to get there.

Imi lIcbuic patruzcci ~i cinci de minute ca sa ajung acolo. Ce altceva mai vreti sa vedeti? Acum ma uit la aceasta
Straluce~te azi
ma~ina neagra.

> \V!J;!l

l'l.Sl'

do

yOll

w:lnt to see'l

> I'm ]ooklllg at thiS black car now.

soarele?

> Is the sun shining today')
> Mother is cutting his hair now.

Mama i'l tunde acum. Ce faci acum?

> What are you domg now?

LECTIA 8 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
Cititi cu atentie urmiHorul text. Cuvintele
~i

silabele accentuate sunt tipiirite cu litere

ingro~ate:

Barbara: John: Barbara: John:

Can your brother sing? Yes, he can sing many songs. He listens to music on the radio every day. Does he know the song "It's a long way to Tipperary"? Yes, he does, but this song is not difficult to sing.

Tom: Mary:

Tomorrow I'm buying a big, red car. It's a fast car and not too expensive. I want to show it to you tomorrow evening. My brother also wants to buy a cheap car, because he has little money. He doesn't like red, brown or black, so he wants to buy a green or yellow car.

Peter: Barbara: Peter: Barbara: Peter: Barbara:

Can I talk to your brother Terry? Yes, he is at home now. What is he doing? He is sitting in his room and writing a long letter to his friend. He can write long letters. I want to go to the park with him. I think he can't go with you. He must send the letter, so we must go to the post-office together.

Mary: John: Mary: John:

II ave you a hrol her or sister? I have a hrolher. Ilis name is Tony. My hrother is a nice boy. He is tall, he has big black eyes and lonl-: legs. Tony's ti-iends mllst like him. Yes, and girls can never forget him.

Tom: Barbara: Tom:

Why are you going to the kitchen? Because Tony wants some tea and some bread with jam and I want a cup of coffee. You can't drink coffee, because there's no sugar.

Mary: Peter:

Where does your family live? My father and mother hve in Bucharest, my brother and his family live in London.

Barbara: John:

Where is your house? It's near Bucharest. Its rooms are big. I have a large bedroom and a big kitchen. I can have cats and dogs. I want to live there forever.

34

Mary: Tom: Mary: Tom:

I think you smoke too many cigarettes and drink too much coffee. Yes, I want to stop smoking soon. And whal about coffee? I like coffee and I don't want to stop drinking it.

Barbara: Peter:

Why 00 you like this park? lkcause I can see a lot of animals here. All trees in this park are green. It's not easy to go there: you must take a bicycle, because you can't walk there.

Mary: .lohn: Mary:

Father wants to cut your long hair. Is he trying to do it? Don't worry. You must go to the barber's shop.

Barbara. Tom: Barbara: Tom:

Where is your brother going by car tonight? He is visiting his best friend. He must usually drive a car there, but he likes to drive. Does he drive much? Yes, he does. In summer he usually goes to England. Sometimes he goes to the Near East, because his friend works there.

in Incheiere, traduce~i urmatoarele propozi~ii In limba engleza: I':i nc dau Inlotdcauna ceai bun.
> They always give
liS

good tea.

In dClTllIhric cslc des zapada.
EI vrea sa la toak caqile. A cui este aceasla casa? In curand cumparal11 Nu
uita~i
lin

> There is often snow in December.
> He wants to take all the books. >
WI10SC IS

llw; house')

blroU mare.

> Soon we arc buymg a big aiTlCe. > Don't forget this date!
> These black shoes are expensive.

accasla data'

Ace~ti

pantofi negri sunt scumpi.

Ei nu ne pot auzi. Aceasta saptamana este prea lunga. Diseara ascult radioul. Nu vreau sa rna tund. lulie este cea mai calduroasa luna? Vreau altceva. Pute\i sa-mi aduce\i pu\ina miere? Avem prea pu\in bani ca sa cumparam aceasta casa scumpa. Pisicilor nu Ie place apa.

> They can't hear us. > This week is too long.
> 1'Ol11ght I'm listening to the radio.

> I don't want to cut my hair. > Is July the hottest month? > I lVant something else. > Can you bring me some honey') > We have too little money to buy this expensIve house.
> Cats don't like water.

Acest ciiine mara este prietenu1 meu eel mai bun. Este prea u~or! Nu-ti face griji in ceea ce Avionu1 zboara spre vest. In gradina noastra este multa zapada. Ciita dulceata poti miinca? Nu pune aceasta scrisoare pe masa in bucatarie! Tocmai i1 intrebam despre fiu11ui. Cine ne preda eng1eza? Va rog nu fumati in dorrnitor. Nu vreau sa a~tept 1a nesIar~it. Trebuie sa-i due cu
ma~ina 1a ~coa1a. prive~te

> rh15 brown dog is my best fnend.
> It's too easy I

vremea.

> Don't WOllY
> The plane
IS

~lbulit

the weather'

11YIng to the west.
Or"SIl')\\, 111

> There is a lot

our garden.

> How much jam can vou eat')

> Don't put this letter on \hc table 111 the kitchen'
> We are just askmg him about hiS son. > Who teaches us English')

> Please don't smoke

III

the bedroom.

> I don't want to walt forever.
> I must take them to school by car.

36

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 8 ,
8.1. Substantive ell pluralul neregulat: man woman fool -men - women - feet

1\.2.

Vcrbul to do are doua funqii: este verb auxiliar ee ajuta la formarea timpului prezent simplu Simple Present - (propozi,ii interogative ~i negative), sau poate fi verb eu in,elesul de a face, a se ocupa cu. What is he doing now? She never does it. What do you usually do on Sunday? - Ce face el aeum? - Nu face asta nieiodaHi. - Ce faei de obicei duminiea?

X.3.

La folosirea terminatiei -ing ultima eonsoana se dubleaza, daea: I.
2.

Ultima silaba este aeeentuata. Contine
0

vocala seurta.

Exemple: get stop - getting - stopping

8.4.

Must

~\

trebui

8.4.1. I ~sle un verb modal, eu aeeea~i forma pentru toate persoanele, iar verbul care-I urmeaza

nu are particula to.
8.4.2. Inlcrogativul se formeaza prin inversiune, adiea inversam ordinea lui must ~i a

subicellilui:
I must go home.

- Must I go home? - Must Mary drive there?

- Trebuie sa merg aeasa? - Mary trebuie sa mearga aeolo eu ma~ma? - Unde trebuie sa mearga?

Mary must drive there. They must go to school.

- Where must they go?

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 8

A.

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba ramana: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How much beer can you dnnk today? Who must come here tomorrow? Why can't you go to England in March? Are they cutting the trees in the garden? Our father always forgets to buy bread. Those women have babies.

B.

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba eng1eza: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. .Trebuie sa venim la tine azi. Am mancat putina ciocolata Ce faci diseara? Tuturor barbatilor Ie place costumul? De ce trebuie sa vorbeasca despre EI sta acum pe scaun.
ma~inile ~i ni~te

paine.

lor?

C.

Corcctati grc~cltlc din propOl.l\lilc de ll1ai jos:

I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

These girls are readdlllg books now. Who are those man? She musts go to her father. Do you must look for those people? There is always many snow in winter. She doesn't never forget to buy bread.

38

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 7 SI 8 , ,
aIr almost all apple April around August barber because beer bl'ltl'r the best between
big

>l ear] >[ o:lmaust] > [0:1] >[Epl] > [eipril] >[ araund] >[o:gast] >[ba:'ba'] >[bikoz] >[bla'] >[beta'] >[D'a best] > [bitUi:n] >[big] >lblHI >\ btedl >1 bl ~\UIIJ >[braDZa'] >[bata'] > [tu bail >lkE1] >l kl~JlJ >[kEnot]

- aer, atmosfera - aproape ca - tot, toata, toti, toate, intreg - mar - aprilie - prin apropiere, in jurul - august - frizer, barbier - pentru ca, fiindca, deoarece' - bere - mai bun, mai bine - cel mai bun, cel mai bine - intre (doua obiecte), dintre - mare, voluminos - negru, neagra - paine - maro, cafeniu, brunet - frate - unt - a cumpara, a face cumparaturi - pIslca - a putea, a fi capabil, a
~ti

black bread brown brother butter to buy cat can cannot

- a nu putea, a nu fi capabil, a nu ~ti - ieftin ca~caval,

cheap cheese cigarette coffee cup

>[t~j:p]

>[ t~J:Z] >[ sigaret] >[kofi] >[kap]

branza

- tigara - cafea cea~ca

to cut date December difficult to do dog to drink east easy eighty else ever expensive family fast February feet fifty foot forever to forget forty the fourth friend from time to time good night great hair honey horse

>[tukat] > [dcltJ > [dlscmba' J > [diilbltJ >[tudu.] > [dog] > [tu
dnnl~lk]

- a taia, a tunde - data - decembrie - dificil, complicat - a face, a se ocupa cu - caine - a bea - est, rasarit u~or,

>[i:stJ > [i:ziJ > [CltlJ > [elsJ > [ev[j'J > [ikspenslvJ > [f1:mIlIJ > [fa.stJ > [februJri J > [fitJ
> IIil111
·111111

simplu

- optzeci - mai, inca, alta - vreodata, candva - scump, costisitor - familie - repede, iute, rapid - februarie - labe (de 1a picior)
CIl1CIZCCI

laba piclorului

>

1IIIIl'I ,I'

I

- pentru totdeauna, mereu, - a uita, a
nu-~i

ve~nic

> l tll I'orgct] > [fo:'tiJ

aminti

- patruzeci - al patrulea, a patra - prieten, amic - din cand in cand - noapte buna - mare, maret, remarcabil - par - miere (de albine) - cal

> [DZa fo:'TsJ > [frendJ > [from talm tu taimJ > [gud naitJ > [greltJ > [heaTJ
> [haniJ

> [ho:'5J

40

how how many how much hundred Jam January ./uly June large leg less than to listen (to) a little alotof

>lh'lL\] > l haLL ll1CI1l] >[hau l11e1t')] >[ hallllrlllJ >l dJJ' 1111 >[ d,n':Il/II,m] >[djlll;nl J >ldjll III >[I< I'd ll >Ilcg] >1 ks IYEn] >[tlilisn] >[alitl] >[a lot ov]

- cum?, in ce fel? - diti? cate? - cati? cate? - suta - dulceata, gem - ianuarie - iulie - iunie - mare, spatios, larg - plclOr - mai putin decat, mai putin de - a asculta, a fi atent (la) - putin, catva, ceva
0

,

multime de, foarte mult, foarte multi
numero~i,

Illany

>[ l11l'ni]

- un mare numar, mult, o multime de

March May men more than

>1'11.'

'I

I

- martie - mal - barbati, oameni - mai multlmai multalmai multi/ mai multe decat - mult, multa - muzica - a trebui - noiembrie - nouazeci - octombrie - ai, a, ai, ale, lui - sau, ori - hartie

>11I1l'/1
>lIllCIlJ >[mo:' D"En]

much music must November ninety October of or paper

>[mat~]

>[mlU:zlk] >[mast] > [n:llI vem b" I I >[naintl] >[ oktallb;I' J >[ 3V] >[ 0
']

>[pclpa ' ]

.11

park piece poor to put radio ram to rain rich September seventy to shine ship shoe short to sing to sit sixty snow to snow to smoke something song soon to stop sugar summer the sun tall

> [pa:'k] > [pl:S] > [pua'] [po"] > [tu put] > [leldlau] > [rem] > [tu rem] >
[nt~]

- pare - bucata - sarac, sannan, biet - a pune, a - radio - ploaie - a ploua - bogat - septembrie ~aptezeci
a~eza,

a piasa

> [septcll1ba'] > [sevantl] > [ tu >
~all1]

- a straluei, a lumina, a luci - nava, vapor - pantof - scurt - a eanta - a sedea , a se aseza , .
:;;~lIzeei

[~lp]

>[W]

>

[~o:rt]

> [tu sm(g)] >[tUSlt]
">

I·\ik ',111

·1-,11.1111

zapada - a nmge - afuma - eeva - eantee, melodie - in curand - a opri, a inceta, a intrerupe - zahar - vara - soarele - inalt, mare

> 111I c,lldlll > [tu sma uk] > [samT'in lgJ ] > [son(g)] > [su:n] >[tustop] >
[~uga']

> [sama'] > [DZa san] >[to:l]

42

tea thirty together tonight too tree water weather west what about

> I tlJ > [T>a:'tiJ > [tageDZa' J > [tanaitJ >[tu:] >[tri:] >["o:ta'] >[ lieD/a'] >["est] > ["ot ab3ut]

- cear - treizeci - impreuna - diseara, asta seara, in noaptea asta - prea, foarte - copac, arbore, pom - apa - vreme - vest, apus - ce ar fi sa ... ? cum stam cu ...? ? ce mal. e cu .... - altceva? mai doriti ceva? - care, pe care, ce - ai, a, ai, ale cui/carui - de ce? pentm ce? din ce cauzii? - iarna - lara, lipsit de - femei - a se
a-~i

what else which whose why winter without women to worry

> ["ot els]
>["it~]

>[hu:zJ > ["al] >1"illl;j'l

>1 "iI)/;!l1i I
>I"jlllllli >[tli "on]

nelini~ti, a

se ingrijora,

face grij i

year yellow

>[ liarJ >[ielauJ

- an (calendaristic) - galben

RECAPITULARE
De acum inainte yom incepe lectiile cu prezentate
cuno~tintele

0

scurta recapitulare a materialului anterior. Tot aici vor fi

de gramatica din lectia urmatoare.

1.

Articolul hotiirat the: the tower the train the car the office the school the table the time the apple
0

Daca euvantul care urmeaza dupa artieolul hotiirat ineepe eu articolului hotarat este [DZi]: the applc the eye > [IYi Epl]
> rlYi ail

voeala, atunei pronuntia

2.

De cCIe l1111i Illllite ori 1(1I"nHII1l plundlll slIhstantivclor adaugand euvalltului terrninatia -s: suit ship suits ships > [su:ts] >
[~ips]

Daea substantivul la singular se termina eu un sunet surd; atunei termina\ia de plural se pronunta [s]: book cat - books - cats > [buks] > [kEts]

Daea insa substantivulla singular se termina eu un sunet sonor, atunei terminatia de plural se pronunta car day [z]: - cars - days > [ka:rz]

> [deiz]

Daea ultima litera a euvantului este s, sh, ch, x atunci pluralul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -es, care se pronunta bus house - buses - houses [iz]: > [basiz]
> [hauziz]

LECTIA 9 ,

" " PARTEA INTAI

fncepem lectia lnvatiind obi~nuitul set de cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie elar ~i cu voce tate: quarter husband bookcase lamp plant tie dining-room breakfast parents shirt hospital >[kuo:rtar] >[hazband] - sfert, sfert de ceas/ora - sot - raft, biblioteca -lampa - planta - cravatll
I'll: III

> Ibukkeis]
:{lEmp] >[pla:nt]

>ftai]
~~
:~

dllin i Il(~)

I

,,~

sufragerie mic dejun pilrin(i

hrW, lilsll

;'1 pClIrilllls!

>f ~il:ll]
>[hospitJ]

""" cl'una~ll -- spital, clinica

Sa repctilm cuvintele, intr-o alta ordine:
quarter tie husband parents hospital shirt lamp breakfast dining-room bookcase plant >[kuo:rtar] >[tai] :{hazband] >[pearants] >[hospitl]
:{~a:rt]

- sfert, sfert de ceas/ora -cravata - sot - parinti - spital, clinica
-cama~ii

>[lEmp] >[brEkIast] >[dainin(g) ru:m] >[bukkeis] >[pla:nt]

-lampli -mic dejun - sufragerie - raft, biblioteca - plantii

Sa introducem cuvintele noi in propozitii. Repetati-le cu voce tare ~i We have many plants at home. Her husband is rich. These lamps are expensive. >[lli: hEv meni pla:nts Et haum] >[ha: r hazband iz rit~] >rrYi:zIEmps a:' ikspensiv]

titi atenti la prommtia lor:

- Acasa avem multe plante.

- Sotul ei este bogat. - Aceste lampi sunt scumpe. Vreau sa cumpar 0
_.0

I want to buy a shirt.
It is on the bookcase. It's a quarter past five. Do you know his parents?

>[ ai "0ll tlll hai a

~it:'!1

cama~a.

>[ it iz Oil IYil bllkkeis]
> [its a k"o:'tar pa:st faiv] > [du iu: nau hiz pearants] >[ai ofn i:t brEkrast Et sevn] >[hi: damt laik taiz] >[ ai mast gau tu hospitl] >[lli; hEv a la:fdj dainin(g) ru:m]

Acela este pe raft.

- Este cinci ~i un sfert. - Ii cuno~ti pe parintii lui? - Eu iau des micul dejun la - Nu-i plac cravatele. - Trebuie sa merg la spital. - Avem 0 sufragerie mare.
~apte.

I often eat breakfast at seven.
He doesn't like ties.

I must go to hospital.
We have a large dining-room.

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu cuvintele nou invatate:
Cama~ile

mele sunt ieftine.

- My> shirts are cheap.
- I must buy a> tie.

Trebuie sa cumpar 0 cravata. Sunt
~i

parmtii lui aici?

- Are his > parents also here? - There are many> plants in our house.
- I want to have this green> lamp.

In casa noastra sunt mUlte plante.
Eu vreau sa am aceasta lampa verde. Sotul tau este fratele meu. P!!Ae aceasta biblioteca in donnitorul nostru. Ei yin peste un sfert de ora. De obicei milncam in sufragerie. Ce iti place sa mananci la micul dejun? Tatal meu trebuie sa mearga la spital.

- Your> husband is my brother. - Put this> bookcase in our bedroom. - They are coming in a > quarter of an hour. - We usually eat in the> dining-room. - What do you like to eat for> breakfast? - My father must go to > hospital.

Retineti utilizarea cuvilntului for in urmatoarele expresii: What do you like to eat for breakfast? What's for breakfast today? - Ce iti place sa mananci la micul dejun? - Ce este azi la micul dejun?

Sa vedem daca ati retinut cuvintelenoi. Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Aceste plante trebuie sa fie in grMina. Nu-mi place sa fiu in spitaL Este doua ~i un sfert. (Este trecut cu 15 minute de ora doua.)
S0tu1 meu conduce intotdeauna ma~ina.

>Thesc plants must be in the garden. >1 don't like to be in hospitaL >It's a quarter past two.

>My husband always drives the car. >Can we eat breakfast together? >Put these books on the bookcase. >My parents have little money. >Which shirt can I take? >Must I also take a tie? >These lamps are nice, but too expensive. >We can smoke in the dining-room.

Putem sa luam impreuna micul dejuil? Pune aceste cacti in biblioteca. Parintii mei au bani putini. Care cam~a pot s-o iau? Trebuie sa iau ~i
0

cravam?

Aceste veioze sunt frumoase, dar prea scumpe. Putem sa fumam in sufragerie.

Articolul hotiidit the se poate amite In cazul unor cuvinte ca: mother, father, town, church, music. In cele ce urmeazii va prezentiim ~i alte cazuri asemiiniitoare, ca de exemplu: Inaintea denumirii meselor principale, folosite la modul general:

She always cats breakfllst at sewn.

. Ell

la intotdeauua mieul dejun la ~apte.

!naintea denumirU anotimpuri/or, dacli Ie jhlosim la modul general:

Do you like summer'?
Daca vrem sii ne referim la hotiirdt the.
0

- 1ti place vara?
masii, sau la un anotimp anume, atunci trebuie safolosim articolul

The dinner which I am eating now is good.

- Cina pe care

0

mananc acum este buna.

Inaintea cuviintului hospital- spital, clinica nufolosim articolul hotiirdt, daciiparticipam la activitate in calitate de bolnav:

I must go to hospital.

- Trebnie sa merg la spital.

Daca mergem la spital in caUtate de vizitator sau ca membru al personalului, atunei spunem:

I go to the hospital every day. Acum yom invata cateva verbe Doi: to park to get up
::{ tu pa:Ck] ::{ tu get ap]

- Merg la spital in fiecare zi.

- a parca, a staliona - a se ridica in picioare, a se scula din pat - a se imbraca, a ~eza - a sta, a ramane

to put on to stay

::{tu put on] ::{tu steil

to have breakfast to make

>[tu hEy brEkfast] >[tu meik]

- a lua micul dejun - a face, a confeqiona

Sa introducem verbele noi in propozitii:
In Romania we always stay

>

at a hotel. Tomorrow I must get up at 6 in the morning. You can park the car here.

ru:mcinia "i: o:J"ciz stci I':t ~l hautel]

~n

- In Romania starn intotdeauna la hotel. - Maine trebuie sa rna scol la 6 dimineata. - Poti sa parchezi m~ina aiei. - La ce ora iei de obieei micul dejun? - Pot sa (rna) imbrac (cu) costumul tatalui meu? - Ei confectioneaza scaune ill aceasta fabrica.

>[liunorau ai mast get ap I':t siks in DZa mo:'nin(g)] >[ ill: kEn pa:'k DZa ka:' hia']

What time do you usually have brcakfast? Can I put on my father's suit? They make chairs in this factory.

>[Uot taim du iu: iu:juali hEy brEkfast] >[kEn ai put on mai fa:Dza'z su:t] >[DZei meik t~ea'z in DZjs fEktari]

Pentru exersarea cuvintelor noi completati urmatoarele propozitii In limba engleza: Imbracati 0 carn~a alba. Trebuie sa stau zece zile ill spital. Nu putem parca pe aceasta strada. Nu-mi place sa rna scol dimineata. Dumneavoastra, luati illtotdeauna micul dejun la ora opt? Tatal meu coIifectioneaza acum
0

- > Put on a white shirt.
- I must> stay in hospital for ten days.

- We can't> park in this street.
- I don't like to > get up in the morning.

- Do you always> have breakfast at eight? - My father is > making a bookcase now.

biblioteca.

Verbul to have eu sensul: a avea, a poseda nu sefolose!jte la prezentul continuu.ln unele situafii fnsii, eu ajutorullui fnloeuim alte verbe. In aeeste eazuri putem folosi verbul to have :;i la timpul prezent continuu:

to eat breakfast to drink tea to smoke a cigarette

to have breakfast to have tca to have a cigarette

Are you having breakfast now? What tea is be baving now? John is baving his fourth cigarette.

- lei acum micul dejun? - Ce fel de ceai bea el acum? - John fumeaza a patra tigara.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza folosind forma corespunzatoare a verbului to have: Peter ~i Mary beau cafea acum. Acum am doi caini ~i
0

> Peter and Mary are having coffee now..

pisica.

> Now I have two dogs and one cat.

Ei iau micul dejun acum? A cata ligara furnezi acum? Momentan nu am bani.

> Are they having breakfast now?
> Which cigarette are you having now? > I have no money at the moment.

., ';:';'_.
~'
1C';~~;::'

6:

~..;;)'.-~.

.a-

"!~~

. e---

;:.::'.-

~'''-''

.. ---.--.-----.~---------~

Acum vom inwitaformele verbului to be la timpul trecut simplu (the Simple Past Tense [DZa simpl .pa:st tens]). Acesta se folose:jte pentru exprimarea unei aCfiuni care s-a petrecut in trecut, la un moment determinat :ji nu are legiiturii cu prezentul. De obicei folosim aliituri de el urmiitoarele ' complemente de timp:
yesterday ago last

> [iestardei], [iestardi]
> [agau]

- ieri

- in urma(eu), aeum(-)
- ultim, (eel) din urma, treeut

> [la:st]

Aceste complemente de timp stau la inceputul sau la sfar:jitul propozipei. Sii urmiirim acum folosirea cuvintelor ago :ji last in urmiitoarele structuri:
two days ago three weeks ago four years ago last year last month last Sunday

- in urma eu doua zile, acum doua zile - in urma cu trei saptamani, acum tre~saptamani - in urma eu patru ani, acum patru ani
- anul treeut - luna trecuta - duminiea treeuta

Iattiformele verbului to be la trecut simplu:
I was you were ;fai "oz] ;fiu "a:'] - eu am fost, eu eram - tu ai fost, tu erai, dumneavoastra ati fast, dumneavoastra erati - el a fast, el era - ea a fost, ea era aceasta a fost/asta a fost, era (genu I neutru) -- noi am lost, noi eram - voi ati fost, voi erati - ei au fost, ei erau

he was she was

;fhi: "Oz]
:f~i:

"ozl

It was

:;f it "0/,1 :;f"i: "a:']
;fiu: "a:']

we were you were they were

;f DZei "a:']

fn urmatoarele propozitii am utilizat formele verbului to be la timpul trecut simplu alaturi de complementul de timp corespunzator: Yesterday I was at home in the evening. ::fiesta'dei ai U oz Et Mum in DZi i:vnin(g)] ;f ai nou iu: "a:' in in(g)gHlnd tu: iia'z agau] ;fla:st "i:k hi: uoz in hospitl] ;fla:st manTs bukarest]
~i:

- leri seara am fost acasa.

I know you were in England two years ago.
Last week he was in hospital.

-

~tiu ca ai fast in Anglia. in urma cu doi ani.

- Saptamana trecuta el a fost in spital. - Luna trecuta ea a fast in
Bucure~ti.

Last month she was in Bucharest.

"oz in

It was a long time ago.

;f it "oz a lon(g) taim agau] ;fPri: iia'z agau "i: "a:' in DZet lEktari] ;f ai T'in(g)k iu: "a:' [)Zea' iesta'dei] ;f len iiarz iigau DZei "a:' hcibiz]

- Aceasta a fast cu mult timp in unna. - fn unna cu trei ani am fast in fabrica aceea. - Cred ca ai fast acolo ieri.

Three years ago we were in that factory.

I think you were there yesterday.
Ten years ago they were babies.

- fn urma cu zece ani ei erau bebelu~i.

Completati propozitiile in Iimba englcza. Folositi filtrul ro~u: Mama mea a fost in Anglia in urma cu o saptamana.
Ace~ti

- My mother >was

in England >a week ago.

oameni au fost in Romania anul trecut.

- These people >wcrc -Yesterday I >was

in Romania >last year. in his garden.

leri am fost in gradina lui. Anul trecut am fost impreuna.

-Last year we >were together. -Two years ago - I know he :was >yesterday. you :were in England.

In unnii cu doi ani ai fost in Anglia.
~tiu

ca el a fost la tine acasa ieri.

at your house

7

A fast anul trecut. Dumneavoastra ati fast luna trecuta la ~coala fiicei dumneavoastra.

- It> was last year.
- You> were at your daughter's school > last month.

Forma de interogativ a verbului to be la timpul trecut simplu se formeazii prin inversarea ordinii subiectului cu forma corespunzritoare a verbului la timpul trecut. Construc!ia rrispunsului afirmativ: cuvantul yes, urmat de pronumele personal # de forma corespunzritoare a verbului to be. Construc!ia nega!iei: cuvantul no, urmat de pronumelepersonal, deforma corespunzritoare a verbului to be ~i de cuvdntul not. Construc!ia was not prescurtatii devine wasn't [Uozut]; constructia were not devine weren't [Ua:'nt).

De exemplu: I was at school yesterday. Were you at school yesterday? > [Ua:' iu: Et sku:l iesta'dei]
- Ai fast ieri la ~coala?

Yes,Iwas.

No, I was not. > [nau ai uoz not]

-Da, (am fast).

- No, I wasn't. > [nau ai Uozut] - Nu, (nu am fost).

They were at home last week. Were they at home last week?
> l"a:'1 )/l;i 1':1
h:llIllI

Yes, they were.

NQ, they were not.
> luall IYei "a:' not]
- No, they weren't. > [nau DZci lI a:'nt] - Nu, (nu au fast).

la:s( lIi:kl

> 1 I)lei "n:'1 ies Du, (uu l(lSl).

Au J(lsl ci llCUS!\
saptamfUlll lrccull\'l

Last year he was in England. Was ,he in England last year? Yes, he was. No, he was not. > [nau hi: uoz not] -No, he wasn't. > [nau hi: uoznt] - Nu, (nu a fost). Formulati intrebari
~i

> [Ua:' hi: in in(g)gliind la:st iia'] > [ies hi: U oz] -A fast el in Anglia? anul trecut? -Da,(afost).

raspunsuri scurte la urmatoarele propozitii, in limba engleza:
- >. Was she at work yesterday?

Yesterday she was at work.

- Yes, > she was. - No,> shewasn't. We were together last year. - > Were we together last year? - Yes,> we were. - No,> weweren't.

They were in his office yesterday.

- > Were they in his office yesterday? - Yes, > they were. - No, > they weren't.

He was a good boy ten years ago.

- > Was he a good boy ten years ago? - Yes, > he was. -- No, > he wasn't.

In cazul intreMrilor mai detaliate a~ezam cuvantul interogativ la inceputul intrebiirii:
When were you in England? Why wasn't she at work yesterday? AceasHt ncgatie poate fi folosita She wasn't in England three years ago. My parents weren't here yesterday > [Uen ua:r iu: in i.n(g)gHind] > [Uai uoznt ~i: Et ua:'k iestardei]
~i

- Cand ai fost in Anglia? - De ce nu a fost ea la serviciu ieri?

in propozitii complete: - Ea nu a fost in Anglia in urma eu trei ani. - Piirlntii mei nu au fost ieri aici?

> [~i Uoznt in in(g)gland Pri: iiarz agau] > [mai peiiriints Uli:rnt hiar iestardei]

Tradllce\i lIrmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Unde au fost ei sambiita trecutii? Cine a
f(lS(

> Where were they last Saturday? > Who was in his offiee an hour ago? > Their sister wasn't in London last week. > Yesterday we weren't at the post-office.
~tim

in biroullui in urma cu 0 ora?

Sora lor nu a fost la Londra saptiimana trecuta. leri nu
lUll

fost la oficiul po~tal.

Sa ne intoarccm la formarea pluralului.
neregulat.

deja ea unele substantive formeaza pluralul in mod

1n cele ee urmeaza yom invata alte doua modalitati de formare a pluralului neregulat:

1.

Substantive care la formarea pluralului f$i schimbii riidiicina $i pronunfia:
foot > [fut] - pieior, laba piciorului tooth >[tu:P] goose >[gu:s] mouse> [maus] ehild > [t~aild] - dinte, masea - gasea ~oarece

feet

> [fi:t]

- pieioare

teeth geese mice children

> [ti:P] > [gi:s] > [mais] > [t~ildran]

- dinti
-g~te

-

~oareci

- eopil

- eopii

2.

Substantive care se terminii fn -f, iar la plural acesta se schimbii fn v. Dacii f e urmat de e, atunci fi adiiugiim doar un -s, altfel cuwintul prime$te terminafia -es:
loaf > ~aufJ - franzela, paine loaves > [lauvz] -franzele

(de 0 anumita forma) - sotie, nevasta wives - sotii, neveste

9

shelf >[ ~elf] life half leaf >[laif] >[ha:f] >[li:f]

-raft - viata - jumatate - frunza - cutit

shelves lives halves leaves knives

>[~elvz]

-rafturi - vieti - jumatati -frunze - cutite

>[laivz] >[ha:vz] >[li:vz] >[naivz]

knife >[naif]

Aproape toate accste cuvinte sunt noi pentru dumneavoastra. De aceea, repetati-Ie intr-o alta ordine: life knife tooth loaf mouse leaf wife foot child shelf goose half >[laif] >[naif] >[tu:T'] >[Jiiuf] >[maus] >[li:f] >[uaif] >[fut]
>[t~aild] >[~elf]

- viata - cutit - dinte, masea - franze/a, paine ~oarece

lives knives teeth loaves mice leaves wives feet children shelves geese halves

>[ Jaivz] >[naivz] >[ti:T'] >[lauvz] >[mais] >[li:vz] >[Uaivz] >[fi:t] >[ t~ildran]
>[~elvz]

- viep - cutite - dinti - franzele ~oareci

-frunza - sope, nevasta - picior, laba - copil -raft - gasca - jumatate

-frunze - sotii, neveste - picioare - copii -rafturi ga~te

>[gu:s] >[ha:/]

>[gi:s] >[ha:vz]

- jumatap

"A wife is cutting a loaf into halves with a knife."

Acum yom invata 0 serie de cuvinte noi: downstairs in front of opposite after still >[ daunsteafz] >[ in frant ov] >[opiizil] >[:1: Ilarl >[ still - la parter, jos - in fata, dinaintea - vizavi de, in partea cealalta - dupa, dupa aceea . inca, mai

Sa folosim cuvintclc noi 1n propozitii: The hotel is opposite our house. He is still working. Park the car in front of this building. Our kitchen is downstairs. I think he was there after six. >[DZa hautel iz opazit] auafhaus] >[hi: iz stil uii:'kin(g)] >[pa:rk DZa ka: f in frant ] ov DZis bildin(g) ] >[ auaf kit~iin iz] daunstea'z] >[ ai TSin(g)k hi: Uoz] DZeaf a: na' siks] - Hotelul este vizavi de casa noastra. - Ellucreaza inca. - Parcheaza ma~ina in fata acestei cladiri. - Bucatana noastra este la parter. - Cred ca el a fost acolo dupa ~ase.

Completati propozitiile in lirnba engleza folosind cuvintele nou invatate: Pot parca acolo dupa opt. Ea tocmai se duce la parter. Acest om este in fata casei noastre. El te viziteaza inca? Biroul lui este vizavi de statia de autobuz. - I can park there> after eight. - She is just going> downstairs. - This man is > in front of our house. - Does he > still visit you? - His office is > opposite the bus station.

Am invatat deja ca structura there is/there are se folose~te 1a tirnpu1 prezent in cazul substantivelor nehotiirate. Forma acestei constructii 1a trecutul simplu este there was/there were. De exemplu:
There were a lot of trees in this garden last year. - Erau 0 multirne de copaci in aceasta gradina anul trecut.

Sa recapitullim acum materialul din prima parte a lectiei. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Acelea sunt cutitele tale (dumneavoastra)?

> Are those your knives? > I always see him after breakfast.

II vad intotdeauna dupa micul dejun.
Pune lampa pe biblioteca. Vreau sa cumpar trei franzele. Vara nu mergem cu ma~ina. La ce ora se scoala el de obicei? Te rog, rlimiii dupa cina. Sunt
~oareci in

> Put the lamp on the bookcase.
> I want to buy three loaves of bread.

> In summer we don't go by car.
> What time docs he usually get up? > Please, stay aner dinner. > There are mice in this building. > My husband likes this tie. > Do you want to put on this red shirt?

aceasta cladire.

Sotului meu ii place aceasta cravata. Vrei sa 1mbraci cama~a asta ro~ie? Aceste plante au fost in gradina noastra in urma cu un an. Ei nu au fost ieri in sufragerie. Ea are
ga~te

> These plants were in our garden a year
ago.

> They weren't in the dining-room yesterday.
> She has geese in the garden. > Were your parents tall?

in gradina.

Parintii Uii erau inal\i? Este aproape cinci ~i un slcrl. Vezi fj'unze in acest copac'? Locuim vizavi de
0

> II's almost a quarter past five. > Do you see leaves in this tree?
> We live opposite a church.

biserica.

Maine trebuie sa ma scol dupa patru. De obicei iau micul dejun la noua. Te vlid des in fata acestei fabrici. Dintii lui nu sunt albi.

> I must get up after four tomorrow.
> I usually have breakfast at nine.

> I often see you in front of this factory.
> His teeth aren't white.

In urma cu 0 ora erau multi copli in pare.

> An hour ago there were many children
in the park.

12

LECTIA 9 - PARTEA A nOVA ,
In partea a doua a acestei lectii vom exersa trecutul simplu. Sa invatam mai intiii ciiteva cuvinte noi:
dinner >(dinan - masa (principala), priinz, cina, dineu - luna - pasare -- pivnita, beci - colt - televizor - televizor - lucru, obiect cinema(tograf) ~opron, ~ura
~oseta

the moon bird cellar corner television set TV set thing cincma shcd
sock

>(Dzamu:n] >[ba:rd] >[sela'] >[ko:rna']
>[ teiivijn set]

>( ti:vi: set] >[Pin(g)] >[sinama]
>[~ed]

:>[sok] >[livin(g) ru:m] :>[ si:t]

living-room seat

- camera de zi - loc de stat, scaun

Sa relu1\m cuvintele intr-o alta ordine: television set shed seat TV set sock cellar dinner
>[ telivijn set]
:>[~ed]

- televizor ~opron, ~ura

:>[ si:t] >(ti:vi: set] :>[sok] :>[ sela'] >[dina']

- loc de stat, scaun - televizor ~oseta

- pivnita, beci masa (principala), priinz, cina, dineu

thing cinema the moon living-room bird comer

:>[Tsin(g)] :>[sinama] >[Dzamu:n] >(livin(g) ru:m] >[ba:rd] >[ko:Tna']

- lucru, obiect cinema(tograf) - luna - camera de zi - pasare -colt

13

Sa folosim cuvintele noi ill propozitii: Birds are sitting in the trees in my garden now. > [ba:fdz a: f sitin(g~ in DZa tri:z in mai ga:fdn nau] The cellar in our house is large. I love to go to the cinema. > [DZa selaf in auar haus iz la:rdj] > [ai lav tu gau tu DZa sinama] Put on your socks! I always look for a seat on the bus. The moon is shining now. >[put on io: r soks] >[ai o:l"eiz luk I<>:r ii si:t 011 D/u has] >[D'u Illu:n iz ~aiJ1in(g)] m\u] I often forget about many things. What time do you usually have dinner? We have a television set in every room. The shed was too little. This shop is in the corner. >[ ai ofn forget abaut meni Pin(g)z] > ["ot taim du iu: iu :juali hEy dinar] >[ ui hEy a telivijn set in evriru:m] >[DZa ~ed "oz tu: litI] >[D'is ~()P iz in IYil ko:rnil'] >[ uua r livin(") nUll iz nuisl We must buy a TV sct. >["i: mast hai a li:vi: sct] - Pune-ti ~osetele! - Intotdeauna caut un loc ill autobuz. - Luna straluce~te (lumineaza) acum. - Vit des multe lucruri. - Pivnita din casa noastra estemare. - Imi place sa inerg la cinema. - In copacii din gradina mea stau acum pasan.

- La ce ora cinezi de obicei?

- Avem un televizor in fiecare camera. ~ura era prea mica.

- Acest magazin este pe colt.

Our living-room is nicc.

.- Camera noastra de zi este frumoaslL - Trebuie sa cumparam un televizor.

Retineti diteva din expresiile folosite 1n propozitiile anterioare: on the bus in the corner

- in autobuz
- pe colt, in colt

Iar acum traduceti in limba engleza propozitiile de mai jos: Bicicleta ta este in ~opron. Luna straluce~te (lumineaza) in fiecare noapte? Este televizor in camera de zi? Vrei un lac? Nu-mi plac
~osetele albe.

>Your bicycle is in the shed. >Does the moon shine every night? >Is there aTV set in the living-room? > Do you want a seat? >1 don't like white socks. >They live opposite the cinema. >I have some letters to write.
1A

Ei locuiesc vizavi de cinema.

Am ciiteva scrisori de scris.

Scaunul este in colt. Sunt multi
~oareci

> The chair is in the corner. > There are a lot of mice in the cellar. > Is this television set expensive?

in pivnita.

Este scump acest televizor? Putem sa cinam impreuna?

> Can we have dinner together?

Sa ne fntoarcem la timpul trecut simplu. $tim deja dind trebuie safolosim acest timp :ji cum trebuie sa conjugam verbul to be la timpul respectiv. lata alte cateva verbe la timpul trecut:
Pronume personal sau substantiv I

+

verb visited [vizitid] waited [Ueitid]

+
my mother yesterday. forme last week. - len am vizitat-o pemamamea. - EI m-a a~teptat saptamana trecuta.

He

Dupa cum ati observat verbul prime:jte terminatia -ed. Aceasta se adauga doar verbelor care nu au terminatia -e:
visit wait - visited - waited

>

~izitid]

> [Ueitid]

Daca verbul are termina\ia -e, i se adauga doar litera -d: like - liked

> [lazkt]

La folosirea terminatiei -ed sa fun atenti la urmatoarele:

1.

In

cazul verbelor a caror terminatie este litera -y precedata de 0 consoanii, litera y se transforma fn -i la fe! ca :ji fn cazul formarii pluralului substantivelor:
- tried

try

> [traid]

2.

In cazul unor verbe, consoana de la sfar:jitul cuvantului se dubleaza, fntocmai ca :ji fn cazul terminafiei -ing:
stop - stopped 1stopt]

lar acum sa vedem regulile referitoare la pronun\ia verbelor al caror trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea sufixului -ed:

1.

In cazul fn care consoana de la sfar:jitul verbului nu sepronuntii, terminatia -ed vafi pronunfata
[t]:
look -looked

> [lukt]

2.

Daca terminafia verbului este a consoana sonora sau a vocala - cu exceptia literei e-, atunci pronuntia terminatiei -ed este [ d]:
show worry - showed -worried

> [~oud]

15

3.

Dadi consoana finalii a verbului este t sau d, atunci pronunfia terminaliei este [id]:
visit - visited
~i

>[vizitid] sa folositi regulile anterioare. Cititi propozitiile de

Exemplele wm~itoare va vor ajuta sa illtelegeli mai jos eu voee tare: We visited our parents yesterday. He entered this shop a minute ago. They walked to work two days ago. Yesterday she stopped smoking. She wanted to visit us last week. I worried about you yesterday. They lived in London ten years ago. He listened to the radio yesterday.

>[Ui: vizitid aua f peariints iestardei] >[hi: entafd DZis minit agau] >[DZei uo:kt tll
lI

- Ieri i-am vizitat pe parintii nostri. , , - EI a intrat in acest magazin in urma eu un minut. - Ei au mers pe jos la lucru aeum doua zile. - Ea s-a liisat ieri de fumat.

~op

a

a:fk tu:

deiz agau]
>[iestafdei ~i: stopt smaukin(gJ] >[ ~i: lI ontid tu vizit as la:st ui:k] >[ ai uorid abaut iu: iestafdei] >[DZei livd in landn ten iiafz agau] >[hi: lisnd tu DZa reidiau iestafdei]

- Ea a vrut sa ne viziteze. saptamiina treeuta. - Ieri m-am ingrijorat in legatura eu tine. - Ei au loeuit in Londra ill wma eu zeee ani. - El a aseultat ieri radioul.

.-~

Completati propozitiilc in limba cnglezA eu forma corespullzatoare a verbului la timpul treeut simplu: Parintii mci au dcsehis ieri un birou. Ciind a intrat el in easil, noi cram in gradina. Ea ne-a multumit ieri pentru asta.

-My parents> opened an office yesterday.
- When he > entered the house we were in the garden. - She> thanked us for it yesterday.
- A week ago I > talked with your brother.

In urma eu 0 saptiimana am vorbit cu fratele
tau. leri am ~teptat-o doua ore. Noi am luerat in Anglia anul treeut.
~oferul ne-a

- Yesterday I > waited for her for two hours. - Last year we > worked in England. - The driver> showed us his car yesterday. - Last week we > walked to school. - I > loved this town when I was a boy. . - Her friend> asked her for a book. - They> wanted to go there a year ago. - We > looked for his ties yesterday.

aratat ieri ma~ina sa.

Saptiimana trecuta am mel'S pe jos la ~coala.

1m placea acest or~ eand eram copil.
Prietenul ei i-a eerut 0 carte. Ei au vrut sa mearga acolo acum un an. Noi am cautat ieri eravatele lui.

16

In limba engleza exista ~i 0 serie de verbe neregulate, care nu formeaza timpul trecut cu sutixul -d sau -ed. Cele trei forme ale acestar verbe trebuie invalate pe de rost.
Forma I infinitiv see go have be eat drink Forma a II-a trecutul simplu Forma aID-a participiul trecut seen gone had been eaten drunk

> lsi:] > [gou] > [hEv] > fbi:] > [i:t]

- a vedea -a merge -a avea -ati - a manea

saw went had waslwere ate drank

> [so:] > ["cnt] > [hEd] > [Uoz/"a: r] >
~it]

> [si:n] > [gan) > [hEd] > [bi:n] > [Un] > [dran(g)k]

> [drin(g)k] -a bea

> [drEn(g) k]

1nvaluli toatc cde trei forme verbale! De participiul trecut (Past Participle) ne vom ocupa in lectia ufl11lLloare. Repela(i de mai multe ori cele trei forme ale verbelor neregulate: ati a bea a veden a merge a manen a avea

> be > drink > see > go > eat > have

> was/were > drank > saw > went > ate > had

> been > drunk > seen > gone > eaten > had

Traduec(i unnlltoarele propozitii in limba engleza: leri am bUnt prea multa bere. in urmu eu doi ani anl avut un apartament laLondra. Parintii mei au mers in Anglia acum trei saptllmani. Atunci i-am vl\zut pc ace~ti oameni. Noi am mancat multe mere ieri. leri la ~apte dumneavoastra erati la lucm.

> I drank too much beer yesterday. > Two years ago I had an apartment in London.

> My parents went to England three weeks
ago.

> I saw these people then. > We ate a lot of apples yesterday.

> You were at work at seven yesterday.

17

Sa ne fntoarcem acum la problema pluralului neregulat. in cere ce urmeaza vom fnvata de substantive neregulate:
1.

0

alta serie

Substantive compuse care denumesc ocupapi ~i con,tin substantivele man
postman policeman fIreman policewoman > [paustmen] > [pali:smen] > [faia'men] > [pali:s"man] postmen policemen fIremen policewomen > [paustman] > [pali:sman] > [faiarman] > [pali:s"imin]

~i

woman:

- po~ta~/po~ta~i poli!istJpoli!i~ti

- pompier/i - femei/e poli!ist

2.

Substantive al caror plural se jormeaza prin adaugarea sufixului -es:
potato tomato > [piHeitou] > [tama:lou] potatoes tomatoes > [pateitouz] > [Ulma:tauz] - cartoffi - ro~ie/ro~ii

3.

Substantive care primesc suflXul -en la plural:
ox > [oks]
aceea~i

oxen forma
~i

> [oksn]
~i

- boulboi

4.

Substantive care au
deer

la plural,

la singular: > [diar] > [~i:p] -caprioaraJ caprioare

> [diar]

deer

sheep

>[~i:p]

sheep

- oaie/oi

... one sheep and one deer ...
Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:
Ace~ti po~~i

... four sheep and four deer ...

aduc scrisori in biroul nostru.

> These postmen bring letters to our offIce. > Those fIremen were tall. > Do you like potatoes? > Tomatoes are red. > We had four oxen and ten sheep. > Do you see those deer near the trees?

Pompierii aceia erau inalti. Iti plac cartofii? Tomatele soot ro~ii.

Am avut patru boi ~i zece oi.
Vezi acele caprioare liinga cOPllci?

~i

acum sa recapituHim materia intregii lectii. Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii:
0

El a vrut sa faea ieri dar nu a avut timp.

biblioteea,
~i

> He wanted to make a bookcase yesterday, but he had no time.
cina

De obicei iau micul dejun aeasa la un restaurant. Acele cravate nu erau frumoasc. Ea a fost atunci In spital? Ai plante In sufragcrie'?

> I usually have breakfast at home
and dinner at a restaurant.

> Those ties weren't nice.
> Was she in hospital then? > Have you plants in the dining-room? > Wives like to go for a walk with their husbands. > It sometimes rains in summer and in winter it snows. > Can you get up? > I must put on my best suit. > Do cats like mice? > You have nice teeth.
> Put these books on these shelves!

Sotiilor Ie place sa mearga la plimbare cu sotii lor. Vara uncori ploua, iar iarna ninge. Poti sa te scoli? Trcbuie sa ma Imbrac cu cel mai bun costum. Pisicilor Ie plac
~oarecii?

Ai dinti frumo~i. Pune aceste carti pe aceste rafturi! Ciind a coborat, el a vamt doi copii in fata lui.
~coala

> When he went downstairs he saw two children in front of him. > This cinema is opposite our school.

Acest cinematograf este vizavi de Mergi in pivnita
~i

noastra.

adu scaunele verzi!

> Go to the cellar and bring the green chairs! > I wanted to buy a good TV set,
but it was too expensive.
> Yesterday I worried about you. > More than a hundred birds are sitting on our tree at the moment.

Am vrut sa cumpar un televizor bun, dar era prea scump. leri 1l1-am ingrijorat pentru tine. Mai mult de a suta de pasari stau in copacul nostru in clipa aceasta. Trebuie sa am intotdeauna loc in autobuz. leri noi am mancat prea mult. Multe femei politist luereaza in or~ul nostru. leri ti-am vazut bicicleta in din eoltul gradinii. leri te-a
~ura aceea

> I must always have a seat on a bus. > We ate too much yesterday.
> Many policewomen work in our town. > Yesterday I saw your bicycle in that shed in the corner ofthe garder.

a~teptat un po~t~ in

fata easeL

> A postman waited for you in front
of the house yesterday.

Atunci noi aveam mai multi bani.

> We had more money then.

19

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 9 ,
9.1. In unele situatii putem omite articolul hotarat the, $i anume, in cazul unor cuvinte ca mother, father, town, church, music. In cele ce urmeaza va prezentam $i alte situatii In care articolul hotarat poate lipsi: 9.1.1. Inaintea denumirii meselor principale folosite la modul general: She always eats breakfast at seven. - Ea ia intotdeauna micul dejun la $apte.

9.1.2. Inaintea denumirii anotimpurilor folosite la modill general: Do you like summer?

- Iti place vara?
- Trebuie sa merg la spital.

9.1.3. Inaintea cuvantului hospital, in calitate de bolnav: I must go to hospital.

Daca starn la spital, sau mergem acolo in vizita, sau ca membru al personalului, folosim articolul howat: I go to the hospital every day. - Merg la spital in fiecare zi.

Daca ne referim la 0 masa sau un anotimp anume, atunci se folose$te Intotdeauna articolul hotarat the: The dinner which I am eating now is good. 9.2. The Simple Past Tense (timpul trecut simplu) 9.2.1. Folosirn aeest limp in cazul unor aC\iuni terminate, care s-au des~urat In trecut, ~i care nu all legatura eu prezentul. Folosim urrnatoarele complemente de timp: yesterday ago last - eina pe care 0 miinanc acurn este buna.

ricsla'dcilicsla'di]
(agiiu]
[Ia:sl]

~.

(ziua de) ieri

-In urma(cu), acum... - ultim, cel din urma, trecut

Aceste trei adverbe de timp stau la Inceputul sau la sf'ar~itul propoziliei. 9.2.2. Formele verbului to be la Trecut Simplu: I was you were he was she was it was we were you were they were

[ai U ] oz
[iU: 'a:']

- eu am fost, eram - tu ai fost, erai/dumneavoastra ali fost, erali - el a fost, era - ea a fast, era - aceasta, asta a fast, era (genul neutru) - noi am fost, eram - voi ali fost, erali - ei, ele au fost,erau

[hi: U ] oz
[~i:

U oz]

[itUoz] [Ui: ua :'] [iu: ua:'] [DZei ua:']

9.2.3. Forma interogativa a timpului trecut simplu (Simple Past) a verbului to be se formeaza prin inversarea subieetului eu forma eorespunzatoare a verbului to be. Construetia raspunsului afirmativ: yes + pronume personal + forma eorespunzatoare a verbului to be la timpul treeut simplu. Forma negativa: no + pronume personal + to be + not. Was not se poate prescurta wasn't; iar, were not - weren't. J was at school yesterday. Were you at school yesterday? Yes, I was. No, J was not. No,Iwasn't Where were you yesterday? - Unde ai fost ieri? - Jeri am fost la ~coala. - Ai fast la ~coaHi? - Da, (am fost). - Nu, (nu am fost).

9.2.4. Constructia propozitiei la timpul trecut simplu: Pronume personal sau substantiv

+ verb
visited

+
my mother yesterday. me last week.

He

waited for

Verbul prime~te sufixul-ed. Aceasta regula este valabila daca ultima litera a verbului nu este -e. Daca ultima litera a verbului este -e, atunci ii adaugam doar un -d. like - liked [laikt]

9.2.5. In cazul utilizarii sufixului -ed trebuie sa fun atenti la urmatoarele: Daca ultima litera a verbului este -y, atunci aceasta se transforma ill -i, terminatia -ed.
try
~i

apoi prime~te

- tried

[traid]

In cazul unor verbe, consoana de la staqitul cuvantului se dubleaza, la fel ca ~i in cazul adaugarii terminatiei -ing. stop - stopped [stopt]

9.2.6. Regulile de pronuntie a verbelor formate cu ajutorul terminatiei -ed: Daca ultima litem a verbului la infmitiv este 0 consoana surda atunci pronuntia sufixului este: look -looked
0

[lukt] consoana sonora sau
[~oud]
0

Daca ultima litera a verbului este sufixului este: show -showed

vocala, atunci pronuntia

')1

Daca ultima consoana a verbului este -t sau -d atunci pronuntia sufixului este rid]: visit 9.2.7. Verbe neregulate: - visited [vizitid]

In limba engleza exista ~i verbe al caror trecut nu se formeaza cu ajutorul terrninatiei -ed. Formele verbelor neregulate ~i pronuntia lor trebuie lnvatate ca ~i cuvinte separate.
La pagina 37 yeti gasi lista verbelor neregulate lnvatate parra acurn.
9.3.

Pluralul substantivelor neregulate:
9.3 .1. Substantive a caror radacina
~i

pronuntie se modifica de la singular la plural: feet
[fi:t]

foot

[fut]

- laba piciorului, labe

9.3.2. Substantive compuse, una din componente fiind man sau woman:

postman

[paustmen]

postmen

[paustman]

-

po~t~/i

9.3.3. Substantivele care se termina cu vocala 0 primesc la plural terminatia -es:

potato

[pateitou]

potatoes

[pateitouz]

- cartof/i

9.3.4. Substantive care la plural primesc terminatia -en:

ox

[oks]

oxen

[oksn]

- bou/boi

9.3.5. Substantive care au aceea~i forma amt la singular cat ~i la plural:

deer

[dia']

deer

[ dia']

- caprioaralcaprioare

22

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 9
A

Traduceti in limba romana urmatoarele propozitii: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Are your brothers having breakfast now? Where were you yesterday? My children like mice, but I don't. I think these knives are on those shelves. In the comer of the cellar there was a little bird. I wanted to go to England last year.

B.

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. leri noi am lucrat acasa, dar saptamiina trecuta am fost la birou. El a avut trei neveste. Trebuie sa cumparam ni~te cartofi. Azi cinam in restaurantul de vizavi de cinematograf. Nu lua ace~ti ciorapi ro~ii. Toate caprioarele sunt frumoase.

C.

Corectati
I.

gre~elile

din propozitiile de mai jos:

This policewomen are in the comer, in front of that shop. How many sheeps do you keep in that shed in the garden? ) was at home yesterday and I listened music. My daughter tryed to buy this car, but it was too expensive. We seed your brother three weeks ago. They goed to London then.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

LECTIA 10 ,

" " PARTEA INTAI

Sa lncepem lectia lnvatfuld dHeva cuvinte noi. Fiti atenti la pronuntie: nurse football match very magazine spring autumn typist newspaper tool baker

> [na:'s] > [futbo:l] >
[mEt~]

- infrrmiera, sora - fotbal -meci - foarte - revista, magazin - primavara, primavaratic - toamna - dactilografa - ziar, gazeta - unealta, scula - brutar

> [veri] > [mEgazi:n] > [spnn ] > [o:tam] > [taipist] > [niu:speipa'] > [tu:l] > [beild]
• (g)

Acum repetati tool football typist magazine very newspaper nurse autumn baker spring match

acelea~i

cuvinte intr-o alta ordine:

> [tu:l]

- unealta, scula - fotbal - dactilografa - revista, magazin - foarte - ziar, gazeta - infirmiera, sora -toamna - brutar -primavara, pnmavaratic -meci

> [("litho: I] >

rtllipisl]

> [ mEg[tzi:n] > [veri] > [niu;speipa']
> [na:'s] > [o:tiim]

> [beika']
• > [ sprm<Ill]

>

[mE~]

Sa [olosim acum cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare She is reading a newspaper now. Is it still spring? My father keeps his tools in the shed. Do they like magazines for women? My sister is a nurse. Must we have a typist in the otHee'l There is a football match tonight. Autumn comes after summer. This bakcr makes very good bread. >[ ~i: iz ri:din(g) a niu:speipar nau] >[ iz it stil sprin(g)]
/jmai IldYarki:ps hiz 11I:lz ill IYii ~ed] >Jelu fYci laik ml\gill':i:llz Ill:'" "imin]

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntia lor:

- Ea cite~te acum un ziar.

- Este inca primavara? - Tatal meu i~i tine uneltele in magazie. - (Lor) Ie plac revistele pentru femei? - Sora mea este infmniera. - Trebuie sa avem 0 dactilografii in birou? - Este un meci de fotbal diseara. - Toamna vine dupa vara. - Acest brutar face paine foarte buna.

>[mai sistaf iz a na:fs] >[mast lIi: hEy a taipist in DZi ofis] >[Dzear iz a futbo:l mEt~ tanait]
>{ o:tam kamz a:ftaf samaf]

>[DZis belkaf melks veri gud bred]

Folositi cuvintele noi pentru completarea urmiitoarelor propozitii in limba engleza: Acestc unelte sunt foarte scumpe. Primavara copacii sunt verzi. Dou1i dacHlografe lucreaza in biroul nostru. Mergeti des la meciuri de fotbal? Magazinul acestui brutar este pe colt. Mama mea este infirmiera. Toamna fmnzele sunt galbene.
Cite~te

- These> tools are> very expensive. - In > spring the trees are green. - Two > typists work in our office. - Do you often go to > football matches? - This> baker's shop is in the comer. - My mother is a> nurse.
- In > autumn the leaves are yellow.

aceasta revistii!

- Read this> magazine! - Bring me my > newspaper!

Adu-mi zjaml (meu)!

Iar acum vom invata alte verbe neregulate: do drive speak take read write >[du:] >[draiv] >(spi:k] >(telk] >[ri:d] >(rait] did drove spoke took read wrote >( did] >(drauv] >(spouk] >(tuk] >(red] >(rout) done driven spoken taken read written >[dan] >[drivn] >(spoukn] >(telkn] >[red] >[ritn]

25

Sa introducem aceste verbe in propozitii. Cititi-le cu voce tare He did it yesterday. A year ago we drove to England.

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie:

- El a fiicut asta ieri.

- In urma cu un an noi am fost cu m~ina in
Anglia. - Infmniera a vorbit cu prietena sa saptamilna trecuta. - leri am dus copiii la ~coala. -Am citit aceasta carte cu multi ani in urma. - Sotul meu i-a scris 0 scrisoare surorii sale.

The nurse spoke with her friend last week.

Yesterday I took the children to school.
I read this book many years ago.

My husband wrote a letter to his sister.

lata un exercitiu de verificare. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Saptamilna trecuta sora lui i-a scris scrisoare lunga. Ei ne-au luat ieri toti banii. Atunci el a plecat cu ma~ina. leri am citit 0 scrisoare frumoasa.
Am vorbit cu ei acum doua zile.
0

> Last week his sister wrote a long letter to him.
> They took all our money yesterday.

> Then he drove. > Yesterday I read a nice letter.
> We spoke to them two days ago.

Ei au fiicut asta ieri.

> They did it yesterday.

La sfiir~itul caietului de curs yeti gasi lista tuturor verbelor neregulate invatate pilna acum. In lectia anterioarii ati afTat cum se formeazii interogativul \vi negativul verbului to be la timpul trecut simplu (Simple Past). Acum veti inviitaformarea interogativului ~i a negativului altor verbe la acest timp. Asemiiniitor timpului prezent (Simplc Present), ~i la timpul trecutfolosim un verb auxiliar. Acest verb auxiliar este verbul to do la trecut ~i anume did [did]. Retineti structura propozitiei: Verb auxiliar Did

+ pronume personal
sau substantiv you/the student

+ verb la timpul
prezent read

+ ...
this book yesterday?

Nu uitafi! lnpropozifiile in care folosim verbul auxiliar did, verbul de conjugat este la prezent, lara particula to.

lata ciiteva exemple: Mary saw John yesterday. Did Mary see John yesterday? > [did mean si: djon iestardei] - L-a viizut Mary pc John ieri?

26

They smoked many cigarettes last year. Did they smoke many cigarettes last year?
> [ did DZei smauk meni sigarets la:st iili']

- Ei au fumat multe tigari anul trecut?

She drank too much beer last night. Did she drink too much beer last night?

> [did ~i: drin(g)k tu: bili' la: st nait]

mat~

- A baut ea prea multa bere searaJnoaptea trecuta?

Retineti urmatorul complement de timp: last night - ieri searalnoapte

Raspunsurile afirmative Ie formulam folosind euviintul yes, urmat de forma eorespunzatoare a pronumelui personal ~i de verbul auxiliar. Propozitiile negative euprind euviintul no, pronumele personal, .fiirma eorespunztitoare a verbului auxiliar ~i euviintul not. Construetia did not poate ji preseurlata subforma didn't [didnt].
De cxcmplu: The nurse gave l11e a newspaper yesterday. Did the nurse give yesterday? Yes, she did. No, she didn't.
1110

a newspaper

- Mi-a dat ieri infmniera un ziar?

>1;0S

~i:

did] didnt]

-Da. -Nu.

>Inau

~i:

They wanted to go there last year. Did they want to go there last year? Yes, they did. No, they didn't. - Au vrut ei sa mearga acolo anul trecut? -Da. -Nu.

>[ ics IYei didl >[nau lYe; didnq

Acum formulati intrebari, raspunsuri aJinnative She worried about her son yesterday.

~i

negative la unnatoarele propozitii:

,,00

,_. > Ilid she worry about her son yesterday? Yes, > she did.

- No, > she didn't. You took the money.

- > Did you take the money? - Yes, > I did. - No, > I didn't.
- > Did my daughter do it two days ago?
- Yes, > she did. - No, > she didn't.

My daughter did it two days ago.

They ate too much bread yesterday.

- > Did they eat too much bread yesterday? - Yes, > they did.
- No, > they didn't.

27

Did you take the money?

o

In cazul fntrebarilor fn care se cer detalii sau completari, pronumele interogativ se pune inaintea cuvfmtului did:
John went home yesterday. She wanted these books. They listened to music last night. Where did John go yesterday? What did she want? When did they listen to music? - Dnde s-a dus John ieri? - Ce a vrut ea? - Cand au ascultat ei muzica?

Retincti cit structura acclor intrebari in care figureaza pronumele interogativ who cstc ceu u unei propozitii afirmative, de aceea verbul se ana la forma a JI-a (Simple Past)/torma de afirmativ: Peter spokc to mc last Sunday.
Whb spoke to me last Sunday?

- Peter a vorbit cu mine duminica trecuta. - Cine a vorbit cu mine duminica trecuta? - Noi am deschis magazinul saptamana trecuta. - Cine a deschis magazinul saptamana trecuta?

We opened the shop last week.
Who opened the shop last week?

Sa folosirn cele invatate traducand in lirnba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Dnde a lucrat aceasta infirmiera anul trecut? Aceste dactilografe
i~i

>Where did this nurse work last year? >Did these typists like their work? >Who went to England last spring? >Were this newspapers and magazines on the table in the kitchen?

iubeau munca?

Cine s-a dus in Anglia prirnavara trecuta? Aceste ziare ~i reviste au fost pe masa in bucatarie?

Jeri ai dus uneltele in magazie? Ai vazut sufrageria lor? Unde s-au dus ieri parinlii Mariei? Ai luat ieri micul dejun? Cine a oprit circulatia?

> Did you take the tools to the shed yesterday? > Did you see their dining-room? > Where did Mary's parents go yesterday? > Did you have breakfast yesterday? > Who stopped the traffic?

Sa 1l1vatam allc cutcva cuvinte noi. Citili-Ie cu voce tare again before busy ready full
'Q

~i

fiti atenli la pronuntie:
- din nou,
iara~i,

>[agein], [agen] >[bifo:'] >[bizi] >[redi] >[ful] >[ til] >[tu:] >[tu Uot~] >[D'i aDZa']

mca 0 data

- inainte de, mai inainte - ocupat - gata - plin, mcarcat - pana la, pana ce - de asemenea,
~i

till
too to watch the other

- a se uita, a veghea, a paudi - eeialalt, cealaita (ceilaW, ceIelalte)

Completa(i propozitiile m limba engleza folosind cuvintele noi: EI a l()st aici inainte de luni. Ea I-a vazut ~i pe el.
E~ti

- He was here> before Monday. - She saw him, > too. - Are you> ready? We must go. -- These two cars are nice but> the other is better. - The bus wa..~ > full ofpeople. - Look! The bird is singing> again! - I'm too> busy to go with you to the cinema.

gata'? Trebuie sa mergem.

Aceste doua ma~ini sunt frumoase dar cealalta este mai buna. Autobuzul era plin eu oameni. Uite! Pasarea cantil din nou! Sunt prea oeupat ca sa merg cu tine la einematograf. Dumneavoastra trebuie sa Iucrati pana la ora einci. Te-ai uitat ieri Ia meci?

- You must work> till five o'clock.

- Did you> watch the match yesterday?

29

Retineti urmatoarea expresie in limba engleza: Here you are. >[hia' iu: a:'] - Poftiti/Poftim. (Este aici).

De exemplu: Give me that book, please. Here you are. - Dati-mi cartea aceea, va rog. - Poftiti.

Urmeaza alte cuvinte all sorts of all kinds of

~i

expresii noi: >[ 0: 1 so:'ts ov] >[ 0: 1 kaindz ov] - de toate felurile, de tot felul - de toate tipOOle, de toate felOOle - Tatalui meu ii placeau toatt-. felOOle de clifti. - leri am vizitat tot felul de magazine. - Ce mai faci?

My father liked all sorts of books. Yesterday we visited all kinds of shops. How are you?

>[mai fa:Dza' lalkt 0:1 so:'ts ov buks] >[iesta'dei ui: vizitid 0:1 kaindz ov ~ops] >[hau a:' iu:]

In ultima intrebare a exercitiului anterior ne putem referi ~i la alte persoane. De exemplu: Cum este el?/Ce mai face el? Cum sunt ei'?/Ce mai tac ci'? Cum este fratele tau?/Cc mai face fratclc tau? >Jlow is he? >How are they? >How is your brother?

Sa ne intoarcem acum la regulile timpului trecut simplu (Simple Past Tense). Forma prescurtata negativa didn't sau forma intreaga did not poate fi folosita ~i in propozifii afirmative. Fifi atenfi fntotdeauna la faptul cli in cazul in care cuvantul did esie prezent in propozifie, atunci verbul principal se folose~te fara particula to, deci la forma I din dicfionar.
He didn't see his children yesterday. My mother's friend didn't come to us last week. >[hi: didnt si: hiz t~ildran iesUi'dei] >[mai maDza'z frend didnt kam tu as la:st ui:k] - EI nu ~i-a vamt ieri copiii.

- Prietenul mamei mele uu a venit la uoi saptamana trecuta.

30

Traduceti in limba engleza unnatoarele propozitii: Atunci nu I-am inteles. Nu au vrut sa cautc asta ieri. Parintii mei nu au uitat sa rna viziteze ieri. > I didn't understand him then. > They didn't want to look for it yesterday. > My parents didn't forget to visit me yesterday. > He didn't stop smoking when he was in hospital. >My wife didn't put on these green shoes yesterday.

Nu S-ll lasat de fumat ciind a fost in spital.

So\ia mea nu

~i-a

pus

aee~ti

pantofi verzi ieri.

in exerd\illl

lIrmiitor vom recapitula prima parte a leetiei: > When did you see this match? > He had all kinds of tools. > Was this man a baker? > Why did you drive a ear yesterday? > Who wrote this letter? > How did they do it? > We didn't drink beer yesterday. > Did you read about it in the newspaper yesterday? >Howareyou? > Yesterday I was too busy to talk with you. > What timo did you sec the other man?

Ciind IIi vilzut acest meci? EI a avul tot lclul de unelte. Acest 011\
II

(1St brutar?
ma~ina?

De ce ui condlls ieri a

Cine u scds scrisoarea aceasta? Cum
IIlI

li1cut asta?
IlU 11m

leri noi

baut bere.

Ai dOt desprc usta ieri in ziar?

Ce mai Jilci'l leri am Ibst prell oClipat ca sa vorbese eu tine. La ce orill-uti vilzlIt dumneavoastra pe eelalalt om? I-ai mul\umit ieri surorii tale pentru eartea asta?

> Did you thank your sister for this book yesterday?

6

incheiere, cxersati-va pronuntia cu ajutorul unnatoarelor seturi de cuvinte care contin acel~i sunet: [u:] shoe too room do two [au] smoke no so go know

[au] brown town our hour tower

[ei]
table take wait day plane

LECTIA 10 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
Cititi dialogurile unnatoare ~i exersati-va cu atentie pronuntia. Cuvintele accentuate sunt scrise ingro~at: John: Mary: John: Mary: Can I talk to your husband for a minute or two?
I think you can't. My husband went to our daughter at a quarter to six.
~i

silabele care trebuie

Why did he go there? He wanted to buy a bookcase and a lamp for her in the shop opposite our house.

Tom: Barbara: Tom: Barbara:

What did Peter do after he came home? He went to the hospital where his mother was. Did he stay long with his mother? No, he didn't. He talked to her and they listened to the radio together.

Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter:

Were you at home yesterday? Yes, I was, but I wanted to go to the cinema. Did you go? No, I didn't. My friend visited me. We stayed at home. We wanted to watch a football match.

John: Barbara: John: Barbara: John: Barbara:

What did you do last week? On Monday I read a letter. It was a very nice letter. Did you go to work on Tuesday?

Yes, I did. I had a lot of work to do and I was very busy. I wrote all sorts ofletters.
Are you a typist?

Yes, I am. [ lII<c this work.

Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter:

Did you have time to talk to John last week? Yes,Idid. How is he? He is aU right. On Wednesday he stopped smoking. Did he also stop drinking beer? Yes, he did.

Barbara: Tom: Barbara: Tom: Barbara: Tom:

Tom, where did you live when you were a little boy? When I was a little boy I lived in a little house with my parents. Did your parents have a garden, too? Yes, they did. The garden was very nice. We liked to eat in the garden. And what about animals? My parents kept geese and sheep in the garden, so many children visited me then.

John: Mary: John: Mary: John: Mary: John: Mary: John:

Mary, come downstairs! I'm coming! Can you see that car in front of the shop on the corner? Yes, I can. It was opposite our house yesterday. Whose car is it? It's my friend's car. Yesterday I wanted to buy it. Did you buy it? No, I didn't. Why'! Because it was too expensive.

Barbara: Peter: Barbara: Peler: Barham: Pekr:

Is Tom at home'!
No, hu isn't. Tom is still working.

I

SIIW

him at nine in the morning.

Usually he gets up at nine in the morning, but today he had breakfast at seven.

Did he have time to go for a walk with your dog?

No, he dido't. After breakfast he went to work.

Mary:

What did you have for dinner yesterday?

TOIll:

r had some potatoes and some tomatoes.

John: Barhul'll:

1 have a letter for you. Here you are. Thank you.

In ultilllul excreiliu vom reeapitula intregul material allecjiilor noua tara grc~cul1\ acesl cxercijiu, puteji trece la tema pentru acasii:

~i

zece. Dupa ce aji rezolvat

SO\lIi mell a cinat ieri in camera de zi.
Ai vilZut aeeslc plante in griidina? Nu ei au facul llccastii biblioteca. Trebuie sit v()rbe~lj cu sora lui John. Ciim vreme ai ritmas acolo atunei? leri nu au fast la luem. Cine a avut patm neveste? Dupa eina mergem la cinema. El nu s-a sculat inainte de rnicul dejun. Biblioteca noastra are douasprezece rafturi. I-am intrebat pe politi~ti despre strada aceasta. De unde ai cumpiirat acest televizor?

> My husband ate dinner in the living-room yesterday. > Did you see these plants in the garden? > They didn't make this bookcase.

> You must talk to John's sister.
> How long did you stay there then?
> They weren't at work yesterday.

> Who had four wives?
> After dinner we are going to the cinema. > He didn't get up before breakfast.

> Our bookcase has twelve shelves. > I asked the policemen about this street.
> Where did you buy this television set?

33

Atunei am avut multe pasari in gradina. Luna a stralueit ieri? Am ineereat sa fae asta anul trecut. Acest ziar este foarte bun. Cine rni-a baut eeaiul? Ciind au venit ei? Ai auzit ieri despre asta? Casa aceasta a fost plina de oameni.

->VIe had many birds in the garden then. ;Did the moon shine yesterday?
:;l

tried to do this last year.

>This newspaper is very good. ->VVho drank my tea? ->VVhen did they come? ;Did you hear about it yesterday? >This house was full of people.

\

"2,1

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 10 ,
10.1. Interogativul
~i

negatia la timpul treeut simplu (Simple Past):

10.1.1. La timpul treeut simplu formulam interogativul folosind verbul auxiliar did, (eare este forma de treeut a verbului to do).

Structura propozitiei: Verb allxllillr

+

Pronume personal sau substantiv you/the boy

+ verb la timpllI prezent read

+ _.
this book yesterday?

Did

Mary saw John yesterday.

- Mary I-a vamt ieri pe John. - L-a viizut Mary pe John ieri?

Did Mary see John yesterday?

10.1.2. Rl)spunsurile afirmative Ie formuHim eu ajutorul eonstructiei yes + pronume
personal + verb auxiliar. Raspunsurile negative au structura no + pronume personal I vcrb auxiliar+ not. Forma did not 0 putemprescurta didn't The nurse gave me a newspaper yesterday. ' \. . - Ifilrmlera illl-a da" un Zlar. n t len

I)id the nurse give me a newspaper yesterday?
Yes, she did.
No, she didn't.

- Mi-a dat ieri infirmiera un ziar?

-Da.
-Nu.

10.1.3. Lll l<ll'lnularea intrebarilor care cer completare, pronumele interogativ trece maintea
vcrbu lui auxiliar did.

John went home yesterday.
Where did John go yesterday?

- John s-a dus ieri acasa. - Unde s-a dus ieri John?

I0.1.4.

~lrlletura

interogativului format cu ajutorul pronumelui interogativ who este identica eu cea a propozitiilor afrrmative, de accea verbul se afla la forma a II-a, dcci III timpul treeut simplu: Peter spoke to me last Sunday. Who spoke to me last Sunday? -- Peter a vorbit cu mine duminica trecutii. - Cine a vorbil cu mine duminica trecutii?

10.2. Expresii utile: all sorts of all kinds of How arc you? Here you arc. - de toate felurile/soiurile, de tot felul - de toate tipurile, de toate felurile - Ce mai faci? - Poftiti! Poftim! (cand dam ceva)

35

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 10
A Traduceti in limba romana urmatoarele propozitii: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I wasn't at school two weeks ago. Why did you go to John yesterday? What did these policemen want? How is your mother today? Who worked in the garden last Monday? There are all sorts of cars in that shop.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Unde

afost el noaptea trecuta?

Cine v-a pus durnneavoastra aceasta intrebare? Ei au fost ieri la eel mai bun restaurant din ora~. Ea nu a vrut sa ne pIateasca. Cand te-ai sculat? leri am pIatit aceste ro~ii.

C.

Corectati 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

grc~clile

din propozitiile de mai jos:

Who did open that door? They didn't be at home yesterday. I sawall kind of small animals. We want to be firemans. I want to keep two oxen and ten sheeps in the garden. She has no knifes in the kitchen.

LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE
Forma I Infmitiv bring come cut do drink drive eat fly forget get give go have hear keep know make pay put read see send shine sing sit speak take teach think understand - a aducc, a duce -- a sosi, a veni -a tilia, a tundc a lilee, a sc ocupa cu
l\

Forma a II-a Simple Past brought came cut did drank drove ate flew forgot got gave went had heard kept knew made paid put read saw sent shone sang a sta ~ezat sat spoke took taught thought >[brcd] >[kcim] >rkat] >[did] >
~rEn(glk]

Forma a III-a Past Participle brought come cut done drunk driven eaten flown forgotten got given gone had heard kept known made paid put read seen sent shone sung sat spoken taken taught thought >[bro:t] >[kam] >[kat] >[dan] > [dran(glk] >[drivn] >[i:tn] >[floun] >[forgotn] >[got] >[givn] >[gan] >[hEd] >[ha:rd] >[kept] >[noun] >[meid] >[peid] >[put] >[red] >[si:n] >[sent] >[shaun] >[san(gl] >[sEt] >[spiiukn] >[teikn] >[to:t] >[T'o:t]

hea

a conduce, a mana - a manca a zbura a nita a obtine, a face rost
II

>[drouv] >[ eit] >[flu:] >[forgot] >[got] >[geiv] >[Uent] >[hEd] >[ha:'d] >[kept]
>[niu:]

da, a darui

a merge, a umbla - a avea a auzi
II

/

tine, a pastra a cuno~te

II ~ti,
II

face, a confectiona

>[meid] >[peid] >[put] >[red] >[so:] >[ sent] >[shaun] >[sEn(gl] >[sEt] >[spauk] >[tuk] >[to:t] >[T'o:t]

a plati a pune, a a~eza
,- II

citi

a vcdea a trimite '" a straluci, a lumina -- a canta - a
~edea,

- a vorbi - a prinde, a lua -apreda - a gandi - a intelege, apricepe -a scrie

understood >[ anda'stud] >[raut]

understood >[ancta'stud] >[ritn]

write

wrote

written

37

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 9 SIlO , ,
after again ago autumn in autumn baker before bird bookcase breakfast busy cellar child/children cinema comer deer dining-room dinner dinner downstairs to go downstairs every fireman/firemen football front in front of full to get up goose/geese halflhalves to have breakfast here you are How are you? > [a:fm'] > [agein], [agen] > [agau] > [o:tam] > [in o:tam] > [belkar] > [bifo:,] > [ba:rd] > [bukkeis] > [brekfast] > [bizi] > [sela'] > [t~aild]/[ t~ildran] > [sinama] > [ko:rnar] > [dia'] > [dainin(g) ru:m] > [dinar] > [daunstcarz] > [lu gou daunsteiFz] > [cvri] > [ rlliii'"mcn]1{ faiarman] > [futbo:l] > [frant] > [in frant ov] > [full > [tu get ap] > [gu:s]l{gi:s] > [ha:f]l{ha:vz] > [tu hEv brekfust] > [hiar iu: a:'1 > [hau a: r iu:] - dupa, dupa aceea - din nou,
iara~i,

inca 0 data

- in unna (cu), acum... - toarnna - toarnna - bmtar - inainte de, mai inainte - pasare - raft, biblioteca - micdejun - ocupat - pivnita, beci - copil/copii - cinema(tograf) - colt - caprioara, caprioare - sufragerie - masa (principala), pranz, cina, dineu - la parter, jos - a cobori (la parter), a merge (in) jos - fiecare - pompier/pompieri - fotbal - partea din fata/de - in fata, dinaintea - plin, ineareat - a se scula din pat, a se ridica in picioare - gascalga~te - jumatate/jumatati - a lua mieul dejun - Poftiti! Poftim! (cand dam ceva) - Ce mai faci? Cum te mai simti?
,~

/

hospital husband kind all kinds of knife/knives lamp last leaf/leaves life/lives living-room loaf/loaves

>[hospitl] >[hazband] >[kaind] >[ 0: 1 kaindz ov] >[' nail]/[naivz] >111',111]1] >Ila:sll
>['li:l"\~

- spital, clinica - sot - fel, tip - de toate tipurile, de toate felurile - cutit/cutite -lampa - ultim, (cel) din urma, trecut

li:vz]

- fiunzalfrunze - viatalvieti - camera de zi - franzela, paine (de fonna)/franzele -- revista, magazin a thee, a confectiona
0

.>lllliIH laivz] :>llIvin(!-'l nun]

>[ IOlll"\~ Inllv/I
;~[

anurnita

magazine

1\, I':gozl:ii 1

to make
malch

:-1 t 1I moil. I
:'IIIIHl~1

the

moOIl

>11 Yo 1lI11:nl
>[ J1H1US]!I l1Iuis] >[niu:speipar ] >[na:rs] >[ opazit] >[DZiaDza']

IUllll
~oarCCC/~Ollrccj

mouse/mice newspaper nurse opposite the other

- ziar, gazetll - infmniera, sora - vizavi de, de partea cealalta - celalalt, cealalta (ceilalp., celelalte) - bou/boi - parinti - a parca, a stationa - planta politistlpoliti~ti

ox/oxen parents to park plant policeman/policemen policewoman/policewomen postman/postmen potato/potatoes to put on quarter ready seat shed

>[ oks]ll oksn) >[peariints) >[tu pa:'k) >[pla:nt), [plEnt) >[pali:smEn]i[pali:sman] >[pali:sUrnan) [pali:s"imin] >[paustmEn)tIpaustman) >[pateitou)tIpateitouz) >(tu put on] >[kuor:tit] >[redi] >[ si:t]
>[~ed]

- femei politistlfemeie politist

-j

carto:ti'cartofi

- a se imbraca, a ~eza - sfert, sfert de ceas/ora - gata, pregatit - loc de stat, scaun ~opron, ~ura

39

sheep shel£'shelves shirt sock sort all sorts of spring in spring to stay still television set thing tie till tomato/tomatoes too tool tooth/tecth TV set typist very to watch wife/wives yesterday

> > >

[~i:p ] [~elfJl[ ~elvz] [~a:'t]

- oaie, oi - raft/rafturi cama~a

> [sok] >
[~o:'t]

~oseta

- fel, tip - de toate feIuriIe, de tot feIul - primavara, primavaratic - primavara - a ramane, a sta - inca, mai - televizor - lucru, obiect .- cravata - pana la, pana ce ro~ie/ro~ii,
/~

> [0: 1 so:'ts ov] > [sprin(g)] > [in sprin(g)] > [tu stei] > [stil] > [telivijn set] > [T'in Cg)] > [tai] > [til] > [tama:tou]/[ tama:touz] .> [tu:] > [tu:l] > [tu:T']{ti:T'] > [ti:vi: sct] > [taipist] > [veri] > [Ill
"ot~]

tomate
~i

- de asemenea, - uneaIta, scula - dinte/dinti - televizor - dactilografii - foarte

- a se uita, a veghea, a pandi - sotie, nevast1ilsotii, neveste - ieri

> ["ail]lt"aivz] > [iesl<I'dei], [iesta'di]

40

RECAPITULARE
I. Simple Present Tense (prezentul simplu) se folose~te pentru a exprima aqiuni obi~nuite, repetabile. Unele verbe se folosesc doar la prezentul simplu, acestea neavand forma continua. lata cateva exemple: He often goes to the cmema. Do you sometimes visit your mother? They don't like to listen to the radio.

2.

Folosim Present Continuous Tense (prezentul continuu) pentru descrierea acelor actiuni care se desTa~oara chiar in momentul vorbirii, respectiv pentru descrierea aqiunilor diferite de cele obi~nuite. Complementele de timp utilizate cu acest timp verbal sunt: now, this (week, month, year), today. Acela~i tllnp se folose~te pentru descrierea actiunilor care se vor desTa~ura in viitorul apropiat. De exemplu: Mary and John are having breakfast now. Is he eating at a restaurant this week? We are not gomg to England next week.

3.

desfa~urat

Folosim Simple Past Tense (timpul trecut simplu) pentru exprimarea unei aetiuni care s-a la un moment definit in trecut. De exemplu: We watched a good film yesterday.

Where did you go last year? She didn't show me her house when I visited her last week.

4.

Conjugarea verbulul to have: have you he she it have has has has we you have have

they have

" " LECTIA 11- PARTEA INTAI ,
Sa invatam cateva cuvinte referitoare la vreme:

cold the sky cloud fog wind strong heat

> [kauld] > [DZa skai] > [klaud] > [fog] > [Uind] > [stron(g)] > [hi:t]

- rece, racoros - cerul - nor - ceata - vant - tare, putemic - caldura (putemica), canicula - temperatura, febra - prognoza vremn, buletin meteorologic - qarra - haina, sacou - gheata, cizma

temperature weather-forecast

> [ temprit~ar]

a > [lI eD Z r fo:rka:st]

shawl coat boot

>

[~o:]]

> [kaut] > [bu:t]

Repetati cuvintele, dar intr-o alta ordine; fiti atenti la pronuntie: heat
> [hi:t]

- caldura (putemica), canicula - haina, sacou - cerul - ceata - rece, racoros e~arra

coat the sky fog cold shawl cloud weather-forecast

> [but] > [DZa skai] > [fog] > [kauld] > [WI] > [klaud] > [UeD/a r fo:rka:st]

At

- nor - prognoza vremii, buletin meteorologic - temperatura, febra - gheata, cizma - vant - tare, putemic

temperature boot wind strong

> [ temprit~ar] > [bu:t] > [Uind] > [stron(g)]

2

Cititi cu voce tare urmatoarele propozitii in care au fost introduse cuvintele noi: It's very cold today. Put on your coat. The wind was strong yesterday. She doesn't like heat. We want to listen to the weather-forecast. There are many clouds in the sky. This is my best shawl. > [Its veri kiiuld tadei] > [put on io:' kautJ > [D/a "ind "oz stron ig ) iestardeiJ >
[~i:

- Azi este foarte rece. - Pune-ti haina. - leri vantul a fost puternic.

daznt laik hi:tJ

- Ei nu-i place caldura. - Vrem sa ascultam buletinul meteorologic. - Sunt multi nori pe cer.

> ["I: "ont tu liSll tu DZa "eD/ar fo:'ka:stJ > [D/ea' a: r mcni klaudz III D7a skalJ > [DZis iz mai best :;;o:IJ

- Aceasta este mai buna.

e~arfa

mea cea

Do you like high temperatures? There is usually fog in winter. Where are my boots?

> l du iu: laik hal tcmpri t~a' z] > [D/ea' lZ 1U:J uali fog in "in tar) > ["ear a:rmai bu:tsJ

- Iti plac temperaturile ridicate?

- De obicei iarna este ceata.

- Unde imi sunt cizmele?

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu noile cuvinte invatate: Nu
0

vad in ceata.

- I don't see her in the> fog. - What > temperature is it in May? - The> sky is blue today. - Is it his >coat? - They like> heat. - The moon is behind the >clouds. - You can read the >weather-forecast in the newspaper. - Are these >boots expensive? ieri. - He wanted to buy me a >shawl yesterday. - I don't like >strong wind. - Don't give him >coJd tea!

Ce temperatura este in mai? Azi cerul este albastru. Este haina lui? Lor Ie place caldura. Luna este acoperita de nori. Poti citi prognoza vremii in ziar.

Sunt scumpe aceste cizme? El a vrut sa-mi cumpere
0 e~arIa

Nu-mi place vantul puternic. Nu-i da (lui) ceai rece!

3

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Tata mi-a cumparat ieri foarte frumoasa. Soarele este sus pe cer? Luna trecuta a fost canicula. Copiii
no~tri
0 e~arra

> My father bought me a vcry nIce shawl yesterday > Is the sun hIgh in the sky?
> Last month we had heat.

au febra mare.

> Our children have a hIgh temperature.
> I must buy boots.

Trebuie sa cumpar cizme. Ieri a fost rece? La ce ora este buletinul meteorologic la radio? Vantul este prea puternic azi. Pot sa imbrac aceasta haina? Nu pot vedea soarele printre nori. Azi este ceata la Londra.

> Was It cold yesterday?
> What time IS the weather-forecast

on the radIO'! > The wind IS too strong today. > Can I put on this coat?
> I can't see the sun through the clouds.

> There IS fog in London today.

Retinetl expresia: in the sky - pe cer

Articolul nehotardt a/an este folosit intotdeauna inain tea substantivelor care denumesc ocupafii, religii sau nafionalitii!i. De exemplu: She is a typist. My sister is a nurse. He is a baker. I am a Catholic. Her husband is an American. - Ea este dactilograra. - Sora mea este infirmiera. - El este brutar. - Eu sunt catolica. - Sotul ei este american.
0

Cdnd vorbim despre 0 funcfie care poate fi indeplinitii doar de neglija folosirea articolului hotiirdt the. Who is president of Romania? Who is the president of Romania? in Propozifiile anterioare apar ~i cdteva cuvinte noi: Catholic president
> [kETSlik]

singurii persoana, atund putem

- Cine este pre~edintele Romaniei? - Cine este
pre~edintele

Romaniei?

- catolic (de religie) pre~edinte

> [prezidant]

Numele proprzi ;;i adjectivele provenite din acestea se scriu intotdeauna cu litera mare In limba englezii.
4

in aceasta lecrie vomface cuno\~tinra cu un timp nou: Present Perfect Tense [prezant pii:rfikt tens], adica prezentul perfect. Acest timp se confunda deseori cu Simple Past Tense (timpul trecut simplu), de aceea va sugeram sa acordari 0 atenrie deosebita folosirii sale. Inainte de a continua, repetati verbele neregulate prezentate la sfar~itullectiei 10. Folosim Present Perfect in ca::ul unor evenimente care s-au terminat chiar acum sau ceva mai devreme, sau care au inceput in trecut (de exemplu: last week) $i se continua \~i in prezent (cu repercusiuni asupra prezentului). De multe ori, momentul desfii$uriirii acriunii nu este specificat cu exactitate.

Construcria propoziriei la timpul Present Pefect este urmiitoarea: Pronume personal sau substantiv She

+ verbul
auxiliar have/has has have

+ forma a III-a
a verbului principal bought seen been

+

...

a dog. that house. at home.

- Ea

~i-a

cumparat un caine.

- Am vazut casa aceea. - Noi am fost acasa.

We

have

in propozirie. verbul auxiliar este reprezentat de forma corespunziitoare a verbului to have, care nu poate fi tradusa ad literam. in cazul unui verb regulat. la fel ca $i in cazul timpului Simple Past, verbului se adaugii sufixul -d sau -ed.

Cititi propozitiile unnatoare:
I have had a temperature.

> [ai hEv hEd a tcmprit~arJ

- Am avut febra. - Ea mi-a predat engleza.

She has taught me English. My parents have smoked a lot of cigarettes.
I have known about his mother.

> [mal ]1carants hEv smaukt a lot av sigaretsJ > [al hEv noun abaut hlz malY ~11 J
>[~i:

- Parintii mei au fumat o multime de tigari. - $tiam de mama lui.

She has looked for her coat. They have waited for me at home.

hEz lukt 1'0:' ha: r kautJ

- Ea

~i-a

cautat haina.
a~teptat

> [[Yel hEv "c/tld 1'0.' mi: Et haumJ

- Ei m-au

acasa.

5

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in Iimba engleza: Te-am
a~teptat

timp indelungat.

- I> have v.aitedfor you a long time. - We> have heard about it. - They> have gIven us a very nice car. - Father> has \\ rittena letter to me. - They> have askedme for money.

Am auzit des pre asta. Ne-au dat
0 ma~ina

foarte frumoasa.

Tata mi-a scris

0

scrisoare.

Ei mi-au cerut bani.

Traduceti in Iimba engleza unnatoarele propozitii, folosind prezentul perfect: I-am scris 0 scrisoare (lui). Am vorbit cu ei. Am auzlt la radiO buletmul meteorologic. > I have wntten a letter to hun. > We have talked to them. > We hay c heard the \\ eather-forecast on the radiO.
> II has heen \ el) cold.

A fost foarte frig. M-am giindit la asta. I-am cerut (ei)
e~arfa

> J hay e thought <lbout It. mea. > I ha\'c asked hel for my sha\\ I. > \""c hay c brought thesc ncwspapers. > Wc have worked w1th these people. > YOli h'1\ e (II link to mllch bee!. > She has come to us with 10hn, > I have forgotten to bring you this.

Noi am adus aceste ziare. Noi am lucrat cu
ace~ti

oameni.

Ai baut prea multa bere. Ea a venit la noi cu 10hn. Am uitat sa-ti aduc asta.

A!dturi de cOlllp!emente!e de timp this ... (week, month, ... ), today, tonight, fo!osim timpu! Present Perfect. 1~1 aceste ca::uri vorbim despre evenimente care s-au petrecut in trecut, dar care au !egiiturd cu pre::entu!. Aceste comp!emente de timp se giisesc !a inceputu! sau !a .~far~itul propozi{iei De exemp!u:
I have been at home today. We have been at the cinema tonight. Today I have worked in the garden. She has done her homework this week. > [al hEy bi:n Et haum tadei] > [UI: hEv bl.n Et lYa sinama tanalt] - Azi am fost acasa. -In seara aceasta (noi) am fost la cinematograf. - Azi (eu) am lucrat in gradina,

>

[ta(!<~1

al hEv U a Ikt in D/a ga:1dn]

> [SI: hEz dan ha: 1 haumllo:1k D/IS lll:k]

- Ea ~i-a Iacut temele saptamiina aceasta.

6

Completati propozitiile in hmba engleza cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului (Ia Present Perfect): Azi am cumparat flori. Saptamana asta ne-am vizitat parintil. Anul acesta am platit casa. Am trimis aceasta scrisoare saptamana aceasta. Luna aceasta am vazut cateva filme la televizor. Azi am vorbit cu sora mea. - I >havc bought flowers today. - This week we >havc visited our parents.
~

We >havc p,lId for the house this year.

- I >havc sent this letter this week.

- This month we >havc watched some films on TV. - I >have talked to my sister today.

Traduceti in limba engleza unnatoarele propozitii: Parintil
no~tri

au plecat azi in Anglia.

> Our pal ents have gone to England today. > This \vcek I have bought a coat and a shawl.

Saptamana aceasta am cumparat un sacou
~i 0 e~arfa.

In seara acesta Maria a vizitat-o pe sora sotului el. Azi am vorbit cu tata. Saptamana aceasta am avut febra. Vara a fost foarte racoroasa in acest an. In aceasta seara i-am scris prietenului meu.
0

> Mary has \ ISlted her husband' S sister tOl1lght.

> We ha\ e talked to our father today. > I ha\ e had a temperature this \\ eek. > The summer has been very cold thIS year. > Tonight I havc \\ ntten a letter to my friend.

scrisoare

Anul acesta (noi) am fost la Londra. Sora mea a predat engleza anul acesta. In aceasta saptamana am lucrat dupa amiaza.

> ThiS yeal wc have been

Il1

London.

> My sister has taught English tIllS year. > ThiS \\ eek we ha\ e worked
Il1

the afternoon.

lata alte cuvinte noi legate de starea vremii: outside foggy to blow sunny low awful windy cloudy > [auts31l1] > [fogi] > [tu bbu] > [sanl] > [lau] > [o:ll] > [Uindl] > [k13u(li]
7

- afara - cetos - a sufla, a bate (despre vant) - insorit
- JOS

~

crancen, teribil, ingrozitor

- vantos, cu mult vant - noros (innorat)

Repetati cuvintele intr-o alta ordine: awful windy low sunny outside cloudy foggy > [o:tl] > ["indi] > [lau] > [sam] > [autsaid] > [klaudi] > [fogl] - erfmeen, teribil, ingrozitor - vantos, eu mult vant
- JOS

- insorit - afara - noras, innorat - eetos

~
Verbul to blow este un verb neregulat. Cele trei forme ale sale sunt urmatoarele: blow
> [blau]

blew

> [bIu:]

blown

> [bHiun]

Am introdus euvintele noi in urmatorul dialog. Cititi propozitiile pronuntiei: What weather was it yesterday?
It was awful. We had a lot of rain.

~i

aeordati

0

deosebita atentie

> ["ot "cDZa! "oz it

- Cum a fost vremea ieri?

Icstafdet]
> [It
3\

"OZ

o:tl "i: hEd a lot rem]
~am]

- A fost ingrozitoare. A plouat' foarte multo - Soarele a stralueit? - Nu. Cerul a fost foarte innorat.

Did the sun shine? No, it didn't. The sky was very cloudy. Was the temperature low? Yes, it was very low. And it was windy. Was it foggy? Yes, in the morning. Did you go outside yesterday? No, I stayed at home all day.

> [did DZa san

> [nau It didnt DZa skai
"OZ

ven klaudi]
tempnt~af

> ["oz DZa

lau]

- Temperatura a fost seazuta? - Da, a fost foarte seazuta. ~i a fost vant. - A fost eeata? - Da, dimineata. - Ai fost ieri afara?

> [ies it U oz veri lau

End it U oz "indi] > [U oz it fogi] > lies
III

DZa mo:'nin lgl ]

> [did iu: gau autsald iestafdelj
> [nau ai steid Et haum 0:1

- Nu, am stat toata ziua acasa.

del]

8

Verifieati daea ati retinut euvintele noi. Tradueeti in limba engleza: afara

~f)L-~
I"""'Il

~. t4'~

.;, '

~;I

> outside

jos, seazut

'-==

T
1- -1

0- 0

> low

1- 1

2 -l

innorat

lQJ
~ ~

> cloudy

vantos, (eu) vant

> windy

insorit, (eu) soare

> sunny

eetos, (eu) eeata

> foggy

Tradueeti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza folosind euvintele noi: Cum este vremea azi? Azi vremea este frumoasa. Dimineata a fost vant ~i innorat, dar aeum este insorit. Nu sufla vantul. Temperatura este joasa dar nu este eeata. Cred ea putem sa einam afara. > How is the weather today? > It IS nice today. > In the morning It was windy and cloudy but now it IS sunny. > The wind Isn't bloWIng. > The temperature IS low, but it isn't foggy.
> I thmk we can have dmner outside.

Observa!i folosirea cuvantului it cu referire la starea vremii:

It was windy yesterday.

- Ieri a fost vant. - Aeum este insorit. - A fost eeata ieri? - Azi vremea este frumoasa.
9

Now it is sunny. Was it foggy yesterday?
It is nice today.

Urmeazii diteva exemple in care nu se folose~te articolul hotiiriit the: We went by car yesterday. They are still at work. We are driving east now. We have been in town today. They live in Station Street. - Ieri am mers cu
ma~ina.

- Ei lucreaza inca. - Acum conducem spre est. - Azi am fost in
ora~.

- Ei locuiesc in strada Garii.

In urmatorul exercitiu yom face 0 comparatie intre utilizarea timpurilor Simple Past ~i Present Perfect. Completati propozitiile in Iimba engleza cu fonnele verbale corespunzatoare: Jeri am mers pe jos la serviciu. Noi
~tiam

- Yesterday I >walked to work.
0

despre asta in urma cu

saptamana.

- We > knew about it a week ago. - Mary> has sent all the letters today. - We >have seen a lot of plants.

Maria a trimis toate scrisorile azi. Am vazut
0

multime de plante.
~i 0 e~arIa.

Ieri i-am cumparat (lui) un sacou Ei au intrat in aceasta cladire. Azi a fost
0

- Yesterday I > bought him a coat and a shawl. - They> have en!l:red this building. - Today it > has been a foggy day. - Last week a strong wind >blew. - They >wanted to do it yesterday. - J >knew her a long time ago. - Last year we >gave them our books. - The sun> has shone today.

zi cetoasa.

Saptamana trecuta a suflat un vant putemic. Ei au vrut sa faca asta ieri. Am cunoscut-o cu mult timp in urma. Anul trecut Ie-am dat cartile noastre. Soarele a stralucit azi.

Speram ca exemplele ~i exercitiile v-au ajutat sa intelegeti deosebirile care exista intre cele doua timpuri. Daca totu~i mai aveti unele neclaritati, repetati inca 0 data materia leqiei.

10

LECTIA 11 - PARTEA A nOVA ,
Sa continuam lectia cu diteva cuvinte noi: stamp ticket novel telephone tram tram stop bus stop tlower bank calendar secretary purse
> [stEmp] > [tikit] > [novl] > [telifaun] > [trEm] > [trEm stop] > [bas stop] > [tlaua'] > [bEn(g)k] > [kElindaf ] > [sekratri] > [pii:'s]

- timbru - bilet - roman - telefon - tramvai - statie de tramvai - statie de autobuz - tloare - banca - calendar, almanah - secretar(a) - portofel, geanta,
po~eta

Repetati cuvintele intr-o alta ordine: tram bank ticket purse stamp novel tlower bus stop calendar tram stop ,.ecretary telephone
> [trEm] > [bEn(g)k] > [tikit] > [pa:'s] > [stEmp] > [novl] > [ /laua'] > [bas stop] > [kElindaf ] > [trEm stop] > [ sekratri] > [telifaun]

- tramvai - banca - bilet - portofel, geanta, - timbru - roman - tloare - statie de autobuz - calendar, almanah - statie de tramvai - secretar(a) - telefon
po~eta

11

Cltl~1

cu voce tare urmatoarele propozitii in care apar cuvintele noi: >
[~i:

She has bought seven stamps. We have tickets for the bus. They didn't have a telephone last year. She is Peter's secretary. We must go there by tram.

hEz bo:t scvn stEmps]

- Ea a cumparat

~apte

timbre.

> lUi: hEy tikits fo f DZa bas]
> [D/el didnt hEy a tclifoun la:st lIa T ]

- Avem bilete de autobuz. - Anul trecut ei nu avem telefon.

>

[~I:

iz pi:ta'z sckratri]

- Ea este secretara lui Peter. - Trebuie sa mergem acolo cu tramvaiul. - Statia de autobuz este pe colt.

> lUi: mast gilU D/eal bai trEm] > [DZa bas stop iz Et D 7 a ko:'na'] >
[~i:

The bus stop is at the corner.

She gave me flowers yesterday. Where is the tram stop? There is a calendar in the kitchen. The bank is opposite Peter's house. I have seen your purse on the table. He read this novel last week.

ge/v 1m: HauaTz

- Ea mi-a dat flori ieri.

IcstaTde/]

> ["eaT

IZ

fYa trEm stop]

- Unde este statia de tramvai? - In bucatane este un calendar.

> (O/eaTiz a kEl inda f in DZa kit~an] > [O/a bEn(glk iz opaZlt pi:taTz halls] > [ai hEy sl.n 10:' pa:'s on D'a tcibl] > [hi: red OIlS nov 1 la:st ui:k]

- Banca este vizavi de casa lui Petre. - Am vazut portofelul tau pe masa. - El a citit acest roman saptamana trecuta.

Completati propozltiile cu cuvintele nOll invatate: Fiica ei este secretara. Putem merge cu tramvaiul? Ieri te-am
a~teptat

- Her daughter is a >secretary. - Can we go by >tram? - Yesterday we waited for you at the >bus stop. - Do you like long >novels? - Look at the >calendar. - There is little money in my >purse. - There is a >tram stop in the square. - There is no >telephone here. - She has brought the >tickets with her. cumpara timbre. - Go to the post-office and buy >stamps. - Can we go to the >bank together? - Put the >flowers on her desk.
12

in statia de autobuz.

Iti plac romanele lungi? Vita-te in calendar. Sunt putini bani in portofelul meu. In piata este
0

statie de tramvai.

Nu este telefon aici. Ea a adus bJletele cu ea. Du-te la oficiul
po~tal ~i

Putem merge impreuna la banca? Pune florile pe biroul ei.

Traduceti in limba engleza cuvintele urmatoare: telefon statie de tramvai statie de autobuz roman portofel banca tramvai bilet timbru
> telephone > tram stop > bus stop > novel > purse > bank > tram > ticket > stamp > flower > calendar > secretary

~

floare calendar secretar(a)

Sa ne intoarcem din nou la utilizarea timpului Present Perfect Tense. Folosim acest timp pentru descrierea evenimentelor petrecute in trecut ~i care includ mai mult sau mai putin momentul actual, alaturi de always, ever, never ,~i just, precum ~i alaturi de urmatoarele complemente de timp: recently lately already yet so far
~

> [ri:sntli] > [ leltli] > [o:lredi] > [ iet]
f > [sau fa: ]

- recent, de curand - recent, de curand, in ultima vreme - deja - inca, deja - pana acum, deocamdata

Complementul de timp "yet" se afla intotdeauna la sfar~itul propozitiei, "so far" la inceputul sau la sflir~itul propozitiei, iar celelalte complemente de timp se gasesc inaintea formei a Ill-a a verbului sau la sflir~itul propozitiei.

Cititi cu voce tare complementele de timp care se folosesc alaturi de Present Perfect: ever already always lately so far never just yet recently
> [eva'] > [0: lredi] > [o:l"eiz] > [leith] > [sau fa:']
f > [neva ]

- vreodata, candva - deja - intotdeauna - recent, de curand, in ultima vreme - pana acum, deocamdata - niciodata - tocmai - inca, deja - recent, de curand 13

> [ dJast] > [ let] > [ ri:snth]

In exemplele urmatoare observati cum este folosit tlmpul Present Perfect ~i complementele de timp invatate anterior: I have never seen that girl.
>[al hEy neva' sl.n D7Et

ga:'l] They have always liked this house. We have just had dinner. I have heard about him lately. They have already made ten bookcases. We have worked a lot recently. >lDzel hEv o:lu e1z la/kt DZls haus] >[U I: hEv djast hEd dina'] > [al hEv ha:'d abaut hun I citlI] >[DZei hEv o:lredl meld ten bukke/Slz] >[L1}; hEv ua:'kt a lot ri: sntli]

- Niciodata nu am vazut-o pe fata aceea. - Le-a placut intotdeauna aceasta casa. - Noi tocmai am cinat. - Am auzit despre el in ultima vreme. - Ei au confectionat deja zece biblioteci. - In ultimul timp, noi am muncit foarte mult.

Iar acum, completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza. Retineti locul complementelor de timp in propozitie: Noi am avut deja doi caini. Ei tocmai au adus aceste scaune. Pana acum am lucrat dimineata. Seara ei s-au plimbat intotdeauna prin parco In ultima vreme am vazut cateva ora~e frumoase. - We > have already had two dogs. - They> have just brought these chairs. - So far we > have worked in the morning. - They >have always walked in the park in the evening. - We > have seen some nice towns lately.

Traduceti in limba engleza propozitiile de mai jos: Noi am vrut intotdeauna sa mergem in Anglia. Ea nu ~i-a iubit niciodata sotul. Mama lui John a vorbit recent cu sotia lui. > We have always wanted to go to England.

> She has never loved her husband. > John's mother has recently spoken to hIs wIfe. > I have already written five letters. > She has just gone for a walk.
ma~ina.

Am scris deja cinci scrisori. Ea tocmai s-a dus la plimbare. Pana acum m-am dus la serviciu cu

> So far 1 have gone to work by car. > Mary and her husband have opened a shop lately. vom prezenta in lectia 12,

Maria ~i sotul ei au deschis de curand un magazin.

Folosirea complementelor de tlmp yet ~i ever la timpul Present Perfect ciind yom invata formarea interogativului ~i a negativului.
14

0

lata un nou grup de cuvinte. Fiti atenti la intelesul next to early late to get on to get off to say
Acelea~i

~i

la pronuntia lor: - aproape de, langa - devreme - tarziu - a (se) urea - a cobori - a spune

> [nekst tll] > [ a:'1I] > [!elt] > [tu get on] > [tll get oil > [tll sei]

cuvinte, dar intr-o alta ordine:
> [Ieit] > [tll sell > [tu get oil > > >
[a:'lJ]

late to say to get off early to get on next to

- tarziu - a spune - a cobori - devreme - a (se) urea - aproape de, langa

[tLl get on] [nekst tLl]

Formele verbelor to get on ~i to get off sunt identice cu acele forme ale verbului to get pe care Ie-am prezentat in lectia anterioara. Verbul to say face parte din grupa verbelor neregulate. Cele trei forme ale sale sunt urmatoarele: Forma I say
>

Forma a II-a [sei] said
>

Forma a Ill-a said
>

[sed]

[sed]

Sa introducem in propozitii cuvintele recent invatate. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare
It is too early to go to

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie:

>

the cinema. She has already got on the bus. We visited her late in the evening. Their house is next to the bank.
I must get off at this stop.
>

[it lZ tLl: a:'li tll gau tu D'a sinama]
[~i:

- Este prea devreme pentru a merge la cinematograf. - Ea s-a urcat deja in autobuz.

hEz o:lredi got on D/a bas]

>

[UI: vizltid ha:' leit in

- Am vizitat-o seara tarziu.

DZi i:vnin(g)]
>

[DZel' hallS iz nekst tll DZa bEn(gJk] [ai mast get of Et DZis stop] [hI: iz se/m(g) it iz veri !elt]

- Casa lor este aproape de banca.

>

- Trebuie sa cobor la aceasta statie.

He is saying it is very late.

>

- EI spune ca este foarte tarziu.

15

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Trebuie sa cobor la a patra statie. Eu rna scol intotdeauna devreme. Poti sa te
a~ezi

- 1 must >get offat the fourth stop. - I always get up >early. - Can you sit >next to me? - She came to us > late in the afternoon. - >Get on! I can take you to the bank. - She >says this house is too expensive.

1<lnga mine?

Ea a venit la noi dupa-amiaza tarziu. Urca! Pot sa te duc pana la banca. Ea spune ca aceasta casa este prea scumpa.

in limba engleza complementul circumstantial (de exemplu "early") unneaza, de obicei, dupa verb: I always get up early. - Ma scol intotdeauna devreme.

Sa vedem in ce masura ati retinut cuvintele noi: a (se) urca tarziu a spune aproape de, langa a cobOrl devreme > to get on > late > to say > next to > to get off > early

Complementul de timp late poate avea mai multe intelesuri.
It was too late to go here.

- A fost prea tarziu, ca sa mergem acolo. - Autobuzul a intarziat ieri. - El a intarziat dimineata la micul dejun.

The bus was late yesterday He was late for breakfast in the morning.

La

sfiir~itullectiei

vom repeta intreaga materie. Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba engleza: > It has been very cold today. > He has Just saId he can't go with us. > Did you buy this car yesterday? > I have looked for my mother.
~i 0 e~arta

Azi a fost foarte frig. El tocmai a spus ca nu poate merge cu noi. Ieri ai cumparat aceasta ma~ina? Am cautat-o pe mama mea. Trebuie sa imi pun pentru ca este frig.
0

haina

> I must put on a coat and a shawl because it is cold. > Our children have had a high temperature today. > Old a strong wmd blow
16
yesterday'~

Azi copiii no~tri au avut febra mare. Ieri vantul a suflat cu putere?

Pana acum am citit trei romane. leri a fost
0

> I have read three novels so far. > It was a sunny day yesterday.
> I don't like foggy mornmgs. > In the evening we are going outside. > I like to read English novels. > I can buy tickets to the cinema.

zi insorita.

Nu-mi plac diminetile cetoase. Seara mergem afara. Imi place sa citesc romane engleze~ti. Pot sa cumpar bilete de cinema. Poti sa-mi dai doua timbre? Am cumparat un telefon pentm bucatarie.
ro~u

> Can you give me two stamps? > We have bought a red telephone for the kitchen. > I saw her at the tram stop in the morning. > Why have you given her flowers?
> My secretary has forgotten to take her

Dimineata am vazut-o in statia de tramvai. De ce i-ai dat ei flori? Azi secretara mea a uitat sa-~i ia portmoneul.
Ace~ti

purse today. > Have these people a telephone? > Where can I buy a calendar?
> He has never gone to school. > I have already stopped smoking. > We have just had breakfast. > I was there early in the morning.

oameni au telefon?

De unde pot cumpara un calendar? EI nu a mers niciodata la ~coala. M-am lasat deja de fumat. Tocmai am luat micul dejun. Am fost acolo dimineata devreme. De ce ai intarziat ieri la serviciu? Trebuie sa te urci la aceasta statie sa cobori langa oficiul po~tal. Trenul are 'intarziere?
~i

> Why were you late for work yesterday?
> You must get on at this stop and get off

next to the post-office. > Is the train late?

"We have just had breakfast"

"My secretary has forgotten to take her purse today"

La sffir~itullectiei, iata obi~nuitul exercitiu de pronuntie:
[ au]

[e]

[i: ] eat keep teach feet 17

[ai] buy sky
high

low ago show coat

best west seven get

tie

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 11 ,
11.1. inaintea substantivelor care denumesc ocupatia, religia sau nationalitatea se folose~te 'intotdeauna articolul nehotadit a/an: She is a typist.
I am a CatholIc.

- Ea este dactilograra. - Eu sunt catolic. - So\ul el este amencan.

Her husband IS an Amencan.

Daca vorblm despre 0 functle care poate fi indeplinita doar de 0 smgura persoana, atunci putem folosi sau omlte articolului hotarat the: Who is president of Romania? Who is the preSident of RomanIa? - Cine este - Cine este
pre~edintele pre~edintele

Romaniei? Romaniei?

11.2. The Present Perfect Tense (prezentul perfect) 11.2.1. Propozl\la se construiqte astfel: Pronume + personal She verbul auxiliar have/has has forma a III-a + a verbului principal bought a dog.

Verbul auxiliar este to have conjugat la indicativ prezent. Daca verbul principal este regulat atunci prime~te terminatia -d sau -ed, iar forma IUl este identica cu forma a Ill-a din diqlOnar (Simple Past).

11.2.2. Cand folosim acest tlmp: 1. Foloslm timpul Present Perfect pentru descrierea aC\IUnIlor trecute She has bought a car. 2. - Ea a cumparat
0 ma~ina.

~i

incheiate:

Timpul Present Perfect se folose~te alaturi de complementele de timp this (week, month, ...), today, tonight. Acestea se afla la 'inceputul sau la sfiir~itul propozitiei.
I have been at home today.

- AZI am fost acasa.

3.

Folosim de asemenea, timpul Present Perfect alatun de complementele de timp always, never, ever, just, recently, lately, already, yet, so far. Complementul de timp yet se afla intotdeauna la sfiir~itul propozitiei, so far la inceputul sau la sfiir~itul propozltiei, iar restul complementelor de timp se gasesc inaintea formei a Ill-a a verbului sau la sfiir~itul propozitiei.

18

] 1.3 Artlcolul hotarat "the" poate fi omis in urmatoarele situatii: We went by car yesterday. They are still at work. We are driving east now. We have been in town today. They live in Station Street. - Noi am mers ieri cu - Ei lucreaza inca. - Noi conducem spre est. - Noi am fost in
ora~ ma~ina.

azi.

- Ei locuiesc in strada Garii.

11.4. Complementul de timp "late" poate avea mai multe intelesuri:
It is late.

- Este tarziu. - Ieri a intarziat autobuzul. - EI a intiirziat dimineata la micul dejun.

The bus was late yesterday. He was late for breakfast in the morning.

19

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 11
A. Traduceti in limba romana urmatoarele propozitii: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. They have already read this book. Peter has been late for school today. He was a secretary three years ago. My brother has made a nice bookcase for his mother. They have already been in England.
I have talked with her lately.

B.

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Nu am vazut-o niciodata pe sora tao Tatallui este
pre~edintele Romaniei.

In ultima vreme am vizitat cateva tari frumoase. Ei au intarziat intotdeauna la
~coala.

Imi place sa rna scol devreme. Am taiat cinci copaci din gradina noastra.

C.

Corectati 1. 2. 3. 4.

gre~elile din

propozitiile de mai jos:

I never saw this town.

They were at home all day today. She wanted to go by the car yesterday.
I have already drinked the beer.

~

5.
6.

She has so far written two books. They have bought this nice house three years ago.

20

" " LECTIA 12 - PARTEA INTAI ,
Ca de obicei, yom incepe ~i aceasta lectie invatiind cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la traducerea lor: floor carpet f100r lamp curtains ceiling fireplace wall-paper socket picture armchair settee r > [flo: ]
> [ka:rpit]

- podea, etaj - covor - lampa cu picior - perdele, draperii - tavan - camin, - tapet - priza - tablou, pictura - fotoliu - canapea
~emineu

r > [flo: lEmp]
> [ka:rtinz] > [si: Iin(gl] > [faiiFpleis]

r > [U o:1peipa ]
> [sakit] >
[pikt~ar]

> [ a:rmt~eaT] > [seti:]

Acum recititi cuvintele intr-o alta ordine: curtains settee floor fireplace socket floor lamp carpet ceiling wall-paper armchair picture
> [ka:rtinz] > [seti:]

- perdele, draperii - canapea - podea, etaj - camin, - priza - lampa cu picior - covor - tavan - tapet - fotoliu - tab lou, pictura
~emineu

r > [ flo: ]
> [faiarpleis] > [sakit]

T > [flo: IEmp]
> [ka:rpit] > [si: lin(g)]

r > [U o:1peipa ]
> [ a:rmt~eaT] > [ pikt~aT]

21

Sa folosim cuvintele noi in cadrul unui dialog. Cititi propozitiile cu voce tare: This room is awful. I think we must put the settee next to the fireplace. What about the curtains? They must be brown. I also want to put the armchairs next to the table. We must also have whIte wall-paper. What do you think about a yellow carpet on the floor? Yes, and there must be no lamp on the ceiling. We have many sockets in the room, so we can have floor lamps. And what do you want to do with these pictures? I don't want them here.
> [DZis ru:m lZ o:fl] >
[Ul

- Camera aceasta este groaznica. - Cred ea trebuie sa punem eanapeaua langa ~emineu. ~i

TSm(g)k UI: mast put DZa seti: nekst tu DZa falafpleis]

> ["at abaut DZa bi:ftmz]

perdelele?

> [DZel mast bI: braun] > [UI olsau "ant tu put DZa a:fmt~eafz nekst tu DZa telbl]
> ["I: mast olsau hEy "mt "a: I pelpa f]
> ["ot du 1U: T'in(g)k abaut a lelau ka:fpit on D'a flo:f] > [ies End D'eafmas( bl' nau IEmp on DZa si:lm(g)] > [ L1 i: hEy mem soklts In DZa ru:m sau L1i: kEn hEy flO:f lEmps] > [End "at du IU: "ant tu du' "iDZ DZI"Z pikt~afz] >
[JI

- Trebuie sa fie cafenii. - In plus, (eu) vreau sa pun fotoliile langa masa.

- Ce zici de un covor galben (pe podea)? - Da, ~i nu trebuie nici pe tavan.
0

lampa

- Avem multe prize In camera, a~a ea putem avea ~i lampi eu pieior. ~i ee vrei sa faci eu aeeste tablouri?

daunt "ODt DZem hia f]

- Nu Ie vreau aiei.

Before ...

After ...

22

Re{ine{i consfruc{ia care apare intr-una din propozi{ii:

there must be no lamp on the ceiling

- nu trebuie sa fie n!ci

0

lampa pe tavan

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limha engleza folosind cuvintele noi: Priza este in spatele acelui scaun. De uncle pot cumpara un covor? Plafonul trebuie sa fie alb? intotdeauna mi-a placut sa stau in fotoliul acesta. - The> socket is behind that chair.. - Where can I buy a> carpet? - Must the> ceiling be white? - I have always liked to sit in this > armchair. - I have put a > floor lamp next to the window. - I saw a very nice > picture yesterday. - These > curtains are too expensive. - The >settee is in the comer of the room. - The children are sitting on the >tloor now. - Did you have a> fireplace then? - When did you buy this >wall-paper?

Am pus

0

lampa cu picior langa fereastra.

Ieri am vazut un tablou foarte frumos. Aceste perdele sunt prea scumpe. Canapeaua este in coltul eamerei. Copiii stau acum pe podea. Aveai atunci un
~emineu?

Cand ai cumparat acest tapet?

Verificati-va daca ati canapea

reu~it

sa va insu~iti cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza: > settee > floor lamp > socket > wall-paper > ceiling > carpet > floor > curtams > fireplace > picture > armchair

lampa eu picior priza tapet tavan covor podea perdele
~emineu

tablou fotoliu

23

:;Itlm ea pronumele nehotdrat some poate sta inall1tea unui substantiv numarabil (In aeest ea: are infelesul de ciitva, di!iva, ni~te, unii) sau Inallltea unui substantiv care denume,~te un obieet ee Ill! are forma de plural (in aeest co: (' u in(elesul de pu!in, ceva, ni~te). Putem folosi aeest pronume ca sinonimul altor doua pronume lIehotanlte' 1. A little [a litl]- putin, catva, ceva ([naintea substantivelor nenumarabile): There is a little bread on the table. 2. - Este pu!ina pame pe
mas~l.

A few [a flu ]- catva, cativa Unamtea substantive/or nUl1uirabile): There are a few bottles on the floor. - Sunt diteva stide pe podea.

Inlocuitl adJectivul some cu a little/a few:
I vIsited some friends yesterday.

- I visited> a few friends yesterday.

Bnng me some wall-paper. Can you give me some money?
I have smoked some cigarettes today.

- Bring me > a hit] e wall-paper. - Can you give me > a Itttlemoney?
I have smoked> a few cigarettes today.

Sa ne Intoareem din nou fa tlll/pul Prescnt Perfect ,~l sa invafam cum se jormuleaza Intrebarile raspunsunle.

,~i

Formam mterogatn'ul prm lIl\'erSllll1e: verhul auxilwr have/has ocupa loeul subleetulUl. iar aeesta treee pe foeul af dotlea.

Cltiti propozltlile urmatoare :
I have already seen thiS picture.

Have you already seen this picture? Has she never read thiS book? Has she ever read this book?

> [hEv IU: o.lrcch sl:n OilS pikt~a'] > [hEz
O/IS

- Ai vazut deja acest tablou? - Nu a citit niciodata aceasta carte? - A Cltlt ea vreodata aceasta carte? - Ati scris pana acum doua scrisori?

She has never read thiS book.

neva' red buk]
Sl:

> [hEz ~I: eva' red OilS buk]
> [hEv IU. litn tu' ]cta'z sau fa:']

We have written two letters so far.

Have you written two letters so far?

Treceti urmatoarele propoZitil la fonna mterogativa: She has already had breakfast. My mother has never liked my husband. They have taught me English. She has been at work today. We have already seen two pictures. > Has she already had breakbst') > Has my mother eve I liked my husband? > Have they taught me English') > Has she been <it work today') > I hl\ e we already secn t\\ 0 plctUl es')

24

Riispunsul afirmativ se formuleazii cu ajutorul cuviintului yes. a pronumelui personal corespunziitoare a verbului auxiliar:
Have you cut your hair? Have they already bought this house? Has she just come? Yes, I have. Yes, they have. >[ies ai hEv] > [ies DZei hEv] - Da. - Da.

~i

a formei

Yes, she has.

> [ies

~i:

hEz]

- Da.

Propozitiile negative se formeazii cu ajutorul cuviintului no. a pronumelui personal. a formei corespunziitoare a verbului auxiliar ~l a cuviintului not. Structura have not poate fi prescurtatii, devenind haven't [hEvnt]. pe ciindforma prescurtatii construc!iei has not este hasn't[hEznt] :
Have you cut your hair? No, I have not. No, I haven't. No, they have not. No, they haven't. No, she has not. No, she hasn't. > [nau ai hEv not] >[nau ai hEvnt] >[nau DZei hEv not] >[nau DZei hEvnt] > [nau > [nau
~i:

- Nu.

Have they already bought this house? Has she already been in England?

- Nu.

~i:

hEz not] hEznt]

- Nu.

Completati urmatoarele raspunsuri scurte: Has the sun shone today? - Yes, >it has. - No, >it hasn't. - Yes, I >have. - No, I >haven't. - Yes, >they have. - No, >they haven't. - Yes, >she has. - No, >she hasn't.

Have you already thought about it?

Have they wanted to be there first?

Has the secretary forgotten about the letter?

La formarea fntrebiirilor complexe a~eziim pronumele interogativ fnaintea verbului auxiliar:
Where have you seen this girl? What has she done so far? Who has said this? How many books have you brought? > [Ueat hEv iu: si:n DZis ga.'I] > [Uot hEz
~i:

- Unde ai vazut-o pe aceasta fata?

dan sau fa:']

- Ce a Iacut ea pfma acum? - Cine a spus asta? - Cite can;i ai adus?

> [hu: hEz sed DZis] > [hau meni buks hEv iu: bro:t]

Pronumele interogativ when - "cand" nu se folose~te in intrebarile in care verbul este la timpul Present Perfect.

25

In exercitiul urmator completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu partile de propozitie care lipsesc: Peter has been at home today. She has given me a little beer. They have had a dog lately. We have worked in the office this week. - Where> has Peter been today? - Who >has given me a little beer? - What> have they had lately? - Where> have we worked this week?

Formele negative se pot folosi
I haven't visited my mother yet.

~i

la formularea propozi{iilor fntregi: - Nu am vizitat-o inca pe mama.

> [ai hEvnt vlzitld mai maDzar iet] >
[~I:

She hasn't read the newspaper yet. They haven't seen my house yet.

hEznt red Oza niu:spclpar let]
SI:n

- Ea nu a citit inca ziarul.

> rOzel hEvnt haus ICt]

mai

- Inca nu mi-au vazut casa.

Complementul de timp already nu poate fi folosit in propozitii negative, in timp ce complementul de timp yet nu poate fi folosit in propozitii afirmative. In schimb, ambele complemente circumstantiale pot fi folosite la formarea interogativului. Retineti, complementul circumstantial yet are doua intelesuri: deja (in propozitii interogative) ~i inca nu (in propozitii negative).

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Inca nu am vorbit cu ea. Ea a auzit deja despre asta? Nu am trimis inca aceasta scrisoare. Luna inca nu a stralucit noaptea aceasta. Tata nu s-a sculat inca, Ai fost deja acasii? Dactilografele nu au venit azi la serviciu. > I haven't talked to her yet. > Has she heard It yet? > We haven't sent thIs letter yet. > The moon hasn't shone yet this nIght. > Father hasn't got up yet. > Have you already been at home? > The typists haven't come to work today.

Formele verbului to have se pot prescurta dupti cum urmeazti:
I have

I've you've he's she's it's

> [a/v] > [IU:V] > [hu] >
[~l:Z]

we have you have they have

we've you've they've

> [Ui:v] > [iu:v] > [DZeiv]

you have he has she has it has

> [its]

26

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii. Folositi forrne1e prescurtate daca este posibil: Ai ineercat vreodata sa te la~i de fum at? Cala eafea ai haut azi? inca nu m-am gfmdit la asta. Am inteles deja. El nu a venit inca.
> Have you ever tried to stop smoking?

> How much coffee have you drunk today?

> I haven't thought about it yet.
> l"ve already understood it.

> He basn' t come yet
> We've talked to him recently. > Shc's always liked !lowers.

Am vorbit eu el recent.
EI i-au placut Intotdeauna t1orile. in ultima vrerne nu ne-am uitat la televizor. Unde ai pus aceasta planta?

> We haven't watched televiSIOn recently.
> \Vhere hay e you put this plant?

Sa invatam acurn ciHeva prepozitii. incercati sa retineti foloslrea lor In context; under over across from by > Landa']
> [am a']

- sub '- peste, deasupra, pe - de-a curmezi~ul, pc partea cealalta - de la, din - (chiar) liinga, cu

>

l akros]

> [ from]
> [b:ll]

Sa introducem in propozitii cuvintele recent invatate: We usually work [rom seven to three. Bring a chair from the kitchen. They are by the wmdow.
I have it from my mother.

> ["i: IU:Juali "a:'k from
s('vn tu T'ri' ]
>
[l:mnl~1 a t~e,l'

- De obicei lucram de la ~apte la trei. - Adu un scaun din bucatarie.

from

D/a kit.,an]
> [lYci a.' hai D/a "indau] > [al hEY it from
malYa'J
l1\<li

Ei sunt langa fereastra.
~

Am asta de la mama mea.

The dog is under the table.

> r lYa dog: 11: anda" IYa ie/hi]
>

- Ciiinele este sub masa.

The picture is over the lamp.

l [Ya piktsa'
IYa tEmp]

il: am'ar

- Tabloul este deasupra lampii.

27

He is going across the street.

> [hi: IZ gaum(g) akros DZa stn:tJ

- El traverseaza strada.

The office is across the square. > [DZI ofis iz akros DZa skUea f ]

- Biroul este de partea cealalta a pletii.

) ) )
;' I

/

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu prepozitiile care lipsesc: Pune masa aceea vis-ii-vis de fereastra. Fotoliile sunt Hinga fereastra. Aceste flori sunt de la sotul tau? Avionul zboara deasupra
ora~ului.

- Put that table> across the window. - The armchairs are> by the window. - Are these flowers> from your husband? - The plane is flying> over the town. - Our cat likes to sit> under the settee.

Pisicii noastre ii place sa stea sub canapea.

Repetati cu atentie grupurile de cuvinte care urmeaza: [a. f] early curtains bird first [au] know low go over
[al]
[u. ]

fireplace shine sky my

too blue you who

28

LECTIA 12 - PARTEA A nOVA ,
Cititi cu atentie urmatoarele dialoguri. Repetati exercitiul pana retineti corect pronuntia ~i intonatia. Cuvintele ~i silabele accentuate sunt scrise cu litere Ingro~ate. Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Did you hear the weather-forecast on the radio yesterday? Yes, I did. It was too cold yesterday to go for a walk. And it was foggy, too. I have never liked to walk in foggy weather, but the heat in summer was also awful for me. Do you want to have breakfast outside? No, I don't. I think the temperature is very low outside and the wind is blowing. Tom has already put on his coat and shawl.

Barbara: John: Barbara: John: Barbara: John: Barbara: John:

We have a very nice house. Yes, you have, and there is a nice settee in the living-room. We have bought two armchairs so far, and I want to buy a fireplace to the bedroom. Have you ever seen a fireplace in the bedroom? No, I haven't. Look we can't put the floor lamp next to the table because tht:re is no socket there. Yes, I see that. But you've just bought nice, green wall-paper. I wanted to buy a red telephone too, but there was little money in my purse. And what about those pictures on the wall? They are also very nice. I have always liked these pictures.

Tom: Barbara: Tom: Barbara: Tom: Barbara: Tom:

Look at the calendar. Is it Sunday or Monday today? Today is Sunday. Then we can go to the cinema today. First you must buy the tickets and then we can go to the cinema. I have bought thcm. And we can go by tram. Is the tram stop across the square? Yes, it is. I think we must get off at the fourth stop.

Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary:

Peter, a girl has just entered the house! Who is she? I think she is a secretary. Does this secretary work in a bank? I think she does, but she has brought you a letter from your sister.

Barbara: Peter: Barbara: Peter: Barbara: Peter:

Peter! What have you done so far? I've been at work today.Why? Because I want to go to the shop and I want to buy boots for me. lt's too late to go to the shop now, and you can't buy those boots because they are too expensive. Then I want to buy some flowers. Where have you seen those flowers? I saw them in the shop next to the bank.

29

In ultimul exercitiu yom recapitula cele invatate pana acum. TraducetI urmatoarele propoZltii in limba engleza: Cand au adus asta? Ei vor sa rna invete sa citesc. De ce mi-ai luat florile? Cine a vrut sa cumpere casa aceasta? Acum cautam cioua fotolii.
0

> When did they bring it'!

> They want to teach me to read.

> Why have you taken my flowers?
> Who has wanted to buy this house?

canapea frumoasa

~i

> We are looking for a nice settee and two armchairs now.
> Do you see this plane over the park?
> I haven't talked to hun yet. > I tried to stop them. > \Vhen I got on the bus I saw my brother.

Vezi acest avion deasupra parcului? Inca nu am vorbit cu el. Am incercat sa-i opresc. Cand m-am ureat in autobuz, I-am vazut pe fratele meu. El a venit deja. Ai condus vreodata ma~ini mari? In ultima vreme nu Ie-am scris serisori prietenilor no~tri. Azi ne-au pus cateva intrebari. I-ai platit lui deja tapetul? Ieri am auzit buletinul meteorologic. Statia npastra de autobuz este pe partea cealalta a strazii. Pana acum am scris doua scrisori. EI nu
~i-a

> He's already come. > Have you ever dnven big cars?
> Lately we haven't written letters to

our friends.
> They have asked us a few question today. > Have you paid him for the wall-paper yet? > We heard the weather-forecast yesterday.

,.,

> Our bus stop

IS

across the street.

> I have written two letters so f .
> He has never forgotten hiS fnends.

uitat mciodata prietenii.

Cine a facut asta? La ce ora ai venit acasa? Vita-te la florile de langa fereastra. Nu au cumparat inca perdele in cea de-a doua camera. Sora mea a cumparat recent cateva carti. Cand le-ai aratat casa noastra?

> Who has done it? > What time did you come home'l
> Look at the flowers by the window.

> So far they haven"t bought curtains for the second room.
> My sister has recently bought a few books. > \\'hen did you show them our house?

30

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 12 ,
12.1. Some, a few
~i

a little.

Am Invaiat ca pronumele nehotanlt some poate sta Inaintea substantive lor numarabile (In acest caz are in!elesul de dtva, dtiva, ni~te, unii) ~i inaintea substantivelor care nu au forma de plural (In aceasta situatie cu semnifica!ia de putin, ceva, ni~te). Some poate fi folosit I.
~i

in locul altor doua pronume nehotarate:

A little l a litl] - pu!in, catva, ceva (lnaintea substantive lor care nu sunt numarabile): There is a little bread on the table. - Este pu!ina paine pe masa.

2.

A few [a fill:] - catva, ca!iva (lnaintea substantivelor numarabile): There are a few bottles on the floor. - Sunt ciiteva sticle pe podea.

12.2. Intrebarile ~I raspunsurile la timpul Present Perfect. 12.2.1. Formulam interogativul pnn inversarea ordinii verbului auxiIJar have/has pronumelui personal sau a substantivului cu funqie de subiect: I have already seen this picture. - Have you already seen this picture?
~i

a

12.2.2. Formulam raspunsurile afirmative cu ajutorul cuvantului yes, a pronumelui personal ~) a formei corespunzatoare a verbuJui auxiliar. Have you cut your hair'! - Yes, I have.

12.2.3. Formulam negaiia eu ajutorul euvantului no, a pronumelui personal, a fonnei corespunzatoare a verbului auxiliar ~i a adverbului not. Constructia have not poate fi prescurtata ~i devine haven't [h Evnt], iar eonstructia has not devine hasn't l hEznt]: Have you cut your hair? - No, 1have not.
a~ezam

12.2.4. La formarea Intrebarilor complexe auxiliar: Where have you seen this girl?

pronumele interogativ Inaintea verbului

- Unde ai vazut-o pe aceasta fata?

12.2.5. La timplll Present Perfect pronllmele interogativ when - dnd nu poate fi folosit la formularea interogativllilli.

31

12.2.6 Complementul circumstantial already nu poate fi folosit in propozitii negatIve, in timp ce complementul circumstantial yet nu poate. fi folosit in propozitii afirmative. Ambele complemente circumstantiale pot figura in propozitii interogative, aviind sensuri difente.

12.3 Formele conjugate ale verbului to have pot fi prescurtate in felul urmator:
I have

I've you've he's she's it's

[aiv]
[IU:V]

we have you have they have

we've you've they've

[Ui:v) [iu:v] [DZeiv]

you have he has she has it has

[hi:z)
[~I:Z]

[its]

12.4 Prepozitiile in limba engleza Folosirea in mod corespunzator a prepozitiilor trebuie retinuta in context. under over across from by
> [ anda f ] > [ auva r ] > [akros] > [from) > [baiJ

- sub - peste, deasupra, pe - de-a
curmezi~ul, pe

partea cealalta

- de la, din - (chiar) liinga, cu

32

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 12
A. Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii In limba raman a: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. They have never been there in winter. We have already bought two floor lamps. There were a few annchairs in the livmg-room. Have you already seen these pictures? They haven't read the newspaper yet. The bus stop is across the street.

B.

Traduceti propozitiile in hmba engleza: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. leri am luerat de la ~apte la doua. Clnd al cumparat perdelele? Cate a serisori a scris ea pana acum? In ultima vreme nu am vorbit eu el. El a ureat deja In autobuz. Adu-mi
0 eea~ca

de eafea din bucaUirie.

C.

Completati prepozitii1c corespunzatoare in propozitiile de mai jos: I. Yesterday 1 got nice flowers my husband.

2. 3. 4. 5.

How many novels have they read _ _"_ far? There are some clouds The settee is next Put _ _ the sky. the fireplace.

a coat. It is very cold today.

33

VERBELE NEREGULATE DIN LECTIILE 11 SI 12 , ,
forma I-a blow >[blau]
> [sei]

forma a II-a blew >[blu:]
> [sed]

forma a III-a blown > [blaun]

say

said

said

>[sed]

34

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 11 SI 12 , ,
across

> [akros]

- de-a cunnezl~ul, pe partea cealalta, vis-a.-vis - deja - fotoliu - crancen, teribil, i'ngrozitor - banea - a sufla, a bate (d. vant) - gheata, eizma - statie de autobuz - (chiar) langa,
Cll

already annchair awful bank to blow boot bus stop by calendar

> [o:lredl] > [a: rmt~ear] > [o:tl] > [bEnlg1k]
> [tll blall] > [bu:tJ > [bas stop] > [bail > [kElinda'] > [ka:'pltJ

- calendar, almanah - eovor - catolic(a) - tavan - nor - IIlBorat, noras - haina, sacau - reee, racoros - perdele, draperii - devreme - ea(iva, eiiteva - eamin,
~emineu

carpet
Catholic celtlllg cloud cloudy coat cold eurtams early a few fireplace floor floor lamp flower fog foggy from to get otf to get on heat e

> [kEl'iJk] > [si:lin ,gl ] > [klaud] > [klalldi] > [but] > [kauldJ
> [ka:rtInzJ

> [a:'11J
> [il fill:J > [ faia'plelsJ

> [no:'J > [no:' lEmp] > [tlalla'] > [fog]
> [fo)!i]

- podea, etaj - lampa cu picior - floare - cea(a - cetos, cu ceata - de la, din - a cobori - a (se) urea - caldura (puternica), caniculi! - tiirziu 35

> [ from] > [tll get oil > [tu get on] >

I hi:tJ

> [lettJ

lately low next to novel outside over picture president purse recently to say secretary settee shawl the sky socket so far stamp strong sunny telephone temperature ticket tram tram stop under wall wall-paper weather-forecast

> [ leitli] > [lau] > [nekst tu] > [novl] > [autsaid] >

- recent, de cUfClnd, in ultima vreme - jos, scazut - aproape de, Ifmga - roman - afara - peste, deasupra, pe - tablou, pictura pre~edinte
po~eta

l auva']

> [ pikt~a'] > [prezidant] > [pa:'s] > [ri:sntli] > [tu sel] > [sckratri] > [seti: ] >
[~o:l]

- portofel, geanta,

- de curand, recent - a spune - secretar(a) - canapea e~arIa

...

~

> [DZa skai] > [sokit] > [sau fa:'] > [stEmp] > [stron(g)] > [sani] > [tehfaun] > [ tempnt~a'] > [tiklt] > [trEm] > [trEm stop] > [ anda'] > [Uo:l] > [U o:l peipa'] > [UeDZa' fo:'ka:st]

- cerul - priza - pana acum, deocamdata - timbru - tare, putemic - insorit, cu soare - telefon - temperatura, febra - bilet - tramvai - statie de tramvai - sub

-.

-\

.

_0

zid, perete

- tapet - prognoza vremii, buletin meteorologic - vant - vfmtos, cu mult vant - inca, deja
36

wind windy yet

> [lImd] > [llindl] > [let]

REZUMAT
1. Pronumele posesiv: my al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele our al nostru, a noastra, ai ale noastre
no~tri.

your - a ta, al tau, ai tai, ale tale, a/al dumitale, dumneavoastra his al lui/sau, a lui/sa, ai lui/sai, ale lui/sale al ei/sau, a ei/sa, ai ei/sai, ale ei/sale a/aI, ai/ale lui, sale, ei (pentru obiecte, notiuni abstracte, animale)

your

al vostru, a voastra, ai vo~tri, ale voastre, alai dumitale, dumneavoastra - alaI, ai/ale lor

their

her

its

Pronumele posesiv in limba engleza are merele. my house my mother my child my flowers

aceea~i

forma pentru toate genurile

~i

nu-

casa mea mama mea copilul meu florile mele

2.

Present Continuous Tense (timpul prezent continuu): Se
folose~te

pentru a descriem

0

activitate care se petrece in momentul vorbirii:

I am reading a book now. He is walking at the moment. We are just working in the garden.

- 1-

LECTIA 13. - PARTEA INTAI ,
Azi va invitam la micul dejun. Toatc cuvintelc noi se refera la aceasta tema: plate fork spoon salt salt-cellar egg saucer napkin toast toaster
> [IiEpkin! > lIt lustl > legj

> lr leit ] > II'o:rk I
> [sr u:n] > I sn: ItI

farfurie fureul ila
lingma

sare (ele bucfltarie) solnita ou I'arfurioara
~erveleL ~ervct

paine praj ita gratar pentru rrajit paine

egg-cup Exersati toast salt fork egg-cup napkin saucer egg salt-cellar spoon plate toaster
acelca~i

>kgkapj

pahar pentru oua

cuvinte, dar In alta ordine:
>
: tOil .... t j

p{line priljita sare (de bucatarie) furculita pahar rentru oua
~erveteL ~ervet

> IS,): It i >

r1'0: I k I

> leg karl > [nErkin] > l su: S{I "J > leg] > r so:lt self,r j > I spll:nj > 111kil! > ! \oll,L,'!

farfurioarii
OLI

solnitii lingura farfurie gratar pentru priijit paine

- 2-

I

Observati felul in care folosim cuvintele noi in prapozitii. Cititi prapozitii1e eu voce tare ~i fili atenti la pranuntie. We have just bought large plates. Bring a few forks. Can r take this spoon? They must buy a salt-cellar. >rkFn ai te/k [J/ is spu:n] >!lli: 1\1:\ dpst t"u la:'dj pieilS] ?'\oi toemai am cumparat far furi i Illari. Adu citteva fureu lite. Pot sa iau aceasta lingllra? Ei trebuie sa ellmpere solnita.
0

>[[)/ei Illast hai a sO'lt
\cla i I
" r

I 100e toasts for breakfast.

>[ al b\ toush t,l:

brckl11stj We don't have salt at home. >rlli: uount hE\ so:l! Et .

Imi place painea prajita la miCLd dejun. Acasa nu avem sare.

houlll]
How many eggs did you cat >Ihau mcni cgl UIU iu: i:t for breakfast? Can you bring me a saucer?
["oJ

Cate oua ai mancat la

brt'klast]

mil'ld dejun?
1111: ,'I

>1 !d"n
,r

iu: brll1\~)

,0: S:I ]

Pori sa-mi aduci farfurJoari"l') A\ em acasa . ',)

0

Have we red napkins at home?

>lhh.

lI

i: rcd nEpkllh f·t

~erve(elc

houlll J
[)/i"l

ro~11.

Put the bread into the toaster. >lput O/a bred intu toust:/I These egg-cups arc very nice. >lD i:z eg kaps a: nais]
/ r

Pune p,linca in prajitorul de paine! Aceste pahare pentru ou5 sum foartc frumoase.

\ crJ

Completati propozi}iile in Iimba englcza, utilizand cuvintele noi: Trebuie sa am un prajitor de paine in bucatarie. Cite farfurii ai cumparat? Aceste linguri sunt prea mario iti place sarea? De obicei mananc un au in fiecare zi. Am adus aceste pahare pcntru oua din Anglia. Care furculi(e vrei sa Ie cumperi? Solnita este plina. Aduce-ti, va rag, farfurioarcle. $ervetelul estc sub scaunul trlU. !"t-at miincat deja piiimle prajtte'! I must have >:.1 toaster in the kitchen.

How many >platcs These .Y>pO()IlS

have you bought?

are too big.

Do you like :>salt '!

r usually cat one xgg every day.
We have brought these England. Which >fnrb The -;.;all-cellar Bring the do you want to buy'? is full. , pleasc.
::c,~gg-ClipS

from

><ll!Cer~

Thc >napk ill

is under your chair.

Have you already eatcn your >l,lash ,)

- 3 -

In mod sigur v-ati Insu~it foarte bine cuvintele noi. Sa Ie reluam aHituri de numere. Traduceti In Iimba engleza: 23 de Iinguri
62 de pahare de oua
> twcI1ly-thrcc spoons > sixty-two
cgg-cup~

o farfurioara de sare
17 furculite 12 griitare pentm prajit paine

> onc saucer or salt > sc\cntccn forks > lwc I'liC toasters > forty-three salt-cellars > nincty-ninc platcs > thirtcen napkins > a hundred eggs
> some toasts

43 de solnite

99 de farfurii
13 ~ervetele

100 de oua cateva paini prajite

Ali relinut desigur ea, in limba engfeza, pronumele posesiv se ajla de, obieei, inaintea subsantivului:
This is my car. Our house is large. Aceasta este
ma~ina

mea.

Casa noastra este mare.

Sunt insa situalii in care pronumele posesiv sta singur, ca un pronume independent $i nu este urmat de substantiv. in aeest caz se sehimba $i forma pronumelui, pe care il numim pronume posesiv independent. De exemplu:
mine yours his hers its
>

rIII ~I in I

al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele al tau, a ta, ai'tai, ale tale, aI, a, ai, ale dumitale, dumneavoastra al lui/sau, a lui/sa, ai lui/sai, ale lui/sale al ei/sau, a ei/sa, ai ei/sai, ale ei/sale lui, sale, ei (pentm obiecte, notiuni abstracte, animale)

> I io J /]

> Ihi/1 >

lila: /1

r

> [Its]

-4-

ours yours theirs

>Ia\\az] >LIO.IZ]
>![)\'/1;1

r

no~tri,

al nostru, a noastra, ai ale noastre al vostru, a voastra, ai v01,itri, ale voastre al/a/ai/ale lor

Sa exersam, in propozitii, situatiile in care trebuie sa folosim pronumele posesiv:
It is my car.
> [It
II l1Iai

ka.

r

I

Aceasta este ma1,iina mea. Aceasta mea.
ma~ina

This car is mine. Don't take his pen. Take yours. This is their money. This money is theirs.

>: [)

/

IS LI' II main]

r

este a

> j dounl lC/k hi! pen]
> [tc/k
10.

Nu lua stiloul lui! Ia-I pe al tau!

r

z]

> [f)"is iz > [D
I

n/c/

mam]
I

- Ace1,itia sunt banii lor.
Ace~ti

IS

manl

II [) CI

r

z1

bani sunt ai lor.

in exercitiul urmator, completati propozitiile: Aceasta este bicicleta mea. Aceasta carte este a ta? Aceste stilouri sunt ale lui. Acea haina este a ei. Acestea sunt merele noastre. Aceste tigari sunt ale tale? AceasHi solnita este a lor? Acest ceasomic este ale lui. Este ma1,iina ei? Acele
ce~ti

This is >!11" bicycle. - Is this book >YUUIS? These pens are > his . That coat is > hel s
.

These are> OUI apples. Are these cigarettes> J ours? Is this salt-cellar> thclrs ? This clock is > 1m . Is it > hcr car? Those cups are> yours. These desks are> thclrs . They are> our cats. They are> my shoes.

sunt ale tale.

Aceste birouri sunt ale lor. Sunt pisicile noastre. Sunt pantofii mei. Urmeaza din nou cateva cuvinte noi: empty delicious fried fat in a hurry > rcmptl] > [dlli,;>Chl >
[I'j

gol delicios, savuros fript, pdijit gras, plin de gdisime in graba, la repezeala

,,/(.1]

> [tEt] > 1111 CI hall'

-5-

Exersati delicious

acelea~i

cuvinte, dar in alta ordine: >
i Jlli~;bj

delicios, savuros In graba, la repezeala fript, prajit gol gras, piin de grasime

in a hurry fried empty fat

> rill Cl hari] > [lraiJ I > [rmpti] > [ fEll

Retineti urmatoarea expresie: to be in a hurry. De exemplu: I am in a hurry. They were in a hurry. Ma grabesc. Ei se grabeau.

lar acum cititi cu atentie propozitiile de mai jos In care am indus cuvintele noi: These tomatoes are delicious. > [D/i:/ r{lll1a:l,lC:/
:1.

Aceste ro~ii sunt delicioase. Nu manca in graba! Lui ii plac cartofii prajiti.
Cea~ca

Don't eat in a hurry. He likes fried potatoes. Your cup is empty. This cat is very fat.

> [dOlillt i:t ill

[I

hari I

> [hi: laiks fraid pClte;tnllz]
> 110:
" r
I '

",ap

1/ cmplll

. 1

ta este goaHi.

Aceasta pisica este foarte grasa.

Folositi cuvintele noi in urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Acest barbat gras maniinca prea mult. Farfuria ei este goala? fmi place pe~tele prajit. Te
grabe~ti?

This >

[,j l

man eats too much.

Is her plate> c'mpt\ ?
I like> h'led fish.

Are you>

ill <1

hu:ry?

Briinza aceasta este delicioasa. Pentru exersare traduceti cuvintele noi: in graM gol gras delicios prajit

This cheese is > lkiiciollS.

> ill :1 hurry
>
CIl1!1t\ I .

-6-

in cele ce urmeaza ne vom ocupa de exprimarea ac{iunilor care se vor petrece in viitor. in limba engleza in acest scop se folose!jte timpul Simple Future Tense r,imp1 riu.l~fl' IClh I' Formarea lui este simpla: verbul auxiliar willi "i1] urmat de forma I-a a verbului principal, infinitivul. Urmari{i stuctura propozi(iei:
Pronumele personal I She + verbul auxiliar will will will + + foma I-a a verbului principal come write to you tomorrow. a letter today.

Complementele de timp se plaseaza la inceputul sau la s[anjitlll propozi(iei. Complementele de timp, care in cazul altar timpuri se alla la mijlocul propozitiei, la acest timp tree inaintea verbului principal.
Urmeaza ciiteva exemp1e eu viitorul simplu: He will visit his mother next> [hi. lid \ week. They will have breakfast at seven tomorrow. I will be at home in the evening. We will wait for you till three o'clock. They will always live here. My father will go to England tomorrow.
11-: k '!
II I
L1

i/l! hl/ 111:11)/:1

1

kI
I!

EI 0 va vizita pe mama sa sapUimana viitoare. Maine la ~apte vor lua ei micul dejun. Diseara voi fi acasa.

> I f)/C!

1l hl.\ hil'L',-"t

,t'\ 11 t{lInnrnll]

>

1,1/
D

1I

Ii hi b
I '-!)

hlHl1ll 111

/.

I I \ !l!1l -

I
td

> Ill!. lid

II CII I'll I Ill"

r'fl :Iklokl
>
[[)/'-I IIJi o.llI'-'I/ 11\

Te vom ora trci.

a~tepta

pana la

111:1

I

Ei vor locui Intotdeauna aici. Tatal meu va merge maine in Anglia.

> [mal fa:!) a 'II
illglflild tflIlHHOU\

/

I

'I

~lHI til

La persoana a-I-a singular ~i plural (I, we) in locullui will se poate folosi ~i verbul auxiliar shall. In limbajul uzual Insi'!, se folose~te mai des verbul auxiliar will.

In exercitiul urmator completati propozitiile cu expresia corespunzatoare la tIlnpul viitor: Maine vom eina In gradina. Sapti'!mana viitoare vom merge la Londra. Peste doua zile ii vom vizita pe parintii Maine seara vom asculta radiou!' Vom [1 intotdeauna 'impreuna. Saptamana viitoare vom plati Maine 'ii voi scrie lui.
ma~ina. no~tri.

Tomorrow we > \\ ill kl\ ,-' dinner in the garden. Next week we > \\ II: g" to London. - We > \\ ill \ \, It our parents in two days. Tomorrow evening we >" ill Ih ' ,:11 t,) the radio. We >'.\1];
,,1.\,1\,

hc together.

Next week we > \\ I! 1 I '.1\ for the car. 1>'\111
,\"l,'

to him tomorrow.

-7-

Vor merge la plimbare dimineata. Ea nu va vedea asta niciodata. Voi fi la servici la cinci. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Parintii
no~tri

They> \\ i II go for a walk in the morning. She> wi II never see it. I > will hl' at work at five.

vor veni maine la noi.
0

> Ollr parents wi II cOll1e to

liS

tornorrO\\'.

Saptamana viitoare voi incerca sa fac biblioteca. Vom cobori la a treia statie. Vom merge la Londra in martie. Maine dimineata voi fi acolo. Ei ne vor
a~tepta.

> Next weeK I will try to make a bookcase. > Wc will get olT at the third stop. > We will go to London ill March. > 1 will be therc tomorrow rnorl1lng.
> Thev will wait for
liS.

Voi vorbi cu el despre acest roman. Tata imi va da miercuri
ma~ina.

> i \\ili talk with him about this novel.
> Father \\ ill
gj\C 111C

the

C~lr

on

\Vednesd;l) . Maine va straluci soarele.
> The
slin

\\ill

,;hillL~

tomorrow.

Iar acum yom invata cateva verbe. Cititi cuvintele cu voce tare corecta: to leave to boil to use to pour to pass to tell to hang to translate Exersati to boil to pass to use to tell to hang to translate to pour to leave
acelea~i

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntia lor

> [tu h:\] > [Ill boilj > [tu iLL!:l > Illl po:1 >
[lll

a parasi, a pleca a fierbe, a clocoti a folosi, a utiliza, a intrebuinta a tuma, a varsa
-

r

pa:sJ

a pasa, a da a spune

> [tll tel] > [tu hl:n '" ] > [tu trEllslcit 1 cuvinte, intr-o alta ordine:
> Itll boil]
(n)

a atama, a agata a traduce

a fierbe, a clocoti a pasa, ada a folosi, a utiliza, a intrebuinta a spune a atama, a agata a traduce a tuma, a varsa a parasi, a pleca

> [tu pa:s] > [tu >
[tll
i\lJ 1

tell

> [I\I hI'n ()!.)
>
[ t \I

IrEn,;!cil]

> I t \I po r I > r I \I Ii \ I

-8-

Retineti ca expresia to leave for se traduce prin: a pleca, a caIatori undeva. Cateva dintre verbele noi sunt neregulate. Sa ne forma a-I-a leave >[li:v] tell > [tel] forma a-II-a left told >[lcfi] >ltouldJ
Insu~im

cele trei forme ale acestor verbe: forma a-III-a left told > Ilcn] >[touldl

hang > [hEn(g)]

hung > lhan(gi

hung > [han(g)]

lar acum sa vedem cum se folosesc verbele noi In propozitii: They have already left. I want to hang this picture over the settee. Please, pour me some tea.
> [Ozci hFv o:lredi left]
> !at Olll tll hLn ~ D IS _r _I' . pI'k·t~a Oll\a 0/ascII: 1
. 1I .

Ei au plecat deja. Vreau sa atam aceasta pictura deasupra canapelei. - Toama-mi, te rag, ceai.
ni~te

(t>:)

> Ipli:z po:r mi: sam ti:]

I will tell him about it.

> [ai

lI

ij leI him i'lballl it]

Ii voi
asta.

spune lui despre

Pass me the salt. I will boil the water.

> [pa:s mi: IJza so:ltJ

- Oa-mi sarea. Voi fierbe apa. Am tradus deja aceasta scrisoare. Nu putem folosi azi ma~ina lui Petre.

I have already translated this> [ai hEv o:lredi letter. trEnsleitid f)/is leU{] We can't use Peter's car today.
> lUi: ka:nl ill:z pi:li/z ka J

ladei]

In exercitiul urmiitOf, completati propozitiile 'in limba engleza cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului: Peste
0

saptamana vom pleca la

Bucure~ti.

We will> Ica\ c for Bucharest in a week. Have you> boilcd eggs? - You can > lhC his telephone. I'm >pourillg you coffee. - Can you> pass the sugar? I >wilJ nc\cr tell him about it. Yesterday I > hung the curtains. So far I > h;1\ l' trallslalL'd two books.

Ai fiert oua? Poti folosi telefonul lui. Iti tom cafea. Poti sa dai zaharul? Nu-i voi spune lui despre asta niciodata. leri am atamat perdelele. Pana acum am tradus doua ciini.

-9-

Tell/say

Ambele verbe au

acela~'i

inteles, dar Ie folosim in contexte di/erite:

Cu ajutorul verbului say, spunem, exprimam ceva:
He's said a few words about this noveL They say we have a nice house. A spus catcva cuvinte dcspre acest roman. Ei spun ca avem
0

casa frumoasa.

"""

Cu ajutorul verbului tell spunem cuiva ceva (to tell about·· a povesti, a spline):
He's told me about the book. She will tell you about my brother. Mi-a povestit despre carte. iti va spune despre fratele meu.

Sa incerciim sa folosim cele invatate. Utilizati forma corespunzatoare a verbului "to say" sau "to tell" in unnatoarele propozi!ii: Ti-am vorbit deja despre asta. EI spune ca nu-i place sora mea. Spune ceva despre munca tao EI a spus ca cerul este albastru. Inca nu mi-a spus despre asta. Cand vrei sa-i spui nevestei tale despre aceasta ma~ina? I've already> told you about it. He > says he doesn't like my sister. > Say something about your work. He has> s,lid the sky is blue. He hasn't> told me about it yet. When do you want to > about this car?
Il'l I

your wife

Unneaza ultimul exerci!iu al acestei parti a lectiei. Traduce!i propozi!iile in Iimba englcza: Maine voi cumpara farfurii Nu pot fierbe ouale acum! Vom atama acest tablou in donnitor. Nu lua Iingura mea, ia-o pe- a tal Acest Copiii
pe~te ~i

farfurioare.

>

]0 11111ITO\\

I \\ill bu)

pLtlL'S

and saucers.

> I can't hclil tile eggs ntlw'
> We will hang this picture in the hedroom. > Don't take my spoon. take yours. > This fried fish is lklicioliS.

prajit este delicios. vor veni la noi sambata.
~ervetelele.

no~tri

> Our children will cOllle til liS on '-;aturdav. > Tell me where the n,lpkins ,Ire.

Spune-mi unde sunt

Cate paini prajite poti manea? Aceasta lui.
ma~ina

este a mea,

~i

aceea este a

> This car is mine a III I tbt is his.

Cand vrei sa pleci Ia

Bucure~ti?

> \A/hen do

VIlll W,lIlt

to Iea\ eli))'

BlIcklre~t'.)

Unde pot sa-mi agar haina? Trebuie sa traduc aceasta carte pana in februarie.

> \\hcre call I klllg my coat'.' > I
11111'1 tLlI1~Lite

this hook hy February.

-10-

LECTIA 13. - PARTEA A DODA
Incepem lectia invatand cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ic cu voce tare ~i incercati sa Ie retineti: arm knee toe nail finger belly chest elbow wrist wrist-watch back shoulders Repetati
acelca~i

> [a:tm] > [ni:] > [tou] > [neil] > [Hng!i"] > [bcli] > [t~est 1 > [clbou] > Irist]
> >
:::-'>

-

brat genunchi

- deget de la picior - unghie
-

deget burta, stomac piept

-

-

cot ineheietura mainii ceas de mana spate, spinare umen

-

[rist llot~] [bEk]
[~ouldatz]

cuvinte dar in alta ordine:
>

wrist-watch elbow finger knee shoulders wrist chest nail arm back toe belly

Irist llot~]

eeas de mana
- cot - deget
-

> [clbou] > [l1ngf/] > Ini:] > houldarz] > [rist] >

genunehi umen incheietura mainii

-

-

It~est]

- piept - unghie - brat - spate, spinare
-

> [neil] > [aJm] > [hEk] > [tou] > [hcli]

deget de la picior burta, stomac

-

- II -

Citi!i cu atentie propozi!iile de mai jos, in care veri intalni You have long anns. She was on her knees. Every man has ten fingers and ten toes.
> [cvrl I11I'n hEI tcn
t1nga z /--.nd
1 tCIl

~i

cuvintele noi: Ai bra!e lungi. Ea In genunchi. Fiecare om are zece degete la mana ~i zece la picior. Unghiile tale sunt prea lungi.

> [/U: hl'\ Ion - a. IIlll

(,,)

I

(oU/I

Your nails are too long.

That man has a big belly.

> 11/1.1 mEn hE!
bl'll i

:1

big

Omul acela are mare.

0

burta

Men usually have hair on the chest. My elbow is all right now. This wrist-watch is hers.

> !mclJ
Oil

III jU:Iil

hi

I

,ll d I

))/: 1

t)c~t i
II

Barbatii au de obicei par pe piept. Cotul meu este bine acum. Acest ceas de mana este al ei. Ai un spate bronzat. - Ea are
0 e~arfii

>

[mal

clhou
r1~1
1I

(\:1

1",111 1l:1lI]

> .t [)I IS

()t~ II

I);1 r I ] -

You have a brown back. She has a shawl on her shoulders. Is your wrist all right now?

> [Ill hh :1 hraun bLkj

>1,1

hl/:J~l,i(,nh,l.

r

pe umeri.

)Oli/crl1/j

> i II

)

II)'

rlSt

(I

I

1";111 ILilll

Incheietura mainii tale este bine acum?

Traduceti in limba engleza denumirea unnatoarelor paTti ale corpului:

I. spate 2. umar 3. cot 4. incheietura > \\ I I,t mainii 5. unghie

6. piept

>

chc~t

/

7. deget de la mana > 8. brat 9. stomac
>

llI1!' l')
'

,11111

> bcll\

10. genunchi II. deget de la
~

> klll'L'
>t(IL'

picior

- 12-

Acum ne vom intoarce la timpul Simple Future !ii vom invii{a cum se formeazii interogativul $i raspllnsllrile corespunziitoare. intrebarile la timpu! Simple Future se jorrneazii prin inversarea ordinii verbului allxiliar will $i a substantivullli sau a pronl,lmelui personal.
She will go to Bucharest tomorrow. They will translate this letter. Will she go to Bucharest tomorrow? > [ui! ~i: gou tu bukarcst tiimornu] Va merge ea maine la Bucure~ti? VOl' traduce aceasta scrisoare?

Will they translate > [ll il J)/ei trEns leit r this letter? D/is leta ]

Transformati urmatoarcle enunturi in propozitii interogative: We will leave for England tomorrow. Mother will tell them about this boy. They will hang ten pictures in their living-room, He will use his father's car next month. Next week they will come to us. > Will we leave for England tomorrow') > Will mother tell them about this boy') > Will they hang ten picturcs in their living-room?
> Will he usc his f~lthcr's car next month'!

> Will they corne to us next week?

Tradueeti urmatoarele propozitii interogative in limba engleza: VOl' Inecrca sa faca asta maine? Lmi vei cumpara aceasta haina? Va canta el acest e:intee? Ne va arata cl camera lui? Vei luera maine? Ei vor lua eopiii in Anglia?
> Wil! they try to do it tOI1l0IT()\V'.)

> Will you buy me this coat') > Will he sing this song')
> Will he show us his
roOIll'.!

> \Vill you work tOl11orrow?

> Will they take the children to England?
CII

Raspunsurile afirmative se fiJrmeaza verbului auxiliar will:

ajutoru! cuvdntului yes, a pronumelui personal. $i a

Will they make a bookcase tomorrow? Will you ask him this question? Will she visit her brother next week?

Yes, they will. Yes, I will. Yes, she will.

>[ies D/ ei lIi\]

>[ies ai lI il ] >[ies ~i: lI il ]

Completari pronumele personal ~t verbul auxiliar eorespunzator in urmatoarele raspunsuri scurte: Will he write to you? Will she cut the trees tomorrow? Will you thank them for the book? Will she wait for us? Will your brother come to you next month? Yes, >he will . Yes, >she will Yes, >1 will. Yes, >she will Yes, >he will .

- 13 -

~i

Negatia se formeaza eu ajutorul negatiea no pronumelui personala, verbului auxi/iar will, a euvdntului not. Construetia will not se poate preseurta astfel: won't> [u ounl I :
Will you pay for dinner? No, I will not. No, I won't. Will he send this letter? No, he will not. No, he won't. Will your parents visit you tomorrow? > [noLI ai lIi! Ilot > [noLI ai lI o11nl J > [noll hi: "il Ilot] > [noll hi: lI ounl ]
I

No, they will not. > [noll No, they won't.

n/ ci

lIi1

not]

> [noLI D/ei lIo11nt ]

Formulati raspunsul negativ la urmatoarele intrebiiri: Will they talk to you? Will Peter show you the suit? Will he use this chair? Will she tell me about this man? No, >Ihey won'l . No, >11C won't. No, >hc \\ on"1 . No, >she won"t .

Propozitii/e interogative la care raspundem eu propozitii intregi :'ii nu Ilumai eu cuvintele "sa" sau "nu" sunt propozitii interogative partiale. Acestea se formeazii ell ajlltorlll unui pronume interogativ, a~ezat inaintea verbului auxiliar:
When will you come? > [lien lI i1 ill: kam] Cand vei veni? Dnde vor cina? Who will do it? > Ihu: llil du: it] - Cine va face asta?

Traduceti urmatoarele intrebari in limba engleza: La ce ora te vei scula maine? Ce
ma~ina

> Whal lime wi II you get UF lomorrow') >Whal car \vill you dri\c 10 London'! > Whcn wi II
yOli

vei conduce la Londra?

·111~

Cfmd vei merge la lucru?

go to work.'!

Cine va cauta ciiinele? Dnde vei agata telefonul?

> Who wi II look fiJr the dog'! > \Vherc will
0
YlHI

hallg thc tclephonc'!

Struetura negativii will not/won't
I won't put on this coat.

putem folosi

~i

in propozitii integri:
Nu voi imbraca aceasta haina. Nu vor cumpara aceasta casa. Sora mea nu va preda in aceasta ~coala.

> [ai lI 01l1l1 rUI Oil lY!is kOUl J

They won't buy this house.

> [[)\~l lI\Hlllt hai f)/is halls]

My sister won't teach in this> [mai sistii'" uOUll1 li:l~ in school. D/ ISS kU: I]

- 14-

in exerci~iul urmator traduce~i propozi~iile in limba engleza: Nu voi fi niciodata dactilograra. Mama mea va merge maine la spital. Peste doua saptamani nu yom avea de lucru. Cine te va
a~tepta?

> I will nc\cr bc a typist. > My mothcr will go to hospital tOl1lornw.. > \'/c
WOI1'(

havc \\ork in two wceks.

> Who will wait for you')
> Whcrc
wII! \\C

Unde ne vom opri? Vei traduce aceasta scrisoare? Voi vorbi cu tine despre acest magazin. lata cateva cuvinte noi: electric tired sweet only hungry thirsty Exersati acelea~i cuvinte dar in alta ordine: only hungry electric tired thirsty sweet
> [ounlil > [hangri 1 > [ilektrik] > [taiCI r d 1 > [T'a:\ti] > [s u i :t ] > [ounli]

stop')

> \Vill vou translate this Icttcr') > We will tcll you about this shop.

> [ilektrik[
> [taiil\J]

electric obosit dulce numai, doar flamand, infometat - insetat

> [hangri]

numai, doar flamand, infometat electric obosit insetat dulce

Retineti expresiile urmatoare:

[ am thirsty - cu semnificatia de:
1. 2. Imi este sete. Sunt insetat (de). Doresc - sens propriu - sens figurat

[ am hungry - eu semnificatia de:
l. 2. imi este foame. Sunt infometat dupa ... - sens concret, biologic - sens figurat

- 15 -

In mod sigur v-ati insu~it deja cuvintele noi. Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza! Au instrumente electrice? leri am fost foarte obosit
~i

> Have they electric took)

infometat.

> I was very tired and

h\\I1~cry

ycsterday.

Unde ai cumparat aceste mere dulci? Mi-e sete. Mi-au trimis numai
0

> Where did you huy thcse 'iwcct apples')

> I am thirsty.

scrisoare.

> They have sent me only one letter.

Intelesul expresiei "only" se schimba in cazul in care este precedat de un articol hotariit. Semnificatia expresiei the only este: singurul, unicuI. Articolul hotarit "the" poate fi inlocuit cu un pronume posesiv.

De exemplu: It's the only plant in this room. He is my only brother. Acum sa facem to taste to feel to begin to build to catch to fall
cuno~tinta

> [its Ol'j ounli pla:nt In

Ol'is ru:m] > [hi:z mai ounli bra0 i/j
7

Este singura planta in aceasta camera. Este singurul meu frate.

cu diteva verbe noi:
> [tll teist] > [tll fi:l] > [tll bigin] > [tll bild] > [tll
kEt~]

a gusta - a simti, a atinge, a pipai a incepe, a se apuca de a c1adi, a construi - a prinde, a apuca, a retine, a sc imbolnavi de a cadea, a se
prabu~i

> [tll 1'0:1]

lata cum folosim aceste verbe in propozitii: When did you build this house? Today I feel very good. Have you already tasted the fish? The leaves are falling from the trees. Summer always begins in June.
I must catch the train early in the morning.
> [uen did ill: hild [)I'is

hallS]
> [t[ldei ai fi:l veri glld]

Ciind ai construit aceasta casa? Azi rna simt foarte bine. Ai gustat deja
pe~tele?

> [hEv ill: o:lredi teistid

OZa fi~]
> [07 a li:vI a: r fo:lin(g)

- Frunzele cad de pe copaci.

from

[/a

tri:2] Vara incepe intotdeauna in iunie. Trebuie sa prind trenul dimineata devrerne.

dju:nJ
> [ai mast k Ft~ [)/ a (rein

aJli in

[)7

a mo:rnin(g)j

- 16-

Cateva verbe noi sunt neregulate. Vom invata formele acestora: Forma a I-a > [ti'lj feel begin catch build fall > [hlgin] >
[kFt~]

Forma a II-a > [kit] felt began caught built fell > [hlgEn] > rko:t] > [llIIl] > [fell

Forma a III-a > [kit) felt begun caught built fallen > [hlgan] >
~k,).t]

> !blld] > [hi]

> [biltj > : fo: In]

In continuare completati propozitiilc cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului: Pisica tocmai a prins
0

pasare.

The cat has just> caught a bird. I > fell on the floor yesterday. - They haven't> bUIlt this house yet. When will you> hegln to read it? - How did you > feci when he told you about It?

Jeri am cazut pe podea. Ei nu au construit inca aceasta casa. Cand vei incepe sa
cite~ti

asta?

Cum te-ai simtit cand ti-a vorbit despre asta?

Iar acum yom recapitula intregul material al lectiei. Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Voi merge la magazin farfurii ~i ~ervetele.
~i

voi cumpara

> ! \\ III go to thc shop and huy plates and
napkin~.

Ai mancat vreodata oua? Nu mi-e foame. Azi nu iau
ma~ina

> I'm nut hungl}

mea.

a

voi lua pe a ei.

> 1'111 not takIng l11y car today. I \\ til take

hers

Cina aeeasta a fast delieioasa. Ieri am inceput sa eladim un gradina.
~opron

> rhls dinner \\ as dclICIUllS.

in

> Yesterday \\ e heuan to hu dd a shed In

the garden.
> I \\ on't go hy an empty bus.

Nu voi merge eu un autobuz gol. Cand imi vei eauta cainele? Nu pot agata acest tablou. El mi-a dat sarea. Spune-mi unde este fratele tau. Nu vor traduce niciodata aceasta carte. EI a spus ca nu va fi
~ofer.

> \\ hen WIll you look for my dog')
> ! ClII't hang
IhJ~

rlcturc

> ! Ie rassed me the salt

> Till'} \vill ne\el translate thiS hook
> He has
s~lJd

he \\ on't he a drl\ er.

Cate unghii are un caine?

- 17-

Iti voi da ccasul mcu. Nu vreau sa beau, dar mi-c sete. La
srar~itul

> I will give you my watch.

> I dOIl't want to drink but I am thirsty.

lectiei iata
[ci]

obi~nuitul

exercitiu de pronuntie. Repetati cuvintele:
[oil [ail

[1I]
book look put good

[0: J

taste plate late date

pour floor door

boy boil

fried bright why sky

- 18 -

13. RECAPITU LARE
13.1. Pronumele posesiv

Pronumele posesiv sta de obicei inaintea substantivului: This is my car. Our housc is large. - Aceasta este ma$ina mea. Casa noastra este mare.

Sunt insa ~i situatii in care pronumele posesiv apare singur, ca un pronume propriu $i nu este urmat de substantiv. in acest caz se schimba $i fonna lui. $i se nume$te pronume posesiv propnu: mille > [main] al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele yours > [ioJzj al tau, a ta, ai tai, ale tale, alla/ai/ale his hers its ours yours theirs This book is mine. These cars are hcrs.
> [hiz] > [haJz]

> [its] > [auih] > [io:rz] > [Dzc/z]

dumitale, dumneavoastra a1 lui/sau, a lui/sa, ai lui/sai, ale lui/sale a1 ci/sau, a ei/sa, ai ei/sai, ale ei/sale lui, sale, ci (pentru obiecte, notiuni abstracte, animale) - al nostru, a noastra, ai nO$tri, ale noastre - al vostru, a voastra, ai vo~tri, ale voastre -- al/a/ai/ale lor - Aceasta cartc este a mea. - Aceste ma$ini sunt ale ei.

13.2. Timpul viitor simplu - Simple Future Tense 13.2.1. Acest timp se folose~te astfe I:
1.

Pentru descricrea tuturor aqiunilor, evenimentelor obi$nuite sau unice care se petrec in viitor folosim timpul Simple Futurc. Fom1area lui este simpla: verbului auxiliar "will" ii adaugam fonna I-a a verbului principal, infinitivul. Structura propozi!iei: Pronume + verbul auxiliar + personal will She will verb principal + fonna a-I-a (infinitiv) come write to you tomorrow. a letter today.

2.

Complementele de timp stau la inceputul sau la sfar~itul propozi!iei. Acele eomplemente de timp care in cazul altor timpuri se afla la mijlocul propozitiei, la acest timp trec inaintea verbului principal. 3. La persoana I-a singular $i plural (,,1, we"), verbul auxiliar "will" ~i "shall" [~EI] se pot folosi in cgala masura.Verbul auxiliar "will" se folosqte insa mai des.

19 -

13.2.2. Intcrogativul Interogativul la timpul Simple Future se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii verbului auxiliar "will" :;;i a pronumelui personal sau a substantivului. She will go to Bucharest - Will she go to Bucharest tomorrow? tomorrow. 13.2.3. Raspunsurile Raspunsul afirmativ se formeaza cu ajutorul cuvantului "yes", a pronumelui personal, :;;i a verbului auxiliar "will". Will they make a bookcase - Yes, they will. tomorrow? Raspunsul negativ se fonneaza cu ajutorul cuvantului "no", a pronumelui personal, a verbului auxiliar "will" :;;i a cuvantului de negatie "not", Constructia "will not" poate fi prescurtata "won't", Structura negativa "will not/won't" poate fi folosita ~i in propozitii complete: - Nu voi imbraca aceasta haina. I won't put on this coat. 13.3. Verbele "say"
~i

"tell"
aceea~i

Ambele verbe au

semnificatie dar se folosesc in contexte diferite:

*say - "a spune, a zice ceva": He said a few words about this novel. They say we have a nice house. *tell - "a spune cuiva ceva": (to tell about - "a povesti, a spune") He told me about the book. 13.4. "Hungry"
~i

EI a spus diteva cuvinte despre acest roman. Ei spun ca avem
0

::-

casa frumoasa.

- Mi-a povestit despre carte.

"thirsty"

Semnificatia propozitiei ,,1 am thirsty": I. 2. Imi este sete. (necesitate biologica) Sunt insetat de. Doresc .. , (necesitate sufleteascii)

Semnificatia propozitiei ,,1 am hungry": I. 2. 13.5 Imi este foame. (necesitate fiziologica) Am nevoie de (necesitate sufleteasca)
~i

"Only"

"the only"

Semnificatia cuvantului "only" se schimbii in cazul in care este precedat de un articol hotarat. "The only" are semnificatia de "singurul", "unicul". Articolul hotarat .,the" poate fi inlocuit cu un pronume posesiv.

- 20-

13. TEMA. PENTRU ACASA
A. Traduceti propozitiile in limba roman a: I. 2. 3 4.
5.

I haven't caught your cat but theirs. Why are you in a hurry? Who will never build a school? Where won't you go in March? How many pictures has he hung on the wall in the bedroom? I am very hungry.

6.

B.

Traduceti propozitiile In limba engleza: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Peste
0

saptamana voi merge in Anglia.

Miiine nu vom lucra deorecc trebuie sa cumparam ciiteva lucruri. Poti sa-mi dai furculita aceea? Nu Ie spune cine a Iacut asta. Trebuie sa spunem ca noi nu am vazut asta. Pot sa folosesc mai;)ina ta?

C.

Corectati grei;)elile din propozitiile urmatoare: I. 2. 3. 4. I will be sleep tomorrow. Have they already translate this letter? This is my plate and that is your. She has already leaved for London. He can't fell in the street. Mary is my the only sister.

5.
6.

- 21 -

LECTIA 14. - PARTEA INTAI ,
Sa incepem lectia, ca de obicei, cu invatarea cuvintelor noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie: platform glass accident ashtray hammer vegetables key story meat news wood > [pIEtfoJm] > [gla:s] > [Eksidallt] >
[E~trci]

peron, rampa sticla, pahar accidcnt scrumiera ciocan legume chcie povcste, povestire came
~tiri,

r > [hEma ] > [vedjitablz] > [ki:] > [sto:ri] > [mi:t] > [niu:z] > [lI ud]

I

noutati, vqti

padure, !emn

Repetati

ace!ea~i

cuvintc, dar intr-o alta ordine: > [vedj itiib lz 1 > [Eksidallt] > [niu:z] > [ki:] > [pi Etfo:rm] r > [h Ema ] > [sto:ri] > [mi:t] > [E~trci] > [lI u d] >Igla:s]
-

vegetables accident news key platform hammer story meat ashtray wood glass

legume accident
~tiri,

noutati,

ve~ti

cheie peron, rampa ciocan
- poveste, povestire

came scrumicra padurc. lemn sticla, pahar

~22-

lata cum se folosesc cuvintele noi in propozit ii : Bring me that big hammer. > Ibrin tg ) mi: D/EI big
hEl1la ]
r

Adu-mi ciocanul acela mare!
/
[1

Don't forget to take the keys. > [doun! forget tu leik 0
ki:l]

Nu uita sa iei cheile!

Have you heard the news? There were many people on the platform.
> lDea
I t' II

Ai auzit noutatile?

a:

r

melll pi:[1i on

.

D

I

[I

[11 Ett'o:r lll ]

Erau multi oameni pe peron. A fost un accident in strada. Maine vei manca carne?

There was an accident in the> [l/e,'{ lin/' an Eksidant street. in [/;1
st ri:! J

Will you eat meat tomorrow? > Illi] iu: i:t He drank a glass of water.

Il1I'l

l[llllorllll]
ll\

> [hi: drEn(~)k [\ glas
li II: t[l r]

EI a baut un pahar cu apa.
Este 0 multime de stieHi pe podea. Cine ti-a spus aceasta poveste? Nu avem acasa scrumiera.

There is a lot of glass on the floor.

>

[f/ <"[/ iz
on 0
/

[I

lot
r

0\

glas

a no:

j

Who has told you this story? > [hu: hEI tould iu: [)/is
s(o:riJ > [lI i : dounl hEv E~trci/' FI

We don't have ashtrays at home. They used good wood to make the chairs. Do you want only vegetables for dinner? There are many woods in England.

hOllm]

> [0/ ci iU:l:d gild llud IU
meik DEC! t~e[\rzJ
> Idu ill: lI ont ollllii

Au folosit lemn bun pentru confeqionarea scaunelor. Vrei doar legume la cina?

ved.iit[lblz 1'0: diner ]
> [D\~C\r a J I11cni lI udr III

r

r

inglfllJd]

Sunt multe paduri in Anglia.

"There was an accident in the shed."
- 23-

Va mai amintiti cuvintele noi? Daca da, atunci folositi-le in urmatoarele propozitii: Da-i un pahar de lapte! Ciocanul a cazut pe podea. Va fi Ai
0

Give him one > gl~\~~ of milk. The> lumll1Cl fell on the floor.
It will be a long> S\OJ ~
.

poveste lunga. despre accident?

ve~ti

Have you>

III \\"

about the> "celdcnl ?

Am pus cheile pe masa. la putina came! Vreau sa locuiesc langa Trenul
pome~te
0

I have put the> kc y on the table.

Take a little> 111C"t . padure. [ want to live next to a> \\ (hld. The train leaves from > pl<ltj~ll 111 two. >
\cgct,lhk~

de pe peronul doi.

Vara legumele sunt ieftine. Poti sa-mi dai scrumiera?

are cheap in the summer.
a~hl! av?

Can you pass me the >

In exercitiul urmator dati corespondentul englezesc al cuvintelor romane~ti: sticIa accident ciocan povestire lemn scrumiera legume >
~! I d"~

peron cheie came padure
~tiri

> > >

p]Jtt~lI

m

> accldcllt > h,,111 111 cr > > >
~ t 01 ;-

Kn
\~'C,ll

> \\ ood >
IlC\\ "

\\

~)~)(J

,I "IHI d)

poveste noutati

> slon >
Ile\\

> \ cgcLlblcs

s
~i

Urmari{i utilizarea euvantului own [(lllll]. Poale sta atat inaintea substantivului, eal urma lUI, dar in aeest eaz se leaga de el prin prepozitia of. De exemplu:
1 use my own tools.

in

>

[,'I III /

Il1dl (lUll ttl

III

Folosesc uneltele mele proprii. El are camera lui proprie. Am 0 gradina a mea proprie. Ea are
0

He has his own room.
1 have a garden of my own.

> [Ill >

ll[~z

hlz oun ru 1111

[,II hb :1
Ollllj

ga:1dll 0\

1ll,1I

She has a house of her own. > [S! hLI C1
Ollll]

Il<lllS 0\

h:t

casa a ei proprie.

Cele doua strueturi se pot inloeui reeiproe.
Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii folosind cele doua expresii ale cuvantului "own": Ai biblioteca personala? > I J <'\ C
\ II

1I : 0 1I:

• l \\

q

'>

I tl\ "
'.Utll

\ l III
()I\

.1

hoo ked Sl'

0

t

t1t)O!\Llt....,C)

11 )

Fratele meu are hotelul lui propriu. Am avut diinele meu (propriu).

> \1\ blOlhcl hll ...
'''\ )t~ I

1,

,,,

> \1, bn'lhcl has
!1l '"
0\\ Ii

,1

Ih)lll ,)1

>

:"1 ~IJ 111'

0\\ 11

dug

> \ Iud ,: dog oj

111\ (1\\ 1,

- 24-

lata ciHeva verbe noi: to help to sell to clean to find to hurt to switch on to switch off
> [Ill help]

a ajuta a vinde a curiita - a gasi a rani, a j igni, a durea

> [Ill sel]
> rIll kli:n] > [IU faind] > [Ill ha: I]
I

> [tll
>
[III

S ll·II~

on'J
0

a aprinde (lumina) a stinge (lumina)

s lI.It~

tl

Cateva dintre aceste verbe sunt neregulate. Invatati formele acestora: forma a-I-a sell find hurt
> [scI]

forma a-II-a sold found hurt
> [sould]

forma a-lII-a sold found hurt
> [sould]

> [faind] > [ha:rt]

> [faund] > lha:!t]

> [faund] > [ha:!t]
~i

Sa exersam folosirea verbelor in propozitii. Cititi propozitiile cu voce tare pronuntia corecta: She helped me to write this letter last week.
> [~i: helpt mi: Iu rait D/is

fiti atenti la

leta ' la:sl lI i :k ]

M-a ajutat sa scriu aceasta scrisoare sapUimana trecuta.

He wI'11 clean hl's OWll shoes. > [hI'·. lIl'l kl'I:n I' oun ;;;U:Z J lIZ Where did you find the tickets? Last night I hurt my knee.
> [liCar did ill: faind D/[j

j ~i va curata pantofii (proprii).
Unde ai gasit biletele?

tikits]
> [Ia:st nait ai h[j:'"t mai ni:] - Noaptea treeuta mam

ranit la genunchi. His arm hurts.
> [hlz a: m h{l: IS]
. I

r

II

doare bratul. te rog, prajitorul

. SWltc h on th i > [s lI.It~ on 0 7 a tOUSt[1 r e toaster, pease. pli:z] Did you switch off the lamp > [did iu: slIit~ of yesterday? They have sold seven cars today. Have you cleaned your room yet? Will you sell your house? tEmp icsU/lki]
> [O/ci hEv sou1d
SC\11

Pome~te,

de paine.

l/a

Ai stins ieri lampa?

Ei au vandut azi
ma~ini.

~apte

ka:'"z ([Idci]
> [hEv iu: kli:nd
10:

ru:m

Ti-ai curatat deja camera?

iel]
> fUjI iu: sci io:'" haw;]

Iti vei vinde casa?

- 25-

In exercitiul unnator completati propozitiile cu fonna corespunzatoare a verbului: Sora ei i-a ajutat des.
£1 tocmai ~i-a ranit incheietura mainii.

Her sister often> helr,xi them. He has just> hurt his wrist. Have you >
~nld

Ai vandut multe carti? Ieri am gasit acest ciocan. Maria tocmai deschide radioul. Trebuie sa curatam casa pana vineri. Inchide televizorul!

many books?

Yesterday I > fOUlld this hammer. Mary is just> S\\ Itchll1g nil the radio. We must> elean the house by Friday. > Sv" Itch oft the TV set.

Va amintiti desigur cele trei fonne ale verbelor noi. Traduceti unnatoarele verbe in limba engleza, in~irand cele trei forme ale verbelor: a vinde a rani a curata a aprinde (lumina) a gasi a ajuta a stinge (lumina) >lO scll >tn hurt >ro clean > to
~\\Itch

> sold > hurt > cJcdllUl on >
S\\

>

~()Id

> hUI t > c lcdlled >
S\\ I

ItLhcd on

tehed Oil

>to fIlld > to help > tl) '\\Itch oC!

> fUllild > helped >
S\\

> fdUI1d > hel]1cd >
~\\

Itchcd nrl
~i

Itched off

Acum unneaza ciiteva cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare old new everything everybody clean nobody nothing American Exersati
acelea~i

tJti

atenti la pronuntia corecta: in varsta, vechi, batran nou

> [ould I > [Il/U

I
~

>

IC\l 11 1n " J

(\1)

tot, toate fiecare, toti, toata lumea curat, neted nimeni nimic american

> [('vllbodll > [kl i. n] > InoubodJ I > [naT "In (,,) ] " > [ClmcIIUn] cuvinte
~i

intr-o alta ordine: > [c\nbodl] > [kiI·n] > [:lllH.'llkJllJ > Illaf Ill"
s (,)

everybody clean American nothing nobody new everything old

fiecare, toti, toata lumea curat, neted american nimic nimeni nou

1

> [lloubociIJ > [Il/u·l > [c\rIl In" > [ouldj
,S

(l!)

tot, toate in varsta, vechi, batran

- 26-

lata cuvintele noi in propozitii: Everybody knows her. There is nothing in the ashtray. This is an old magazine. > lc\'ribodi nou/' hfi: ] > [Olear iz naT'in(gl in O/i E~trei] > [Ozis iz an ould mEgazi:n] He has forgotten everything. > [hi: hEz forgotn cniT'in(g)j
I have bought a new suit.
> [ai hb ho:t
{I

r

Toata lumea

0 cunoa~te.

- Nu este nimic in serumiera. Aceasta este veche.
0

revista

EI a uitat totu\.

niu: su:t]

Am cumparat un costum nou. Nu era nimeni in camera.

There was nobody in the room. She is an American. Are the windows clean?

> [O/e/ lI oz noubodi in D/a nun]
> hi: iz an {lIl1crikrll1! /> [ a: r 0 a
1I. 111

Ea este

0

americanca.

d OUI

L t\.

I'I:n J

Geamurile sunt curate?

Legat de complementul circumstantial never, am inviitat deja cii in limba englezii. nu existii negafie dublii. Aceastii regulii este valabita ~i pentru cuvintele nobody, nothing, de exemplu:
I saw nobody in the street. So far he has done nothing. Nu am vazut pe nimeni in strada. Pana acum el nu a facut nimic.

in exercitiul urmiitor eompletati propozitiile eu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Cartile noi sunt scumpe. Nu pot face nimic pentru tine. Cine este acest om batran? Voi spune asta la toata lumea. Totul este gata. Nu voi ajuta pe nimeni. Aceste farfurii nu sunt curate.
Ma~inile

> New books are expensive. I can do > nothing for you. Who is this> old man? I will tell> c\crybody about it. > !:vcrythint! is ready. I will help> nobody. These plates are not> clean. > Amcrican cars are expensive.

americane sunt seumpe.

Traduceti in limba engleza propozitiile de mai jos: Nu pot vorbi cu nimeni. Iti plac cantecele americane? Tocmai am cumparat
0

> I can talk to nobody. > Do you like Amcrican songs" noua.
~coala.

ma~ina

> I havc just bought a

Ih:W

car.

Toata lumea vrea sa lucreze in aceasta Trebuie sa vand aceste tablouri vechi. Camera este curata acum. Nimic nu este
u~or.

> Everybody wants tu work in this :>chool. > I must sell these old pictures. > The mum is clean Il(m. > "othlng is casy > I \\ill gl\<:' vou ,,;vc'lything.

Iti voi da totul.

- 27-

Retineti ca pronumele everybody ("fiecare, toti, toata lumea") se afla intotdeauna la persoana a-HI-a singular.

in lectiile anterioare amfacut deja cuno~tintii Cll tlmpul Present Continuous, pe care-l tolosim pentru exprimarea actiunitor care se desra~oara in momentul vorbirii. Dacii vrem sii descriem o actiune din trecut, care s-a desta~urat la moment dat sau intr-o anumitii perioada. atunci folosim timpul Past Continuous Tense [pa 'st kontil1luas tCl1s]. Perioda se indicii printr-un complement de timp, sau cu ajutorul unei propozitli la timpul trecut simplu. dar poale reie~i ~l din context. La construirea propozitiei folosim pronumele personal sau substantlvul, forma corespunziitoare de trecut a verbului to be (was/were) ~i verbul principal cu sufixul -ing.
Pronumele personal
I

+

verb auxiliar was were

+

verb principal -ing walking cleaning

+
yesterday at five. their room all day yesterday.

They

Conjunctia while [lIad] - pe cfmd, in timp ce, se folose?te des eu timpul Past Continuous, ~i exprimii desfii~urarea simultanii a doua actiuni.
The sun was shining while we were walking. We were listening to the radio, while our father was reading a newspaper.
> I D a sal1
LI
/~
LI

oz
r
II

( ,,)

,;>:1111111 e()

ail

LI

I.

L1~

d.

kll1

(g)
~

]

Soarele stralulcea in timp ce ne plimbam. Noi ascultam radioul in timp ce tatal nostru citea ziarul.

> Illi.

L1

aJ

lisnm(g) tu

rciulOu llail L1 0z ri:dll1(g) r niu:zpclpa ]

I aUJ
:1

D/a l fa: r/:l

- 28-

Nu uitati ca, in casul folosirii sufixului -ing, precum $i a verbelor care nu au forma continua, sunt valabile regulile invatate la timpul Present Continuous, Timpul Past Continuous se folose$te $i atunci eand vrem sa exprimam ea in timpul de,~fasurarii unei ac/iuni a inceput 0 alta ac/iune. Aceasta ac/iune din lfrma se exprima prin timpul Simple Past.
I was having dinner when John came.
>[,\1 lim hE\ in(g) dina'
lI cn

- Cinam dnd a venit John.

<lInn kClmJ

Alte exemple pentru utilizarea timpului Past Continuous: The wind was blowing all day yesterday. His son was working at six two days ago. They were waiting for me from one to three,
> I]) i\
/ II

111<.1

1I

oz blollll1 "

(" I

Vantul a suflat ieri toata
ZlUa.

u:l

(kl Ibt:l' dCI]
11(l/ lIi\,l

>1111/ ~,111
~Ik~
/

k' !lig) 1-'1
r

tll: dcu [1t!f)1I]
CI

In urma cu doua zile fiul sau lucra la ~ase. M-au trei.
a~teptat

> II)

lI_ r II

a,

l'ltll1 ~
III

,,(12,)

I'll:

de la unu la

1111:

from [\lln

T'n: I

rar acum sa exersam timpul trecutul cantinuu. Traduceti in limba engleza propozitiile urmatoare: leri la ora cinci am scris
0

scrisoare.

> ·\1
> fhl

fl\l' \,',kllL"

I

1\'\', \1

lltlng d k'ttL'r

Soarele a stralucit ieri toata ziua. in timp ce am Iaceam curat copiii mei stateau in griidina. In timp ce conduceam ma~ina, am vazut-o pe sora mea pe strada. Ploua dnd m-am trezit. Am cautat aceasta carte de la cinci la
~ase.

~lln \\d~ ~!J,nln~' .Iii d,l) )CSICltIJ), I\,I~ I i,,1:11:1:~
11\

> \\'!lIk I

chlldrcn

\ICIT

> \\

il'!l- I ".Is ,1",\ Ill)! i1;,.. ,dr I S\I\\ 111\
1:1

~"te:!

111,_' "llc·:t
L',I! Iii' It \\d~ 1-II'Jlng,

> \\ l1c:n I > I
'~i

\\:h Il'(,klnL Illi \!'I' !w'lk

In'l11 11\

l'

{(1

'>

lnterogativul la timpu! Past Continuous se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii subieetului $i a verbului auxiliar. in cazul intrebarilor complexe. inaintea verbului auxiliar se pune un pronume interogativ:

Were you walking in the park at three yesterday? Was he drinking beer when you saw him? Where was he going when I came?

- Te plimbai in parc ieri la trei?
£1 ea bere dnd l-ai vazut?

Unde mergea cand am venit eu?

Riispunsurile afirmative se formeaza eu ajl/toru! cuvantu!ui yes, a pronumelui personal $i a verbului auxiliar. La formu!area nega/iei folosim cuvantul no, pronumele personal, verbul auxiliar was/were $i cuvantu! de nega(ie not (jorma prescurtata: wasn't, weren't).

Was he driving home at six yesterday? Were they doing it all day yesterday?

Yes, he was. Yes, they were.

No, he was not. No, he wasn't. No, they were not. No, they weren't.

- 29-

Structura negativa se folose$te 'Ii in propozi{ii intregi'
They weren't cleaning the house at seven last Monday.
> [D/el Ua.f nt kJi nln(g)

D/a hallS Et se\ n la.st

Ei nu curalau easa lunea treeuta la ~apte.

mandel] She wasn't writing when I came into the room.
>
[~I:
U

oznt rallm

(l.!) ~

U

en al

kelm intll D"a rll.m]

Ea nu scria cand am venit in camera.

Acum tradueeti urmiHoarele propozilii in limba engleza: Trenul a plecat la clnci de pc peronul trei.
> At five the tialll \\as Iem IIlg hom pldt-

form three. Toata ziua am cautati eri cheile.
> I \\ as lookmg for the keys all day

yesterday. Ce Iaceai leri la aceasta ora?
> Whdt \\ere yOU dOlllg thiS time

yesteludy"! Cand am fost la Bucurqti, a nins tot timpul.
> \\ hell I was ill Bucharest It \\ dS snowing

all the tnne Mama mea gatea clna cand am intrat in casa. Unde te-ai dus ieri la noua? Noi curatam camera in timp ce tata lucra in griidina. Ma doare spatele. Imi vei cumpara acest ceas? Vreau sa am
0 ma~ina

> My mother lIas cookmg the dinnel \Ihen I el1tered the house. > Vv here \\ ere you gOlllg at I1me yesterday? > We
\1 el e c1eanll1g the room \\,lS \\orklllg 111 the garden 1\

h lie father

> Will you buy me thiS watch'? > I \Iant
til

electnca.

h,1\C

,111

clectnc car

Nu mi-e foame, insa ml-e foarte sete Cand sunt oboslt merg intotdeauna la plimbare scurta.
0

> I'm 110t hUllgl) but \Ci\ t!lust\ > Whell 1 am tlfed I ah\ a) s go fiJr a short

\\ alk.
> Yesterday llJl1ll1l1lg only ten people wcrc

Ieri dimineata lucrau doar zece oameni.

worklllg. Petre este singurul barbat din familia noastn1. len seara inca mal construiau casa.
> Peter
IS

the ollly man

III OUI

lamliy

> Yesterday e\elllllg the) I\Cle stlil

buildlllg the house Cum te simti azi? Cand a fost acest aCCident? La opt vom asculta
~tirile.
>

floll :ue yOll feeling today'?

> What time \I,h thiS aCCident"
>

We \\ III listen to the ne\\'" at cight

Ajuta-ma sa gasesc cheile.

> Help me to find the keys.

- 30 -

Vom merge la magazin legume.

~i

yom cumpara

> We will go to the shop and buy

vegelables.
> Hc told me the story of his life. > At which platform is Ullr train') > Wc were walking in the wood all day

Mi-a spus povestea vietii lui. Pe care peron este trenul nostru? Toata ziua nc-am plimbat ieri in padure.

yesterday.

Am vfmdut deja

0

suta de pahare.

> We have already suld a hundred glasses. > Nobody wants to lalk with ynu. > I have already said everything. > Do you like .'\Il1Crlcan cal's')

Nimeni nu vrea sa vorbeascii cu tine. Am spus deja totuI. hi plac ma~inile americane? Nu am nimic. Ce Iaceai cand te-am viizut in geam?

> I have nUlhint'.
> What were you duing when I sa\\ vou in

the window')

lata exercitiul pentru exersarea pronuntiei in limba engleza! Repeta!i cuvintcle:

U1:

I ]

[i:]
clean been green seen

[ou}

[~Ii 1

hurt bird work church

toaster go know own

find smile kind
I

- 31 -

LECTIA 14. - PARTEA A DODA ,
Cititi cu atentie dialogul unniHor. Repetati acest exercitlU pfma va convingeti de faptul ca v-ati insu~it pe deplin pronuntia ~i intonatia. Cuvintele ~i si labele accentuate sunt tiparite cu Iitere ingro~ate.

Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter:

I saw an accident yesterday. Was it in Station Street? Yes, it was. I was buying vegetables when I saw it. How many people were hurt? Ten people hurt their arms and legs. The doctors took these people to the hospital. I heard sad news yesterday. What was it about? It was about a man who left his wife and children and went to America. What did he do in America? There he began to build a house but he didn't have money. And what was the sad news? He hurt his fingers when he used a hammer. I bought an old car last week. Why did you buy an old car? Because I didn't have much money, and I have never had a car of my own. Do you have eggs for breakfast? I usually don't have eggs for breakfast. What do you want for breakfast then? I want toasts and butter. Do you like salt on your toast? No, thank you. Salt makes me thirsty and it is not good for me. Your toast will be ready in a minute. I use my electric toaster. Put the napkins near the plates. Yes, I do it that way. But don't eat III a hurry. It's not good. John, what have you done all day today? I have been at work today and now I am thirsty. Why? Haven't you drunk all day today? Yes, I have, but I am always thirsty after a long day of work. What do you want to drink. I want to have a glass of beer. Do you want your beer in a tall glass? Yes, please. I like tall glasses. And then do you want to listen to the radio? No. This evening I want to go to the cinema together with you.

Barbara: Tom: Barbara: Tom: Barbara: Tom: Barbara: John: Mary: John: Barbara: Peter: Barbara: Peter: Barbara: Peter: Barbara: Peter: Barbara: Mary: John: Mary: John: Mary: John: Mary: John: Mary: John:

- 32-

Jar acum sa exersam materialul invatat in cele doua lectii. Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Trebuie sa cumparam farfurii noi. Vei manca oua dejun?
~i ~i

farfurioare

> We Illust buv new plates and sauccrs.

paine prajita la micul

> Will you cal eggs and break 1~lst')

tO~IS\S

fiJr

Ai curatat deja gratarul pentru prajit paine? Tatal tau are mai multi bani decat al meu. Camea prajita este adesea unsuroasa. Nu face asta in graba. Ei nu ne vor ajuta. Vei vorbi surorii tale despre acest om? Parintii mei tocmai pleaca la Londra. Maine nu voi traduce multe scrisori. Poti sa-mi tomi
0 cea~ca

> Ila\'c: vou ckanecl the toaster yet"

> Your 1:lther has more money than mine, > Fried meat is oneil faL > DOll't do it in a hurry, > They WOll't help we. > Will you tell your sister about this mall" > My parents have just left for London, > I won'! translate many Idters tomorrow, > Can you pour mc a cup of eofte"
> Last WedJ1l'sday the'y were hanging

de cafea?

Miercurea trecuta au agatat toata ziua tablouri in dormitor. Vrei sa spui ca nu ai citit aceasta carte?

pictures in the bedroom all day,
> Do you want to
S~IY VOLI hal

Cl1,t read

this hook')

Unde pot gasi acest gratar pentru prajit paine? Unicul lor copil tocmai a plecat in Anglia. Aceasta paine prajita este a ta? Ma grabesc deoarece la cinci trebuie sa fiu acasa. Yom face totdeauna mobila buna. Cand cautam ciocanul am gasit aceasta scrisoare veche. Nu-mi vorbi despre acest om. Unde vei duce copiii anul viitor?

> \Vhcrc call I find this toaster')

> Their only child has just Idt for England,

> Is this toast yours')

> I alll in a hurry bccluse 1 must be at hl)l11l' at !I\ e,
> Wl' \\ ill
~JiI\il\S

make good furniture,

> When I was look ing for the hammer I

found this old letter.
> Don't tell me about this man.

> Where will you tilke the c:hildren Ilex\

year"

Ieri la noua au plecat in Anglia.

>

Yesterd~IY

at

11 i 111'

th,'\ II ell' leal ill,!! f()r

EIl,!!land,

Spune ca nu

e~ti

obosit.

Nimeni nu mi-a spus despre asta.

- 33 -

14. RECAPITULARE
14.1. "My own/of my own" Cuvfmtu1 "own" !, 'lIll; poate figura in doua expresii. Sta inainte sau dupa un substantiv, impreuna cu pronumele posesiv. Dacii sta dupa substantiv, atunci se leaga de acesta cu prepozitia "of'. De exemp1u:
I use my own tools.

Fo1osesc propriile instrumente. El are camera proprie. Am
0

He has his own room.
I have a garden of my own.

griidina proprie. (Am gradiuamea.)
0

She has a house of her own. Ce1e doua expresii se pot inlocui reciproc.

Ea are

casa proprie.

14.2. Alaturi de pronume1e "nobody" ~i "nothing" nu se folose~te alta negatie. In limba engleza nu exista negatie dubla. 1 saw nobody in the street. So far he has done nothing. Nu am vazut pe nimeni in starda. Pana acum e1 nu a Iacut nimic.

14.3. Pronumele "everybody" ("fiecare, toti, toata lumea") se afla intotdeauna la persoana a III-a singular. Everybody wants some tea. - Toata lumea vrea putin ceai.

14.4. Timpu1 trecut continuu - The Past Continuous Tense 14.4.1. Utilizarea timpu1ui: Acest timp se folose~te pentru descrierea actiunilor care s-au anumit moment sau intr-o anumita perioada din trecut. 14.4.2. Structura propozitiei: Pronume personal
I
desIa~urat

intr-un

+

verb auxiliar + was were

verb principal + -ing walking cleaning

+ ...
yesterday at five. theIr rooms all day yesterday.

They

14.4.3. Conjunetia "while" [lI aI! J- "pe cand, in timp ce" se folose~te des cu timpu1 Past Continuous ~i exprima faptul ca doua actiuni se desIa~oara in acela~i timp: We were listening to the radio Noi ascultam radioul in timp ce tatal while our father was reading a nostru citea ziarul. newspaper. 14.4.4. De asemenea timpul Past Continuous se folose~te ~i atunci dnd 0 actiune din trecut a fost intrerupta de 0 alta actiune. (Aceasta ultima actiune este 1a timpu1 Simple Past). I was having dinner when John - Cinam dnd a venit John. came.

- 34-

14.4.5. Propozitii interogative 1.

~i

raspunsurile la acestea.

Propozitiile interogative la timpul Past Continuous se fonneaza prin inversarea ordinii subiectului ~i a verbului auxiliar. In cazul 'intrebarilor eomplexe 'inaintea verbului auxiliar se gase~te un pronume interogativ. Te plimbati in pare ieri la trei? Were you walking in the park at three yesterday? Where was he going when I came? - Unde mergea dnd am venit eu? Raspunsurile afinnative se fonneaza cu ajutorul cuvantului "yes", al pronumelui personal ~i a verbului auxiliar "was/were". La formularea raspunsului negativ folosim cuvantul de negatie "no", pronumele personal, verbul auxiliar "was/were" ~i cuvantul "not". ("was/were not" se poate prescurta astfel "wasn't" ~i "weren't".) Was he driving home at six yesterday? - Yes, he was. Were they doing it all day yesterday? - Yes they were.

2.

- No, he wasn't.

- No, they weren't.

3.

Structura negativa 0 putem folosi They weren't cleaning the house at seven last Monday.

~i

in propozitii complete: Ei nu au curatat casa lunea trecuta la
~apte.

- 35-

14. TEMA PENTRU ACASA
A Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana: My train is at platform seven. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
It will be a house of my own.

I will tell nobody about this accident.

While they were buying vegetables Peter was looking for the keys. Will you help me to clean the house? He has just found his old purse.

B.

Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cand taiam paine mi-am taiat Nu voi merge la
Bucure~ti.
~i

degetul.

Pentru el nimic nu este greu. Aici totul este al tau. In timp ce
0

ajutam sa traduca aceasta scrisoare copiii mei se plimbau in gradina.

Vreau sa am un apartament al meu.

C.

Corectati
I.

gre~elile

din propozitiile de mai jos:

She willn't visit her old mother today.
I didn't see nobody in the square.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

They want to have a big house of my own.
I looked for my book all day yesterday.

Have you already selled that new watch?
I will give you every thing.

- 36-

LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE DIN LECTIILE 13. SI 14.
forma I-a
begin build catch fall feel find hang hurt leave sell tell > [bigin] >[bild] > [kEt';;] > [to:11 > [11:1] > [faindJ > [hEn
l

forma a II-a
began built caught fell felt found hung hurt left sold told
> [bigEn] > [bilt] > [ko:t]

forma a -III-a
begun built caught fallen felt found hung hurt left sold told > fbigan] > [bilt] > [ko:tJ > [fo:lnj > [felt] > [t:lUnd I > [han
In)

> [fell
> Ifelt]

> [faund] > [han =,]
> [ha:'t]
(,,)

!!)]

~

]

> [ha:"] > [Ii:v] > [sci] > [tel]

> [ha:'t] > [lcrt] > [s(\LildJ > [tould]

> [lcrt]
> [sollld]

> [touJd]

- 37 -

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 13.
accident American arm ashtray back to begin belly to boil to build to catch chest clean to clean delicious egg egg-cup elba\'.. electric empty everybody everything to fall fat
to feel

Sf 14.
accldcnt amencan brat scrumiera spate, spmare
d

> [Ebidiint] > [amCl lkim] > [a. 111] > [E~tleIJ > [bH] > [tu hlginl >
t

incepe, a sc apuca de

! bc I! I

burta, stomac a fierbe, a clocotl a cladl, a construi a prinde, a apuca plept curat ingrIJ it a curata delIcios, say uros au pahar pentru oua cot electne gal, neoeupat, hbel fiecare, toti. toata 1umea tot toate(Jucrurile) a C{idea, a
~e prabu~l

III "" ]

> [tu boil] > [tu bJld] > itu Hh] >
It?e~t]

> [k II :n] > [tu kll n] > [ d!li~{b]
.>

[eg: I

> leg: kap] > [c1 bou I >

! llektllk!

> iem})t!i > I c'vllbdllI; >
[C\

rlT

s

> Itu 1'0'1] > I1'r t] > [tu fl:l] > [tu fallld] > [fing/j
'>

gras, unsuros a sllnti a gasi deoet b furclilita prajjt, fhpt stlela, pahar cioean a atama, a 19a1a a
~l)lItd

to find finger fork fried glass hammer to hang to help his hers hungry in a hurry

[fa

\1

> [frald] > [gla's] > [hEmarJ > [IU h F n(g)J > [tu help j > [ill/ j
'>

al IUI;s{lU:
IUI;~:"ll:

~

1111 sa;
dJ

aI

ale lUI sale a elisa: el'sal:

Ihill/ I

al

ei/~iill:

ale eiisdle > [hangn I
> lin il han I

flamfl11d. infometat in grabiL la repezeala

- 38 -

to be

111

a hurry

> > >

Itu bl:
~

111

a hanl

a se grabl, a-I da zor a rani, a lovi, a jigni lui, sal.::, ei (pentru obieete, notiuni abstracte, animalc)

to hurt its

I tll !la. t]
[its]

r

key knee to leave
to

>

[kl: J [ni: I
111I 11 \

cheie genunchi

> > >

I
l·u.
l ]

a parasi, a pleca, a pleca la .. a lasa (ceva pentru). a se mula de 13 ., .Ia. a schimba ... eu

leave for

rt 1I I] \

meat mIne nail napkin new news nobody nothing old only the only ours own to pass plate platform to pour salt salt-cellar saucer to sell shall

> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >

[ml Ii
IIlUIll J [ne"] [nEpkin] [niu:] [niu:zl [1l11llh,di I [naT In " [ould] [OUIl!] ] [P/IOlll1lt]
: '1lI,~\ I L]

carne al meu, a mea, al mei, ale mele unghie
~ervcteL ~ervet

nOli
~tire,

noutate, veste sau noutati, vqti

~tiri,

nilTIe11l

'

(u)

I

I1lITIIC

in viirsta, v~chi( e), batriin numai, doar singuruL unieul al nostru, a noastra, ai
no~tri,

ale noastre

[tHIIl] Ilu
p,LS

propriu. personal

I
r
III

a pasa. a da farfurie

[plcit]

I plElro:
[tu
pll.
I

I

peron, rampa a tuma, a varsa sarc (de bU;::iHarie) solnila farfurioara, suport pcntru pahar a \ inde. a desface verb auxJlwr pentru fonnarea viitorului la
p~'rsoana

I

1st): 11 j

[~O It ~elj'!

I ~O

~~\I j

[tll scI]

hl:l]

1-,] singular

:~i

plural shoulders spoon
>

hOllld:!
I,pu n I

I
I

I

umcri lingura

>

- 39

story sweet to switch on

> >

I~to

rI]
1I

povestire, relatare dulce a aprinde (lumina), a pune in (functione un aparat electric) a stinge (lumina), a scoate din (functione un aparat electric) a gusta a spune alia/ai/ale lor insetat obosit, ostenit paine prajita gratar pentru prajit piiinea deget de la picior a traduce a folosi, a utiliza, a intrebuinta legume pe ciind, in timp ce padure, codru, lemn verb auxiliar pentru forrnarea viitorului incheietura mainii

I ~ 1I, II

> [tu " Ib on]

to switch off

> IlU s It~ on

1I

to taste to tell theirs thirsty tired toast toaster toe to translate to use vegetables while wood will wrist wrist-watch yours

> Itu tClstl > [tu tcl] > [D/dz] > [Tsa \tl] > [taliI1d] > [toust] > [tollsta r] > [tOll] > [t II trr nslelt 1 > [t II
III

~

/1

> [\ Cdjlt{lb,/] >
III
I

<III

i

> [dud! > [l'il1 > IrIst] > [rIst >
[10'
1 1I

ot~1

ceas de mii::la al tau, a ta, ai tai, ale tale, alia/ai/ale dumitale sau dumneavoastra, al vostru, a voastra, ai vo~tri, ale voastre

z]

...,

- 40-

RECAPITULARE
1. Folosirea sufixului -ing: a. Se elimina -e-ul mut de la come - coming b. Verbele formate dintr-o singura silaba dubleaza consoana finala: stop - stopping Aceasta regula este valabila ultima silaba este accentuata forget - forgetting
~i ~i
sIar~itul

cuvantului:

in cazul verbelor formate din mai multe silabe, daca consoana finala este precedata de 0 vocala:

2.

Adaugarea sufixelor -s a.

~i

es la substantive

~i

la verbe:

SubstantiveIe sau verbele care se termina in -ss, -ch, -sh, -x, -0 primesc terminatia -es: watch - watches teach - teaches go - goes

b.

Litera -y in pozitie final a, precedata de 0 vocala, se transforma in -i, iar apoi se adauga terminatia -es: city - cities try - tries

LECTIA 15 ,

" " PARTEA INTAI

Sa incepem lectia cu cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu atentie: bill

> [bil]
> lt~eindj]

- bancnota, factura, nota de plata - schimbare, schimb valutar, (bani) marunt (marunti) - biblioteca - culoare - fruct - veCln - para - strugure - portocala - pauza - iarba - mancare, hrana - altul, alta

change

library colour fruit neighbour pear grape orange break grass food another

> [laibrari] > [kala'] > [fj'u:t] > [neiba r ] > [pear] > [grcip] > [orindj] > [breik] > [gra:s] > [fu:d] >
[~lI1aD7 il']

Repetati cuvintele intr-o alta ordine: fruit grape grass bill
> [fru:t] > [greip] > [gra:s] > [bil] > l anaD'a r] > [Iaibrari] > [kala r] > [breik] > [fu:d] > [orindj] > [peil r] > [neibarJ > [tseindj]

- fruct - strugure - iarba - bancnota, factura, nota de plata - altul, alta - biblioteca - culoare - pauza - mancare - portocala - para - vecin - schimbare, schimb valutar, (bani) marunt (marunti)

another library colour break food orange pear neighbour change

2

Sa introducem cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi-le cu atentie: We buy food every day. The weather is changing. Now we must pay the bill. What colour were her eyes? We've had only one break so far. Have you seen your new neighbours yet? There is grass in our garden. Take thIs book from the library. I must buy another suit. These grapes are delicious. Taste one of these oranges. They eat a lot of fruit. Where can I buy pears?
> [nau "I: mast PCI D/a btl] > ["I: bai fll'd rvn dC/]

- Noi cumparam zilnic mancare. - Vremea se schimba. - Acum trebuie sa piatim factura. - Ce c'uloare aveau ochii ei? - Pana acum am avut singura pauza.
0

> ["ot kala' "a:' ha:' ,liZ]
> ["I.\ hEd aunli "an brelk sau fa:'] > [hEv Ill: sl:n nC/ba'z ICt]
10:'

nlll:

- I-ai vazut deja pe noii uli vecini?

> [IYca' iz gra:s in alia' ga:'dn] - In gradina noastra este iarba.
> [kik IYlS buk from IYa lalbran] > [at mast bal ,lI1aIYa' su:t]

- Ia cartea aceasta de la biblioteca. - Trebuie sa cumpar un alt costum. - Strugurii
ace~tia sunt delicio~i.

> [IYI.Z grelps a:'

dI1i~as]

> I h~ls\ ",m av [Yl'Z onndjlz] > [IYel I.t a lot a\ fnl'l] > [" ea ' kh1 at bal pca'z]

- Gusta una din aceste portocale. - Ei mananca multe fructe. - De unde pot sa cumpar pere?

3

Completati propozitlile in limba engleza cu noile cuvinte: Ai facturi de platit? Am vandut toate fructele. Sunt scumpe portocalele? Ieri am uitat sa cumpar mancare. Nu-mi plac aceste schimbari. Pe atunci aveam vecini amabili. Pe masa sunt mere
~i

- Do you have> bIlls to pay? - We have sold all the> fruits. - Are> Of anges expensive? - I forgot to buy> food yesterday. - I don't like these> changes. - We had nice> neighbours then. - There are apples and> pears on the table - This> break is too long. - Do you know where this> library is? - Do you want to buy only> grapes? - > G I ass is yellow in the autumn. - What> colour are her eyes? - Give me > another book.

pere.

Aceasta pauza este prea lunga.
~tii

unde este aceasta biblioteca?

Vrei sa cumperi doar struguri? Toamna iarba este galbena. Ce culoare au ochii ei? Da-mi alta carte.

Sa vedem in ce masura v-ati insu~it cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza: biblioteca iarba pauza fruct mfmcare altul, alta vecm culoare schimbare para portocala chitanta strugure > Ilbl<IIY >
gIl.lS~

> hlcJk > (llill >
(Dud

> anothcr > nClghhour > colour > changc > pcar >
OJ

~

. ',.
.:.:.
"

....
.:

~
.....

<lngc

> hill > grJpc

Partea de gramaticd a acestei /ectii se referd /a grade/e de comparatie ale adjective/or ,~i adverbelor: 1. Adjective/e ~i adverbe/e formate dintr-o singurd silabd primesc sujixu/ -er /a comparativ, respectiv -est /a super/ativ:
nice
> [n<ll>]

llIcer
>
[llal\.1

the nicest
j

>

l [Y.I nalsastj

- amabil

- mai amabil

- cel mai amabil

4

2.

Adjectivele $i adverbele care se terminii in -e mut, VOl' piel'de acest -e la adiiugarea terminariei -er sau -est: Nu uitari: in limba englezii. inaintea superlativului se pune intotdeauna articolul hotiirat the: tall
>[10.1]

taller
> [lo.la']

the tallest

- inalt

- mai inalt

- cel mai inalt

short
>[ ~ort]

shorter
>
[~o:'(a']

the shortest
> [[)fa ~o:Jlast]

- scund 3.

- mai scund

- cel mai scund

in cadrul recapituliirii v-am reamintit regula potrivit ciil'eia consoana jinalii a verbului se dubleazii in cazul adiiugiirii unui sujix. Aceastii regulii este va/abilii ~i in cazul adjectivelor: big
>[ big]

bigger
> [biga']

the biggest
> [IYa bigast]

-mare 4.

- mai mare

- cel mai mare

in cazul adjectivelor $i adverbelor compuse din dOlla sau mai multe silabe care se terminii in y, litera jinalii se transfol'mii in i la adiiugarea sujixelor -er sau -est: windy
>[ lljl1lh J

windier

the windiest
> [lYa lljmlJast]

> ["indla']
- mai vantos

- vantos

- eel mai vantos

in cazul adjectivelor la gradul comparativ se folose~te adesea cuvantul than [IYf-nJ - ca ~i, decat.

Cititi eu atentie propozitiile urmatoare, care contin adjective ~i adverbe la diferite grade de eomparatie: My trousers are longer than yours. This is the cheapest car in our shop. Our neighbours are poorer than we are. Today you have come earlier than ever.
> [mal hUllZa'l: a I
lOH(~)ga'

DTn o/:'z]
>[D/1S \/ [Ya
111

- Pantalonii mei sunt mai lungi decat ai tai. - Aceasta este cea mai ieftina ma~ina din magazinul nostru. - Vecinii no~tri sunt mai saraci decat noi. - Azi ai venit mai devreme ca niciodata.

tsi:P~ht

ka:'

alia'

~op]

>[alla' He/ba J ; a:' pu:ara'

[YEn

ilL

a"]
h[~\'

> [lade/ ill [YEn

kam i)IlJa'

e\~I'J

5

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu adjectivele Fratele meu are cea mai rapida din ora~.
ma~ina

~i

adverbele corespunzatoare:

- My brother has> the fastest car in town. - This woman is > stronger than two men. - I want to be >the nchest man in Romania. - Our father is >the busiest man. - Is it >coldertoday than yesterday? - Who is >taller than my father?

Aceasta femeie este mai puternica decat doi barbati. Vreau sa fiu cel mai bogat om din Romania. Tatal nostru este cel mai ocupat om. Este mai rece astazi decat ieri? Cine este mai inalt decat tatal meu?

Sa vedem in ce masura v-ati glad sad beautiful ugly small fresh during

insu~it

cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza: - bucuros - trist - frumos, minunat - urat, pocit - mie - proaspat - in timp ce

> [glEd] > [sEd] > [blU.td'il1] > [agll] > [smo:l] >
[fre~]

> [dlUann lg )]

Reluati cuvintele intr-o alta ordine: beautiful small during sad fresh glad ugly > [blU:tlfll1] > [smo:l] > [dlUann lg )] >[sEd] > [fres] >[gIEd] > [agh] - frumos, minunat - mle - in timp ce - trist - proaspat - bucuros - urat, pocit

Iar aeum sa folosim cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi-Ie eu voce tare: These flowers are beautiful. Why were you sad yesterday? We worked during the night. This is our small house. Are these vegetables fresh? > [O/I.Z flaua'z
a:rblU.tlt~l1]

- Aceste flori sunt frumoase. - De ee ai fost trist ieri? - Noi am luerat in timpuI noptii. - Aeeasta este mica noastra easuta. - Sunt proaspete legumele aeestea?

> [Ualua:' IU: sEd Icsta'dcI] > [ui. Ua:Tkt dlUarin lg ) D/a nalt] > [OIlS iz au a' smo: 1haus] > [a:' 0/J:Z vcdJ Itablz fre~] 6

I am glad you are ready. This is an ugly building.

>[ai Em glEd IU: a" redt] >[fYIs lZ an aglr bildll1(SI]

- Ma bucur cit - Aceasta este

e~ti

gata.

0

cHidire urata.

Completati propozitiile In limba engleza: Imi plac fructele proaspete. Ce-ai facut in timpul pauzei?
Ma~ina

- I like >fresh fruit. - What did you do ::oduring the break? - His car is >ugly. - He was very >glad I was there. - Why are you >sad? - This is a >beautJii.d picture. - This apartment is too >Sma II for our family.

lui este urata.

El a fost foarte bucuros ca eu am fost acolo. De cl'
l'~ti

tnst?
0

Aceasta l'ste

pictura frumoasa.

Aeeasta loeuinta este prea mica pentru familia mea.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii In limba engleza: Merele acestea sunt proaspete? Am maneat in pauza. Aeeasta a fast ziua eea mai trista a saptamiinii. Casa aceasta frumoasa este a lor?
Ma~ina

> Arc these apples Jlesh'l > 1 ate dUring the break. > It's heen the saddest
ttl\'

of thIS week

> Is thIS beautJilil hou:,c theIrs') >
YOLJI

ta l'ste mai urata decat a mea.

car

IS

uglIer than

111111C.

~i

Sa ne intoarcem la gradele de comparatie all' adjectivului ~i adverbului . Exista un grup de adjective adverbe care formeaza gradele de comparatie In mod neregulat. De exemplu: Gradul pozitiv: Gradul comparativ: more >[lllo.'J - mai mult less >[lcs] - mai putin worse >["a:'sJ - mal rim - mai prost, proasta better > l beta'] - mai bun Gradul superlativ: the most > [ D' a maust] - eel mai mult the least > [D/a II :st] - eel mai putin the worst >llYa "a:'st] - eel mal rau - eel mai prost, proasta the best >[rYa hest] - eel mai bun

manY>[lllenIJ much > [Illats] - mult little > [I itl] - putin bad >[ bEd] - rau - prost good > l gud] - bun

Daea little este folosit In sensu1 de mic, la comparativ ~i superlativ se folosese fonnell' adjl'c1Ivului small, adiea: smaller, the smallest.

7

Urmariti exemplele de mai jos: She has more money than me. Buy less bread than yesterday. Our lunch was better than hers. This radio is worse but cheaper. My sister has the most trees in the garden. They have the least coffee. Those were the best days of my life. We have bought the worst house in this street.
>
[~I,

hEz mo:' man I [YEn ml:] - Ea are mai multi bani dedit mine.

> [bal les bl eel IYF 11 lesta'c1el]

- Cumpara mai putina paine decat ieri. - Pranzul nostru a fost mai bun decat al ei. - Acest radio este mai prost, dar mai ieftin. - Sora mea are cei mai multi pomi in gradina. - Ei au cea mai putina cafea. - Acelea au fost cele mai frumoase zile din viata mea. - Noi am cumparat cea mai proasta casa de pe aceasta strada.

> I aucl' lants "az beta'
J)/f~n

ha:'/]
IZ

> I [YIS I en!lau
t~i'pcl' J

"a:'s bat

> [mal sista' hLz lYa maust
tII'Z m lYa ga,'dan]
>[lYel hh [Ya h:st kofl]

> [lYauz "a ' J)/a hest dClz a\ mal lalfJ
>["1 hL\ ho:t lYa "a:'st haus in [YIS str i t J

Daca prepozitia than este urmata de un pronume personal, acesta este la cazul acuzativ (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them).

Verificati daca ati retinut cele invatate despre gradeIe de comparatie ale adjectivului Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Eu cumpar intotdeauna cei mai buni struguri. Maine yin mai devreme la tine. Vrei sa cumperi 0
ma~ina

~i

adverbului.

> I ah\ ays buy the best gl apes, > ron WI I OJ \\ I \\ J!! cOllle to \ ou
c~lllJer.

mai mare?

> Do you \\ clnt to buy a hlgger car') > HI celL must be !ongel
> They all' the \\ Olst nClghbollls,

Pauzele trebuie sa fie mai lungi. Ei sunt cei mai rai vecini. Am cumparat mai putine fructe decat ieri. Da-mi 0 para mai mica. Aceasta este cea mai trista veste de azi. Fratele tau este mai inalt decat tine? Aceasta este cea mai urata culoare.

> I hcl\e bought less Jiult them yestelc1ay.
> (; 1\ e me a sma] icr pear.

> 'I hIS IS the sclddest ne\\ s today, > Is your hrothel tallel than :ou') > I hiS IS the uglIest colour.

Daca adjectivulla gradul superlativ este precedat de un pronume posesiv, articolul hotarat the se elimina:
It is the best car. - It is my best car.

8

Unnarili cu atentie cuvintele ~i expresiile noi din proPoziliile unnatoare, scrise cu caractere ingro~ate: This is the best song I have ever heard. My daughter is the shortest of all her friends. This is the longest letter I have ever written.
> [D/ls
IZ

D/a best

son(~)

al hEv eva' ha.'d]

- Acesta este cel mai bun cantec pe care I-am auzit vreodatii. - Dintre toti prietenii ei, fiica mea este cea mai scunda. - Aceasta este cea mai lunga scnsoare pe care am scris-o vreodatii. - Aceasta este cea mai rapida bicicleta dintre toate.

> [mal do:ta' IZ D/a so:'tast '1\ 0.1 h<1:' fi'endz]
> l D/ls
IZ

[Ya

lon(~Jgast lcta'

al hLv c\ a' ritn]

This is the fastest bicycle of all.

> [D/b

IZ

D/a fa:stast

balslkl av 0:1]

Traduceli unnatoarele propozilii in limba engleza folosind expresiile noi (Atentie: expresia of all poate fi neglijata in traducerea in limba romana): Acesta este cel mai trist film pe care I-am vazut vreodata. Acestea sunt cele mai mari schimbari. Aceasta biblioteca a avut cele mai multe carli din Anglia. Acesta este cel mai rau om pe care I-am V3zut vreodata.
> This is the saddest film I have e\ er seen. > These changes al e the greatest of all. > Th IS library had the most books of all
JIJ

Lngland.
IS

> This

the \\ orst man J ha\ e e\ er seen.

lata cateva verbe noi: to sleep to enjoy
>[tu slI.pJ >[tu lI1dJOI]

- a donni
- a se distra, a se simli bine, a se bucura - a( -~i) aminti,
a-~i

to remember to change to return to become to happen to start

>[tu rImcmba']

reaminti

> [t II

t

sell1dJ J

- a modifica, a schimba - a (se) intoarce, a da inapoi - a deveni - a se intampla - a incepe

>[tu rIta.'nJ

> [tu blkam]
>[tu hEpnJ >[tu sta:'tJ

Cateva dintre verbele de mai sus sunt neregulate. lata cele trei fonne ale acestora: I. sleep become
>[ blkamJ

II. slept became
9
> I slept]

III.

slept become

>[slept]

> [blkrlln]

> [blkam]

Cititi cu atentie propozitiile unniHoare in care am introdus verbele noi: John slept ten hours yesterday. She wants to become a typist. Can you change this bill'? What happened during the match? 1 must return the books to the Ii brary. They enjoyed the autumn sun. Do you remember that day? > [dlon slept ten aua'z icsta' dei J > [::;1. "ants tu blkam d ta/plst] > l kEn iu:
t~ell1dJ

- John a donnit zece ore len. - Ea vrea sa devina dactilografa. - Po,i sa schimbi aceasta bancnota? - Ce s-a intamplat in timpul meciului? - Trebuie sa inapoiez cart;ile la biblioteca. - Ei s-au bucurat de soarele de toamna. - iti aminte~ti acea zi? - leri am inceput sa lucrez.

DZis bll]

> [Uat h Epnd diuarm(g) [Ya mEt::;] > lal mast nta·'n [)fa buks tu DZa la/bran] > [DZel indjo/d DZI o.tam san] > [du
IU:

nmcmba' D/Et del]

1 started work yesterday.

> [ai sta:'tld "a:'k Icsta'del]

Retineti expresia urmatoare: EnJOY your meal!

>

[lI1djOI 10:'

ml·1J

- Pofta buna!

in ultimul exercitiu yom recapitula cele invatate. Traduceti in limba engleza: Ce culoare are paltonullui? Atunci aveam mai mult timp sa ne uitam la televizor. Pofta buna! Dintre toti prietenii mei, el este omul cel mai bogat. De ce ai cumparat farfurii urate? Trebuie sa bem mai putina cafea. Fiullui este mai in varsta decat al meu. Acest accident groaznic s-a intamplat acum doua luni. De ce nu s-a intors inca? Trebuie sa-mi dai inapoi banii mai devreme. Acest ciiine este celmai bun prieten al meu. imi place sa donn pana tarziu. > What colour is hIS coat') > We had more tllne to \\ atch TV then.

> Enjoy your meal!
> This IS the nchest man of all my

fllends. > Why have you bought ugly plates') > We must dnnk less coffee. > illS son IS older than mine. > ThiS awful aCCident happened two months ago

> Why ha\ en 't they returned yet'? > You must rcturn me the money earlier.
> ThiS dog
IS

my best fllend.

> [ like to sleep long

10

LECTIA 15 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
Ca de obicei, vom incepe leqia cu setul de cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu atentie: meeting >[ mi:tin lgl ] - intalnire, adunare loss sunnse butcher grocer >[los] >[sanraiz]
>[but~a'] ~edinta,

- pierdere - rasarit de soare - macelar - vanzator la bacanie, hacan - vanzator de legume ~i fructe - barba - furgoneta - aeroport - tema pentru acasa - SOSlre - plecare, pomire

>[grausa']

greengrocer

>[ gri: ngrausa']

beard van airport homework arrival departure Unneaza van butcher meeting

>[bia'd] >[vEn] >[ earpo:'t] >[ haum"a:'k] >[ araival] >[ dipa:rt~ar]
acelea~i cuvinte,

dar intr-o alta ordine: - furgoneta - macelar - intalnire, adunare
~edinta,

>[vEn] >[but;;a'] >[mi:tin(gl]

departure grocer

>[ dipa:'t~a'] >[grausCj']

- plecare, pomire - vanzator la bacanie, bacan - SOSlre - pierdere - vanzator de legume ~i fructe - tema pentru acasa - barba - rasarit de soare - aeroport

arrival loss greengrocer

>[ araival] >[Jos] >[gri:ngrausa']

homework beard sunnse airport

>[ haulll"a:'k] >[biCI'd] >[ sanraiz] >[ earpo:'t]

11

Retineti expresiile urmatoare: at the butcher's at the grocer's at the greengrocer's In cazul persoanelor: at my brother's at Mary's la fratele meu - la Maria la macelarie la bacanie la magazinul de legume ~i fructe

Sa introdueem euvintele noi In propozitii: Have you done your homework yet?
It was a great loss for me.
> [hE\
IU. dan 10.'] haull1 u a:'k let]

- Ti-ai Iacut deja tema pentru acasa? - Pentru mine a fost pierdere. - El are
0

> [It ",11: a !PClt los for 1m:]

0

mare

He has a long beard. The meeting will be at five. What time is their departure? There is an airport in our town. We watched the sunrise. Can you drive a van? I buy meat at the bucher's. Nobody saw their arrival. The grocer lives near us. We can buy fruits at the greengrocer's. > [[Yea' IZ an earpo:'t aua' taun] >
Il1

barba lunga.

> [IY,IIl1i.tIl1,g) uJi bl: E! 1'<I/\']

- Intalnirea va fi la ora cinci.

- La ce ora pleaca ei? - In ora~ul nostru este un aeroport. - Am privit rasaritul soarelui. - Poti sa conduci
0

lUI.

"atsl [)fa saJ1l,l/z]

> [kEn iu. (iral\ <I \ En] > [al balll1!.! Et D/a
but~a'z]

furgoneta?

- Eu cumpar came de la macelar. - Nimeni nu i-a vazut dind au sosit. Bacanullocuie~te

> [naubodl so [)lei' ara/\ I] > [[)fa grallsa' II \ Z nla' <Is] > [UI: kEn bal flu ts Et D/a gri:nglausa'z]

langa noi.

- Putem cumpara fmcte de la magazinul de legume ~i fruete.

Completa(i lInnatoarele propozltii In limba engleza: Tu e~ti vanzator la magazinul de legume fructe? Ei cand au plecat? Vrei sa fii macelar? Am sa-l invat sa eonduca Pentru noi va fi
0 0

- Are you a >greengrocer?

~i

- When was their >departure? - Do you want to be a >butcher? furgoneta. - I will teaeh him to drive a >van.
- It will be a great >loss for us.

mare pierdere.

Ai avut totdeauna barba?
12

- Have you always had a >beard?

Rasaritul de soare a fost frumos. Ne intiilnim la aeroport. Tatal lui a fost Mean. S-a inHimplat inainte de sosirea ei. Ai multe teme pentru aeasa? Vineri trebuie sa fii la
~edinta.

- The >sunrlse was beautiful. - I will see you at the >airpolt. - His father was a >groCCI.
- It happened before her >arri \ a!.

- Is there mueh >homc\'\ ark to do? - You must be at the >meeting on Friday.

Verifieati-va maeelar pierdere pleeare aeroport intiilnire sosire furgoneta barM

euno~tintele

traducand urmatoarele euvinte:
> butchel

> loss
> departure > airport > meeting

> van >
be~lI J

tema pentru acasa rasaritul soarelui viinzator la magazinul de legume baean
~i

> hOl11c\\ ork

> Slll1llSe

fmcte

> grcenglocer

> grocer

13

In aceastii parte a lectiei ne vom ocupa de un alt aspect legat de gradele de compara{ie ale adjectivelor ~i adverhelor Adjectlvele cOlllplise din doua sau //lai IIllilte silabe \~i care Iltl se terminii In y, formeazii gradul cOl11parativ eu ajutorul clivintelor more/less, iar sllperlativul cu expresiile the most/the least. in al11bele cazliri forma adjectll'ului sail a{/i'erblilui este identica Cll cea de la gradul pozitil'. De exel11plu:

Pozitiv
beautiful -frumos

Comparativ
more beautiful - mai frumos

Superlativ
the most beautiful - eel mai frumos

Cititi eu atentie propozitiile de mai jos: It is the most difficult question. My sister is more beautiful than yours. That car was less expensive. > [It IZ IYa maust dificalt
k"est~nJ

- Este intrebarea eea mai dificila. - Sora mea este mai frumoasa decat a tao
Ma~ina

> [l11al sisla' IZ 1110 ' htU tll:li OlEn 10.'Z]

> (D/[I ka r " az les IkspenSI\ J -

aceea era mai ieftina.

Traduceti propozitiile unnatoare in limba engleza: Acesta este cel mai frumos ora~ pe care I-am vazut vreodata. Este mai greu dedit am crezut. Tapetul cel mai scump este eel mai frumos. > rhls IS the mosl beaullful 100\n I ha\ e e\ er seen. > ThIS IS 1110lC (!If/lcu]1 tl1:111 J thought. > The 1110st expcnsive wall-papel IS the most beautiful.

lata alte eateva euvinte noi: clever enough
> [kina']
> [lIlaf]

- de~tept, istet - destul (de), suficient (de), indeajuns u~or, desehis la culoare, luminos

light

> [latl]

dark heavy strange wide narrow polite

>[da:'kJ

- intuneric, intunecat, inchis la culoare - greu - eiudat - lat - ingust, stramt - pohtieos

> [he\ IJ > [slrell1dJ] > [ "ani] > [nErau] > [palall]

Reeititi euvintele intr-o alta ordine: dark >[d;l 'k] - intunerie, intuneeat, inchis la euloare - eiudat 14

strange

narrow wide polite clever light

> [nErau] > ["alli] > [pala/t] > [kleva'] > [la/t]

- ingust, stramt - lat - politicos de~tept,
u~or,

istet

deschis la culoare,

luminos heavy enough
> [hevl] > [man

- greu - destul (de), suficient (de), indeajuns

Cuvantul enough sta inaintea substantivelor adverbe: enough money dark enough early enough

~i

dupa adjective sau

- bani destui - destul de intuneric - destul de devreme

Cititi urmatoarele propozitii in care apar cuvintele noi: He wasn't polite to me yesterday.
I like narrow streets in this town.

> [hI: "oznl palail tu mi: lesla'del] > [al la/k nEI,lll sln.ls m [)lis taun] > Lal hEvnt hEd mar lalln III du. It]
> [1l IZ sanl maftu gau

- El nu a fost politicos cu mine ieri. - Imi plac strazile din acest ora~.

I haven't had enough time to do It.
It is sunny enough to go for a walk.

- Nu am avut destul timp sa fac asta. - Vremea este indeajuns de insorita pentru 0 plimbare. - Este
0

1'0:' a "o.k]
> [DZis iz a hut nun] > [hI: iz a kleva' bOl]
> [It iz veri da.'k ladei]

This is a light room. He is a clever boy.
It is very dark today.

camera 1uminoasa.
de~tept.

- El este un baiat

- Azi este foarte intunecat. - Este cea mai grea carte pe care am vazut-o vreodata. - Vezi fata cu parul deschis?

This is the heaviest book I have ever seen. Do you see the girl with the light hair?
It was a strange accident.

> [[)ZIS IZ DZa heviast buk 'II hEy eva' sJ:n] > [dll IU: Sl: DZa garl "iDz DZa 1'1/1 heal] > [It "oz a slrell1dJ Ekslltmt] > [DZIS IZ [Ya "aldast slri·t m t,llIn]

- A fost un accident ciudat. - Aceasta strada este cea mai lata din ora~.

This is the widest street in town.

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu adjectivele nou invatate: Ea tocmai a cumparat un palton de culoare deschlsa. Nu pot citi intr-o camera intunecoasa. 15 - She has just bought a > iIghlcoat.

- I can't read in a > darkroom.

Ea este foarte

de~teapta.

- She is very >clever. - We must cross this >wldc street. - He is rich >enough to buy it. - Have you met this >strange man? - This box is too >hcavv for me. - This table is too >nan ow.

Trebuie sa traversam aceasta strada lata. El este destul de bogat ca sa cumpere asta. L-ai intalnit deja pe acest om ciudat? Aceasta cutie este prea grea pentru mine. Masa aceasta este prea ingusta.

Traduceti cuvintele de mai jos in limba engleza: greu ciudat intunecat ingust politicos lat
u~or

> heavy >stlange > dark > naITll\\ > polIte > wIde > lIght > cnough > lIght > clc\ cr > dark

destul luminos
de~tept

intuneric

Urmeaza 0 alta regula legata de gradeIe de comparatie ale adjectivelor !ji adverbelor. Adjectivele formate din doua si/abe. care au termina!ia -ow sau -er formeazii comparativul !ji superlativul tot cu ajutorul termina!ii/or -er !ji -est: narrow > [nErau] - ingust narrower > lnEraua'J - mai ingust the narrowest > [D/a 11 EI auast] - eel mai ingust

clever

cleverer

the cleverest
> [IYa kJe\ araslj

-

de~tept

- mai

de~tept

- eel mai

de~tept

16

Fonnati comparativul bad big good long nIce short little (putin) cheap difficult easy expensive sad ugly small much wide polite busy fresh awful early late narrow many sunny delicios light fast great

~i

superlativul unnatoarelor adjective
> \\Olse > hlgger > bettcr > longer > nicer > sholier > less > cheaper > mOle ,hffJcult > easIer > l110re cxpensive > sadder > uglier > "mallcr > more > \\ idel > more pohte > bUSier > tlesher > 11101 e Ll\\ ful > earlier > later > nclITD\\ er > more > sunnIer > more dellclos > lighter > Clslcr > greater

~i

adverbe:
> the worst > the biggest > the best > the longcst > the mcest > thc shortest > the least > the cheapcst > the 1110st difficult > the easiest > the most cxpenslvc > the saddcst > the uglIest > the smallest > the most > the \\ idest > the most polIte > the bUSlcst > the fleshest > the most
Ll\\

fuJ

> the earliest > the latest > the n,lITO\\ est > the most > the sunnIest > the most dellclOs > the lightest > the Llstest > the glcatest

17

Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba engleza: Tocmai m-am intalnit cu macelarul. La ce ora s-a intors el acasa? Eram acasa cand s-a intamplat. Cate portocale poti sa mananci? Imi trebuie Pofta buna! Este
0

> I ha\ e Just met the butcher.

> What tnne dId he return home'!
> I was at home when it happened. > lIow many oranges can you cal') > I must h,1\ e a longel break. > En JOy) our meal' > There IS a grocer's ne,lI our house. > Can you change this bIll" > Remember to \ ISlt John.
ni~te

0

pauza mai lunga.

bacanie aproape de casa noastra.

Poti sa schimbi aceasta bancnota? Nu uita sa-l vizitezl pe John. Du-te ]a bacanie
~i

cumpara

branza.

> Go to the grocer's and buy some cheese.

Inta]nirea va fi la aeroport. Ti-ai Iacut deja tema pentru acasa? La ce ora a rasarit azi soarele? Este cea mai ciudata poveste pe care mi-ai spus-o vreodata. Cine este mai in varsta decat mine? Este cea mai trista scrisoare a lui. Am destui bani sa cumpar cartea aceasta. M-am dus aco]o indeajuns de devreme ca sa vad sosirea lor.
Cit timp vrei sa dormi?

> The meetmg wIll be at the mrpolt.
> I la\ e ) ou already done your homework') > What tnne \\ as the sunrise today? > ThiS IS the strangest story you have
e\ er told me. > Who lS olLlel tban me')

> lt IS hIS

~adde~t

letter.

> I ha\ e enough money to buy thIS book.
> I \\ent thele early enough to see then
;11 rI\

a1.

> 110\\ long do you want to sleep')

Este cea mai proasta cina pe care am mancat-o vreodata. Fiorile lor sunt mai dragute decat ale noastre. A fost lucrul eel mai ciudat. Trebuie sa port acest sacou inchis la culoare? Noi avem bani suficienti ca sa mergem in Anglia.

> It IS the worst dll1ner I have
been eaten.

> TheIr I1m\ ers are mcer than ours. > It \\ as the stran1!est thmg of all. > Must I \\ car thIS dark coa!') > We ha\ e enough money to go to England.

18

In incheierea leqiei iata un exercitiu de pronuntie. Literele ingro~ate reprezinta sunetele identice din fiecare coloana:

[.:J
fresh spend remember when then

[EJ
glad sad bad van ash tray

[au]

[al J

grow grocer old know go

rise arrival wide behind polite

19

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 15 •
15.1. Formarea gradelor de comparatie ale adjectivelor 15.1.1. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor I.
~i

adverbelor:

~i

adverbelor regulate:
~i

Adjectivele ~i adverbele monosilabice primesc terminatia -er Ja comparativ terminatia -est la superlativ: nIce - amabil nicer - mai amabil the nicest - cel mai amabil

Daca adjectivul se tem1ina cu -e mut, acesta se elimina la adaugarea tenninatiilor -er ~i -est. Regula conform careia consoana finala a verbelor avand 0 singura silaba se dubleaza in cazul adaugarii unui sufix este valabila ~i in cazul adjectivelor ~i adverbelor. big - mare 2. bigger - mai mare the biggest - cel mai mare

Adjectivele ~i adverbele formate din doua silabe terminate in -y formeaza comparativul ~i superlativul schimband -y in -i ~i adaugiind -er, respectiv -est: windy - vantos windier - mai viintos the windiest - eel mai viintos

3.

Adjectivele ~i adverbele formate din doua silabe terminate in -ow sau -er formeaza comparativul ~i superlativul tot cu ajutorul tenninatiilor -er ~i -est: narrow - ingust clever de~tept

naITOWer - mai ingust cleverer - mai
de~tept

the narrowest - cel mai ingust the cleverest - cel mai
de~tept

15.1.2.

Exista adjective ~i adverbe ale caror grade de comparatie se formeaza in mod neregulat. De exemplu: many much -mult little - putin bad - rau good - bun more - mai mult less - mai putin worse - mai rau better - mai bun the most - cel mai mult the least - cel mai putin the worst - cel mai rau the best - cel mai bun

20

15.1.3.

Adjectivele

~i

adverbele formate din doua sau mai multe silabe care nu se termina in

-y, formeaza comparativul cu ajutorul cuvintelor more/less, iar superlativul, cu

expresiile the most/the least. In ambele cazuri, forma adjeetivului este identiea eu forma la gradul pozitiv. Pozitiv beautiful - fmmos Comparativ more beautiful - mai fmmos Superlativ the most beautiful - eel mai fmmos

15.104. Adjeetivele la superlativ sunt preeedate intotdeauna de articolul hotariit the. tall - inalt 15.1.5. taller - mai inalt the tallest - eel mai inalt

Daca adjeetivulla superlativ este preeedat de un pronume posesiv, articolul hotariit the se elimina:
It is the best car. - It is my best car.
~i

15.2. Cuvantul enough sUi inaintea substantivelor, dar dupa adjective enough money dark enough early enough - bani destui - destul de intunecat - destul de devreme

adverbe:

21

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 15
A
Traduce~i

urmatoarele propozitii in limba romiina:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1 have never seen the tallest building in the world. My greatest friend is the smartest boy of all I have ever met. It wasn't sunny enough to go for a walk without an umbrella. Who was the strongest man in England then? I will take the heaviest box. Have you bought this meat at the butcher's near the cinema?

B.

Traduce~i

urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Eu am dormit in camera cea mai mare a casei. imi amintesc ca ma~ina lui era destul de rapida. EI spune ca vrea sa fie prietenul meu cel mai bun. Cumparam struguri mai tiirziu. Acela era cel mai scump restaurant din ora~. Vreau mai multe flori in camera mea.

C.

Forma~i

comparativul ~i superlativul adjectivelor de mai jos:

1.

delicios

2.
3.

foggy
light strong ready good

4.
5. 6.

22

LECTIA 16 ,

" " PARTEA INTAI

lata ciiteva cuvinte referitoare la imbracaminte: clothes button hat collar sleeve
> [klauD/z] > [batn] > [hEt] > [kola'] > [sli:v]

- imbracaminte - nasture - palarie - guler - maneca (a rochiei, a cama~ii) - buzunar - fusta - bluza po~eta

pocket skirt blouse handbag necklace ear-nng Jersey

> [pokit] > [ska:'t] > [blauz] > [hEndbEg] > [ncklis] >
liarinl~J]

- colier - cercel - Jerseu

> [dja:'zi]

Acum repetati cuvintele Intr-o ordine diferita: hat handbag ear-ring clothes pocket skirt necklace Jersey button sleeve
> [hEt] > [hEndbEg] > [iarin lgJ ] > [klauDZz] > [pokit] > [ska:'t] > [ncklis] > [dja:'zi] > [batn] > [sliv]

- palarie po~eta

- cercel - imbracaminte - buzunar - fusta - colier - Jerseu - nasture - maneca (a rochiei, a cama~ii) - bluza - guler

blouse collar

> [blauz] > [kola']

23

Sa introducem cuvintele noi in propozitii: What clothes can I put on? I think you must put on a skirt and a blouse. All of my blouses are with buttons and long sleeves. Why don't you like them?
I like blouses with big collars. I will put on this blouse and my blue jersey.

> [" ot klauLYkI-n al put onJ > [al T'II1(~lk ill: ma~t put on a ska 't l:nd a hlauz] >[0.1 av mal blau/lz a:[ lillY buntz End lon(~) sl J:\ z] > [" al daunt Ill: lalk [Yem] >[al lalk hluUZlZ "I D/ big kola'zJ > [al "Ii put on IYls blauz End mal blu: dp:rzi] > [du IU: "ont tu !elk lYa nckiIs Lnd ialll1(~)z] > [nau al daunt al "Ii put on a hl::t End IYakuut lillY hlg pokih] > [daunt forgct ahuut [Ya hEndbLg]

- eu ce haine pot sa rna imbrac? - Cred ca trebuie sa te imbraci cu 0 fusta ~i 0 bluza. - Toate bluzele meIe sunt cu nasturi ~i cu miineca lunga. - De ce nu-ti plac? - Imi plac bluzele cu guler mare. - Ma voi imbraca cu bluza aceasta ~i cu jerseul meu albastru. - Vrei sa-ti pui colierul cerceii?
~i

Do you want to take the necklace and ear-rings? No, I don't. I will put on a hat and the coat with big pockets. Don't forget about the handbag!

- Nu, imi voi pune 0 palarie ~i haina eu buzunare man. - Nu uita
po~eta!

Retineti ca verbul like inseamna a placea: I like this house. Did she like that book? - Imi place aceasta casa. - Ei i-a placut aceasta carte?

Completati Ulmatoare propozitii in limba engleza: Ei viind cele mai ieftine palarii. Cea mai frumoasa fusta a mea este verde. Miinecile erau prea scurte. Imi place po~eta tao Jerseul acesta mai scump este mai frumos. Aveti paltoane cu guler mai mare? Hainele tale sunt pe scaunul acela. I-am cumparal cercei frumo~i. Pastreaza-ti banii in buzunar. Imi place mai mult colierul mai ieftin. Caut nasturi pentru aceasta haina. Mary ti-a luat bluza albastra. - They sell the cheapest >hats. - My most beautiful >skirt is green. - The >sleeves were too short. - I like your >handbag. - This more expensive >jersey is nicer. - Do you have coats with bigger >collars? - Your >c [othes are on that chair. - I have bought her beautiful >ear-nngs. - Keep the money in the >pockct. - I like the cheaper >necklace more. - I am looking for >butlons for this coat. - Mary has taken your green >blousc.

24

Acum traduceti in limba engleza:
po~eta

> handbag > Jersey > hat > pocket

Jerseu palarie buzunar [usta colier imbracaminte nasture guler miineca bluza cercei

> skirt
> necklace

> clothes
> button > collar > sleeve > blouse

> e,lI-rings

lata ciiteva verbe noi: to lose to grow to meet to rise to shut to spend > [tll grau] >[tlll11i:t]
> [tu nllz]
>[tu~atJ

- a pierde - a
cre~te,

a cultiva
cunoa~te

- a (se) intiilni, a (se) - a rasari - a inchide

> l tu spend]

- a cheltui (bani), a (pe) trece (timp)

25

Repetati verbele intr-o alta ordine: to grow to spend to rise to shut to meet > [tugrau] > [tu spend] > [tu nllz] > [tu
~at]

- a

cre~te,

a cultiva

- a cheltui (bani), a (pe) trece (timp) - a rasari - a inchide - a (se) intalni

> [tu ml:t]

Verbele de mai sus sunt neregulate. invatati cele trei forme ale acestora:
I.

II.
>[grau] > [spend] >[ralz] > [lu:z] > [~at] > [mI:t] grew spent rose lost shut met > [gru:] >[spent] > [rauz] >[lost] > [~at] > [met]

Ill.

grow spend nse lose shut meet

grown spent risen lost shut met

> [graun] > [spent] > [Jizn] > [lost] > [ ~at] > [met]

Cititi cu atentle urmatoarele propozitii, in care au fost folosite verbele nOl: She has lost her purse. His beard grew fast. We have never met. The sun will rise at seven. Mary is shutting the door. We want to spend three days in London. > ["i: lIont tu spend T'n. delz IJ1 landn] >
[~I'

hEz lost ha: 1 pa:ls]

- Ea

~i-a

pierdut portofelul.

> [hlz blald gru. fa:st] > ["I. hEv n('\ al met] > [O/a san "Ii
ralZ

- I-a ereseut repede barba. - Nu ne-am intalnit niciodata. - Soarele va rasari la ora ~apte. - Mary inchide
u~a.

Et s('\n]

- Noi vrem sa petrecem trei zile la Londra.

Completati unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu formele verbale corespunzatoare: Ieri s-au intalnit la magazin. Ai inchis deja
u~a?

- They> metin the shop yesterday. - Have you already> shutthe door? - She always> losestickets. - We will> grow vegetables in the garden. - Has the sun> risen yet? - You> spend too much money on clothes.

Ea pierde totdeauna biletele. Noi vom cultiva legume in gradina. A rasarit deja soarele? Cheltui prea multi bani pe haine.

26

Traduceti unnatoarele verbe 'in limba engleza, la cele trei fonne: a
cre~te,

a cultiva

> gn)\v

> grew > rose > lost > shut > spcnt > mct

> gIown > risen > lost > shut > spcnt > met

a raS3n a pierde a inchide a petrece (timpul) a intalni, a
cunoa~te

> rise > lose > shut > spend > meet

ill cOllt/l1uare VO/ll lllVIi{a douli expresii utilizate pentru compararea obiectelor .yi persoanelor:
as", as not so.,. as > [[z... Lz] > [not sau .. Ez] - la fel de, a~a, .. tot a~a de (in propozitie afinnativa) - nu a~a (de)." ca (~i) (in propozitie negatlva), nu atat... cat

De exemplu: My car is as expensive as yours. He is not as old as me. > [mal ka:' Ez 10:'Z]
IZ

Ez IkspcnsIv

~

Ma~ina

ca

~i

mea este la fel de scumpa a tao
a~a

> [hI IznotEzauldEzmi']

Nu e

de batran ca mine,

In propozItii negative, in loc de not so... as putem folosl expresia not

as... as.
Folositi structura comparativa in propozitiile de mai jos: Acest mar nu este atiit de dulce ca ace la, Am
aceea~i

- This apple is not >as/so sweet as that. - I am >as old as you. - Yesterday it was not >as/so cold as two days ago, - This table is >as hcavy as that.

varsta ca

~i

tine.

Ieri nu a fast atat de frig ca acum doua zile.

Aceasta masa este la fel de grea ca cealalta. Sa mai imatam ciHeva cuvinte noi: out of fashion to change soaked worn woollen waterproof simple > [aut av
n~~n J

- demodat - a (se) schimba (despre imbracaminte) - umed, ud - uzat, folosit (despre haine) - (confectionat din) de lana - impenneabil, rezistent la apa - simplu

> (tu t~emdlJ > [saukt] > ["o.'n] > ["ulan) > ("ota'pru'f] >[simpl]

Recititi cuvintele 'intr-o alta ordine: soaked simple >[sauktJ > [simpl J - umed, ud - simplu

27

woollen worn waterproof to change out of fashion

> [" ulan ] > ["o '11] > [" o Li'r lu

- (confectionat din) de lana - uzat, folosit (despre haine)

i1

- impermeabil, rezistent la apa - a (se) schimba (despre Imbracamintea) - demodat

> [tu hCiI1dJ] >[auta\
n:~Il]

lata cateva propozitii in care apar cuvintele noi: Big collars are out of fashion now. Have you changed yet? I can't put on this coat because it is soaked. These shoes are worn. I like woolen jerseys. These clothes are waterproof.
It is the simplest question of all.

> [big kola'z a:' aut a\ n:~n nau]

- Gulerele mari sunt demodate acum. - Te-ai schimbat deja?

> tal ka:llt put on IYIs but blkoz ItlZ s:lLIkt]

- Nu pot sa ma imbrac cu aceasta haina pentru ca este uda. Ace~ti

pantofi sunt uzati.

- lmi plac jerseurile de lana. > I [Yl:Z klauD'z a:' "o ta'plu rj > [It
:l\
IZ

- Aceste haine sunt impermeabile.
k"cst~n

IYa simplast

0: 1]

- Este cea mai simpla intrebare (dintre toate).

Completati propozitiile urmatoare cu noile cuvinte invatate: Este scumpa aceasta fusta de lana? Palariile sunt demodate. Aceasta bluza uzata este urata. Este impermeabil? Erau uzi cand au intrat In casa. - Is this >\\ ookn skirt expensive? - Hats are >out of j~lshlOn. - This >\\ 01 n blouse is ugly. - Is it >\\ atcrprooJ'? - They were >soaked when they entered the house. lmi plac cantecele simple. Trebuie sa ma schimb inainte de cina.
- 1 like >simrle songs.

- I must >change before dinner.

Traduceti in limba engleza: uzat simplu demodat ud a (se) schimba de lana impermeabil
> \\ OJ n

> slmpk > out of fashion > sO:lkcd
> to ch,l!1gc

> \\ ookn > \\ :1tt.'1 ploof 28

lar acum ne vom ocupa din nou de timpul Present Perfect. Doua prepozi!ii se folosesc adesea impreuna cu timpul menrionat.

for

> [fo.'J

- de (un timp)

eu ajutorLlllLli for exprimal11 durata actiunii, de exemplLl: de doi ani, de trei zile.

I haven't seen him for a week. > [al hE\nt si:n him 1'0:' a L1i:kJ - Nu I-am vazut de 0 saptamana.
I have workrd here for two years.

> [a/ hE\ L1a:'kt hia' fo:' Ill: ila'zJ

- Lucrez aici de doi ani.

Since se folose$te tot pentru exprimarea duratei aC!lll11ii, dar indica $i momentul din trecut in care a inceput actiunea.
She hasn't met him since last month. They have changed since last year. >
[~I:

hEznt met la:st manT'J

111111 SII1S

- Ea nu s-a Intalnit cu el de luna trecuta. - Ei s-au schimbat de anul trecut.

> [lYel hE\ t,:,cmd.ld

SlOS

la:st Ila'J

Predicatul propo::.itiifor care contin since (vederi ~i exe11lplele de 11Ia1 jos):
I have lived here for twenty-three years.

,~i

for se traduce in ronlline,~te la timpul prezent sau trecut

~

Locuiesc aici de dou3zeci

~i

trei de ani.

I have lived here since 1975.

- Locuiesc aici din 1975.

\

l. I
"I live in this house." "I have lived in this house since 1975.
1 have lived here for twenty-three years."

Completa~i propozi~iile

urmatoare cu una dintre

prepozi~iile

since sau for:

They haven't returned home> for three months. We have visited them twice> since last Monday. She hasn't gone for a walk> since last month.
I haven't driven a car> fortwo months.

She has known about it > since June. They have lived in this house> for many years.

29

She hasn't talked to her husband >slllce last Wednesday. She has eaten nothing >for more than fout days.

Prepozi{ia since poate fi IIrmatd de
1 haven't seen hIm since we

0

propozi{ie seclIlldard fa Simple Past:
- Nu I-am mai vazut de dnd

met in August.
He has had no money since h,e paid for his car.

> [al hEvnt sl:n him sms ui: met in o:gast] >[hl: hEz hEd nau manI sins hI. peld fa ' 11IZ ka: ' ]

ne-am intalnit in august.
- Nu mai are bani de dnd
~i-a

pliitit

ma~ina.

Traduceti in engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Aceste palarii nu mai sunt la moda de doi ani. Sora mea nu mai de vara trecuta.
locuie~te cu

> These hats have been out of fashIOn for two years. > My SIster hasn't lived with us since last summer. > I haven't been at home sll1ce Mary came. > \Vhere have you been for four yeal s') > We have known him for many years.

noi

N-am mai fost acasa de cand a venit Mary. Unde ai fost timp de patru ani? Noi il cunoa~tem de multi am. lata cateva verbe noi: to wear to fit to zip up to tryon

> [tu "ear]
>[ tu fit] >[tu ZIp ap] >[tu tral on]

- a purta - a (se) potrivi - a inchide fennoarul - a incerca, a proba (despre imbracaminte) - a tricota

to knit

>[tu nIt]

Cititi verbele noi intr-o alta ordine: to try on > [tu tral on] - a incerca, a proba (despre imbracaminte) - a tricota - a purta - a trage fennoarul sus - a (se) potrivi

to knit to wear to zip up to fit

>[tu nit] >[tu "cal] >[ tu ZIp ap] >[ tu fit]

Verbul to wear este neregulat. Cele trei fonne ale sale sunt: wear>["ea'] wore> [ lin I] worn >["o:'n]

Sa introducem verbele noi in propozitii: She knitted me a nice jersey.
>[~I:

nitld ml: a nals dJa:'ZI]
~u:z

- Ea mi-a tricotat unjerseu frumos. Ace~ti

These shoes have never fitted. >[O/I:Z

hEy neva' fitld]

pantofi nu mi-au fost buni niclOdata.

He zipped up his coat.

> [hI. Zipt ap hlz kaut]

- EI ~i-a inchis fermoarul de la haina.

30

Have you tried it on yet? She likes to wear long skirts.

> [hEv >
[~1'

IU:

traid It on let]

- L-ai probat deja? - Ei ii place sa poarte fuste lungi.

laiks tu "ea l lon(gl ska:rts]

Completati unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu fonnele verbale corespunzatoare: De anul trecut ea a tricotat trei jerseuri. Mary
i~i

- She has> knitted three jerseys since last year. - Mary is > Zlppmg up her coat. - Can we >try on this suit? - I never >\\earblouses with long sleeves III summer. - My clothes >fit my daughter.

inchide fermoarul de la haina.

Putem proba acest costum? Vara nu port niciodata bluze cu maneca lunga. Fiicei mele ii sunt bune hainele mele.

In incheierea acestei paTti a lectiei, traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Cine ti-a dat aceasta veste? Gulerul este destul de lung? Cand a rasarit ieri soarele? Mi-am pierdut po~eta. Nu I-am mai vazut de cand a plecat din ora~ul nostru. Toate femeile poarta cereei? Locuim aici de douazeei de ani. Palaria verde nu ti se Casa noastra nu este
potrive~te.
a~a

> Who told you this news'? > Is the collar long enough? > What tIme dId the sun l'lse yesterday'l > I have lost my handbag > I haven't seen hlln SlllCC hc left our to\\ n. > Do a] I women wear ear-I ings'? > We have !Iv'ed here for twenty years. > The green hat doesn't fIt you. > Our house IS not so/as big as theirs. > All my clothes are soakt:d. > Nobody buys waterproof hats. > I wIll knit you a woollen jersey. > Long skIrts are out of fashIOn now.

de mare ca a lor.

Toate hainele mele sunt ude. Nimeni nu cumpara palarii impermeabile.

Iti

voi tricota un jerseu de lana.

Fustele lungi nu sunt la moda acum.

Unneaza un exercitiu de pronuntie. Cititi cu atentie unnatoarele seturi de euvinte: [a: '] skirt Jersey heard bird [ i] knit zip fit big [0] collar pocket lost clock 31 [au] soaked clothes grow know

LECTIA 16 - PARTEA A nOVA ,
Citi1i cu atentie urmatoarele dialoguri. Silabele Mary: Tom: Mary: Tom:
~i

cuvintele accentuate sunt scrise cu litere

ingro~ate:

Do you like clothes which are out of fashion? No, I don't. I never buy them. But they are not so expensive as other clothes. And sometimes I have little money. Last week I spent a lot of money on a new coat. Another coat was cheaper, but it wasn't waterproof. And when I tried it on it did not fit.

Barbara: I must remember to buy some grapes. Peter: The greengrocer in our street always has fresh grapes. And at the green-grocer's you always meet people to talk to.

Barbara: But I don't have time to talk, because 1 have to return some books to the library. It's late already. And if I return them too late I have to pay more money.

John: Mary: John: Mary: John: Mary: John:

My sister works at the airport. She must get up early, when it is still dark. Does she like this work? I think she does. She likes to watch the planes when they rise into the sky. Where did she work before? At the butcher's. And she wanted to change her work, because she had to clean many things there. She didn't like it. So it was easy for her to leave the butcher's for the airport? Yes, it was. But it was difficult to find this new work. I helped her. She will never return to the butcher's shop.

Barbara: Do you know people who are always busy and spend all their time at work? Peter: Yes, I know a lot of them. They are always in a hurry. And some of them smoke too much, too.

Barbara: Do you think they enjoy life? Peter: No, I don't think they do. They never find time to enjoy things. I think they forget to live, because they are so busy.

Barbara: I think you are right. They don't know what a good book is. And you will never find them in a cinema. Peter: Do you think these people are nice to talk to?

Barbara: No, I don't. They know nothing about all these things. But it is difficult for them to change. Peter: You know, Barbara, it's never too late to change. When they change they are glad.

32

Tom: Mary: Tom: Mary: Tom: Mary:

Do you meet many people who say it is better to eat more vegetables and less meat? Yes, I have met a lot of them. And they also say that fresh fruit is good for everybody. Is it good to listen to these people? I think it is. Fat people live shorter. Do you want to live a long time? Yes, I do. But what you eat is not the only thing. It is also what you do and don't do. I think you are right. If you sit on a chair all day you get tired. After a walk you will feel better.

Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba engleza: Folosesc intotdeauna cat se poate de putina sare. Ai schimbat deja aceste bancnote? Noi vom cultiva legume in gradina noastra. Cine a cheltuit cel mai putin? lama intotdeauna port cele mai calduroase de lana.
> I <t1way~, use as little sal! as 1 can. > llave you already changed these bills? > \Ve wIll grow vegetables in our garden. > \\'ho spent the leasl money') > In \\ Inter I :11\\ ay s wear the warmest woollen socks, > Who is Ihe most he:1lI11 I'ul girl in Romania') > J1:\\ e you :liready shul Ihe wmdow'! > You ha\ e come call •v enou"h Co 10 mec\ him. > II IS heaVier than I Ihought. > Where is your younger brother') >\ h:\\en'l he en al Mary's since I started to work, > \VheI e is the biggest hammer') > What tllne must you be al the airport'! > We h:\\ e jusl become neighbours. >Thb is the ugliest building I ha\ e e\ er seen. > He likes only Ilghl
CO!OUh,

~osete

Cine este cea mai frumoasa fata din Romania? Ai inchis deja geamul? Ai venit indeajuns de devreme ca sa te intalne~ti cu el. Este mai greu decat am crezut. Unde este fratele tau mai mic? Nu am mai fost la Mary de dnd am inceput sa lucrez. Unde este cel mai mare ciocan? Cand trebuie sa fii la aeroport? Tocmai am devenit vecini. Aceasta cste cea mai urata c1fidire pe care am vazut-o vreodata. Lui ii plac numai culorile deschise. Tatal meu este bacan dintotdeauna. Copiii cresc foarte repede. Aceasta este
0

> I\ly Lllher has he en a grocer slI1ce always. >Chlldren grow \'ery LISt. > It IS a \ cry simple questIon,

intrebare foarte simpla.

33

Accidentul s-a intamplat dupa plecarea lor. Acestjerseu este la fel de frumos ca
~i

> The accIdent happen cd after thelr departure. > This jersey IS as nice as 1ha1. > The food was worse there than at home.

acela.

Mfmcarea a fost mai proasta acol0 decat acasa. Colierul mamei mele este mai frumos. Pot sa incerc aceasta fusta? Schimba-te inainte de cina. Avem portocale destule pentru toata lumea. Acesta este cel mai bun cinematograf din ora~ul nostru.

> My mother's nccklace is more beautiful.
> Can
j

tryon thIs skIrt'!

> Change berO! e (iinner. > We have enough or,mges for everybody.
> This
IS

the best clllcma

111

our town.

34

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 16 ,
16.1. Construqi ile as... as
~i

not so... as

Aceste structuri se folosesc la compararea obiectelor sau a persoanelor: as ... as - la fel de, a~a ... ca (~i), tot propozitia afirmativa) - nu a~a ... ca nLl atat de Ma~ina ~i

a~a

(de) (In

not so.. as

(in propozitie negativa)

My car is as expensive as yours.

ca He is not as old as I am.

~l

mea este Ia fel de scumpa a ta.
aceea~i

- El nu are

varsta ca mine.

In propozitii negative, in loc de not so ... as putem folosi expresia not as ... as.

16.2. Prepozitiile for

~i

since se folosesc astfeI:

Prepozitia for inseamna: pe

0

duratalperioda de.

CLl ajutorul acestel prepozitii exprimam durata aqiunii, de exemplu: de doi ani, de trei zile. 1 haven't seen hun for a week. - Nu I-am vazut de
0

saptamana.

Prepozitia since inseamna: din, de la un moment dat din trecut. Se folose~te tot pentru exprimarea duratei aqiunii, dar se refera care a inceput aqiunea. She hasn't met him since last month. Since poate fi urmat de
0

~i

la momentul din trecut in

- Ea nu s-a intalnit cu el de luna trecuta.

propozitie eu predieatulla timpul Simple Past: - Nu I-am mai vazut de cand ne-am intalnit in august.
~i

1 haven't seen him since we met in August. Predicatul propozitiilor care contin since prezent, fie la trecut. 1 have lived here for ten years. I have lived here since 1980.

for se traduce in limba romana fie la timpul

- Traiesc aici de zece ani. - Traiesc aici din 1980.

35

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 16
A.
Traduce~i propozi~iile

unnatoare in limba ramana:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

J want to try on that blouse. She has worn the same hat for ten years. Last week she knitted this woollen jersey for me. Have you seen him since he changed his apartment? This man is as strange as his neighbour. We must remember to buy the least expensive clothes.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:
I.

Biserica aceasta este la fel de frumoasa ca Jeri mi-am pierdut portofelul in autobuz.

~i

cea din Londra.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

II cunosc pe acest om de cand am cumparat 0 casa de la el.
Fiul nostru a crescut mult in ultimele doua luni. Aceste legume nu sunt la fel de bune ca acelea. Ei lucreaza la un macelar de la
sfiir~itul

anului trecut.

C.

Corectati
I.

gre~elile

din propozitiile unnatoare:

She has knited three jerseys so far. They have spent all their money for last week. My father has been in hospital since he has had an accident. His parents are so nice as mine. They have lately shutted their shop. We haven't been in England since two years.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

36

LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE DIN LECTIILE 15 SI 16 , ,
II ill

become grow lose meet rIse shut sleep spend wear

> [bikam] > [grall] > [Iu:z] > [mi:t] > [ralZ] >
[~at J

became grew lost met rose shut slept spent wore

> [bikeim] > [gru:] > [lost) > [met] > [rollZ] > [sat] > [slept] > [spellt] > [" O :']

become grown lost met risen shut slept spent worn

> [bikam] > [gralln] > [lost] > [met] > [rizn] >
[~at]

> [siI:p] > l spend] > ["ea'J

> [slept] > [spent] > [Uo:'n]

37

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 15 SI 16 , ,
airport another arrival as ... as baker's beard beautiful to become bill >[ carpo:rt] >[anaD1a'] >[ aralval] >[ Ez. .. Ez] >[bclka'z] >[bla'd] >[biu ural] >[ tu blkam] >[ bil] - aeroport - altul, alta, inca unul, inca una - sosire a~a,

ca

~i,

tot

a~a,

la fel de

- brutarie - barM - frumos, minunat - a deveni - factura, nota de plata bancnota [USA] - bluza - pauza - macelar - macelarie - nasture - a modifica, a schimba (bani), - a (se) schimba (despre haine) - schimbare, schimb de bani,
marunti~

blouse break butcher butcher's button to change

> Ihlallz] >[bITlk] > [butsa']
>Ibut~a'z]

>[batn] >[tu tscmel)]

change

> l t~cll1d.l]

clever clothes collar colour dark

>[klcva'] > [klallD/z] >lkola'] >[kala'] >lda.'k]

-

de~tept,

istet

- imbracaminte - guler - culoare - intunecat, inchis la culoare, intunecos - plecare, pomire - in timp ce - cercel - a savura, a se simti bine, a se bucura de - destul, suficient, indeajuns - a (se) potrivi

departure during ear-f1ng to enjoy

> [(lJpa

't~a']

> [dlUaJ mig,] > [i'l! mlgl ] > [tu mdlOf]

enough to fit

>lmaf] > [tu fit]

38

food for fresh fruit glad grape grass greengrocer

> [fu:d] > [fo:'] >
[fre~]

- mancare, alimente, hrana - de un anumit timp - proaspat - fruct - fericit, bucuros - strugure - iarba - vanzator la magazinul de legume ~i fmcte - magazinul de legume
~i

> [fru:t] > [gIEd] > [grelp] > [gra:s] > [gri. ngrallsa']

greengrocer's grocer grocer's to grow handbag to happen hat heavy homework Jersey to knit library lIght

> [gri:ngrallsa'z] > [griillsa'] > [grallsa'z] > [tll grau] > [hEndbEg] >[tuhEpn] > [hEt] >[hCVl] > [halll11"a:'k] > [dja.'Z1] > [tu nit] > [la/brari] > [la/t]

fructe

- Mcan, vanzator la bacanie - bacanie - a crqte, a cultiva po~eta

- a (se) intampla - palarie - greu - tema pentru acasa - Jerseu - a tricota - biblioteca - lUl11inos, deschis (la culoare),
u~or

to lose loss to meet meeting narrow necklace neighbour not so... as not as ... as orange

>[tu lu:z] > [los] >[tll mi:t] > [mi:tin(gl] >[nErou] >[ncklis] >[nc/ba'] >[not sau Ez] >[ not Ez Ez] >[ ortnuj]

- a pierde - pierdere - a (se) intalni, a (se) ~edinta, cunoa~te

intalnire, adunare

- ingust, stramt - colier - veClll - nu - nu
a~a a~a

(de) ... , ca (de) ..., ca

(~i); TIU (~i);

atat de

nu atat de

- portocala

39

out of fashion pear pocket polite to remember to return

> [aut ov >[pea'] >[poklt] > [palalt]

fF~::;n]

- demodat - para - buzunar - politicos - aHi) aminti, aHi) reaminti - a (se) intoarce, ada inapoi, a inapoia - a rasari - trist - a inchide - simplu - de atunci - fusta - a dormi - maneca (a rochiei, a cama~ii) -mic - ud, umed - a cheltui (bani), a (pe) trece (timp) - a incepe - ciudat - rasarit de soare - decat - a incerca, a proba (despre imbracaminte) - mat, pocit - furgoneta - impermeabil, rezistent la apa - a purta (despre haine) - lat - (confectionat) din lana, de lana - uzat, folosit (pentru haine) - a inchide fermoarul

> [tLl rImcll1ba r ] >[tLl nta:'n]

to rise sad to shut simple since skirt to sleep sleeve small soaked to spend

>[tulalz] >[,Ed] >[tu
~at]

> [simpl] >[sins] >[ska:'t] >[tu sh.pJ >[slI.\ J >[smo:1J >[saukt] >[ tLl spend]

~

to start strange sunnse than to try on

>[tu'la.'tJ >[stlclI1dlJ >[sanralz] >[ D/EnJ >[tu Iral onJ

~

ugly van waterproof to wear wide woollen worn to zip up

>[agIJJ > [\ Ln J >["ola'pru:J] >[ III "ca'] > ["af(IJ >["ulanJ > [" ll In] >ltuzlpap!

40

RECAPITULARE
1. Pronumele negativ no, nobody, nothing: I have no time now. Nobody came to visit us. I have nothing. - Acum nu am timp. - Nu a venit nimeni sa ne viziteze. - Nu am nimic.

2.

There is/there are: There is a car in the street. There are some dogs in the garden. - Este 0
ma~ina in

strada.

- Sunt cativa caini in gradina.

3.

Prepozitia for exprima durata actiunii: I haven't seen him for a week. - Nu I-am vazut de
0

saptamana.

Prepozitia since indica momentul din trecut in care a inceput actiunea: She hasn't met him since last year. - Ea nu s-a intalnit cu el de anul trecut.

4.

Constructiile as... as as... as not so... as

~i

not so... as folosite pentru compararea obiectelor sau a persoanelor: - Ia feI, a~a de, ... tot a~a de (in propozitie afirmativa) - nu a~a... ca ~i (in propozitie negativa), nu atat M~ina mea este

My car is as expensive as yours. He is not as old as me.

Ia fel de scumpa ca ~i a tao

- Nu e a~a de batran ca mine. Nu are aceea~i varsta ca mine.

LECTIA 17 ,

PARTEA INTA.I
~i

Sa incepem lectia cu setul de cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare traducerea lor in limba romiina: job wages raise
> [djob] > [Ueidjiz] > [reiz]

urmariti

- munca, ocupatie, slujba - salariu - marire, cre~tere (a salariului) - muncitor - ~omaJ - coleg - sindicat - membru - negocieri - angajat, salariat - greva - conducere, administratie

labourer unemployment colleague trade-union member negotiations employee strike management

> [lelbaraf ] > [animploimant] > [koli:g] > [treid iu:nian] > [membar] >
[nigau~iei~anz]

> [emploii:] > [straik] > [mEnidjmant]

Sa exersam strike member raIse

acelea~i

cuvinte, dar intr-o alta ordine:
> [straik] > [membar ]
> [reiz]

- greva - membru - marire, cre~tere (a salariului) ~omaJ

unemployment wages job management trade-union employee labourer negotiations colleague

> [animploimant] > [Ueidjiz] > [djob] > [mEnidjmant] > [treid iu:nian] > [emploii:] > [lelbara >
T ]

- salariu - munca, ocupatie, slujba - conducere, administratie - sindicat - angajat, salariat - muncitor - negocieri - coleg

[nigau~iei~anz]

> [koli:g]

2

lata cuvintele noi in propozitii: I have many colleagues. The negotiations will be tomorrow. We are waiting for the management. He has lost his job. The employees want to talk. I got a raise yesterday. He is a member of a trade-union. We have great unemployment in Romania. They are talking about the last strike. Do you think my wages are high? Is he a labourer m this factory? >[ai hEv meni koli:gz] >[DZa nigau~iei~anz uil bi: tamorau] >[Ui: a:' Ueitin(g) fo: r DZa mEnidjmant] >[hi: hEz lost hiz djob] >[DZa emploii:z Uont tu to:k] > [ai got a reiz iestardei] >[hi: iz a memM' av a treid iu:nian] >[Ui: hEv greit animploimant in ru:meinia] >[ DZei a: r to:kin lg ) abaut DZa la:st straik] >[ du iu: TSm(g)k mal Ueidjiz a.' hai] >[ iz hi: a lelbara r in DZis fEktari] - Am multi colegi. - Negocierile vor fi maine.

-

A~teptam

conducerea.

- El

~i-a

pierdut slujba.

- Salariatii vor sa vorbeasca. - Ieri am primit 0 marire de salariu. - EI este membru de sindicat. - In Romania ~omajul este foarte mare. - Ei vorbesc despre ultima greva. - Crezi ca salariul meu este mare? - El este muncitor in aceasta fabrica?

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Ai
ve~ti

despre greva?

- Have you the news about the >strike? - I know about these >negotiations. - Do you like your :::job? - Last year we had more >members. - They get a >raise every year. - My :::colleagues will always help me. - What do you know about :::unemployment in your country? - In a month our >wages will be higher. - The :::management of our factory is very good. - All >labourers have a meeting on Wednesday. - Have all your ::oemployees families? - Are you a member of this :>trade-union?

~tiu

despre aceste negocieri.

Iti place munca ta? Anul trecut am avut mai multi membri. Ei obtin in fiecare an 0 marire de salariu. Colegii mei rna vor ajuta intotdeauna. Ce
~tii

despre

~omajul

din tara ta?

Peste

0

luna salariile noastre vor fi mai mario

Administratia fabricii noastre este foarte buna. Toti muncitorii au
~edinta

miercuri.

Toti angajatii tai au familie?
E~ti

membru al acestui sindicat?

3

Traduceti in limba engleza noile cuvinte: munca, slujba coleg angajat salariu conducere membm muncitor > job > colleague > employee > wages > management > member > labourer > unemployment sindicat salariu negocieri greva marire a salariului administratie > trade-union > wages > negotiations > strike > raIse > management

Gramatica lecfiei se referii la utilizarea timpului trecut perfect (Past Perfect Tense). Acest timp se
folose~tepentru a descrie 0 aCfiune care s-a desfii~urat inaintea unei alte aCfiuni trecute, aceasta din

urmii exprimiindu-se cu timpul Simple Past (trecutul simplu). Complementele circumstanfiale utilizate cu Past Perfect Tense sunt:
after

> [a:ftaf] > [bifo: f]

- dupa, dupa aceea, dupa ce, ulterior - inainte de, inaintea, dinaintea

before

Urmiirifi structura propozifiei: Subiect

+

verb auxiliar

+

forma a Ill-a a verbului principal

+
this book ... the house...

She They

had had

read built

lata cum este folosit Past Perfect Tense in propozitii: I had eaten breakfast before I went to work. After the employees had got a raise they started to work. >[ai hEd Un brekfast bifo: f ai Uent tu ua:fk] - Am luat micul dejun inainte de a merge la lucm.

>[a:fta f DZi emploii:z hEd got - Dupa ce salariatii au obtinut 0 a reiz DZei sta:ftid tu ua:fk] marire de salariu, au inceput sa lucreze.

4

Before I visited my mother I had bought her flowers. She went to bed after she had watched that film.

> [bifo: f ai vizitid mai maDZa f - Inainte de a 0 vizita pe mama al hEd bo:t ha: f tlauih] i-am cumparat flori. >
[~j:

Uent tu bed a:fta r hEd Uot;;t DZEt film]

~i:

- Ea s-a dus 1a culcare dupa ce s-a uitat la filmul acela.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Inainte de a cumpara aceasta ma~ina am lucrat mult timp intr-o banca. Dupa ce s-a intors acasa el a mancat ni~te paine. Am i'ncercat aceasta haina inainte de a 0 cumpara. Ea a inceput sa se ingrijoreze dupa ce a primit aceasta scrisoare. > Before I bought this car I had worked in a bank for a long time. > After he had returned home he ate some bread. > I had tried on this coat before I bought it. > She started to worry after she had got this letter.

lata acum cateva verbe noi. Retineti traducerea lor: to negotiate to raise to apply for to earn to reduce to fire > [tu nigau~ielt] >[tureiz] > [tu apJai fo:f] > [tu a:fn] > [tu ridiu:s] > [ttl faia f] - a negocia, a duce tratative - a spori, a mari - a cere, a solicita - a
ca~tiga

(bani prin munca)
mic~ora

- a reduce, a - a concedia

Sa exersam verbele to apply for to reduce to fire to negotiate to earn to raise

~i

intr-o alta ordine: > [tu aplai fo:f] > [tu ridiu:s] > [tu faia f] > [tu nigau~ieit] > [tua:fn] > [tu reiz] - a cere, a solicita - a reduce, a mic~ora - a concedia - a negocia, a duce tratative - a
ca~tiga

(bani prin munca)

- a spori, a mari

5

Sa introducem nOlle verbe in propozitii:
I think we must raise

> [az Pin(g)k Ui: mast relz

wages. Yes, our employees have already applied for this. They say they earn to little.

Ueidjlz] > [ies aua r emploli:z hEy o:lredl aplaid fo:' DZls] > [DZei sei DZei a:rn tu: Utl]

- Cred ca trebuie sa marim salariile. - Da, salariatii deja asta. - Ei spun ca ei putini bani.
no~tri

au solicitat

cii~tiga

prea

We will negotiate It with them. The management wants to fire a hundred of them. But remember we must reduce unemployment. How can we do it If they want to fire people?

> [Ui: ull nigau~ieit it uiDz DZEm] > [DZa mEllld]mant Uonts tu faia r a handnd ov DZem] > [bat rimemba l 1I 1: mast ridiu:s animplollnant] > [hau kEn lIi: du: it if DZei lIont tu fala r pi:pl]

- Yom negocia asta cu ei.

- Conducerea vrea sa concedieze 0 suta dintre ei. Aminte~te-ti

insa ca trebuie

sa reducem

~omajul.

- Cum putem sa facem asta daca ei vor sa concedieze oameni?

Completati urmatoarele propozitii cu verbele corespunzatoare: Inainte de a reduce ~omajul ei au construit fabrici noi. Ne vor mari salariile? Cati muncitori au concediat deja? - Before they> reduced unemployment they had built new factories. - Will they > raise our wages? - How many labourers have they already > fired? - Before I > applied for a new job I had worked in an office.
no~tri?

Inainte de a solicita 0 slujba noua, am lucrat intr-un birou. Ei
ca~tiga

mai putin decat parintl1

- Do they> earn less than our parents? - We will not> negotIate here.

Nu vom negocia aici.

Sii vedem cum se jormeazii interogativul $i negativulla Past Perfect Tense. Propozitia interogativii se jormeazii prin inversarea ordinii subiectului $i a verbului auxiliar:
They had been here before I came. Had they been here before I came? He had bought a book before he went home. Had he bought a book before he went home? > [hEd hi: bo:t a buk bifo: 1 hi: lIent haum] > [hEd DZei bi:n hia r bifo: r ai keim]

6

Riispunslll ajirmativ seformeazii cu ajlltorul adverbului yes, alpronumeluipersonal $i al verbului auxiliar had. Nega!ia se compune din: cuwintul no, pronumele personal, verbul auxiliar had $i adverbul not. Structura had not poatejiprescurtatii hadn't [hEdnt].

lata cateva exemple: Had you been here before I came? Yes, I had. No, I had not. No, I hadn't. Had he written the letter before he went to the post-office? Yes, he had. No, he had not. No, he hadn't. > lies hi: hEd] > [nau hi: hEd not] > [nau hi: hEdnt] > lies ai hEd] > [nau ai hEd not] > [nau ai hEdnt]

In exerci!iul urmator formulati intrebari, raspunsuri afirmative ~i negative la urmatoarele propozi!ii: They had seen this film before we visited them. > Had they seen this film before we visited them? - Yes, >they had. - No, >they hadn't. > Had he been in England before he returned? - Yes, >he had. - No, >he hadn't. > Had they applied for the job before I started to work there? - Yes, >they had. - No, >they hadn't.

He had been in England before he returned.

They had applied for the job before I started to work there.

Construc!ia negativii hadn't se poate folosi $i in propozi!ii afirmative:

They hadn't seen Mary before > [DZei hEdnt si:n meari she visited them. bifo:' ~i: vizitId DZem] They hadn't known about it before I told them. > [DZei hEdnt naun abaut it bifo:' ai told DZem]

- Ei n-au vazut-o pe Maria inainte ca ea sa-i fi vizitat. - Nu au ~tiut despre asta inainte ca eu sa Ie fi spus.

Traduce!i urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Ai fost aici inainte de a se intampla asta? Dupa ce m-am sculat m-am dus in bucatarie.
7

> Had you been here before it happened? > After I had got up I went to the kitchen.

Nu am vazut acest tablou inainte de a sosi aici. Ai incercat sa negociezi inainte ca ei sa te concedieze? Dupa ce administratia le-a marit salariile, angajatii au fost foarte bucuro~i. Nu m-am gandit la asta inainte sa fi citit aceasta carte.

> I hadn't seen this picture before I arrived here
> Had you tried to negotiate before

they fired you?
> After the management had raised wages

the employees were very glad.
> I hadn't thought about it before I read this book.

Sa invatam alte ciiteva cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare contents oats proceeds riches thanks surroundings savings
> [kontents] > [auts] > [prousl:dz] >
[rit~iz]

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie: - cuprins, continut -ovaz cii~tig

(dintr-o activitate)

- avere, bogatie - multumiri,
recuno~tinta

> [TSEn(g)ks] > [saraundin(glz] > [seivin(glz]

- imprejurimi, vecinatate - economii (bani economisiti)

Cuvintele invatate anterior sunt la plural, la fel ca ~i cuviintul wages pe care il cunoa~tem deja.

Repetati cuvintele noi intr-o ordine diferita: proceeds contents thanks surroundings oats savings riches
> [prousi:dz] > [kontents] > [TSEn(glks] > [saraundin(glz] > [auts] > [seivin(glz] >
[rit~iz]

-

cii~tig

(dintr-o activitate)

- cuprins, continut - multumiri,
recuno~tinta

- imprejurimi, vecinatate - ovaz - economii (bani economisiti) - avere, bogatie

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Unde este cuprinsul acestei carti? Cailor Ie place sa manance ovaz. Ce
cii~tig

> Where are the contents of this book?

> Horses like to eat oats.
> What proceeds have you every year?

anual ai?

Imi tin economiile acasa. Cum ~i-a cii~tigat el averea?
8

> I keep my savings at home. > How has he earned his riches?

Le-am transmis multumirile mele. Imprejurimile sunt frumoase.

> I gave them my thanks.
> These are nice surroundings.

Iar acum sa recapitulam aceasta parte a lectiei rezolvand urmatorul exercitiu. Traduceti propozitiile In limba engleza: Te-ai Intalnit deja cu salariatii noi?
> Have you already met the new employees?

Inainte de a-I cunoa~te pe John am lucrat cu Peter. > Before I met John I had worked with Peter. Continutul acestei cutii este interesant. Negocierile vor fi foarte dificile, dar trebuie sa obtinem marirea salariilor. EI a cumparat 0 casa noua dupa ce a Inceput sa cii~tige mai mult. EI
ca~tiga

> The contents of this box are interesting.

> The negotiations will be very difficult, but we must get a raise. > He bought a new house after he had started to earn more.

prea putin ca sa

~i

economiseasca.

> His earns too little to have savings.
> Have you ever worked before you applied

Ai mai lucrat Inainte de-a solicita aceasta slujba? Muncitorii no~tri sunt membri ai sindicatului de cinci ani. Dupa greva conducerea a concediat multi angajati. Trebuie sa facem ceva ca sa reducem
~omajui.

for this job?
> Our labourers have been members of a

trade-union for five years.
> After the strike the management fired

many employees.
> We must do something to reduce

unemployment.

"I keep my savings at home."

9

LECTIA 17 - PARTEA A DOUA ,
Sa continuam lectia invat1ind 0 serie de cuvinte noi legate de cumparaturi. Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie: supermarket trolley customer shop-assistant receipt shopping-list cash-desk shop-window exit bargain
> [su:parma:rkit] > [troli] > [kastamaT ] >
[~op

- supermarket - carucior - cumparator, client ::.. vanzator, vanzatoare - chitanta

asistant]

> [risi:t] > > >
[~opin(g)
[kE~
[~op

list]

- lista de cumparaturi - casa (lntr-un magazin) - vitrina ie~ire

desk] Uindau]

> [egzit] > [ba:Tgin]

- vanzare la un pret favorabil, chilipir, afacere - reducere de preturi - vanzare, reduceri, vanzarea soldurilor bEg] saco~a

discount sales shopping-bag

> [diskaunt]
> [seilz]

>

[~opin(g)

de cumparaturi

lar acum recititi cuvintele cu voce tare, intr-o alta ordine: shopping-list shop-window supermarket sales exit bargain
> >
[~opin(g)
[~op

list]

- lista de cumparaturi - vitrina - supermarket - vanzare, reduceri, vanzarea soldurilor ie~ire

Uindau]

> [su:parma:'kit] > [seilz] > [egzit] > [ba:rgin]

- vanzare la un pret favorabil, chilipir, afacere bEg] saco~a

shopping-bag discount receipt customer shop-assistant cash-desk trolley

>

[~opin(g)

de cumparaturi

> [diskaunt] > [risi:t] > [kastamaT ] > >
[~op

- reducere de preturi - chitanta - cumparator, client - vanzator, vanzatoare - casa (intr-un magazin) - carucior

asisUint] desk]

[kE~

> [troli]
10

Sa folosim cuvintele noi in propozitii: Have you already been in the new supermarket? Yes, they have a lot of customers there. You can take a trolley in this supermarket. Oh, yes. And they often have sales. Yesterday I bought a lot of things at discount.
It was a great bargain.

> [hEy iu: o:lredl bi:n in DZa niu: su:pa'ma:'kit] > [ies DZei hEy a lot av kastama'z DZea'] > [iu: kEn teik a troli in DZis su.pa'ma:'kit] > [au ies End DZei ofn hEy seilz] > [iesta'del al bo:t a lot av T'in(g)z Et diskaunt] > [it "oz a greit ba:'gin] > [mai ~opin(g) bEg U az ful End ai didnt spend tu: mat~ mani] > [End DZa ~op asistants a:' o:lueiz redl tu help iu:] > [iu: kEn 0: IU eiz get a risi:t Et DZa kE~ desk] > [iu: kEn olsau giv DZa ~op asistant 10:' ~opm(g) list End Ue1t nia' DZi egzlt] > [~I: ull brm igl
10:' ~opmlg)]
IU

- Ai fost deja in noul supermarket? - Da, au foarte multi cumparatori. - Poti sa iei un camcior in acest supermarket. - Da.
~i

au des reduceri.

- leri am cumparat 0 multime de lucruri la pret redus. - A fost 0

adevarata afacere.

My shopping-bag was full, and I didn't spend too much money. And the shop-assistants are always ready to help you. You can always get a receipt at the cash-desk. You can also give the shop-assistant your shopping-list and wait near the eXIt. She will bring you your shopping. And they always have beautiful shop-windows.

mea era plina nu am cheltuit prea multi bani.
~i
~i viinzatorii sunt gata intotdeauna sa te ajute.

Saco~a

-

- Poti obtine intotdeauna o chitanta la casa. - Poti, de asemenea, sa-i dai viinzatoarei iista ta de cumparaturi ~i sa a~tepti liinga ie~ire. - Ea iti va aduce cumparaturile. ~i au intotdeauna vitrine minunate.

> [End DZei 0:lue1z hEy biu:tifal ~op uindauz]

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Ciite case aveti in magazin? - How many >cash-desks have you in the shop?
- I love to buy at >sales.

Imi place sa cumpar la viinzarea soldurilor. Caruciorul meu este plin. Am doar
0 saco~a

- My >trolley is full.
- I have only one >shopping-bag.

pentru cumparaturi.

11

Acest supermarket este cel mai bun din ora~ul nostru. Aici sunt patru ie~iri. Acest vanzator este foarte dragut. Multi cumparatori pleaca acum. Am pierdut chitanta. Aceasta casa este la un pret foarte bun. Ai facut deja !ista de cumparaturi? In vitrina este un radio dragut. Facem mari reduceri.

- This >supennarket is the best in our town. - There are four >exits here. - This >shop-assistant is very nice. - Many >customers are leaving now.
- I have lost the >recelpt.

- This house is a >bargain. - Have you already made the >shopping-!ist? - There is a nice radio in the >shop-window. - We give large >discounts.

Traduceti in !imba engleza urmatoarele cuvinte: vanzare la pret favorabil, afacere
saco~a

> bargain > shopping-bag > shop-wmdow > shop-assistant > exit > shopping-hst > discount > trolley > sales > customer

(de cumparaturi)

vitrina vanzator, vanzatoare
le~lre

!ista de cumparaturi reducere de preturi carucior vanzarea soldurilor, reduceri cumparator

12

chitanta casa (lntr-un magazin) supermarket

> receipt > cash-desk

> supermarket

Desigur vd mai amintili de pronumele some (catva, cativa, ceva, ni~te, unii, putin):
I have some books. I have some sugar. - Am citeva carti. - Am ceva zahar.

La forma negativa ~i interogativa in locullui some se folose~te pronumele any[cm]. Acest pronume se folose~te in urmatoarele cazuri: la singular ~i la plural, cu substantive care au plural ~i cu cele care nu au forma la plural ~i in propozitii interogative ~i negative (in unele cazuri ~i in cele afirmative).

lata cateva exemple: Have you any bread at home? Has she any coffee? Have they any children? Have we any tea at home?

> [hEv iu: eni bred Et haum]
> [hEz ~l: eni kofi] > [hEv DZCl eni tsildran]

- Ai (ni~te) paine acasa? - Ea are (ni~te) cafea? - Au copii? - Avem (ni~te) ceai acasa?

> [hEv lli: eni ti: Et haum]

in limba eng/ezd pronumele any nu poate fi omis din propoziliile interogative. in limba romtinii traducerea acestui cuviint nu este necesarii. Uneori se traduce totu$i, mai ales ciind se referii la cantitiiti miCl (vezi exemplele anterioare).
Puneti la forma mterogativa urmiHoarele propozitii: He saw some cars. My parents have some friends. Her sister has some good books. Mary has some customers in her shop.
> Did he see any cars? > Have my parents any friends?

> Has hcr sister any good books?

> Has Mary any customers in her shop?

Dacd rdspundem afirmativ la intrebarea in care apare pronumele any, atunci riispunsul poate cuprinde: a lot of, some, a little, a few ~i/sau alte pronume care fac referire la cantitate.
Have you any receipts? Has she any milk? Have they any cars? Have you any trolleys? Yes, I have some. Yes, she has a little. Yes, they have a lot of cars. Yes, we have a few. - Da, am cateva. - Da, (ea) are putin. - Da, au 0 multime de - Da, avem cateva.
ma~ini.

13

Daca raspunsul este negativ, atunci putem folosi doua constructii: Have you any receipts? Have you any time? - No, I haven't any receipts. - No, I haven't any time. - No, they haven't any money. - No, I have no receipts. - No, I have no time. - Nu am chitanta.

- Nu am timp.

Have they any money?

- No, they have no money.

- Nu au bani.

Nu uitati ca not any

~i

no inseamna acela~i lucru - a nu avea deloc.

Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba engleza. In cazul negatiilor folositi ambele forme: Au cativa caini. Nu avem tablouri (nici un tablou).
> They have some/a few dogs. > We haven't any pictures. > We have no pictures.

Ai caini? Nu vad oameni aici (pe nimeni).

> Have you any dogs?
> I see no people here. > I don't see any people here.

Am putin unt. Nu cunosc dactilografe (nici
0

> I have some/a little butter. dactilograili).
> I know no typists. > I don't know any typists.

lata alte cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare important satisfied (with) hardly hardly any hardly ever true even How much is ... ? cash unskilled useful
> [impo:'tant] > [sEtisfaid] > [ha:'dli] > [ha:ldli eni] > [h a r dII e\ alJ > [tru ] > [i \ n] > [h,ll! >
[kE~]
ll1at~ IZ]

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie: - important, semnificativ - satisilicut, multumit (de) - abia, mai deloc, prea putin - abia, putin/un pic - nu prea, mai niciodata, foarte rar - adevarat - chiar, pana
~i,

nici macar

- Cat costa... ? - bani gheata, bani in numerar - necalificat - folositor

> [anskild] > [iu:sfal]

14

Acum repetati cuvintele intr-o ordine diferita: true unskilled hardly ever useful How much is ... ? hardly any satisfied (with) even hardly important cash > [tnt:] > [anskild] > [ha:fdli evaf] > [iu:sfal] > [hau
mat~

- adevarat - necalificat - nu prea, mai niciodata, foarte rar - folositor iz]
- Cit costa... ?

> [ha:fdh eni] > [sEtisfaid] > [i:vn] > [ha:'dli] > [impo:'tant] > [kE~]

- abia, putin/un pic - satisfacut, multumit (de) - chiar, pfma ~i, nici macar - abia (daca), mai deloc, prea putin - important, semnificativ - bani gheata, bani in numerar

Adverbul hardly exprima 0 negatie. De aceea, alaturi de el nu se folose~te alt cuvant de negatie: I have hardly any friends. - Abia daca mai am vreun prieten.

Sa mtroducem cuvintele noi in propozitii: How much is this clock? Were all customers satisfied?
I am hardly ever III thIS

> [hau

mat~

iz DZis klok]

- Cat costa acest ceas? - Au fost satisfacuti toti consumatorii? - Vin foarte rar in acest magazm. - Este adevarata povestea aceea?

>["a:f 0:1 kastama'z sEtlsfald] > [al Em haofdil e\ a' III DZis
:'l'p J

shop. Is that story true? He always buys useful things. There is hardly any salt. This car is even cheaper.

>[IZ DIEt sto n tru.] > [hI: oYelz balz Pm,glz]
IU

sfal

- EI cumpara intotdeauna lucruri utile. - Nu este sare mai deloc. - Aceasta ma~ina este chiar mai ieftina. - Trebuie sa plate~ti cu bani gheata. - Vor concedia zece muncitori necalificati. - Abia daca mai am ceva bani.

> [DZea' iz ha:'dlJ em so:lt] > [DZis ka:' iz i:vn
t~i:paf]

You must pay in cash. They will fire ten unskilled labourers. I have hardly any money.

> [iu: mast pei in

kE~]

> [DZei Uil faia' ten anskil leibarafz] > [ai hEy ha:'dli cni mani]

Retineti urmatoarea expresie:

to pay in cash

- a plati cu bani gheata, a plati in numerar

15

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:
E~ti

multumit de locul tau de munca?

- Are you >satisfied with your job? - Everybody says it is a >true story. - > How much is this bicycle? - They didn't >even fire him. - We don't want >unskilled employees. - We always pay >m cash.
- It is very >important for me.

Toata lumea spline ca este 0 poveste adevarata. Cat costa aceasta bicicleta? Nici macar nu I-au concediat. Nu vrem angajati necalificati. Platim intotdeauna cu bani gheata. Este foarte important pentru mine. Ea nu a vorbit mai deloc. Nu merg aproape niciodata la meciuri.

- She >hardly spoke. - I >hardly ever go to matches.

Traduceti urmatoarele expresii in limba engleza: foarte putinl un pic util important abia, mai deloc Cat costa... ? necalificat mai niciodata satisIacut (de) adevarat pana
~i

> hardly any > useful > Important > hardly > How much is ... ? > unskilled > hardly ever > satisfied with > true > even > cash

bani gheata

Acum sa fnVli{am formele compuse ale pronumelui some:

something somebody somewhere >[sambadi]

- ceva - cineva - undeva

lata cateva exemple: I have something to tell you.
It must be somewhere.

> [ai hEy samTsin(g) tll tel iu:] - Am ceva sa-ti spun. > [It mast bi: samUea'] > [sambadl 1Z stEndin{g) ma' aua' ka:']
16

- Trebuie sa fie undeva. - Cineva sm langa ma~ina noastra.

Somebody is standing near our car.

in propozi!iile interogative in locullui some se folosesc formele compuse ale pronumelui any:
Do you know anybody here? Did he give you anything? Do you see Mary anywhere?

> [ du

IU:

nau enibadi hia r ]

-

Cuno~ti

pe eineva aici?

> [did hi: giv iu: eniTSm(g)]

- Ti-a dat eeva? - 0 vezi undeva pe Maria?

> [du iu: si: meari eniUeaf ]

Dacii riispunsul este negativ, atunci folosim formele compuse ale cuvdntului any, iar verbul din propozi/ie va ji la forma negativii. Cdnd folosim formele compuse ale lui no, atunci verbul va ji la forma ajirmativii. Nu uitali cii in limba englezii nu existii dub Iii negalie.

Sa exemplifieam explieatia anterioara: Do you know anybody here? No, I don'(know anybody here. No, I know' nobody here. Did he give you anything? No, he didn't give me anything. No, he gave me nothing. Do you see Mary anywhere? No, I don't see her anywhere. No, I see her nowhere.

> [nau al daunt nau enibadi hlaf ] > [nau ai nau naubadi hia r ]
- Nu eunose pe nimeni aiei.

> [nau hi: didnt glV mi: eniTSin(g)] > [nau hi: geiv mi: naTsm(g)]
- Nu mi-a dat nimie.

> [nau ai daunt si: ha: f eniUear ]
> [nau ai si: ha: f nauUea r ]

- Nu 0 vad nieaieri.

Traducetl in lImba engleza urmatoarele propozitii. Pentm propozitiile negative folositi ambele structuri: Nu vreau sa \orbesc cu mmem.
> 1 don't want to talk to anybody. > I want to talk to nobody. > Have you seen these gIrls anywhere?

Le-ai vazut undeva pe aceste fete? Nu-mi place de nimeni.

> I don't like anybody. > I like nobody. > Can anybody pay in cash?
> My sister is somewhere in England. > This man doesn't love anybody. > This man loves nobody.

Poate cineva sa plateasca cu bani gheata? Sora mea este undeva in Anglia. Acest om nu
iube~te pe

nimeni.

Ai intiilnit acolo pe cineva important?

> DId you meet anybody important there?

17

Iar acum sa recapitulam intreaga lectie. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Colegii
no~tri

solicita 0 marire de salariu.
~omajulin Romania.

> Our colleagues are applying for a raise.

Trebuie sa reducem

> We must reduce unemployment in Romania.

Salariatii ~i conducerea se intalnesc maine sa negocieze salariile. Membrii sindicatului nostru ca~tiga mai mult. Cati muncitori au concediat in ultima vreme? Ai vazut ceva interesant in imprejurimi?
Ca~tigullui

> The employees and the management are meeting tomorrow to negotiate wages. > The members of our trade-union earn more. > How many labourers have they recently fired?
> Have you seen anything interesting in the surroundings?

este foarte mare.

> His proceeds are very high.
> Before I bought this book I had asked about its contents.
> There will be sales in our

Inainte de a cumpara aceasta carte m-am interesat de continutul ei. Saptamana viitoare vor fi reduceri In supermarketul nostru. Vei primi chitanta la casa. Clientii no~tri sunt intotdeauna satisIacuti de cumparaturile avantajoase. Inainte de a merge la cumparaturi am scris o lista de cumparaturi. Pot sa primesc Ai ceas acasa? Nu prea ascult muzica. Cat costa aceasta fusta? Nu voi spune nimanui despre asta.
0

supermarket next week.
> You will get the receipt at the cash-desk.
> Our clients are always satisfied

with their bargains.
> Before I went shoppmg I had written a shopping-list.
> Can I get a discount?

reducere?

> Have you any clock at home?
> I hardly ever listen to music. > How much is this skirt? > I won't tell anybody about it. > I will tell nobody about it.

Dupa ce am inceput lucrul a venit John.

> After I had started work John came.

Urmeaza un exercitiu de pronuntie. Literele accentuate din fiecare coloana desemneaza sunete identice: [E] cash cat hat can [0] trolley job clock sock [u:] true blue do boot
18

[ei] sales day pay say

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 17 •
17.1. The Past Perfect Tense - timpul trecut perfect 17.1. 1. Utilizare

II folosim in cazul a doua actiuni din trecut, pentru a indica actiunea care s-a petrecut
mai devreme. Acest timp indica faptul ca prima actiune s-a terminat deja. Cea de-a doua actiune se exprima cu timpul Simple Past. Complementele circumstantiale cel mai des utilizate alaturi de acest timp sunt: after before 17.1.2. Constructia propozitiei: subiect She They 17.1 3. - dupa, dupa aceea, dupa ce, ulterior - inainte, in fata, dinaintea

+

verb auxiliar had had

+

forma a III-a a verbului principal read built

+
this book ... the house ...

Formarea interogativului Interog,ativul se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii subiectului
,,~

~i

a verbului auxiliar:

\

They had been here before I came. 17.1.4. Raspunsuri afirmative
~i

- Had they been here before I came?

negative

Raspunsurile afirmative se alcatuiesc cu ajutorul adverbului "yes", a pronumelui personal ~i a verbului auxiliar "had". Negatiile se formeaza cu ajutorul cuvantului de negatie "no", a pronumelui personal, a verbului auxiliar "had" ~i a adverbului " "not. Expresia "had not" se prescurteaza "hadn't": Had you been here before I came? - Yes, I had. - No, I had not. - No, I hadn't. 17.1.5. Structura negativa "hadn't" se poate folosi ~i in propozitii afirmative: They hadn't seen Mary before she visited them. 17.2. Urmatoarele cuvinte apar de obicei la plural: contents oats proceeds riches thanks surroundings savmgs wages 19 continut, cuprins ovaz ca~tig (dintr-o activitate) avere, bogatie multumiri, recuno~tinta imprejurimi, vecinatate economii, bani pu~i de 0 parte salariu - Nu au vazut-o pe Maria inainte ca ea sa-i fi vizitat.

17.3. "Some, any, no"
I have some books.
I have some sugar.

- Am cateva carti. - Am cevalputin zahar.

In propozitiile interogative in locullui "some" folosim adverbul "any". Acest adverb se folose~te alaturi de substantive care au sau nu au plural; atat la singular ~i plural. Have you any bread at home? Has she any friends? - Ai acasa paine? - Ea are vreun prieten?

In cazul unui raspuns negativ, se folosesc doua structuri: Have you any receipts? No, I haven't any receipts. No, I have no receipts. Retineti ca "not any" ~i "no" inseamna acela~i lucru "nici un, nici 17.4. Fonnele compuse ale lui "some, any, no" something somebody somewhere - ceva - cineva - undeva
0,

- Nu, nu am chitante.

a nu avea deloc".

In propozitii interogative in locullui "some" folosim formele compuse ale lui "any": Do you know anybody here? Cuno~ti

pe cineva aici?

In cazul unui raspuns negativ se folosesc fonnele compuse ale lui "any" iar verbul are fanna negativa, sau formele compuse ale lui "no" ~i verbulla fonna afinnativa: Do you know anybody here? No, I don't know anybody here. No, I know nobody here. - Nu cunosc pe nimeni aici.

20

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 17
A. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana:

I.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Have you read anything about that accident?
I had stopped smoking before I started to work in this office.

Before they fired the unskilled labourers they had talked to them. Do you know the contents of this book? Did you get a receipt at the cash-desk in that supermarket? Do these shop-assistants get higher wages than the management?

B.

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:
1.

Ce creZI despre fratele lui? Ai ceva bani
pu~i

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

de

0

parte?

Nu am vazut pe nimeni in acest parc. Inainte de a rna uita la film, am baut 0 cea~ca de cafea cu mama. Pot gasi oriunde asemenea farfurii? Cineva ~tie ca nu lucrezi aici.

C.

Corectati gre~elile din urmatoarele propozitii:
I. I haven't seen nobody in the street. I was at school before I returned home.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

This surroundings are very nice. My mother has any friends. He can't hardly cook dinner. They just took a trolley.

21

,..

LECTIA 18 ,

PARTEA INTAI

,..

Sa incepem lectia cu noile cuvinte care definesc articole de uz casnic. CititiIe cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie: towel bucket fridge mop sink tile gas-cooker tap cupboard rubbish-bin saucepan oven
> > > > > > > > > > > >

[taual] [bakit] [fridj] [mop] [sin(g)k] [tail] [gEs kuka f ] [tEp] [kabad] [rabi;; bin] [so:spEn] [ ovn]

- prosop - galeata - frigider - carpa de - chiuveta - placa de faiantalteracota - aragaz - robinet - dulap de bucatarie - lada de gunoi - cratita - cuptor
~ters

pe jos

Iar acum repetati-Ie intr-o alta ordine: tap oven fridge tile gas-cooker saucepan sink bucket cupboard towel rubbish-bin mop
> > > > > > > > > > > >

[tEp] [ovn] [fridj] [tail] [gEs kuka f ] [so:spEn] [sin(g)k] [bakit] [kabad] [taual]
[rabi~

- robinet - cuptor - frigider
I

- placa de faiantalteracota - aragaz - cratita - chiuveta - galeata - dulap de bucatarie - prosop - lada de gunoi - dirpa de
~ters

bin]

[mop]

pe jos

22

Sa introducem noile cuvinte In propozitii: I want to change something in the kitchen. I will put the fridge near the door. These cupboards will hang on the walls. And I want to have tiles on the wall over the sink. I think we can also change the tap. We will buy a new gas-cooker and an electric oven. The rubbish-bin and the bucket with the mop can be put here. And the towel can be hanged near the smk. And what about the saucepans? I must think about it.

> [ai Uont tu t~eindj samTsin(gj - Vreau sa schimb ceva in bucatarie. in Dza kit~an]
> [ai ull put DZa fridj nia' DZa do:']
> [Dzi:s kabadz uil hEn(g)

- Voi pune frigiderul langa u~a. - Aceste dulapuri vor fi agatate pe pereti.

on DZa Uol z ]

> [End a l Uont tu hEy tailz on - ~i vreau sa am faianta pe perete DZa uol auva' DZa sin(g)k] deasupra chiuvetei.

> [ai Tsin(g)k ui: kEn olsau t~eindj DZa tEp]
> [Ui: uil bai a niu: gEs kuka' End an ilektrik ovn]

- Cred ca putem schimba ~i robinetul. - Yom cumpara un aragaz nou ~i un cuptor electric. Co~ul de gunoi ~i galeata cu carpa de ~ters pe jos pot fi puse aici.

> [DZa rabi~ bin End DZa bakit uiD z DZa mop kEn bi put hia']
> [End DZa taual kEn bi hEn(g)d nia' DZa sm(g)k] > [End "ot abaut D'a so:spEnz] > [ai mast Pin(g)k abaut it]

- Iar prosopul poate fi agatat langa chiuveta. ~i

ce facem cu cratitele?

- Trebuie sa rna gandesc la asta.

23

Completati unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu noile cuvinte: Curatam podeaua cu carpa de Ia co~ul de gunoi. De unde pot procura robinete mari? Este ceva in galeata aceea. Frigiderul nostru este vechi. Trebuie sa cumparam un aragaz nou. Farfuriile murdare sunt in chiuveta. Imi place faianta din acest magazin. Aceasta cratita nu este suficient de mare. Callta ceaiul in acest dulap. Ai prosoape curate? Cat costa acest cuptor?
~ters

pe jos.

- We clean the floor with a >mop. - Take the >rubbish-bin. - Where can I get big> taps? - There is something in that> bucket. - Our >fridge is old. - We must buy a new >gas-cookeI: - Dirty plates are in the >sink. - I like the >tiles in this shop. - This >saucepan is not big enough. - Look for the tea in this > clipboard. - Have you any clean >towels? - How much is this >oven?

Verificati in ce masura ati reu~it sa va insu~iti cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza unnatoarele cuvinte ~i expresii:
co~

de gunoi
ma~ina

> rubbish-bin de gatit > oven > towel

cuptor, prosop

carpa de dulap aragaz cratita robinet chiuveta faianta galeata frigider

~ters

pe jos

> mop > cupboard > gas-cooker > saucepan > tap > sink > tile > bucket > fridge

in continuare vom fnvii!a regulile de formare a adl'erbelor. Adverbele se potforma din adjective, prin adiiugarea termina!iei -Iy: beautiful - minunat beautifully
> [blU:t1rah]

- minunat, splendid

In acela~i mod, putem fonna adverbe din substantive care exprima timpul: month week day -luna - saptamana
- Zl

monthly weekly daily

>[manTSli]

- lunar, in fiecare luna - saptamanal, in fiecare saptamana - zilnic, in fiecare zi

>[ dedi]

Aten!ie: in cuviintul daily litera y s-a transformat in i! 24

Aceastii schimbare intervine ~i dacii litera y este precedatii de 0 consoanii:
easy u~or

easily

> [i:zlli]

-

u~or,

cu

u~urinta

in multe cazuri, adjectivul ~i adverbul se traduc prin acela~i cuvant in limba romana. Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu adverbele corespunzatoare: Ea canta minunat. Trenul merge foarte Incet. El a spus asta foarte trist. Trebuie sa vorbim cu ei politicos. Acest copil scrie groaznic. - She sings >beautifully - The train is going very >slowly - He said it very >sadly - We must talk with them >politely - This child writes >awfully

in limba engleza, corespondentullui bine este well. Retineti ca gradele sale de comparatie sunt identice cu ale adjectivului good: well- bine better - mai bine the best - cel mai bine

in englezd. la leI ca ~i in limba romtinii, unele adverbe au formii identicii cu adjectivele care Ie corespund
late cheap wide fast - tarzlU. eu intarziere - leftm -larg - repede. lute Retmeti ca in cazul lUI cheap "cheaply, widely". Sa invatam cateva verbe noi: to look to feel to smell to taste to sound > [tu luk] > [tu fi:l] > [tu smell > [tu tezst] > [tu saund] - a arata, a parea sa fie - a simti, a se simti - a mirosi, a avea miros - a gusta, a avea gust (de) - a suna, a rasuna
~l

high long hard early

-lnalt, sus - lung, indelungat - tare, dur - timpuriu, devreme
~i

wide putem folosi

terminatia Iy:

Doua dintre aceste verbe sunt neregulate: forma I feel smell > [fi:l] > [smell forma a II-a felt smelt > [felt] > [smelt] forma a III-a felt smelt
> [felt]

> [smelt]

Verbele invatate anterior pot fi urmate doar de adjective. Nu se folosesc adverbe impreuna cu ele.
25

lata diteva exemple: I feel very good today. You look beautiful. The dinner tastes great. This music sounds good. Mary's flowers smell nice.
> [ai fi:l veri gud tadei]

- Ma simt foarte bine azi. - Arati minunat. - Cina are un gust grozav. - Muzica aceasta suna bine. - Fiorile Mariei au un miros placut.

> [iu: luk biu:tifal]
> [DZa dina' teists greit] > [DZis miu:zik saundz gu:d]

> [meri:z t1aua'z smel nais]

Verificati daca ati inteles cum se folosesc adverbele. Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare: Sotia mea tricoteaza minunat. Azi rna simt foarte trist. Ea arata foarte ciudat. Acum trebuie sa mergem repede. De ce lucrezi Cati bani
a~a

> My wife knits beautifully. > I feel very sad today. > She looks very strange. > We must go fast now. > Why are you working so hard? > How much money do you spend weekly? > My father always walks very slowly.
> I have bought It very cheap/cheaply.

de mult? pe saptamana?

cheltuie~ti

Tatal meu merge intotdeauna foarte incet. Am cumparat asta foarte ieftin. Ea scrie ciudat. Mama mea conduce foarte bine. Putem face asta foarte
u~or.

> She writes strangely.
> My mother drives very well. > We can do it very easily.

Sa invatam alte cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare to serve to wrap (up) to deliver to stock > [tu sa:'v] > [tu rEp ap] > [tu dIliva'] > [tu stok]

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie: - a servi, a folosi - a impacheta - a distribui, a livra - a se aproviziona, a avea marfuri in stoc - a sprijini, a sustine - izolat - a inchiria, a fi de inchiriat - de vanzare - stricat, defect - unsuros, alunecos

to support insulated to let for sale out of order greasy

> [tu sapo:'t] > [insiuleitid] > [tu let] > [fo:' seil] > [aut av o:'da'] > [gri:si]

26

Recititi cuvintele, intr-o alta ordine: to support to deliver greasy insulated to let to stock > [tu sapo:rt] > [tu diliva r] > [gri:si] > [insiuleitid] > [tu let] > [tu stok] - a sprijini, a sustine - a distribui, a livra - unsuros, alunecos - izolat - a inchiria, a fi de inchiriat - a se aproviziona, a avea marfuri pe stoc - a servi, a folosi - de vanzare - a impacheta - stricat, defect

to serve for sale to wrap (up) out of order

>[tu sa:rv] > [to:' seil] >[tu rEp ap] > [aut av o:rda r]

Sa introducem cuvintele noi in propozitii: Is your house insulated? My sister's house is for sale. The fridge is out of order. Don't use this plate. It is greasy. There are a few rooms to let. The shop-assistant will serve us. Can you wrap up these books? They will deliver the cupboards in the evening. The trade-union supports the labourers. > [jz ia: r haus insillieitid] >[ mai sistii'z haus iz fa: r seiJ] >[DZa fridj iz aut av o:rda r] > [daunt iu:z DZis pleit it iz gri:si] > [DZea r a: r a fiu: ru:mz tll let] > [DZa ~ap asisUmt Uil sa:rv as] >[kEn ill: rEp ap D1n buks] > [DZel uJ! dlliva r DZa kabadz m DZl i:vnm(g)] > [DZa treld lu:man sapo:rts DZa leibararz] - Casa ta este izolata? - Casa surorii mele este de vanzare. - Frigiderul este defect. - Nu folosi aceasta farfurie. Este unsuroasa. - Sunt cateva camere de inchiriat. - Vanzatorul ne va servi.

- Puteti impacheta aceste carti? - Ei vor livra dulapurile de bucatarie deseara. - Sindicatul sprijina muncitorii.

Completati urmataarele propozitii in limba engleza: La ce ora vei livra acest frigider? Casa noastra este izolata. De cat timp nu functioneaza Acesta unealta se
folose~te

- What time will you >deliver this fridge? - Our house is >insulated.

ma~ina?

- How long has the car been >out of order? - This tool >serves to cut wood. 27

la taierea lemnului.

Ai mainile unsuroase. Ne vei sustine la
~edinta?

- You have >greasy hands. - Will you >support us at the meeting? - Is this plane >to let? - We >stocked it two years ago. - Our neighbour's house is >for sale. - Do you want to >wrap up this handbag?

Acest avion este de Inchiriat? Am avut asta pe stoc acum cinci ani. Casa vecinilor no~tri este de vanzare. Vrei sa Impachetezi aceasta po~eta?

Verificati daca ati expresii: izolat a Impacheta

reu~it

sa retineti cuvintele noi. Traduceti In limba engleza urmatoarele cuvinte

~i

> insulated > to wrap up > to stock > out of order > to deliver > greasy > to serve > to let > to support > for sale

a tine/a avea marfuri pe stoc defect a livra unsuros a servi a Inchiria a sprijini de vanzare

Cititi urmatoarea propozitie In limba engleza: I don't know where this book is. - Nu
~tiu

unde este aceasta carte.

Propozi!ia subordonatii scnsa cu caractere ingro!fate se nume!jte intrebare indirecta!ji este introdusa de un pronume mterogativ (where, who, when), dupa care urmeaza topica obi!jnuita a unei propozi!ii ajirmative.

De exemplu: Tell me when they WIll come. Don't tell them where I have put my savings. - Spune-mi cand vor veni. - Nu Ie spune unde mi-am pus economiile.

Conform exemplelor prezentate anterior, traduceti urmatoarele propozitii In limba engleza:
~tii

cat costa asta?

> Do you know how much it is? > Tell me when I can visit you. > I don't know who serves here. > Peter will tell us which house is to let.
> Do you know what his children are doing?

Spune-mi dind pot sa te vizitez. Nu
~tiu

cine

serve~te

aici.

Peter ne va spune care casa este de Inchiriat.
~tii

ce fac copiii lui?

28

lata cateva verbe noi: to mop to iron to dust to peel to empty to tum on > [tu mop] > [tu aian] >[tudast] >[tupi:l] > [tu empti] > [tu ta:fn on] - a
~terge

(pe jos)

- a calca (cu fierul) - a
~terge

praful

- a coji, a curata (legume, fructe) - a goli, a descarca - a deschide, a da drumul, a aprinde (lumina) - a opri, a stinge, a inchide

to tum off

> [tu ta:fn of]

Sa introducem aceste verbe in propozitii:
I have already mopped

the floor. Will you iron this shirt for me? We must dust the chairs.

> [ai hEv o:lredi mopt DZa flo:'] > lUi] iu: aian DZis fo:'mi:]
~a:'t

- Am ~ters deja pe jos.

- Vrei sa-mi calci asta?

cama~a

> lUi: mast dast DZa t~eafz]

- Trebuie sa ~tergem praful de pe scaune.

Peel the potatoes for dinner. Did you empty the ash-trays? Turn on the TV set, please. You must turn off the tap.

> [pi:l DZa pateitouz fo:' dinaf] - Curata cartofii pentru cina! > [did iu: empti DZi E~treiz] - Ai golit scrumierele?

> [tcl:'n on DZa ti: vi: set pli:z] - Da drumulla televizor, te rog. > [IU: mast ta:fn ofDza tEp] - Trebuie sa inchizi robinetul.

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: In timp ce calcam fusta, s-a intors sotul meu. Inainte de-a incepe sa mananc micul dejun, am pomit aparatul de prajit paine. Inca mai cureti aceste legume? Golim co~ul de gunoi in fiecare dimineatlL Trebuie sa
~tergi

- While I was >ironing the skirt my husband returned. - Before I started to eat breakfast I >had turned on the toaster. - Are you still >peeling these vegetables? - We >empty the rubbish-bin every morning. - You must >dust your bookcase. - Mother, we can >mop the floor in the bathroom?
- I remember that I >had turned off the radio before I left.

praful de pe biblioteca tao
~tergem

Mama, putem sa in baie?

pe jos

Imi amintesc ca am oprit radioul inainte de-a pleca.

29

Traduce1i cuvintele a opn a ~terge pe jos a calca (cu fierul) a coji, a cura1a a deschide
a goli

~i

expresiile in engleza: > to turn off
> to mop

> to iron
> to peel > to turn on

> to empty
> to dust

a ~terge praful

Existen{a sau prezen{a, respectiv absen{a unei jiin{e sau a unui obiect se exprimii prin construc{ia there is/there are. Forma interogativii a acestei expresii se jormeazii prin inversarea ordinii subiectului gramatical there ~i a verbului auxiliar: There is a book on the table. There are cars in the street. There has been a meeting here. Is there a book on the table? Are there any cars in the street? Has there been a meeting here? - Este a carte pe masa? - Sunt ma~ini pe strada?

- A fast a

~edin1a

aici?

Aceastii expresie poate ji folositii la toate timpurile. Fonnula1i intrebari pentru unnatoarele propozi1ii: There were many bicycles in that shop. There is a house for sale in London. There will be sales in this supermarket.
> Were there many bicycles in that shop? > Is there a house for sale in London?

> Will there be sales in this supennarket?

Forma afirmatiwi se formeazii cu adverbul yes, subiectul gramatical there ~i verbul auxiliar. Pentru forma negativiifolosim cuvantul de nega{ie no, cuvantul there, verbul auxiliar ~i adverbul not: Is there coffee at home? Yes, there is. No, there isn't. Are there any mops here? Yes, there are. No, there aren't. Will there be a meeting here? Yes, there will. No, there won't.
> [ies DZear Uil] > [nauDZearUount] > lies DZear a:'] > [nau DZear a:'nt]
> [les D'ear
lZ]

> [nau DZear iznt]

~

- Da, este. Nu, nu este.

- Da, sunt. - Nu, nu sunt.

- Da, va fi. - Nu, nu va fi.

30

Formulati raspunsuri afirmative

~i

negative la urmatoarele intrebari:

Have there been any accidents this month? Yes, >there have. Are there any cups in the cupboard? Yes, >there are. Will there be any good films on TV today? Yes, >there will. Have there been any labourers here? Yes, >there have. No, >there haven't. No, >there won't. No, >there aren'f. No, >there haven't.

Va prezentam ultimul set de verbe noi din aceasta lectie: to offer to permit to allow > [tu Ola'] > [tu pamit] >[tualau] -. a oferi - a permite - a permite, a da voie, - a admite - a promite - a refuza, a respinge

to promise to refuse

> [tu promis] > [tu rifiu:z]

Urmantl foloslrea acestor verbe in propozitii: He promised me a ne\\ car. Will they offer you a better job? The managment refused to give me a raise. Mother will not allow you to go to the cinema. Have they permItted:. ou to bring the dog'>
> [hI. prol1w,t mi' a nlll: ka:'] > [-11 D"el
3

- El mi-a promis - Iti vor oferi mai buna?
0

0 ma~ina

noua.

or~l'

'u

slujba

bet:l' dwb ~

> [0 ,: 1:1EmdJrnant nfiu:zd tl. ;1\ ill1: a relz] > [m,ID-a' "11 not alau iu: tu gau tu DZa sinama] > [hEv DZei pamitid iu: tu brin(g) DZa dog]

- Conducerea a refuzat sa-mi dea o marire de salariu. - Mama nu-ti va da voie sa mergi la cinematograf. - Ti-au permis sa aduci ciiinele?

Completatl propozqiile urmatoare cu verbele corespunzatoare: Nu-ti permit sa fumezi aici. Ea a refuzat sa rna ajute. Promite-mi ca te vei intoarce devreme. Pot sa-ti ofer doua apartamente.
- I don't> permit/allow you to smoke here.

- She > refused to help me. - > Promise me you will return early.
- I can> otfer you two apartments.

31

Traduceti verbele unnlitoare in limba engleza: a oferi a refuza a permite a ingadui a promite > to offer
> to refuse

> to permit
> to allow > to promise

Iar acum sa sintetizam materia din aceasta parte a lectiei intr-un exercitiu. Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Trebuie sa golim repede frigiderul. Cand vor livra dulapurile? Ea a spus asta foarte politicos. Poti folosi aceasta galeata. Cat ca~tigi lunar? Aratati minunat impreuna. Spune-mi unde sunt aceste cratite. Poate cineva sa-mi calce bluza? Este paine acasa'J EI a condus intotdeauna foarte bine
ma~ina.

> We must empty the fridge fast.
> What time will they deliver the cupboards? > She said this very politely.

> You can use this bucket. > How much do you earn monthly?
> You look beautiful together.

> Tell me where these saucepans are. > Can anybody iron my blouse?
> Is there any bread at home?

> He has always driven the car very well.

32

LECTIA 18 - PARTEA A nOVA ,
Cititi cu atentie urmatorul dialog fiind atenti la pronuntie ~i intonatie. Cuvintele ~i silabele accentuate sunt scrise ingro~at: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary: Mary, have you heard that a lot oflabourers don't like their jobs? No, I haven't. And why don't they like their jobs? They say their wages are too low and they must often apply for a raise. Well, I have heard about that. But the management has refused their applications so far. Hardly any employees like the management. And the other problem is that there is unemployment in our surroundings. Even John has hardly worked this summer. The trade-union wants to negotiate about the strike. And all our employees are members of this trade-union. The management already knows about it and wants to fire some of the employees. Do you know how many people they want to fire') No, I don ·t. I think there must be a few. But there are many unskilled workers and they will not get a job.

Peter:

John:

I must give my thanks to your mother because she has helped me.

Barbara: How did she help you? John: You know I wanted to buy a car after I had earned more money. But I was still short of money and she gave me some.

Barbara: Today we must go to the supermarket to do some shopping. There are many things on my shopping-list. Now you can return this money! John: Why must we go to the supermarket all the time?

Barbara: Because the shop-assistants are very polite there and they stock almost everything. And today they have sales there. John: Good. today I'll take you to the supermarket in my new car.

Tom: Mary: Tom: Mary: Tom: Mary: Tom:

Mary, today we have a lot of work to do. I know. I must dust the tables, empty the rubbish-bin and iron my father's shirts. And I must place the gas-cooker somewhere else, because it cannot stand next to the fridge. But you can't do it today. All of our electric tools are out of order. I almost forgot about that. Then I'll go and buy a new electric oven to the kitchen. But Tom, we must pay for it in cash and right now we are short of cash. Then I will peel the vegetables for dinner.

33

Barbara: Now you can read it, but later I will turn on the radio and we can listen to some music. Peter: But I want to read this book tonight. You know I read two books daily.

Barbara: What are the contents of that book? Peter: The contents of this book are very important and useful for a secretary.

Barbara: Then I will also read that book.

Rezolvati urmatorul exercitiu care sintetizeaza intregul material al lectiei. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Colegii mei nu vor aceasta greva. Ne vom intalni ca sa negociem maririle de salarii? Angajatii no~tri vor sa schimbe conducerea. Inainte sa incepem lucrul, i-am a~teptat.
> My colleagues don't want this strike.

> Will we meet to negotIate raises?

> Our employees want to change the management. > Before we started work we had waited for them. > After I had written a letter I bought two stamps. > I think I will apply for a better job and higher wages. > They want to grow oats this year. > Two years ago we lived in beautiful surroundings. > Have they already raised wages? > All customers are satisfied with the shopping in our supermarket.
> Don't forget to take the shopping-list and the shopping-bag.

Dupa ce am scris doua timbre.

0

scrisoare, am cumparat

~i

Cred ca voi solicita 0 slujba mai buna un salariu mai mare.

Anul acesta ei vor sa cultive ovaz. Acum doi ani am locuit intr-o zona minunata. Au marit deja salariile? Toti clientii sunt satisfacuti de cumparaturile din supermagazinul nostru. Nu uita sa iei lista de cumparaturi
~i saco~a.

Fac reduceri doar in perioada soldurilor? Trebuie sa las caruciorulla casa? El ca~tiga multi bani la pret redus.
~i

> Do they give discounts only during sales?

> Must I leave the trolley at the cash-desk?
> He earns a lot and buys only bargains.

cumpara numai

Nu am prieteni in acest ora~.

> I haven't any friends in this town. > I have no friends In thIS town.

Ei nu-~i fac aproape niciodata tema pentru acasa. Crezi ca acest dulap va fi util in bucatarie?

> They hardly ever do homework. > Do you think this cupboard will be useful in the kitchen?
> This news is very Important.

Aceasta ~tire este foarte importanta. Cat costa aceasta bicicleta? 34

> How much is thIS bycicle?

Aceasta poveste nu poate fi adevarata. Ai ceva sa-mi spui? Unde sunt prosoapele? Inainte sa mergem la Mary noi am ~ters pe jos. El merge foarte ciudat. Televizorul nu functioneaza. \Tanzatorul tocmai imi impacheteaza cumparatunle. Intreaba-l cand inchide magazinul.
~terge

> This story can't be true. > Have you anything to tell me? > Where are the towels? > Before we went to Mary we had mopped the floors. > He walks very strangely. > The TV set is out of order. > The shop-asslstant is Just wrapping up my shoppmg > Ask hIm \\ hen he shuts the shop. > Dust the tables and Iron these clothes. >Can you tum off the radIO') > Are there any books here?

praful de pe mese

~i

calca aceste haine.

Poti sa opre~ti radioul? Sunt ni~te carti aici?

"Don't forget to take the shopping-list and the shopping-bag."

In incheiere, va propunem un exercitiu de pronuntie. Literele de la inceputul coloanelor ~i cele scrise accentuat indica acela~i sunet: [i:] peel seen leave green [a] dust bucket but sun [ai] iron tile wide drive [ei] sale make late date

35

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 18 ,
18.1. Adverbe 18.1.1. Majoritatea adverbelor se fonneaza din adjective, prin adaugarea tenninatiei ,,-ly": beautiful - minunat beautifully - minunat

In mod similar se fonneaza adverbe ~i din substantivele care exprima timpul: month week
da~

-luna - saptamana

monthly weekly daily

- lunar, in fiecare luna - saptamanal, in fiecare saptamana - zilnic, in fiecare zi

- Zl

Retineti ca in cuvantul "daily", litera y s-a schimbat in i.
Aceea~i

schimbare se petrece ~i in cazul in care litera -y este precedata de 0 consoana: u~or

easily

-u~or

18.1.2.

In limba engleza adverbul corespunzator adjectivului "bun" este "well". Retineti: comparativul ~i superlativul lui "well" sunt identice cu fonnele corespunzatoare ale adjectivului "good": well - bine better - mai bine the best - cel mai bme

18.1 .3.

In limba engleza, la fel ca in limba romana, mai multe adverbe au fonna identica cu adjectivele corespunzatoare: late cheap wide fast high long hard early - tarziu, cu intarziere - ieftin -larg - repede, iute - inalt, sus - lung, indelungat - tare, dur - timpuriu, devreme

In cazul adverbelor "cheap" ~i "wide" se fo1ose~te ~i terminatia ,,-ly": "cheaply, widely". 18.1.4. Alaturi de unele verbe pot sta doar adjective, nu adverbe: to look to feel to smell to taste to sound - a arata, a parea sa fie - a se simti, a simti, a avea 0 senzatie sau un sentiment - a mirosi, a avea un miros - a gusta, a avea un anumit gust - a suna, a rasuna

36

18.2. Intrebari indirecte I don't know where this book is. - Nu ~tiu unde este aceasta carte.

Propozitia subordonata este introdusa de un pronume interogativ (where, who, what etc.), dupa care urmeaza 0 propozitie cu structura afirmativa: Don't tell them where I have put my savings. 18.3. "There is/there are" 18.3.1. Interogativul Interogativul se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii subiectului gramatical "there" ~i a verbului auxiliar: There is a book on the table. Is there a book on the table? - Este
0

- Nu Ie spune unde mi-am pus economiile.

carte pe masa?

18.3.2. Raspunsul afirmativ se formeaza cu adverbul "yes", subiectul gramatical "there" ~i verbul auxiliar. Negatia se compune din cuvantul "no", subiectul gramatical "there", verbul auxiliar ~i cuvantul "not": Is there coffee at home? Yes, there is. No, there isn't. Aceasta structura poate fi folosita la toate timpurile. - Da, este. - Nu, nu este.

37

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 18
A. Traduce!i urmatoarele propozi!ii in limba romana:
1.

They haven't delivered the sink and tap so far. Are there any mops to mop the floors? I don't know where they will stock the cupboards. At the moment he is working hard. She had looked beautiful before she cut her hair. My mother is satisfied with the new toaster.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Aceasta suna minunat, dar nu
~tiu

cand putem merge acolo.

Sunt apartamente de inchiriat in aceasta cladire? £1 a spus asta foarte trist. Ne vei sprijini in timpul negocierilor? Muzica a sunat foarte bine, dar textul nu a fost interesant. Este cineva aici?

C.

Corectati I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

gre~elile

din urmatoarele propozitii:

I didn't feel very well yesterday. There aren't any money in my purse. I know he works very hardly. Can you tell me what time must we be at school tomorrow? There isn't no restaurant in our surroundings. He usually eats one meal dayly.

38

Verbele neregulate din lectiile 17 ~i 18
forma I forma a II-a
> [fil] > [smel]

forma a III-a

feel smell

felt

> [felt]

felt smelt

> [felt]
> [smelt]

smelt > [smelt]

39

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 17 SI 18 , ,
after > [a:fti'F] - dupa, dupa aceea, dupa ce, ulterior - a permite, a da voie, a admite - orice, oricare - oricine, oricare, cineva - orice, ceva - oriunde, undeva - a se adresa pentru, a cere, a solicita - cerere, solicitare - vanzare la pret favorabil, chilipir, afacere - i'nainte (de), i'naintea, dinaintea - galeata - bani gheatii, bani In numerar desk] - casa (i'ntr-un magazin) - coleg - cuprins, continut - dulap de bucatane - cumparator, client - a distribui, a livra - reducere (de preturi) - a - a
~terge

to allow any anybody anything anywhere to apply for application bargain

> [tu alau] > [eni] > [enibadi] > [eniTSini g)] > [eniUea r] > [tu aplai fa: r ] > [ Eplikei~an] > [ba:rgin]

before bucket cash cash-desk colleague contents cupboard customer to deliver discount to dust to earn employee to empty even exit to feel to fire

> [bifo: r] > [bakit] > >
[kE~]
[kE~

> [koli:g] > [kontents] > [kabad] > [kastama r] > [tu diliva r] > [diskaunt] > [tu dast] > [tu a:rn] > [emplaii:] > [tu empti] > [i:vn] > [egzit] > [tLl fi:l] > [tLl faia r]

praful bani (prin munca)

ca~tiga

- angajat, salariat - a goli, a descarca - chiar, pana ~i, nici macar ie~ire

- a simti, a se simti - a concedia

40

for sale fridge gas-cooker greasy hard hardly hardly any hardly ever

>[fo:Tseil] > [fridj] > [gEs kuka r] > [gri:si] >[ha:Td] > [ha:Tdli] > [ha:Tdli eni] ] > [ha:Tdli eva T

- de vanzare - frigider - aragaz - unsuros, gras - tare, dur, greu - abia, mai deloc, prea putin - abia, putin/un pic - foarte rar, aproape niciodata, nu prea - Cat costa... - important, semnificativ - izolat - a calca (cu fierul) - loc de munca, serviciu - muncitor - a inchiria, de inchiriat - a parea, a arata, a avea aerul - conducere, administratie - membru - carpa de ~ters pe jos - a
~terge

How much is ... important insulated to iron job labourer to let to look management member mop to mop negotiations to negotiate nowhere oats to offer out of order oven to peel to permit proceeds

>[hau

mat~

iz]

> [impo:Ttant] > [insiuleitid] >[tu aian] >[djob] > [leibaraT ] >[tu let] >[tu luk] > [mEnidjmant] >[memba T ] >[mop] >[tu mop] > [nigau~iei~anz] > [tu
nigau~ieit]

pe jos

- negocieri - a negocia, a duce tratative - nicaieri, niciunde - ovaz - a oferi, a acorda - stricat, defect - cuptor - a coji, a curata (Iegume/fructe) - a permite ca~tig

> [noUueaT ] > [outs] > [tu ofa r] > [aut ov o:rda T ] >[om] >[tu pi:!] > [tu pamit] > [prousi:dz]

(dintr-o activitale)

41

to promise raise to raise receipt to reduce to refuse riches rubbish-bin sales satisfied (with) saucepan savmgs to serve shop-assistant shopping-bag shopping-list shop-window short of (something) sink to smell somebody somewhere to sound to stock

> [tu promis] > [reiz] > [tu reiz] > [risi:t] > [tu ridiu:s] > [tu rifiu:z] > >
[rit~iz ] [rabi~

- a promite - sporire, marire - a spori, a mari - chitanta, nota de plata - a reduce, a mic~ora - a refuza, a respinge - avere, bogatie co~

bin]

de gunoi

> [seilz] > [sEtisfaid] > [so:spEn] > [sezvin(g)z] > [tu sa:rv] > > > > >
[~op

- reduceri, vanzarea soldurilor - satisIacut, multumit (de) - cratita - economii (bani) - a servi, a fi folosit - vanzator, vanzatoare saco~a

asistant] bEg] list]

[~opin(g)

sau punga de cumparaturi

[~opin(g)
[~op [~o:rt

- !ista de cumparaturi - vitrina - lipsa de (ceva) - chiuveta - a mirosi, a avea miros - cineva - undeva - a suna, a rasuna - a aproviziona, a tine/a avea marfuri pe stoc - greva - supermarket - a sprijini, a sustine - imprejurimi, vecinatate - robinet - a gusta, a avea gust (de)

Uindau] av]

> [sin(g)k] > [tu smel] > [sambadi] > [samUea r] > [tu saund] > [tu stok]

strike supermarket to support surroundings tap to taste

> [straik] > [su:parma:rkit] > [tu sapo:rt] > [saraundintg)z] > [tEp] > [tu teist]

42

thanks tile towel trade-union trolley true to tum off to tum on

> [TSEn(g)ks] > [tail] > [taual] > [treid iu:nian] > [troli] > [tru:] > [tu ta:rn of] > [tu ta:1n on]

- multumiri,

recuno~tinta

- faiantalteracota - prosop - sindicat - carucior (intr-un supermarket) - adevarat - a opri, a stinge, a inchide - a deschide, ada drumul, a aprinde (lumina etc.) ~omaj

unemployement unskilled useful wages well to wrap up

> [animploimant] > [anskild] > [iu:stal] > [Ueidjiz] > [Uel] > [tu rEp ap]

- necalificat - folositor, util - salariu - bine - a impacheta

43

RECAPITULARE
1. Propozitiile interogative introduse prin pronumele interogativ "who" au intotdeauna structura unei propozitii afirmative, iar verbul este la persoana a III-a singular. Who saw you? Who wants the book? - Cine te-a vazut? - Cine vrea cartea?

2.

Numeralele ordinale: the first the second the third the fourth - primul, prima, intaiul, intaia - al doilea, a doua - al treilea, a treia - al patrulea, a patra

LECTIA 19 - PARTEA INTAI ,
In aceasta parte a lectiei yom invata cuvinte legate de starea vremii. Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i tlti atenti la intelesul lor in limba romana: gale hail shower
> [geil] > [heil] > haua ']

vant putemic, vijelie grindina aversa, ploaie torentiala gheata umbra, nuanta roua
r

ice shade dew thunderstorm

>

rais]

> heid] > [diu:] > [T'anda sto: '111 J
-

fmtuna cu traznete, vijelie umbrela drum, uragan dezghet, topire vreme insorita
~osea

umbrella road hurricane thaw sunny spells

> [ambrela] > [roud] > [harikan] > [T'o: ] > [sani spelz]

Cititi din nou cuvintele, dar in alta ordine: thaw umbrella shade hail sunny spells road thunderstorm ice gale hurricane dew shower
> [TSo:] > [ambrela] > [~eid] > [heil] > [sani spelz] > [roud] > [T'andarsto:rm] > [ais] > [gcil ] > [harikanl > [diu:] > I~auar]

dezghet, topire umbrela umbra, nuanta grindina
- vreme insorita

drum,

~osea

furtuna cu traznete gheata vant putemic, vijelie

-

uragan roua aversa, ploaie torentiala

-2-

lata cuvintele noi In propozitii: There were a lot of gales in January. There was some hail this morning. There is ice on the water. Can you see the dew on the grass? There are no thunderstorms in these surroundings. Don't forget your umbrella! This road is too narrow for a van. Hurricanes bring a lot of ram. The thaw will start next month. The shade is long in the afternoon. There will be a shower in the morning. Sunny spells don't often happen in autumn. > l D"ea' "a :' a lot ov geilz in djEniLlari] > [ Dlea' "az sam heil DZis mo:'nin lgl ] > [Dlea' iz ais on Dla "o:ta'] > l kEn iu: si: DLa diu: on DZa gra:s] - Au fost multe vijelii In ianuarie. - Azi dimineata a fost grindina. - Este gheata pe apa. - Poti sa vezi roua pe iarba?

> [Dlea' a:' nau Pand~l'sto:'mz - In aceste locuri nu sunt in D'i:z saraundin(g)z] furtuni cu traznete. > l daunt forget io:' ambrela] > [Dlis raud iz tLl: nErau fo:' a YEn] > [harikanz brin(g) a lot av rein] >[DZa Po: "il sta:'t nekst man T']
> [D1a

- Nu-ti uita umbrela! - Acest drum este prea Ingust pentru 0 furgoneta. - Uraganele aduc multa ploaie. - Dezghetul va Incepe luna viitoare. - E multa umbra dupa amiaza. - Dimineata va fi aversa.

iz !on(g) in D"i a: fta'nu:n]

~cid

> [D"e[l' "il bi: a ~aua' in D"a mo:'nin lg )]

> [sani spclz daunt oti1 hEpn in o:t~lm]

- Toamna nu este des vreme Insorita.
ro~u:

Completati urmatoarele propozitii In limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare. Folositi filtrul Nu-mi place dezghetul. Ti-ai cumparat deja A fost
0 0

- I don't like >the thaw. - Have you already bought a new >umbrella? - There was a >Shade of smile on his face. - There won't be any >hail this spring. - The last >sunny spell was a month ago. - We must take this >road. - 1 love >thunderstorms in summer. - There is a lot of >ice on the river. - Do you really want to go out in this >gale? - The >hurricane is near America. - There is always >dcw on the grass in the morning. - I think there will be >Showers tomorrow.
3

umbrela noua?

nuanta de zambet pe fata lui.

In aceasta primavara nu va fi grindina. Ultima zi Insorita a fast in urma cu Trebuie s-o luam pe acest drum. Vara imi plac furtunile cu trasnete. Este multa gheata pe rau. Chiar vrei sa
ie~i
0

luna.

pe acest vant puternic?

Uraganul este In apropierea Americii. Dimineata este Intotdeauna roua pe iarba.

Cred ca maine vor fi averse.

Traduceti propozqllle urmiHoare in Innba engleza.

lIm

plac toate nuantele de verde.

> I like all shades of green. > ThIs road IS the best.
> ThIs month there have been many thundel storms.

Acest drum este cel mal bun. Luna aceasta au fost multe vlJelIi.

Nu-ml plac aversele. Pune-tl pantofil! Este roua pe iarba. Cand este dezghet, strazile sunt ude. Pot sa Iau umbreJa ta? NO! am pierdut totul in tlmpul uraganului. Intr-adevar itl place cealUl rece cu gheata? Sper ca aZI va fi vreme insonta. leri a fost ploale ~I gnndma. lama sunt des vantun putemlce. Primavara va SOSI dupa ultImul dezghet.

> I don't like showers.
> Put on your shoes! There IS dew on the grass.

> When there IS thaw, the streets are wet.
> Can I take your umbrella? > \Ve lost everythmg m the hurncane.

> 00 you Ieally like Ice-tea?
> I hope there wIll be sunny spells today. > Yestelday we had ram and haIl. > [here are often gales In WInter.

> SPI mg \\ III come after the last thaw.

In aceasta Jeetle ne vom ocupa de 0 problema nnportanta a gramatIcn engleze, modul conditional. Propozltla condltlOnala este de trel tipun. lata primul tip. Tipul intii (1. Conditional) ~e refera la vuto/: indepl//urea cond/tiei, respect/v realtzarea activitiiru \'l/toare, este poslhila. lata cateva exemple. If you return thIS book you will get another If she leaves too late, she will be late for her bus. The weather will be nice If the temperatlll e Isn't lower.
> [IfILl IIta.'n O/IS buk
III

till gct ana0 7 a']

- Oaca inapoiezI aceasta carte, vel prum alta. - Oaca ea pJeaca prea tarziu, va plerde autobuzul. - Vremea va fi placuta, daca temperatura nu va fi mai scazutii.

> [If ~l iI. vz tu lclt r Sl ull bl. IClt fo. r ha· bas]
> LOla L1 e D l a' L111 bl n,IlS If D/a tcmp[Jt~ar iznt loua']

Deslgllr arl oh.\ervat cum se utllt:.ea:.a if [If] (inseal11na' daca, presllpunimd ca) in propozitil.

Rerl/lerl ca in propo:.ltia condltlOllala (care este Illtrodll~a pnn if) se foloseste tl/npul prezent simplu (SImple Present), far ill propo:'lrfa prinClpala ~e IItlltzeaza vlitorul Sllllplu (Sllnple Future).

4

Completati propozitiile unnatoare cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Daca ploua nu vom merge 1a plimbare. Nu vei fi un medic bun, daca nu inveti. Oaca maine e gel', vom ramane acasa. Daca nll-~i ia umbrela, ea se va intoarce acasa uda.
- If it > ramswe won't go for a walk.

- You won't be a good doctor if you> don't learn. - If there > IS frost tomorrow, we will stay at home. - If she> doesn't take her umbrella she will return home wet.

lar acum sa invatam cateva adjective noi. Cititi cllvintele cu voce tare in limba romana: slippery severe changeable dense oppressIve dangerous > [slipall] > [sl\ia'] >
[t~cindjabl]

~i

retineti corespondentullor

- alunecos - sever, aspru, cumplit - schimbator - dens, compact - apasator, -periculos
inabu~itor

> [dens] > [opresiv] > [dcmdjaras]

Sa exersam changeable oppressive slippery severe dense dangerous

acelea~i

cuvinte, dar intr-o alta ordine:
> [t;;emdlabl]

- schimbator - apasator, - alunecos - sever, aspru, cumplit - dens, compact -periculos
inabu~itor

>

[OpICSIV]

> [slipan] > [slviarJ > [dens] > [dcmdjaras]

Cititi cu voce tare unnatorlll dialog scurt in care apar
A: B: A: B:

~i

cuvintele noi:

Do you like the weather today? No, it's awful. In the morning the fog was so dense that I didn't see my car. Yes, and the streets were slippery. It was dangerous. I think this winter will be severe. I am not sure. The weather is always changeable in November. And it's better than the oppressive heat in summer.

lata propozitiile din text Do you like the weather today? No, it's awfuL.

~i

traducerea lor in limba romana: > [dll iu. lalk [Ya lIefYa' ladc!]
>
[lldll lis II

- iti place azi vremea?

IlJ
5

- Nu, este groaznica.

In the morning the fog was > [111 D\l mo:'nin(g) D/a so dense that I didn't see my l'og U oz sou d ens DIE al. ~t r car. didnt si: mai ka: ] Yes, and the streets were slippery.
It was dangerous.

Dimineata ceata a fost atat de deasa, incat nu mi-am vazut ma~ina. Da, ~i strazile au fost alunecoase. A fost periculos. Cred ca aceasta iarna va fi aspra. Nu sunt sigur.

> [/\:s End D/a stri:ts ua:r sliparil > !it uoz deindjaras] > [ai r'in(g)k D/IS uintar IIi] bi: sidi/]
> [ai Em not ;;ua']

I think this winter will be severe. I am not sure. The weather is always changeable in November. And it's better than the oppressive heat in summer.

> [D/a ueD/al IZ o:luelz t;;eindjabl
In

nouvemb[\I]
r

In noiembrie vremea este intotdeauna schimbatoare.
Si este mai bine decat caldura inabu~itoare vara.

> [End its beta D/En D/a opresiv 11I.t in sal1la')

Desigur ati memorat deja cuvintele noi. Completati unnatoarele propozitii cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: S-a depus un ger cumplit. In Romania avem
0

> Sevel e frost has set in. We have> changeable weather in Romania. There is > dense traffic in the streets. The road was> "lIppery so we went on foot. These animals can be > dangerous. This summer there has been> oppressIve heat.

vreme schimbatoare.

Este un trafic intens pe strazi. Drumul a fost alunecos pe jos.
a~a

ca noi am mers

Aceste animaIe pot fi periculoase. Vara aceasta a fost
0

caldura

inabu~itoare.

"Severe frost has set in."

-6-

Traducetl in hmba engleza urmatoarele cuvinte. Folosltl filtrul schimbator dens alunecos sever
inabu~itor

ro~u:

> Lhangeable > dense > slippery > scvere > oppressive > dangcrous

periculos

Numeralele ordinale invatate pana acum sunt: the first the second the third the fourth - primul, prima, intaiul, intaia - al doilea, a doua - al trellea, a treia - al patrulea, a patra

Celelalte numerale ord/llale se formeazii prin adiiugarea ternlll1a!iel -th la l1umeralele cardinale:
SlX

sixth seventh

> [siksT'] > [sevnT S ]

seven

Ortografia
five twelve

IIIlOra

dintre numerale ordinale se schil11bii prin adiiugarea terl11ina!iei -th:
fifth twelfth
> [fifP] > [tUclfP]

in ca::ul ill care Ilumeralele se terl11inii in -y, acesta se preschimbii in -ie, la adiiugarea terl11ina!iei -th:
twenty twentieth
> [t"entlaT']

in cazul numeralelor urdlllale compuse - ca de exemplu "al douii::eci ,~i unulea, al dOllea, al trezlea ", in englezii folosim cuvintele first, second, third, etc.:
al douazeci al trelzeci
~aizeci ~i
~i ~I

unulea

- the twenty- first - the thirty-second - the sixty-third

> [t"entl fa:rst]
> [T'a:rti sekand] > [sikstl T'a 'd]

doilea

treilea

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: A fost a zecea noastra zi de lucru. Aceasta carte este pe al douazeci raft la dreapta.
~i ~aselea

> It was our tenth day of work. > ThiS book IS on the twenty-sixth shelf on the nght.

Al patruzeci ~I ~aptelea profesor tocmai a solicitat sluJba.
7

> The 1"01 ty-se\ enth tcacher has Just dppllcd for the lob.

Daca numeralele sunt sCl'ise cu cifi-e, atunci c!frelor Ii se adauga ultimele doua litere ale formei serise eu litere:
first second third twenty-fifth Acum sa Invatam to need to freeze to melt to drizzle to drop to set in Sa exersam to drop to melt to set in to need to drizzle to freeze
acela~i
~ase

1st 2nd 3rd 25th verbe noi:
> [tll nl:dl > [tll fri:z] > [tll melt] > [tLl dtizl] > [tu drop] > [tLl set in]

a avea nevoie de, a trebui a Ingheta, a degera a topi, a se topi a bumita a picura, a ciidea, a scapa a Incepe, a se instala

verbe Intr-o alta ordine:
> [tLl drop] > [tLl melt I > [tLl set in] > [lLl nut] > ItLl drizl] > [tLl fri:z]

a picura, a cadea, a scapa a topi, a se topi a Incepe, a se instala a avea nevoie de, a trebui a bumita a Ingheta, a degera

Dintre verbele de mai sus, doua sunt neregulate. lata formele lor: forma a I-a freeze set in
> I !tTZ]

forma a II-a froze set in
> [fIOUZ] > [set Ill]
~i

forma a III-a frozen set in
> [frollll1]

> [set

mJ

> [set 111]

Sa folosim aceste verbe In propozitii. Cititi-le cu voce tare romana: He has always needed our help. The water has frozen. The thaw will set in next month. The ice has already melted.
> [O/a T'o: lid set
111

urmariti traducerea In limba

> [hi' hEz o:llle/z l1i:did

aua help]

l

El a avut Intotdeauna nevoie de ajutorul nostru. Apa a Inghetat.

nekst

manT']
> [D/i alS hEz o'lredi

- Dezghetul va Incepe luna viitoare. - Gheata s-a topit deja.

meltid]

-8-

We won't go to town if it drizzles tomorrow. Don't drop this magazine on the floor.

> l"i: "ount gau tu taun if it drizlz tamorau] > [daunt drop D/is mEgazi:n on DZ~\ flo:']

- Nu vom merge in ora~ daca va burnita maine. - Nu scapa pe podea aceasta revista.

In exercitiul urmator completati urmatoarele propozitii cu forma corespunzatoare a verbelor: A cazut ceva de pe masa. Gheata se va topi primavara. Trebuie sa congelam ni~te mancare. Ai nevoie azi de
)na~ina?

- Something has >dropped from the table. - Ice will >melt in spring. - We must >freeze some food. - Do you >need the car today? - If severe frost >sets in we will leave this town.
- It >drizzled all day yesterday.

Daca incepe un inghet aspru, vom parasi acest ora~. A bumitat ieri toata ziua.

Desigur v-ati a ingheta

insu~it

deja verbele noi. Traduceti in limba romana: > to freeze > to need > to melt > to set in
> to drizzle > to drop

a avea nevoie de a se topi a se instala, a incepe a burnita a scapa

Cititi cu atentie propozitiile: They make cars in this factory. Cars are made in this factory. Ati sesizat deosebirea? - Ei fac
ma~ini

in aceasta fabrica.

- In aceasta fabrica se fac ma~ini.

Propozi{ia a doua este la diateza pasiva (Passive Voice [pa: siv vois)), care se folose,~te atunci ciind subiectul este obiectul care suferd ac{iunea iar autorul ac{iunii este exprimat printr-ul1 complement. Diateza pasiva se compune din forma corespunzatoare a verbului to be ~i forma a III-a a verbului principal.

9

lata dHeva exemple: The hammer was found in the shed. The floor in the kitchen will > be mopped tomorrow. > [Dza hEmal' lI oz faund in DZa ~edj - Ciocanul a fast gasit in
~ura.

lD\\ flo:1' in D/a
lIj]

kil~an

bi: mopt tamorouj

Podeua din bucatarie va fi spalata maine.

Unneaza un exercitiu u~or. Transfonnati propozitiile din diateza activa in diateza pasiva. Completati propozitiile: She emptied the basket. She has ironed her son's shirts. We will negotiate a raise tomorrow. They deliver newspapers every day. The basket> was emptied. Her son's shirts> have been ironed. A raise> will be negotiated tomorrow. Newspapers> are delivered every day.

!/~~~~ser~~t,~~~;:~~~~;~~~I~~entuI~~:~~~;~pozitieila di~teza I
l -._-_._- ._
I

activa devine subiectul propozitiei la diateza pasiva.
...

_._- -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ . - ..

_---_ .._-_.

__. _ - - - - - - - - - - . - /.

I

Sa recapitulam materialul acestei parti a lectiei. Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Am uitat sa iau umbrela. Am avut doar cil.teva furtuni cu trasnete vara aceasta. Acest drum a fost construit in urma cu doi am. Al doisprezecelea politist a sosit prea tarziu. Daca nu lucrezi nu vei avea bani. > I have forgotten to take the umbrella. > We have had only a few thunderstonTIs this summer. > This road was buill two y ~ars ago.

> The twelfth policeman caine too late. > If you don't work you will not have money. > All letters have already b,:en sent. > We ""ill visit John and Mary if it doesn't drizzle. > My sweater has been knitted. > If the fog is dense, we witl see nothing. > Slippery roads are very ch,ngerous.

Toate scrisorile au fost trimise deja.

Ii

vom vizita pe John ~i pe Mary dad nu ploua marunt.
cro~etat.

Puloverul meu a fost

Daca ceata este deasa, nu vom vedea nimic. Drumurile alunecoase sunt foarte periculoase. Am nevoie de
0

multime de haine noi.

> I need a

101

of new clothes.

Acesta este al cincizecilea angajat al nostru.

> This is our fiftielh employee.

- 10-

LECTIA 19 - PARTEA A DaDA ,
Furtunile ;;i ploile din prima parte a lectiei ne-au Iacut sa ne gfmdim la caminul nostru confortabil. Sa intram in donnitor: double bed sheet blanket pillow bedspread alarm clock sheets wardrobe rug dressing-gown single bed dream nightmare
> [dabl bed] > [~i:t] > [hIEn{g)kit] > [pilou] > [bedspredj > [ala:1m klok I > [~i:tsl > C'o:'droub]

- pat dublu - cear;;af - piltura - perna - cuvertura de pat - ceas de;;teptiitor - cear;;afuri, foi de hartie - garderoba, ;;ifonier, dulap de haine - covora;;, carpeta - halat, capot - pat de - vis - co;;mar
0

> [rag] > [dresin(g) gaun] > [sing I bed] > [dri:lll] > [naitmefl']

persoana

Repetati cuvintele ;;i in aWi ordine. Exersati pronuntia ;;i retineti sensul lor in limba romfma: rug dream bedspread double bed pillow nightmare blanket wardrobe alarm clock sheet dressing-gown single bed sheets
> [rag] > [dri:m] > [bedspredl > [dabl bed] > [pilau] > [naitmcf{] > [bIEnlg)kitj > [uo:rdroub]

- covora;;, carpeta - vis - cuvertura de pat - pat dublu - perna - co;;mar - patura - garderoba, ;;ifonier, dulap de haine - ceas de;;teptator - cear;;af - halat - pat de
0

> [ala:rm klakj > r~i:t] > ldresin(g) gaun]
> [singl bed]

persoana

> [;;i:tsJ

- cear;;afuri, foi de hartie

- 11 -

Sa citim cu voce tare dialogul, in care am folosit

~i

cuvintele noi:

A: B: A: B:

A: B: A: B:

What do you want to have in our bedroom? We must have one double bed or two single beds. I think we can have a wardrobe in the corner of the room. Yes, and two small rugs near the bed. I want to buy many new things. I am thinking about new dressing-gowns, new pillows and blankets. ... new sheets and a large bedspread. Can we afford it? I hope we can. We can also buy a new electric alarm clock. They are very good. Will we buy new, nice dreams too? I think that after we buy all the new things we can afford only nightmares. They are cheaper.
~i

Sa analizam acum separat fiecare propozitie. Cititi propozitiile

fiti atenti la pronuntie:

What do you want to have in> [u ot du iu: uont tu hEv in - Ce vrei sa avem in noul our new bedroom? aLla' nlU: bedrumJ nostru donnitor? We must have one double bed or two single beds. > lUi: mast hEv bed
0: 1
lI

an dabl

tu: sing] bedz]

Trebuie sa avem un pat dublu sau doua paturi simple. Cred ca putem avea un ~ifonier mare in coltul camerei. Da, ~i doua langa pat.
covora~e

I think we can have a big > [al T\n(1!)k ui: kEn hEv a Z wardrobe in the comer of the · b Ig 1I o. I'd rou b'111 D a room. ko:1n[\1 ov DZa ru:m]

Yes, and two small rugs near> the bed. I want to buy many new things.

I ics End tLl smo.l ragz
nia' D\\ hed]

mici

> [ai uont tLl bai me111 nlU:

T'intg)z]

Vreau sa cumpar multe 1ucruri noi. Ma gandesc la ha1ate noi, peme ~i paturi.

> [ai Em T'in l 1!)kin(g) abaut I am thinking about new dressing-gowns, pillows and nlLl: dresin(g) gaunz blankets. piloLlz End blEn(g)kits]

... new sheets and a large bedspread. Can we afford it? I hope we can. We can also buy a new electric alann clock. They are very good. Will we buy new, nIce dreams too?

> [n/Ll. :;;i:t<: End bedspred]

a la:l'dj

... cear~afuri noi ~i 0 cuvertura de pat mare. Ne putem pennite asta? Sper ci'i putem.

> [kFn ul. fIfo t d it]
> [<Ii hOLlp u1: kEnJ
> [ul: kEn olsou bal

a niu:

ilektnk rda:1m klok]

Putem deasemenea cumpara ~i un ceas de~teptator electric nou. Sunt foarte bune.

> [till ul. bal niLl. l1alS dl! mz tu']

Vom cumpara placute?

~i

vise noi,

- 12-

l I think that after we buy all > [ai T'm()2Jk D/Et a:fta the new things we can afford lIj: hal 0:1 D/fl nllJ: only nightmares. T'in()2)z IIi. k1:11 Mold

ounli na/tml.:fllzj They are cheaper.
> !D\:i a: t"i.pfl'l
1

Cred ca dupa ee cumparam toate luerurile noi, ne yom putea permite doar co~maruri. - Sunt mai ieftine.

Acum folositi noile cuvinte. Introduceti-Ie in unnatoarele propozitii: Ei au aiei eamere eu paturi duble. - They have rooms with> double bed" here. I must buy my wife a new> dressIng

Trebuie sa-i cumpar nevestei mele un halat Putem sa-ti dam doar paturi ~i peme. Cit costa acest ceas de~teptator. Ai vazut cear~afurile verzi in magazin?

We can only give you> blankets and > pillows. How much is this> alarm clock? Did you see the green> sheets in the shop? We'll take one> single bed for our daughter. What colour are your >
r~lgs?

Vom lua un pat simplu pentru fiica noastra.

Ce culoare au

covora~ele

tale?

Cuvertura de pat trebuie sa fie alba. Vom face un
~ifonier ~i-I

The> bedspread must be white. in colt. We'll make a > \\ardrobc and put it in the corner. Do you often have> dreams at night?

yom

a~eza

Visezi des noaptea? Ultimele zile au fost un
co~mar

pentm mine.

The last days were a > nightmare for me.

I

L

~ P'.. ~~
- 13 -

~ .

_

"I must buy my wife a new dressing-gown".

Traduceti In limba engleza urmatoarele cuvinte: vis patura halat, capot perna ceas dqteptator
covora~

J

> dream
> blanket > dress109-gown

> pillow > alarm clock
>
lUg

cear~af
cear~afuri,

> sheet
foi de hartie
> sheets

cuvertura de pat
co~mar

> bedspread
> nIghtmare

garderoba pat dublu pat de
0

> \\ ardrobe
> double bed

persoana

> smgle bed

Datele se scnu ill fe/ul urmiitor:
on the 21 st of October - pe 21 octombrie

The bed will be delivered on the 15th of November. This letter was written on 31 st July.

> [LYa bed l'll bl. dlliva'd on [)fa ld'ti.nPav nou\cmb,I'] >
[[YIS

- Patul va fi livrat la 15 noiembrie. - Aceasta scrisoare a fost scrisa pe 31 iulie.

DZa

leta' "az I iln on Pa"11 fa ' s t ,1\ dlul:lI]

Sa Inva!am cateva verbe noi: to kill to drown to wreck to bum
> [tll kll] > [tll thalln] > [Iulck] > [Iu barn]

- a omori, a ucide - a Ineca, a se Ineca - a sfarama, a distruge, a avaria - a arde, a prajI, a fi aprins

Unul dmtre verbe este neregulat: forma I burn
> [bel 'n]

forma a II-a burnt

fonna a lll-a burnt
> [ba 'nl]

14

lata cum se folosesc verbele in Propoziiii: He killed seven people. That man has drowned his dog. Don't wreck my car! Wood bums easily. > [hi: kild
SC\

n pi:pl]

EI a ucis

~apte

oameni. inecat

> rOZEt mEn h Lz draund hi? dog] r > [dount rek mai ka: J . > [li u d b": nz 1:71T1J a:

Omul acela diinele.

~i-a

Nu-mi distruge

ma~ina!

Lemnul arde bine.

La diateza pasiva aceste verbe noi au alta semnificatie: to be killed
> [tu bl. kild]

- a-;;i pierde viata, (a fi ucis), a ciidea (de ex. in razboi) a se ineca a se distruge, a suferi un naufragiu, a se avaria a arde pana in temelii a dobor!, a rastuma a sufla, a stinge prin suflare

to be drowned to be wrecked to be burnt down to be blown down to be blown out

> [tu bi: draundJ > [tu bi: rektJ > [tu bi: ba: nt daun] > [t u bi. bloun daunj > [tu bi: bioun aut [
r

Urmeaza cateva exemple: Fifty-two people were killed > [fifJi tu: pi:pl l'U: kild in in this accident. DZis Eksldant!
1

- In acest accident ~i-au pierdut viata cincizeci~idoi de oameni. Te vei ineca daca ei nu te invata sa inoti. Avionul a fost avariat in timpul unui uragan. Focul va fi stins intr-un minut. leri au fost doborati multi copaci.
Ma~ina

You will be drowned if they > [iu. llJ! bi: draund if [)zci don't teach you to swim. dount t1·t~
Ill:
lI O

tu sllim] ? rekt in

The plane was wrecked in a > [Dza plein hurricane. harikanJ

a

The fire will be blown out in> IOza faii/ lIil bi: bloun a minute. Many trees were blown down yesterday. The car was burnt down. aut in > [meni

a minit] tri:z lI a:r

bloun

daun ieslardei] > loza ka: 1 u o ? baJnt daun I

a ars de tot.

In exercitiul urmator, completati propozitiile cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului: Furtuna a avariat hotelul in data de 23 maio Poti sa te ineci daca inoti maine. Un copil ~i-a pierdut viata in accident. Casa noastra a ars pana in temelii saptamana trecuta. The hurricane> \\ reck.:d the hotel on rd 23 May. You can> dro\\ n if you swim tomorrow. A child> \\ as kIlled in the accident. Our house> \\ as burnt do\\ n last week.

- 15 -

Copacii s-au rasturnat de viintul puternic. Mal mult de 0 suta de oameni s-au Inecat ciind vaporul a naufragiat. Oamenll ucid alti oameni In fIe care
Incalze~ti cu lemne lama?
Zl.

- The trees >wcre blown down in the gale. - More than a hundred people >were drowned when the ship >was wrecked. - People >kI11 other people every day. - Do you >burn wood in the winter? - The fire >has been blown out.

Focul a fost stins.

Acum iata un grup de adjective noi. Exersati pronuntia sleepy quiet unpleasant nOIsy dirty modem > [sli:pl] > [kUalat] > [anpleznt] > [nolZl ] > l d·'.'tl] > [l11oda'n]

~i

retineti Intelesul lor In limba romiina: - somnoros, adonnit lini~tit,

calm, potolit

- neplacut - zgomotos, galagios - murdar - modern, nou, contemporan

Cihtl cu atentie unnatoarele propozitii In care apar adjectivele noi:

1 feel sleepy this
mommg. Our street is very quiet. Nightmares are unpleasant. These children were very nOIsy. We must clean the car because it is dirty. This is a modern factory.

> l alII I sll.pl
1110 'nIl1 ICI ]

LYI~

- Sunt somnoros In dimineata aceasta. - Strada noastra este fomie Co~marurile

> [aua' stll t IZ \ ell kUaiat] > [naltl11c,j'Z a" anpleznt] > l O/I'Z t)ilth an U ' a yen nOIZlJ > lUI: l11a~t kll.n lYa ka: 1 hlkoz It IZ da.'lI] > lO/ls
IZ

lini~tita.

sunt neplacute.

Ace~ti

copii au fost
galagio~i.

foarte

- TrebLlle sa curatam ma~ina deoarece este murdara. - Aceasta este 0 fabrica modema.

a l11oda'n

j}~ktan]

In exercqlUl unnator completati urmatoarele propozitil In limba engleza cu noile cuvinte:

COPIll

no~tn

sunt foarte

somnoro~i.

- Our children are very >sleepy. - We had
>nol~y

Am avut vecml

galagio~i.

neighbours.

Uita-te la miiinile tale murdare! Vreau sa traiesc Intr-un
Ma~inile

- Look at your >dlrty hands! - I want to live in a >qulct town. - > 1\1 odcrn cars are expensive. - 1 have never been in a more >unpkasant situation! 16

ora~ lini~tlt.

modeme sunt scumpe.

Niciodata nu am fost Intr-o situatle mai neplacuta!

Traduce\i unnatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza: I ini~tit murdar zgomotos modem somnoros neplacut
> quiet > dirty > nOIsy > modem > sleepy > unpleasant

in exerci{iul urmator vom
trousers spectacles scissors binoculars glasses

inva/a substantive care apar intotdeauna la plural:
> [trauza z] > [spekHiklz] > [sizarz]

r

- pantaloni ochelari foarfeca binoclu ochelari

r > [binokiula z]
> [gla :siz]

Pentru a defini cantitorea exacta a acestor obieete, sefolose$te expresia a pair of [5 pear ov] o pereche.

Cititi cu voce tare exemplele: [ want to buy a pair of trousers. Where are my binoculars? 1 don't see them. We have sold ten pairs of spectacles today.
> [ai uont tu bai

a pear

av

trauzarz]
I' > [uear a: mai binokiu1i:/z

Vreau sa cumpar 0 pereche de pantaloni. Unde este binoclul meu? Nu-l viid. Azi noi am vandut zece perechi de ochelari.
-

ai daunt si: DIem]
>

[L1'I: I1 EV sou Id ten pea z _I' . ~

ov spektaklz tadei)

She cannot find her glasses. > [~i: kEnot faind ha:1' gla:siz]
1 must buy three pairs of > [ai mast bai T\i: pei'/ Z
r

Ea

nu-~i gase~te

ochelarii.

scissors. lata cateva verbe noi: to get to wake up to snore to dream to shave to undress

ov siza z]

Trcbuic sa cumpar trei foarfece.

> [tu get] > [tu
LI

-

a obtine, a ajunge, a deveni a se trezi a sforai a visa,
a-~i

eik ap]

> [tu sno:l'] > [tu dri:m] > Itu ~eiv ] > [tu andres]

inchipui

a barbieri, a se barbieri a (se) dezbraca

- 17-

Dintre aceste verbe, trei sunt neregulate. Formele lor sunt: forma I get wake dream
> [get]
> [ueik]

forma a II-a got woke dreamt > [goll > IUouk] > [dremt j

forma a III-a got woken dreamt > [got] > Illoukn] > [dremt]

> [dri.mj

Sa exersam utilizarea verbelor noi in propozitii. Fiti atenti la pronuntie:
I always get sleepy late at
> [al 0 jlleiz get SJi:Pl leit

night. Undress and go to bed.

Et na/t] > [andres End gou tu bed] ap J:l sevn I

Totdeuna devin somnoros noaptea tarziu. Dezbraca-te culcare!
~i

du-te la

We woke up at seven.

1I > [1:

1I ouk

Ne-am trezit la

~apte.
0

Have you ever dreamt about> [hEv iu: e\i:\1 dreml abaut a big house? Do you always snore when you sleep? Have you shaved yet?

a big
> [du
IU

haus] o:lueiz sno: 1 uen

Ai visat vreodata la mare?

casa

IU:

slI:pJ
IU: ~elvd let]

Sforai intotdeuna cand dormi? - Te-ai biirbierit deja?

> [hEv

Completati propozitiile cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului: Vremea va deveni cetoasa. Copiii s-au dezbracat deja. Am visat la
0 ma~ina

It is > geltll1g foggy.

The children have already> undressed.
I have > dreamt about a new car.

noua. mai

Maine trebuie sa te devreme. Sforai de obicei?

barbiere~ti

You must> "have earlier tomorrow.

Do you usually> snore?
~ase.

S-au trezit inainte de

They>

V\

oke up before six.

In

umlatorul exercitiu traduceti cuvintele in limba engleza:
> to
snor~

a sforai a se dezbraca a obtine a se barbieri a visa a se trezi

> to und! e"s > to get > to shave > to dre3111 > 10 \\ ake up

- 18 -

Acest ultim exercitiu este de verificare. Traduceti propozltiile in limba engleza ~i exersati pronuntia: Pe data de 25 mai a fast un vant putemic.
> There was a strong gale on 25th May.

Furtunile cu traznete sunt i'ntotdeauna perieuloase. > Thunderstorms are always dangerous.
~ase

oameni

~i-au

pierdut viata in acest uragan.

> SIX people were killed

III

this hurricane.

Daca se intuncea nu vom gasi aeeasta easa. Acest ceas de~teptator a fast cumparat din acest magazin. iti place vremea schimbatoare? Pantalonii tai sunt in dulap. Vaporul a naufragiat pe a ceata deasa. Fiiea lor s-a inecat anul trecut. Saptamana aceasta au fast multe averse. Nu vei cumpara aceasta carte daca cheltui toti banii pe haine. Este pe al douazecilea raft. Mancarea e congelata. Copiii nu s-au trezit inca.

> If it gets dal k we won't find thIS house.

> This alarm clock \Vas bought in thiS shop. > Do you like changeable weather? > Your trousers are In the wardrobe. > The ship was wrecked
III

a dense fog.

> Their daughter dlOwned last year. > There have been many showers this week.

> You won't buy thIS book If you spend all the lTIon\lY on clothes.
> It is on the twentIeth shel f.
> The food IS frozen.

> The chIldren have not woken up yet.

La sfar~itulleetiei unneaza un exercitiu de pronuntie. Cuvintele de pe identlce: [au] shower drown brown down

aceea~i coloana

cantin sunete

[a:rJ
burn dirty -third bird

[c] wreck get dense set

[ail fire Ice lllce find

19

RECAPITULARE 19
19.1. Propozitia conditionala tipul intiii. (1. Conditional) Acest timp se refera la vii tor. Indeplinirea conditiei, respectiv realizarea activitatii viitoare este probabila. Semnificatia conjunctiei "if'[if] : "daca". Propozitia conditionala (care sta dupa if) este la timpul prezent simplu (Simple Present), iar propozitia principala este la timpul viitor simplu (Simple Future). If you buy the paper we will read about that accident. 19.2. Numeralele ordinale: Numeralele ordinale se formeaza prin adaugazea terminatia -th la numeralul cardinal: sixth SIX seventh seven Ortografia unor ciitorva numerale se schimba prin adaugarea terminatiei - th:
fi~ fi~

Daca cumperi ziarul yom citi despre acel accident.

twelve

twelfth

In cazul in care numeralele se termina in -y, acesta se preschimba in -ie, dupa adaugarea terminatiei -th: twenty -- twentieth Daca numeralul se termina in ,,-intai, -doilea, -treilea" atunci in engleza se folosesc cuvintele "first, second, third": douazeci~iunu - twenty-first Daca numeralele ordinale sunt scrise cu cifre, atunci cifrelor Ii se adauga ultimele doua litere ale formei scrise eu litere: 1st first twenty-fifth 25th 19.3. Diateza pasiva - the Passive Voice Diateza pasiva se foIose~te atunci ciind subiectul este obiectul care sufera aqiunea iar autorul actiunii este exprimat printr-un complement. Propozitia cu structura pasiva se formeaza din: forma corespunzatoare a verbului "to be" ~i fonna a II1.-a a verbului principal. The hammer was found in the shed. 19.4. Scrierea
5t
~i

- Ciocanul a fost gasit in

~ura.

citirea datelor - Pe data de 21 octombrie

on 21 October [on DZa tllentl fa.'st ov oktoubal ]

In pronuntia datelor apar cuvinte aditionale - care nu se scriu. Acestea sunt "the" inaintea datei ~i "of' inaintea denumirii lunii.

- 20-

TEMA. PENTRU ACASA. 19
A. Traduceti in limba romana urmatoarele propozitii: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A lot of people were killed when the house was burnt down. These glasses were broken yesterday. When the sunny spells set in, the ice melted in a short time. Will three pairs of shoes be enough? Today is the thirtieth day of the month. If you don't mop the floor you won't go to the cinema today.

B.

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ma trezesc des, cand afara este galagie. Ochelarii tai sunt mai modemi decat ai mei?
Ace~ti

copaci au fast doborati de uragan. (diateza pasiva)
0

In acest co~mar am cazut de pe

cHidire inalta.

In aceasta iama vremea a fost schimbatoare. Daca negociem yom primi marire de salariu.

c.

Gasiti I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

gre~elile

din unnatoarele propozitii:

I will buy this car if it will be cheap. It will be on 23 January. This house wasn't build last year. Last winter was sevire. If she is late for work tomorrow, they fire her. Has that dog been bought last year?

- 21 -

----

-

-

LECTIA 20 ,

PARTEA INTAI

......

sa incepem lectia cu un grup de cuvinte legate de circulatie. Studiati-le cu atentie: zebra-crossing
> [zebra krosin(!l'1

zebra, trecere de pietoni
- stop, semafor

traffic lights pedestrian right of way time-table cab destination underground witness ambulance onlookers Exersati cuvintele destination pedestrian witness zebra-crossing
~i

> [trEfik lails] > [pidestrianl >

pieton prioritate de trecere
- orar, program - taxi

l rait ov 1I cij

> Itaim leibl] > [kEb] > [destinei~n ] > [andargraund] >
li [

destinatie metrou martor ambulanta
- privitori, spectatori

..

itnes]

> [Embiulans] > [onlul<fl'z]

intr-o alta ordine. Fiti atenti la pronuntie:
> [destinei~n] > [pidestrian 1 >
li [

destinatie
- pieton
-

itnes]

martor zebra, trecere de pietoni

> [zebra krosin(gl]

underground time-table traffic lights onlookers ambulance cab right of way

> landa'graund] > Itaim lcibl] > [tr Efi k I aits ] > [onlukarz] > [Embiulans] > [kEb] > [rail ov lI e i 1

- metrou - orar, program - stop, semafor - privitori, spectatori - ambulanta - taxi

prioritate de trecere

- 22-

In urmatorul exercitiu veti revedea cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare: There were many witnesses of that accident. One boy was taken to hospital in an ambulance. > i0
0\
1

Cal

uaJ meni Uitnislz

Diet Eksid:intj

Au fost multi martori Ie acel accident. Un baiat a fost transportat la spital cu ambulanta. Privitorii au vrut sa vada totul. Pana ~i trecerea de pietoni poate fi periculoasa. Sunt semafoare in aceasta strada? Unde merg
ace~ti

> IUan boi uo ! tClkn lu hospitl in an Embiulansj

The onlookers wanted to see> lD/1 onlukal'z uontid tu everything. si: evriTSin(g)]
c

. t· . . Even a ze bra-crossmg can be> [.1:\'11 a ze)ra I,rOSin (l')
dangerous. !den bI: deindjilras]
1

Are there any traffic lights in >[a: 0\:-5r eni trEfik laits this street? Where are these pedestrians going? The car on the right has the right of way, Where can I find the time-table? I took a cab to get to the office. The destination of this ship is New York. in D/js stri:t] >rUeal' a: 1 D/i:z pidestrianz goinlg)1 >fn/a ka: on D
1
1 {[

pietoni?

rait 11[7

Ma~ina

O/a rait ov ueij

din dreapta are prioritate.

> IUea l kEn al famd ])/ il lallll telblj > [al tuk il kEb tu get tll
[/1
7

Unde pot gasi orarul?

ofis1
0\'

Am luat un taxi ca sa merg la birou. Destinatia acestui vapor este New York. Daca mergem cu metroul, yom ajunge mai repede acolo,

> r0 ii destinei~an
~[P
IZ

O/is

niu: io:1k]
U

If we go by underground we > I I, f' [I,1: gOll b al. _ I' U will get there faster. anda graund I:

i J get

0

1

Cal

fa:sti/]

/

"Even a zebra-crossing can be dangerous".

- 23 -

Completati propozitiile cu cuvintele corespunzatoare! Exerati Acest orar este vechi. Azi sunt multi pietoni pe strazi.

~i

pronuntia:

This> time-table is old. There are many> pedestrians in the streets today. There were too many> onlookers. How many> cabs are there in this town? We must make more> zebra-crossings.

Au fost prea multi privitori. Cite taxiuri sunt in acest
ora~?

Trebuie sa facem mai l1111lte treceri de pietoni. Semafoarele nu funetioneaza de doua zile.

The> traffic lights have been out of order for two days. If the> ambulance doesn't come we will take you by car. I often go by > underground. All > witnesses understood the questions? What is your> destination? Do we have the> right of way?

Daca nu vine ambulanta, te yom lua cu
ma~ina.

Merg des

Cll

metroul.

Toti martorii au inteles intrebarile?

Care este destinatia ta? Avem prioritate?

Cu urmatorul exercitiu yom controla in ce masura v-ati insu~it cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza: taxi privitori program metrou prioritate de trecere destinatie zebra ambulanta pieton martor semafor > cab > onlookers > time-table > underground > fight of way > destinatIon > zebra-crossl11g > ambulance > pedestrian > witness > traffic-lights

Sa ne intoarcem acum la diateza pasiva. Forma continua la prezent ,~i trecut (Present Continuous, Past Continuous) a verbelor la diateza pasiva se alcatuie$te cu forma continua a verhului to be, ca verb auxiliar, $i forma being [bi:in lg1 ] aflata inaintea formei a III-a verbului principal.

- 24-

lata cateva exemple: She is readll1g a book. They were cleaning the house at ten yesterday.
- A book
lS

bell1g

read.

> [a buk red]

IZ

bi:lI1(g)

- 0 carte este citita.

- The house was being > [Q/ a haus "az bi: in lg ) - leri la zece se lacea cleaned at ten yesterday. kli:nd Et ten iesta'dei] curatenie in casa.

In urmatorul exercitiu transformati propozitiile cu verbulla diateza activa in propozitii cu verbulla diateza pasiva: She is cleaning her room now. They were changing the management yesterday at two. They are negotiating raises at the moment. > I lel room
IS

bcing cleaned now.

> The management was being changed ~ e,telday at two. > Raises are bcing negotiated at the moment.

Sa mai Invatam cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare injured unconscious mainly
III

~i

retineti sensullor In limba romana: - ranit, lovit, avariat incon~tient,

>[indja'd] > [ankol1~as] > [I1lClI1lI] >[in\clI1] > l si:nas] >
[nc,IS;l1

involuntar

- mai ales, mai cu seama - zadarnic, inutil, In zadar - serios, important i] - necesar. inevitabil

yam

senous necessary

lata cuvintele noi in propozqii: They were injured in the accident. Your brother is still unconscious.
It was a very serious book.
> [IYel ",1.' indp'd
[)Ii
111

Eksldalltj

- Ei au fost raniti In accident. - Fratele tau este Inca
incon~tient.

>

[10"

braD/ar iz std ankol1:;;asj

> [It "af. a \ ert si nas prublam] - Era 0 carte foarte serioasa.
> ["1 1Ia[(! tu help bat It "al' Ill\ClI1j > [d\Ol1l ,isla' "a 'b memli Lt Il.lIl J
> [al')
'1l1 1'!k

We tried to help but it was
111 Yam.

- Am Incercat sa ajutam dar a fost in zadar. - Sora lui John lucreaza mai ales noaptea. - Cred ca aceasta informatie este necesara.

John's sister works mainly at night. I think this information is necessary.

I)'",

Il1f~I'l11el,;;l1]

11 I1l'Si ,;111 ]

25

Unneaza un exercitiu nou. Completati propozitiile folosind cuvintele corespunzatoare: EI a incercat sa inteleaga asta, dar in zadar. Ei vand mai ales legume. Aici este necesara
0

He tried to understand it but> They sell> mainly vegetables.

In \

ain.

trecere de pietoni.
0

A zebra-crossing is > necessary here. He was> unconS":IOW, for longer than a week. My father asked a > seriolls question. Seven pedestrians were> injured.

El a fost incon~tient mai mult de saptamana. Tatal meu a pus Au fost raniti
0

intrebare serioasa. pietoni.

~apte

Desigur ati memorat deja cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza: serios, important mai ales ranit zadamic necesar
incon~tient

> sertous > mamly > injured >
111

vam

> necessary > unconscIous > >
111 \

inutil necesar, inevitabil

a 111

Ilcccs~ary

Dintre toate numeralele engleze~ti nu v-am prezentat inca zeroul. in limba engleza zeroul are mai multe echivalente:
1. 0 - pronuntat ca
~i

[OLl] se utilizeaza atunci cand in!jiram mai multe
r r
IZ

c~fre:

Her telephone number> [ha: telifaun namba is nine, two, four, 0, nain tu: fa:' ou se\nj seven.

Numarul ei de telefon este noua, doi, patru, zero,
~apte.

2.

Nil [niIJ, se folose~te la prezentarea rezultatelor sportive:
The result of the match is four nil. > [D"i1 rizalt ov D/a mEt$
iz

ro
IZ

J

1111J

Rezultatul meciului este patru-zero.

3.

Zero l zirouj, se jolose$te la descrierea unitali/or de masura:
It is six degrees below> [it zero. siks dlgri:z bJlou - Sunt
~ase

grade sub zero.

ziroLl]
~i

4.

Nought (sau naught) [no·t], se folose~te de obicei in matematica Two minus two is nought. All her work was for nought. > [tu: mainas t\l: iz na:t I
> [0.1 hft:'

literatura:

- Doi minus doi fac zero. Toata munca ei nu a valarat nimic.

lI

a:'k

lI a? 1'0:'

no:t]

- 26-

In exercitiul anterior ati invatat mai multe cuvinte noi: number result minus below degree > [nambfl > Irizalt] > [mainas] > rbilou] > [digri: I
l ]

numar rezultat mmus dedesubt, jos, mai jos, sub grad, masura, treapta

Ati vazut deja cuvintele noi in exemple. In exercitiul urmator completati propozitiile cu aceste cuvinte: Ei locuiesc sub noi. Este acolo, jos. EI are doctoratul. Imi place asta doar intr-o oarecare masura. Care a fost rezultatul negocierilor? Care este numarul apartamentului tau? Azi temperatura este de minus cinci grade. They live> below us. It's there, > below. He has a doctor's> degree. I like it only to some> degree. What was the> result of the negotiations? What is the> number of your apartment? The temperature is > minus five today.

L_~
"He has a doctor's degree".

_
> [t u pri vent J >
[IU

Acum

iara~i

yom invata verbe noi: a preintampina, a preveni
r

to prevent to run over to hit to direct to cause to travel

ran

OU\

aJ

a calca, a lovi cu a lovi, a nimeri

ma~ina

> [tll hit] > [tu d'lIrl'k t] > [t 1I kIn] >
I

a dirij a, a conduce a cauza, a provoca a calatori

t 1I

trE\ II,

-27-

Doua dintre aceste verbe sunt neregulate. lata formele lor: formal
run

forma a II-a
> (I an] > [hit]

fonna a III-a run hit
> (ran]

ran hit

> [lEn] > [h It]

hit

> (hIt]

Verbele noi apar in urmatorul dialog. Cititi textul cu atentie:

A:

When we were travelling to Madrid we saw a terrible accident. Was anybody killed? Yes, but wait a moment. A big car hit a building. Were there any pedestrians in the street? Yes, the car ran over three people. Two of them were killed and one woman was injured. Were there any policemen there? There was one policeman. He directed the traffic but could not prevent the accident. Do you know what caused the accident? I think the car was out of order.

s:
A: S: A: S: A: S: A:

in dialogul nostril apare clI\'iintlll could [kud]. Acesta este forma de trecut a verbllilli modal can.

Sa analtzam separat fiecare propozitle. Cltiti cu voce tare: When we were travellmg to Madrid we saw a terrible accident. Was anybody killed? Yes, but wait a moment. A big car hit a building. Were there any pedestrians in the street? Yes, the car ran over three people. Two of them were killed and one woman was seriously injured. Were there any policemen there? There was one policeman. 28
> [tl a ' [Yea' cnl pldcstJlanZ
m IYa SI111]

> ["en

"I

"a' trEv]m(gl

tu madI id til so a tCrIb! I-"ksldant]

- Cand calatoream spre Madrid am vazut un accident groaznic. ~i-a

> [tl az ctllboUI kJld]

pierdut cineva viata?
a~teapta 0

- Da, dar - 0

clipa.
0

ma~ina

mare a lovit

cladire.

- Au fost pietoni pe strada? - Da, ma~ina a caleat trei oameni. - Doi dmtre ei ~i-au pierdut vJata ~i 0 femeie a fost gray ran ita. - A fost acolo vreun politist? - A fost un politist.

>

[ICS

IYa Ll ' rEn 1"11 pi pI]

OU\

a'

> [tu

,1\ lYem ",I ' klld Fnd ",In 'um,ln "dZ si 11,IS11 indJd.'d]

> [tid' lYe,l' cnl p:lli sman IYCd'J

He directed the traffic but could not prevent the accident. Do you know what caused the accident?

> [h1: dairektid O/a trEfik

bat kuJ not privent O/j Eksidant 1
> [du
IU: nOll

EI a dirijat circula!ia, dar nu a putut preintampina accidentul.
- Stii ce a cauzat accidentul? Cred ca ma~ina a fast defecHi.

liot ku:zd D/i

Eksidant]
> [ai TSin(g)k D/a ka: r uoz

I think the car was out of
order.

aut ov o.IUr1t

I

Raspundeti in limba engleza la unnatoarele intrebari: When did you see that terrible accident?
> \Ve saw that terrible d..::cident when we

\\ere travelling to \1adnd What did the big car hit? How many people did the car run over? Who was killed? What happened to the woman? Were there any policemen there? What did he do? What caused the accident?
> The bIg ear hit a bui lding.. > The car ran over three people.
> Two of the three people were killed.

> T he woman \Vas II1Jured. > Yes, there was one policeman. > He directed the traffic. > The car was out of order.
~i

Acum ne vom ocupa de pronumele interogativ who

urilizarea lui:

Acesr pronume are mai mulre intelesuri: cine, pe cine, cui, cine, care, pe care. Daca intelesul lui who este cine, inrrebarea se refera doar la persoana ~i who poare jifolosit ca subsrantiv. in acest caz ordinea propozi(iei este directa, strucrura sa este ajirmariva, iar verbul este la persoana a III-a singular.
Who likes you? Who went home? Cine te
iube~te?

Cine s-a dus acasa?

in eazul in care pronumele interogativ who anare cu celalalte in(elesuri, interogativul se formeaza cu ajulorul verbelor auxiliare, forma corespunzatoare a verbului to be sau a verbelor modale:
Who were these people? Who did you meet? Cine au fost
ace~ti

oameni?

Cu cine te-ai intalnit?

Traduce!i urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Cine
~i-a

pierdut via!a in acest accident?

> Who \\:lS kJikd ill
> Who do you
Sc:C III

lhi~

accident')

Pe cine vezi pe strada in fiecare zi? Cine este acest barbat in haina maro? Cine scrie aceste scrisori minunate? Pe cine cau!i acum?

the stleet every day'?

> \V ho is thIS man i'l a hnm 11 coat'?
> Who \', nte~ th~'~c hcal,tiful letters'?

> \Vhl) ,Ire you look 1I1g for

<10\\ 0

- 29-

Ne vom intoarce acum fa diate~a pasiwI Pentru a indica persoana care executa activitatea in propozitia fa diateza pasiva, se .rofose,~te prepozitia by.
De exemplu: Peter made this chair, This chair was made by Peter. Raises are being negotiated by the trade-union.
> [D/is
t~ear
1I

0z

meid bai pi:ti/]

Acest scaun a fost !acut de Peter. Maririle de salarii sunt negociate de catre sindicat.

The trade-union is negotiating raises,

> [reiziz a: 1 bi:in lg )
nigou~le/tid
D/[I

bal

treld 1U:Jl1an]

In exercitiul

urmator, traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza:
> The radio has been turned on by John.

Radioul tocmai a fost pomit de catre John. Aceste ma~ini sunt !acute de Chicago. El a fost ucis de doi oameni. Am fost trezit de copii
galagio~i.
0

fabrica din

> These cars are made by a factory m Chicago.
> Hc \\as kIlled by two men. > f was woken up by nOIsy children

(;i~ uitati-~a, da~-~erb~-~~~~~~~~~~i~~oua~ar~,~e e~-~~;lu ~a~
for, look for, prepozitia trebuie sa apara ~i in diateza pasiva: I looked for it yesterday.

:
I

!

- It was looked for yesterday.

I

~--- - - - - - -

---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-_/

Si iata ultimul exercitiu al acestei parti, in care 'lorn recapitula materialul invatat pana acum. Traduce!i propozitiile in limba engleza: Ace;;ti martori au vazut cel mai bine accidentul. Au fost cinci grade sub zero. Cine a fost calcat de un taxi? Numarul meu de telefon este unu, noua, zero, cinci, doi, zero. Ei au avut prioritate de trecere?
Ace~ti

> These witnesses saw the accident best.

> It \'. as five degrces below zero.
> Who was run ovcr by a cab? > My number is one, nme. 0, five, two, 0.

> Old they hay e the right of way'?

oameni au incercat sa ajute dar zadamic.
calatore~te

> These people tried to help but in \ am.

El

mai ales cu metroul.

> He travels main Iy by underground.
> Who wrote this time-table?

Cine a scris acest orar? El s-a ranit grav? Patruzeci minus patruzeci fac zero. Circulatia este dirijata acum de un politist.
iube~ti?

> Is he seriously mjured'!
> Forty
Jl1l11US

furty

IS

uro/nought.

> The traffic is bell1g directed by a police-

man no\'.. Pe cine
> Who do you lIke?

- 30-

LECTIA 20 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
Cititi cu atentie unnatorul dialog! Repetati exercitiul pana cand va convingeti de faptul ca v-ati Insu~it pe deplin pronuntia ~i intonatia. Cuvintele Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter:
~i

silabele accentuate sunt tiparite

jngro~at.

Peter, have you ever been in an accident? No, I haven't, but my brother was yesterday afternoon. How did it happen? My brother was on a zebra-crossing at the traffic-lights and a cab was coming from the right. And ... what happened? The cab didn't stop in time and my brother was hit by it. Was your brother injured? Yes, he was, but fortunately not seriously. I am glad he wasn't seriously injured. Were there any witnesses who saw the accident? There were many onlookers, and the witnesses say my brother did not cause the accident. Have you heard the news that yesterday a pedestrian was hit by a car at the traffic-lights? No, I haven't, but some pedestrians think they always have the right of way. But everybody knows that it is not true. Yes, everybody knows it only the pedestrians don't. We must all try to prevent accidents. You are right. Policemen cannot do everything. I think it is better when there are also traffic-lights. Peter. do you travel mainly by underground to your office? Yes, J do. You travel by underground fast and easily. Yes, but it has become very expensive. Do you have a time-table? There are so many underground trains that you don't need a time-table. And a modem underground is not noisy or dirty. I feel so tired after a hard day of work. People are tired when they get home from factories and offices. And they do nothing only go to bed early because they are sleepy. When it is too noisy outside they wake up. I usually wake up even when it's only a little noisy. But when you have a nightmare you are glad when you hear the alarm clock.

Barbara: John: Barbara: John: Barbara: John: Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter:

Barbara: John: Barbara: John: Barbara: John:

- 31 -

In ultimul exercitiu al leetiei, traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Aceasta este deja a patra furtuna in unsprezece zile. Cinci oameni dezastru.
~i-au

> This

IS

already the fourth gale in eleven

days
> Fl\ e people were kIlkd in that disaster.

pierdut viata in acel

Multe vapoare au suferit naufragiu. Focul a fost stins de un vant putemic. El are nevoie de lari.
0

> Many ships vvere wrecked. > The fire was blovv n out by a strong wind. > 1Ie needs a new paIr of glasses.

pereche noua de oche-

Aceste foarfece sunt periculoase pentru copii. In aceasta vreme schimbatoare nu-mi uit umbrela. Casa noastra a ars pana in teme!ii saptamana trecuta. Aceste averse sunt de ploaie bune pentru gradina noastra. Au cumparat
~ase

> These sci:-.sors arc dangerous for children.

> In this changeable \\ e;11her ] don't forget

my umbrella.
> Our housc burnt dO\\ n last v\ eek.

> These sho\Vers arc good for au' garden.

perechi de pantaloni.

> They bought

"'X pairS or trousers.

In acea iama aspra a fost de multe ori ceata deasa. Gheata s-a topit deja.

> In that sc\ele \\ II1kr there \Vas a lot or

cknse fog.
> The Ice has alnC:,lLty melted.

Acest binoclu este vechi, am nevoie de unul > 1 hese bll10culars an:: oid; I n..:ed a new nou. pair. Noi am vandut zece perechi de pantofi. Aceasta este 0 cuvertura pentru un pat de singura persoana. Ace! dulap este facut din lemn? Ochelarii tai sunt pe perna tao El a sforait zgomotos. Cat costa aceste ceasuri
de~teptatoare?
0

> We sold ten pairs of shoes.
0

> This is a bedspread

1'01'

a sll1g1e bed.

> Is that wardrobe made of Vvood?
> Your spectacles are on your pilloVv.

> He was snoring nOIsily > How much are these alarm eloch)

Dupa vremea insorita a fost trasnete. Mi-am ars mana. Multi oameni ingust. Ea era spital.
i~i

furtuna cu

> Aftcr thc sunny spells there was a thunderstorm.
> I hm e burnt my ham!.

pierd viata pe acest drum dnd a fost dusa la

>

\1dWy

pedplc

.1IT

killed on thb narnm

n)ad
> She \\
,J>, lIih:OJbCIl'Us \\hen she \\ as t"ken to !lo"PI tal.

incon~tienta

- 32-

Asta s-a 'intamplat 'in a noua zi. Temperatura va cobori sub zero grade. Nimanui nu-i place aceasta caldura
inabu~itoare.

> This happened on the ninth day,

> The temperature wIll drop below zero.
> Nobody lIkes this opplessive heat.

Acest drum este alunecos in mod periculos. Daca ai nevoie de raft.
ace~ti

> This road is dangerously slippery. > If you need this money you \\ ill fInd it

bani, ii vei gasi pe

on the shelf.
> This accident happened
011

Acest accident s-a intamplat in data de 27 iunie. Cumparatorul tocmai este servit de un vanzator. Cine a solicitat aceasta slujba? De cine ai nevoie? Ei au prevenit accidentul?

27th .Junc.

> The cLlstomer is just being served by a

shop-assistant.
> Who applied for this Job? > Who do you need') > Have they prevented the accident?

Iar acum iata exercitiul de pronuntie. Repetati cuvintele ~i fiti atenti la pronuntia corecta a sunetelor engleze~ti. Literele aflate in aceea~i coloana, scrise ingr~at desemneaza sunete identice:
rei J

[0: J

[i' ]

l iJ
serious spring build

vain train mainly rain

cause nought brought thought

degree least leave deep

- 33-

RECAPITULARE 20
20.1. Dad verbul la diateza pasiva este la un timp continuu (Present Continuous, Past Continuous) atunci stmctura predicatului este forma continua a verbului "to be", ca verb auxiliar ~i forma a III-a a verbului principal, iar cuvantul "being" l bi: 111 J trece inaintea fonnei a III-a a verbului. > [a buk iz bi:in(g) She is reading Se cite~te 0 carte A book is being red] a book. tocmai acum. read. (Traducerea cuvant cu cuvant: ,,0 carte este citita tocmai acum".) 20.1.2. Dad vrem sa indicam persoana care executa activitatea in propozitia la diateza pasiva, folosim prepozitia "by": The traffic was directed by a policeman. - Circulatia a fost dirijata de un politist.

Dad un verb este compus din doua parti, de exemplu: "wait for, look for", atunci prepozitia trebuie sa apara ~i la diateza pasiva: We waited for the bus. 20.2. Pronumele interogativ "who" 20.2.1. In cazul in care semnificatia pronumelui interogativ este "cine" ordinea propozitiei interogative este directa, stmctura sa este afirmativa iar verbul este la persoana a III-a singular: Who likes you? - Cine te
iube~te?

- The bus was waited for.

20.2.2. In cazul in care pronumele interogativ "who" are oricare din re~,tul semnificatiilor, formam interogativul cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar, a verbului "to be", sau a verbului modal: Who did you see? - Pe cine ai vazut?

- 34-

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 20
A. Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba romana: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Can these pedestrians be witnesses? Who told you about the negotiations? Who have you seen on TV?
If you don't iron this shirt I will not put it on.

The beds are being delivered at the moment. The underground will take you to your destination.

B.

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Am calatorit repede cu avionul. Circulatia a fost dirijata de politist? Casa noastra se
construie~te

la un colt periculos. (diateza pasiva)

Cu cine ai vorbit? Vecinii taie aCUl11 copacii. Dacii l11ananci cina, vei pril11i inghetata.

C.

Corectati 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

gre~elile

din unnatoarele propozitii:

She bought only necesary things. Who did hit him? Work has been done through Peter. How much is this scissors? This job was applied.

- 35-

Lista verbelor neregulate din lectiile 19
forma I bum can dream freeze get hit run set wake forma a II-a

~i

20
forma a III-a

> [ba:1n] > [kEn I > [dri:m] > [fri:z] > Iget] > [hit] > [ran] > [set] > [velk]

burnt could dreamt froze got hit ran set woke

> [ba:1nt] > [klld1 > l dremt] > [frouz] > rgot] > [hit] > [rEn] > [sel] > [vouk]

burnt could dreamt frozen got hit run set woken

> [ba:1nt I > [kud] > Idremtl > [1l-llLlzn] > rgot] > [hit] > [ran] > [set] > [voukn]

I
:;:::;:;:;:;:;:;:::::::;:;:;:

- 36-

I I

VOCABULARVL LECTIILOR 19
alarm clock ambulance bedspread below binoculars blanket to blow to be blown down to be blown out tu burn tu be burnt down cab to cause changeable dangerous degree dense destination dew to direct dirty double double bed dream to dream dressing-gown to drizzle to drop to drown to be drowned r > [ala: m klok] > [Embiulans] > [bedspred] >[bilou] > [binokiularz] > [bIEn(g)kit] > [tu blou]

~i

20
ceas
de~teptator

ambulanta - cuvertura de pat dedesubt, jos, mai jos, sub binoclu cuvertura, patura a sufla, a se arde a dobor!, a rastuma a stinge, a sufla a arde, a praj i, a fi 'aprins a arde pana in temelii, a arde de tot taxi - a cauza schimbator periculos grad, masura, treapta - dens, compact destinatie roua - a dirij a, a conduce murdar dublu pat dublu
VIS

> [tu bi: blolln daun] > [tll bi: bloun aut] > [tu ba:rn] r >[tu bi: ba: nt dalln] > [kEb] > [Ill ko:z] > [t~eindjabl] > [deindjaras] > [digri:] > [dens] > [destinei~n] > [diu:] > [tu dairekt] > [da:rti] >[dabl] > [dabl bed] > [dri:m] > [tu dri:m] > [dresin(g) gaun] > [tu drizl] > [tu drop] > [tu draun] > [tu bi: drallnd]

a visa, a inchipui halat, capot a bumita, a ploua marunt a picura, a cadea, a scapa a ineca, a se ineca, a scufunda a fi inecat

- 37-

to freeze gale to get glasses hail to hit hurricane Ice if injured m vam to kill to be killed mainly to melt mmus modem naught, (nought) necessary to need nightmare nil noisy nought, (naught) number oh, 0 onlookers oppressive pair pedestrian pillow

>

l tu fri:z]

a ingheta, a degera vant puternie, furtuna a obpne, a ajunge, a deveni oehelari grindma a lovi, a nimeri uragan, furtuna gheata daea, presupunand ea lovit, ranit, avariat zadamie, inutil, in zadar a omori, a ueide a-;;i pierde viata, a eadea (in razboi) mai ales a tOpl, a se topi minus modem, nou, contemporan zero, nul, nimie necesar, inevitabil a avea nevoie de, a trebui 1 co;;mar zero, nimie zgomotos, galagios nimic, zero, nula

> [geil] > [tu get]

> [gla:siz] > [heil ] > [tu hit] > [hallkan] > [als] > [I f] > [indjard] > [in vein] > [tu kill > [tu bi: kild]

> [mclI1lt] > [tu melt] > [mainas] > [moda1n] > [no:t] > [ncsisari] > [tu ni:d] > [naltmea ] > [nil] > [noIZl ] > [no.t I > [namba > [au] > [onluka'z] > [opresiv] > [pea' ] > [pidestrian] > [pilau]
l ]

numar, numeral zero privitori, speetatori apasator, inabu;;itor pereche pieton perna

- 38-

to prevent quiet result right of way road rug to run over scissors serious to set in severe shade to shave sheet sheets shower single single bed sleepy slippery to snore spectacles sunny spells thaw thunderstorm time-table traffic-lights to travel trousers umbrella unconsciOUS underground

> [tu priventJ > [kualiH! > [nzalt] > [rait ov > [roud I > [rag] > [tu ran oliva] > [sizal'z] > [si:rias] > [tu set in]
u

a preintampina, a preveni
lini~tit,

calm, potolit

rezultat, consecinta ei] prioritate (de trecere) drum,
~osea

covora~,

carpeta
0 ma~ina)

l'

a calca (de foarfeca

serios, important a incepe, a veni (un anotimp) sever, aspru umbra, nuanta a barbieri, a se barbieri
cear~af,

> [sivial'] >
[~eid]

> [tu ~el\] > [~i:tJ > ["i:ls] > [:;>aua'] > [singl] > [singl bed] > [sli:pi] > [slipariJ > [tu 5no: ] > IspekUiklz] > [sani spelz] > [Tso:] > [T' anda \"SlO: I'm] > [laim teibl] > [trEfik laits] > [tu trEvl] > [trauza' zl > [ambrela] >
[ankon~as]

foaie (de hirtie) foi (de hirtie)

cear~afuri,

aversa, ploaie torentiaHi singur, unic, necasatorit pat de
0

singura persoana

somnoros, adormit alunecos l' a sforai ochelari vreme insorita dezghet, topire furtuna cu traznete orar, program
,

stop, semafor a diHitori pantalon umbrela incon~tient,

involuntar

> [anda graundJ

l'

metrou

- 39-

to undress unpleasant to wake up wardrobe witness to wreck to be wrecked zebra-crossing zero

> [tu andres] >

a se dezbraca nepIacut a se trezi garderobii, dulap de haine martor, martor ocular a srariima, a sparge, a distruge - a suferi un naufragiu, a se deteriaza zebra trecere de pietoni zero, nul

[anpleznt]

> [tLl ueik ap] > > [lI o 'droub]

[li.\tnes ]

> [tu rekJ > [tLl bi: rekt] > [zebra krosin(gi] > [zirou]

..

.
~

- 40-

RECAPITULARE
1. Comparatia adjectivelor: good big large easy better bigger larger easier the best the biggest the largest the easiest

2.

Pluralul substantivelor: books glasses babies halves tomatoes children women sheep mice

3.

Utilizarea verbului auxiliar "to do" in propozitii interogative ~i negative: Do you often visit them? Did they know? We don't live there. They don't want to go.

4.

Diateza pasiva - the Passive Voice - structura: - verbul "to be" la timpul corespunzator + forma a III-a a verbului de conjugat The thief was caught (by the police). - Hotul a fost prins (de politi~ti).

5.

Fraza conditionala tipul I - structura: Propozitia principala (verbulla Simple Future Tense) He will visit his friends if he has time.

if - Propozitia subordonata (verbulla Simple Present Tense)
- I~i va vizita prietenii daca va avea timp.

6.

Scrierea ~i citirea datelor on the 2pt of October > [on D/a t"enti fa'st ov oktaubarJ -pe data de 21 octombrie

LECTIA 21 ,

" " PARTEA INTAI

Ca de obicei, incepem ~i aceasta lectie cu cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i retineti sensullor in limba romana: situation scene film difference disease gesture person invention play task struggle spy
> > >
[sitiuei~an ]

- situatie, stare - scena, decor - film - diferenta, deosebire - boala, maladie - gest - individ, persoana - inventie, descoperire - joe, piesa - sarcina, indatorire - lupta, intrecere - splOn

[si:n] [film]

> [difrans] > > > >

[dizi:z] [ djest~ar] [pa:rsn]
[inven~n]

> [plei] > [ta:sk] > [stragl] > [spai]

Repetati din nou cuvintele, dar intr-o alta ordine: invention film spy situation disease struggle gesture scene person task difference play
>
[inven~n]

- inventie, descoperire - film - splOn - situatie, stare - boala, maladie - lupta, intrecere - gest - scena, decor - individ, persoana - sarcina, indatorire - diferenta, deosebire - joe, piesa

> [film] > [spai] >
[sitiuei~an ]

> [dizi:z] > [stragl] > [ djest~ar] > [si:n] > [pa:rsn] > [ta:sk] > [difrans] > [plei]

2

Sa folosim cuvintele noi in propozitii: We are in a difficult situation.
It was a beautiful scene.

> ["1. a-' In a difikalt

sltlUei~n]

- Suntem intr-o situatie dificila. - Era un decor minunat. - Ai vazut filmul acela?

> [It "oz a blU.tlral si:n]

Have you seen that film? This is a dangerous disease. Do you see the difference?
It is a nice gesture.

> [It IZ a demdjaras dJZi:z] > [du
IU: SI:

- Este Ve~i

0

boala periculoasa.

D'a difrans]
dJest~ar]

deosebirea?

> [D'is iz a nais

- Este un gest dragut. - Cine sunt aceste persoane? - Este televizorul o inventie utila? - Cine a scris aceasta piesa? - Este
0

Who are these persons? Is television a useful invention? Who has written this play?
It is a hard task.

> [hu: a: r D/I:z pa:rsnz] > (IZ tellVljn a lU:sfal
Inven~n]

> [1m: hEz ritn DZis plel] > [It IZ a ha:rd ta.sk] > [U oz it a lon,gl stragl] > [DZear a r spaiz in DZis kantn]

sarcina grea.

Was it a long struggle? There are spies in this country.

- A fost 0 lupta lunga? - Sunt spioni in aceasta tara.

Completati urmatoarele propozitii cu cuvintele noi: Diferentele nu sunt importante. Aceasta piesa este foarte scurta. El
cunoa~te

- The >dlfkrences are not important. - This >play is very short. - Does he know their > sItuation? - Your >task is to write an essay. - This is the last >scene of the > fi 1m. - I don't know that >disease. - There is no news of the > struggle. - I don't know any of these >persons.
- It was a strange> gesture.

situatia lor?

Sarcina voastra este sa scrieti un eseu. Aceasta este ultima scena a filmului. Nu cunosc boala aceea. Nu sunt ve~ti despre intrecere. Nu cunosc nici una din aceste persoane. A fost un gest ciudat. El a fost spion? Aceasta inventie este foarte utila.

- Was he a >spy? - This> invention is very useful.

3

Traduceti cuvintele in limba engleza: lupta, intrecere persoana scena splOn inventie gest
film

> struggle > person > scene > spy > mvention > gesture
> film

piesa sarcina deosebire situatie boala

> play > task > difference > situation > disease

Dacii la forma de infinitiv scurt (fiirii particula to a verbului) qdiiugiim terminafia -ing, obfinem participiul prezent, pe care-l putem folosi in propozifii ca adverb. De exemplu: This job is exhausting. The difference is striking. The work is tiring. His gesture was inviting. This disease is catching. The news is surprising. > [DZls dlzi:z IZ kEt~in(g)] > [DZa nlU:Z iz sapralzin(g)] > [DZls dJob IZ Igzo:stm(gl] > [DZa difrans iz stralkin(g)] > [DZa "a .rk iz tamrm(g)] - Aceasta munca este epuizantii. - Deosebirea este frapantii. - Munca este obositoare. - Gestullui a fost ispititor. - Aceasta boala este molipsitoare. Ve~tile

.,
-

sunt surprinziitoare.

Sa invatam verbele noi de la care am format participiul prezent: to invite to surprise > [tu mvalt] > [tu sapralz] - a invita - a surprinde, a uimi, a lua prin surprindere - a obosi - a lovi, a izbi, a frapa, a - a epuiza, a istovi
~oca

to tire to strike to exhaust

> [tu tad] > [tll str<\lk] > [tu Igzo.st]

Dintre aceste verbe, to strike este neregulat. Invatati cele trei forme ale sale: strike> [stral kJ struck> [stlak]
4

struck> [strak]

lata cum se folosesc verbele noi in propozitii: Long work always tires me. I like to surprise you.
> llon'c) "a :'k o:l""iz
131'l'.c ill t: ]

- Munca indelungata rna intotdeauna. - Imi place sa te iau prin surprindere.

obose~te

> [al 1,lIk tu S,lpral7 iu:]

We have already invited Peter. They will exhaust their savmgs soon. The clock is just striking seven.

> ["I: hh O:!TCdl invaitid pi:ta'i
> ll)l<:I"illg/O.,t D'<:{' selvm(~)7 slI:nJ

- L-am invitat deja pe Peter. - I~i vor epuiza in curiind economiile. - Ceasul tocmai bate ora
~apte.

> [IYa klok sevnJ

17

djast stralklll'C)

In exercitiul urmator completati spatiile din propozitii cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului sau cu participiul prezent: Pe cine vrei sa inviti? Aceasta boala molipsitoare este periculoasa. M-ai surprins foarte tare. A fost Te
0

- Who do you want to >invlte? - This >catching dIseaSe is dangerous. - You have >surpnscd me very much.
- It was a very >tinng day.

zi foarte obositoare. aceasta carte?

obose~te

- Does this book >tlrc you? - His question was >surprising. - His newest film >struck me. - Your proposition sounds >invlting. - We have already >cxhausted all our money. - Is this difference >striklllg? - This long walk was >exhausting.

Intrebarea lui a fost surprinzatoare. Ultimul sau film m-a frapat. Propunerea ta e tentanta. Ne-am cheltuit deja toti banii. Este frapanta aceasta diferenta? Aceasta lunga plimbare a fost epuizanta.

Va amintifi desigur de propozifia condifionala de tipul I despre care am discutat in lecfia anterioani. Conjuncfia if poate fi fnlocuita cu alte conjuncfii:

when as soon as after

> [lien] >[Ez sll'n l:>j > l a.fla'J

- ciind - indata ce - dupa, dupa aceea, dupa ce, ulterior - inainte, dinaintea

before

>[blfo:'J

Propozifia care incepe cu oricare dintre conjuncfiile de mai sus, se nume~te propozitie circumstantiala de timp. Nu este nici 0 diferenfa intre structura propozifiei condifionale de tipul I ~i propozifia circumstanfiala de timp. Verbul din propozifia subordonata introdusa de aceste conjuncfii este la timpul prezent simplu (Simple Present).

5

De exemplu: He will buy the car as soon as > llll. "II bal DZa ka. r Ez su:n as he gets the money. Ez hI. gets IYa malll] I will have dinner before I go to him. When you are in the same situation you will understand me. After I finish this book I will go for a walk.
> [al ull hEy dina' blfo:' a' gau tu hIm] > [U en

- El va cumpara ma~ina de indata ce prime~te banii. - Voi cina inainte sa merg la el.

D"a selm sitlUel~n 1U. uII anda rstEnd mI:]
1U.

a.'

111

- Cand te vei afla in aceea~i situatie rna vei intelege. - Dupa ce termin cartea aceasta o sa fac 0 plimbare.

> [a:fta r al filll~ DZIS buk a' uII gau fd a U o k]

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Cind incepe sa ploua yom duce cainele acasa. De indata ce cite~ti aceasta carte imi vei spune ceva despre asta. Inainte de-a pleca yom inchide radioul. Voi face curatenie in casa dupa ee lucrez in gradina.
> When it starts to ram we WIll take the dog home. > As soon as you read thIS book you wIll tell me something about It. > Before we leave we wIll turn off the radio. > I WIll clean the house after I work in the garden.

Sa lnvatam eateva adjective noi. Unele dintre ele se formeaza din verbe. Cititi-le eu voce tare atenti la pronuntle: alarming exciting moving foreign useless remarkable
> [ala. rmm(g)] > [Iksaltm(g)] > [mu:vin(gJ] > [form] > [LU:shs] > [nma.rkabl]

~i

fiti

- alarmant, ingrijorator - interesant, captivant - emotionant - strain - inutil, nefolositor - remarcabil, deosebit

lata cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi propozitiile cu voce tare romana: I have heard some alarming news. We saw an exciting match. His speech was moving.
> [al hEy ha:rd sam

~i

fiti atenti la traducerea in limba

ala.rmm(g) ntu:z]
> [U I: so. an iksaitin(gJ mEt~] > [hlz
spi.t~

- Am auzit cateva ve~ti alarmante. - Noi am vazut un meci captivant. - Discursullui a fost emotionant.

uoz mu:vm(IP]

6

She is a foreign spy. This is a useless tool. This is a remarkable story.

> [~i: iz a form spa!)
>[O'IS lZ a m:slis tu:l]

- Ea este

0

spioana straina.

- Acesta este un instrument inutil. - Aceasta este remarcabila.
0

>[IY\s iz a rima:'kabl sto:ri]

poveste

Completati propozitiile cu cuvintele noi: Filmul a fost foarte captivant. Am avut un vis deosebit. EI nu are bani straini. Aceasta scena este foarte emotionanta. Aceasta carte imi este nefolositoare. Prognoza meteo este alarmanta. - The film was very >excltmg.
- 1 had a >remarkable dream.

- He has no >forelgn money. - This scene is very >moving. - This book is >useless to me. - The weather forecast is >alarming

Traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza: strain, din alta tara inutil, nefolositor emotionant alarmant, ingrijorator remarcabil, deosebit captivant > foreIgn > useless
> movmg > alanmng

> remarkable
> eX':ltlOg

in textele anterioare am inlocuit uneori substantivele cu pronumele nehotartit one. Utilizarea pronumelui nehotartit este obligatorie alaturi de adjective, iar ltinga adjectivele sunt deseori un articol hotartit: I have two red chairs and a white one. They have two cars. He wants the big one.
- Am doua scaune
ro~ii ~i
0

unul alb.

- Au doua ma~ini. EI

vrea pe cea mare.

Pronumele nehotartit one are ~i forma de plural: Have you ever seen cheaper ones? I like these black ones. - Ai vazut vreodata unele mai ieftine? - Imi plac acestea negre.

7

Completati propozitiile cu fonna corespunzatoare a pronumelui "one": Am multe ceasuri dar nici unul modem. El
~i-a

- I have many clocks, but no modem> ones. - He lost his watch and paid a lot of money for a new> one. - Do you also sell foreign> ones? - I like dogs, but this isn't a nice> one. - I haven't many magazines, I will send these old >ones. - I know that glasses are expensive. How much have you paid for these new> ones? - Her last letter was a short >one. - This car is a cheap >one. - Of all these books I want to read only the exciting >ones.

pierdut ceasul ~i a platit 0 gramada

de bani pentru unul nou. Aveti de vanzare
~i

unele straine?

Imi plac cainii, dar acesta nu este unul frumos. Nu am multe reviste, Ie voi trimite pe acestea vechi.
~tiu

ca ochelarii sunt scumpi. Cat ai platit
ace~tia noi?

pentru

Ultima ei scrisoare a fost scurta. Aceasta ma~ina este ieftina. Dintre toate cartile acestea vreau sa Ie citesc doar pe cele captivante.

Acum sa invatam cateva verbe noi: to disappoint to excite to move > [tll dlsapoll1t] > [tll I ksa/l] >[tllmll\j - a dezamagi, a deceptiona - a provoca, a emotiona - a se
mi~ca,

a se muta,

a (se) emotiona to alann to choose to hide > [tll ala > [tll

'ml

- a alanna, a speria - a alege, a selecta - a ascunde, a acoperi

t~ll:Z]

> [tll b.lid]

Doua dintre aceste verbe sunt neregulate. lata fonnele lor: choose hide

> [t 011·z] > [Iwd]

chose hid

> [t~allz]

chosen hidden

> [t 0311Zn]

> [11I(1J

>[hidn]

Unnariti folosirea verbelor in propozitii You have disappointed me. The film excited them. We have moved to Bucharest.

~i

exersati pronuntia: - M-ai dezamagit. - Filmul i-a emotionat. - Ne-am mutat la Bucure~ti.

>llli. hE\ dls:tpointid ml:] > [ L)/ a (Ii 111 Ii.;sa/tld Diem] > I "I il f'\
I11LJ

vel III huh,nest]

8

The cars alarmed the animals. What book have you chosen? They chose the largest carpet. Where have you hidden that?

> [IYa ka:'z ala:'md DZi Enimalz] > ["at buk hEy iu:
t~auzn]

-

Ma~inile

Ie-au speriat pe

animale. - Ce carte ai ales? - Au ales covorul cel mai mare. - Unde ai ascuns aceea?

> [DZei t~auz DZii la:'djast ka:'pit] > ["ea' hEy iu: hidn DZEt]

Completati propozitiile cu forma corespunzatoare a verbelor nou invatate: Oamenii nu s-au mi~cat. Ce te-a provocat? Ea
~i-a

- The men didn't >move. - What has >exclted you? - She >disappointed her parents. - Have they >hidden everything? - I >chose the most expensive book.
- It has always >alarmed us.

deceptionat parintii.

Au ascuns totul? Am ales cea mai scumpa carte. Asta ne-a alarmat intotdeauna.

disappointed parents

tiring work

Sa recapitulam prima parte a lectiei. Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Situatia noastra este foarte dificila. Ti-a placut piesa? Tocmai am primit cateva ve~ti surprinzlitoare. Inainte sa vedem acest film, ne yom face datoria.
> Our situation is 'very difficult.

> DId you like the play? > [ have Just got some surprising news. > HerO! 10 we see tIllS film, we'll do our task.

9

A fost eel mai interesant meei pe care I-am vazut vreodata. Cand vrei sa te muti? Chiar erezi ea este inutil? S-a intamplat eeva deosebit? Cartea lui eea mai noua m-a ~oeat. Este vreo diferenta intre aeeste doua boli?

> It was the most excitmg match I have ever seen.

> When do you want to move?
> Do you really think It IS useless?

> Has anything remarkable happened') > HIs newest book struck me. > Is there any difference between these two diseases?

surprising news

exciting match

10

LECTIA 21 - PARTEA A nOVA ,
Sa invatam cateva cuvinte referitoare la ma~ini: engme petrol litre oil battery trouble

> [endjin] > [petral] > [li:tarJ > [oil] > [bEtari] > [trabl]

- motor - benzina, carburant - litru - ulei - baterie, acumulator - necaz, neplacere, griji, deranj - camlOn - anvelopa, cauciuc - fdina - mecanic - indicator (de directie etc), aparat de masural de control ma~ina

lorry tyre brake mechanic indicator

> [Iori] > [taia r] > [breikJ > [mikEnik] > [indikeita']

breakdown van

> [breikdaun vEn]

de depanare-auto

Repetati cuvintele intr-o aWi ordine: trouble

> [trabl]

- necaz, neplacere, griji, deranj - benzina, carburant - motor ma~ina

petrol engme breakdown van litre lorry battery brake mechanic indicator

> [petral] > [endjin] > [breikdaun vEn] > [li:ta l ] > [Iori] > [bEtari] > [hreik] > [mikEnik] > [indikeita rJ

de depanare-auto

- litru - camlOn - baterie, acurnulator - frana - mecanic - indicator (de directie etc), aparat de masural de control - anvelopa, cauciuc - ulei

tyre oil

> [taia']
> [oil J

11

lata cuvintele noi intr-un scurt dialog. Cititi-l cu atentie:
A:

Yesterday I had some trouble with my lorry. It suddenly stopped and a breakdown van took it to mechanic.

B: A: B: A: B: A:

Did you have engine trouble or too little petrol? No, I didn't. The battery and the indicators didn't work. Did the mechanic help you? Yes, he did everything very fast. Did he also look at the brakes and the tyres? Yes, they were all right. I bought two litres of oil and he changed it for me.

lar acum sa traducem fiecare propozitie: Yesterday I had some trouble with my lorry.
It suddenly stopped and a

> [festa'del al hEd sam trabl uiD Zmal Ion]
> [it sadanli stopt End a

- leri am avut probleme cu camionul meu. ...:. S-a oprit brusc ~i 0 ma~ina de depanare auto I-a dus la un mecanic.

breakdown van took it to a mechanic. Did you have engine trouble or too little petrol? No, I didn't. The battery and the indicators didn't work. Did the mechanic help you? Yes, he did everything very fast. Did he also look at the brakes and the tyres? Yes, they were all right. I bought two litres of oil and he changed it for me.

brelkdaun vEn tuk It tu D'a ImkEmk]

> [dId Ill: hEv endJIn trabl O:T - Ai avut probleme cu motorul

lu: lit] petral]

sau prea putina benzina?
~i

> [nau al didnt D'a bEtari End - Nu. Acumulatorul

D'I indlkeltaTz didnt ua:Tk]
> [dId DZa mlkEmk help iu:]
> [ies hi: dId evnT'in(t')

indicatoarele n-au functionat. - Te-a ajutat mecanicul? - Da, a facut totul foarte repede.

veri fa:st]
> [did hI: o:lsau luk Et

DZa

brelks

End D'a

talaTz]

- S-a uitat ~i la frane la cauciucuri? - Da, erau in regula.

~i

> [les Dlel

U

a:' 0:1 ralt]

> [ai bo:t tu: li:taTz avail

- Am cumparat doi litri de ulei el mi I-a schimbat.

~i

End hI:

t~emdjd

it for mi:]

12

Completati propozitiile urmatoare cu cuvintele noi: Zece litri, va rog. Mecanicul mi-a reparat franele (de la ma~ina). Ai doua cauciucuri uzate. Nu ~tiu care este problema. Cat costa acest motor? Ea conduce
0 ma~ina

- Ten >Iitres, please. -The mechanic fixed my (car) >brakes. - You have two worn out >tyres. - I don't know what the >trouble is. - How much is this >engine? - She drives a >breakdown van. - You need another kind of >oiL - Where can we park these >Iorries? - >Petrol is expensive in this country. - This >battery is out of order. - Is there a >mechamc to help me? - Use the >mdicators!

de depanare auto.

Ai nevoie de un alt fel de ulei. Unde putem parca aceste camioane? Benzina este scumpa in aceasta tara. Acest acumulator nu functioneaza. Este aici un mecanic care sa rna ajute?
Folose~te

indicatoarele!

Traduceti cuvintele urmatoare in limba engleza: motor indicator necaz, neplacere acumulator litru depanare auto cauciuc, pneu
friina

> engine > indicator > trouble > battery > litre > breakdown van > tyre > brake
> 011

ulei carburant camlon mecanic

> petrol > lorry > mechanic

Sa ne intoarcem la comparatia adjectivelor ~i adverbelor.

Ciind compariim substantive, superioritatea se exprimii prin forma de comparativ precedatii de articolul hotiiriit the:
This is the cheaper of the two cars. Is this the taller of the two buildings? > [DZis iz DZa t~i:par av DZa ttl" ka 'z] >
[IZ

- Dintre cele doua ma~ini aceasta este mai ieftini. - Dintre cele doua cladiri aceasta este mai inalti?

DZis DZa to:la' DZa tu: bildlll(g)z]

'1\

13

Cre~terea sau descre~terea progresiva se exprima prin utilizarea repetata a gradului comparativ al adjectivului sau adverbului, legate prin conjunctia and:

The car moved faster and faster. Petrol is becoming more and more expensive. They talked less and less quietly.

> [DZakd:'mu:vdfasta'

-

End fa:sta']
> [petIallz blkamin(g) rna:' End mar Ikspenslv]
> [IYel to kt les End

Ma~ina mergea din ce in ce mai repede.

- Benzina e din ce in ce mai scumpa. - Ei au vorbit din ce in ce mai tare.

les kUaiath]

Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba engleza: Ei devin din ce in ce mai bogati. Dintre cei doi baieti el este mai mare. Ei au vorbit din ce in ce mai tare. Dintre cele doua intrebari aceasta este mai dificila.
> They are becoming ncher and ncher. > He is the older of the t\\ a boys.

> They were talking loudhel and loudher. > Th,:; is the more difficult questIOn of the two.

Acum iata cateva adjective noi. Cititi euvintele eu voce tare romana: spare left rear economical reliable front broken
> [spear] > [ldt] > rna'] > l J: kanOlTII kal] > [nla/abl] > [frant] > [blaukn]

~i

retineti sernnificatia lor in limba

- de rezerva, suplimentar, liber - stang, din stanga - spate, dos, din spate - economie(os); eeonom - dernn de incredere, sigur - partea din fataJ(de) dinainte, fata - sfiiramat, spart, strieat

Sa folosim cuvintele noi intr-un dialog. Cititi-l cu atentie:
A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: Can you see my new car? No, which one is yours? This one. It is the most reliable car in Europe. Is it also economical? Oh, yes. It doesn't use much petrol. Did they give you a spare tyre? Yes, they did. And they also gave me the front and rear lights. But look, the left indicator is broken. Oh, yes! I didn't see that.

14

Acum vom traduce fiecare propozitie In parte. Cititi-le cu atentie Can you see my new car? No, which one is yours? This one.
It is the most reliable car in Europe.

~i

exersati pronuntia:
ma~ina

> [kEn
>

ILl:

si: mai

t1lU:

ka:']

- Vezi

mea cea noua?

l n:JLl Ult~ "an iz IO:'Z]

- Nu, care este a ta? - Aceasta.
-

> [D'is "an] > [It IZ D/a maust nlaIabl ka: f in lUafap] > [iz It o:lsau l:kanomlkill] > l allieS it daznt flU mat~ petral] > l did D/ci giv Ill. a spea' tala']

Este cea mai sigura m~ina din Europa.
~i

Is it also economical?
Dh, yes. It doesn't use much petrol.

- Este

economicoasa?

- Dh, da. ~i nu consuma multa benzina.

Did they give you a spare tyre? Yes, they did. And they also gave me the front and rear lights. But look, the left indicator is broken.
Dh, yes! I didn't see that.

- Ti-au dat cauciuc de rezerva?

> [Ies D/ei did End DZel o:lsau - Da. ~i mi-au dat gelV ml: D'il frant End ~i farurile din fata ria r lalts] ~i din spate. > [bat luk DZa left indlkelta r iz hriiukn J > [au It:S al didnt
51.

- Dar prive~te, indicatorul din stanga este spart. - A, da. Nu am observat asta.

D/Et]

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Poti sa-mi dai cauciucul tau de rezerva?
Ma~inile

- Can you give me your > spare tyre? - Cars are becoming more and more >reliable. - All the plates were >broken. - There is something in his >left eye. - Which is the most >economical car? - The right >rear tyre is getting worse and worse. - The >tront lights are out of order.

devin din ce in ce mai sigure.

Toate farfuriile erau sparte.
E ceva in ochiul lui stang.

Care este cea mai economicoasa ma~ina? Cauciucul din spate din dreapta e din ce in ce mai prost. Farurile din fata nu functioneaza.

Traduceti in limba engleza: stang (de) rezerva economicos sraramat
> left
> spare

> cl'onornJcal
> broken

15

din spate demn de incredere partea din fata

> rear
> relIable
> front

Ati vazut deja cum se folose~te verbul "to do" ca verb auxiliar la formarea propozitiilor interogative ~i negative.

In unele situafii verbul auxiliar to do se folose:;te :;i in propozifii afirmative pentru a accentua afirmafie sau verbul principal. In aceste situafii verbul auxiliar va fi accentuat:
Do come and visit me! Do sit down! I can tell you that he does work. Do listen to me! - Vino ~i viziteaza-ma (insist)! - Staijos (daca iti spun)! - Pot sa-ti spun ca ellucreaza (intr-adevar). - Asculta-ma!

0

In limba romana aceasta accentuare a verbului principal se reda prin cuvintele: intr-adeviir, trebuie, neapiirat etc. De exemplu: Neaparat vino
~i

viziteaza-ma!

Trebuie sa stai jos! Pot sa-ti spun ca el intr-adevar lucreaza!

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: la masa cu noi! EI a citit aceasta carte. Ea a invatat mult. Ajuta-ma!
> Do have dinner with us!

> He did read this book.

> She did learn a lot.
> Do help me!

lata cateva verbe noi: to fill up to check to repair to brake to accelerate to overtake [tu fil ap] [tu tgek] [tu npca r] [tu bretk] [tu aksclarett] [tu auvartctk] - a umple, a ocupa (un post liber), a completa (un formular) - a controla, a verifica - a repara, a indrepta - a frana - a accelera - a ajunge din urma, a
depa~i

Formele verbului "to overtake": overtake > [auvartctk] overtook > [auvartuk] overtaken > [auvartclkn]

16

lata verbele noi In propozitii. Cititi cu voce tare: Will you fill it up, please? Have you checked the oil? They repaired the bus in a hurry. Did you brake in time? The car accelerated easily. They overtook us near Bucharest. > [lIIlIU: fit it ap pli:z] > [hEv iu:
t~ekt

- Imi faceti plinul, va rog? - Ati controlat uleiul? - Au reparat autobuzul In graM. - Ai franat la timp? Ma~ina

D'i oil]

> [DZei ripca'd D'a bas III a hari] > [did iu: breik in t3lm] > [D'a ka:' akselareitld i:Zlli] > [DZel auva'tuk as nia' bukarestJ

a aceelerat eu u~urinta. de

- Ne-au

depa~it aproape

Bucure~ti.

Completati propozitiile In limba engleza cu forma corespunzatoare a verbelor recent Invatate:
Ma~ina

lui este reparata Intotdeauna

de

acela~i mecanic.

- His car is always >repalred by the same mechanic. - Who has >filled it up? - He is trying to >overtake her. - The indicators have been >checked by me.
- It >accelerates beautifully.

Cine a Iacut plinul? Ellncearca sa 0
depa~easca.

Indieatoarele au fost verificate de catre mine. Accelereaza frumos. Ai franat vreodata pe un drum alunecos?

- Have you ever >braked on a slippery road?

Traduceti In limba engleza urmatoare1e verbe: a depa~i a verifica a acce1era a repara a ump1e a frana > to overtake > to check > to accelerate > to repair

> to fill up
> to brake

Sa ne intoarcem din nou 1a folosirea verbului "to do":

Verbul to do se folose~te ~i in urmiitoarele cazuri:
L

~i

Pentru a evita repetarea verbului principal alpropozifiei, cu excep!ia verbelor to be, to have a verbelor auxiliare modale.
She works as hard as you do. >
[~l:
Ill:

Ua:'ks Ez ha:'d Ez du:]

-

Munce~te

la fe1 de mu1t

ca

~i

tine.

17

He writes as beautifully as his father did. Who knows this man? I do.

> [h I. ralts Ez blU. tJ tali Ez hlz fa DZa f did}
> [hu: nauz DZls mEn
aI

- Scrie la fel de frumos ca ~i tatallui. - Cine-l cunoa~te pe acest om? Eu (il cunosc).

du:}

2.

Cu ajutorullui. ne putem referi la verbul menfionat anterior:
I asked him to repair the car and he did so. We told them to leave quietly and they did so. She told him to wait but he didn't.

> [al a·skt him tu ripea f DZa ka: f End hi: did sau]

- L-am rugat sa repare ma~ina ~i el a facut-o (a reparat-o).
lini~te

> [Ui: tauld D'em tu li:v - Le-am spus sa pIece in kUaiatli End DLei dId sau] ~i a~a au facut.
>
[~l:

tauld hun tu Uelt bat he didnt}

- Ea i-a spus sa a~tepte dar el nu a a~teptat.

Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Am cumparat la fel de putin ca El
vorbe~te

~i

el.

> 1 bought as little as he did.

la fel de repede ca

~i

tine. am facut.

> He talks as fast as you do.
> He asked us to say everything and we did so.

EI ne-a rugat sa spunem totul L-am rugat sa vina devreme

~i a~a

~i a~a

a facut.

> I asked hun to come early and he did so.

Ultimul exercitiu allectiei sintetizeaza intregul material invatat. Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Aceasta inventie este interesanta. Aceasta sarcina este (una) dificila. Filmul a fost foarte dezamagitor pentru mine. Am vizitat multe tari straine, dar Danemarca a fost cea mai frumoasa. Slujba mea devine din ce in ce mai obositoare. EI a vazut multe tilme, dar i-au placut numai cele engleze~ti. L-am rugat sa vina cu mine la teatru ~i a venit. EI se mi~ca mai incet deciit tine. Aceasta situatie este (una) ingrijoratoare. Lupta lui a fast (una) inutila.

> ThiS inventIOn is exciting. > ThiS task IS a difficult one.
> The film was very disappomting for me.

> I VISited many foreIgn countries, but Denmark was the most beautiful one. > My Job IS gettmg more and more tiring. > lie sa~ lllany films but he only liked the English ones. > I asked hun to go to the theatre With me and he did so. > He mo\ es more quietly than you do. > ThIS situatIOn IS an alarming one. >
H1S

struggle

~as

a useless one.

18

Motoarele devin din ce in ce mai economicoase. Ea depa~e~te tot atat de multe
ma~ini

> The engines are getting more and more
economical.

ca ~i tine.

> She overtakes as many cars as you do.
> This mechaJ1lc
IS

Acest mecanic este (unul) de incredere. Care dintre cauciucurile din fata este mai vechi? L-am rugat sa a~tepte ma~ina de depanare auto ~i a~a a mcut. Ai schimbat cauciucurile din fata, dar care e situatia cu cele din spate?

a J eltable one.

> Which is the older of the front lyres?
> J asked him to walt for the breakdown van and he (IJd so.

> You have changed the front tyres, but what
about the rear ones"

Urmeaza exercitiul de pronuntie. Literele ingro~ate din cuvintele de pe 0 coloana desemneaza sunete identice:
[al]

[en]

[Cl]

[a:]

hide spy tyre try

where repair there pair

play brake day say

alarm remarkable
"-

task ask

19

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 21 ,
21.1. Participiul Daca la fonna de infinitiv scurt (Tara "to") a verbului adaugam tenninatia ,,-ing", obtinem participiul, care poate functiona ca adjectiv: This job is exhausting. The difference is striking. - Aceasta munca este epuizanta. - Diferenta este frapanta.

21.2. Propozitia circumstantiala de timp are 0 structura identica cu cea a propozitiei conditionale de tipul I. Ea poate fi introdusa de unnatoarele conjunqii: when as soon as after before - cand - de indata ce - dupa, dupa aceea, dupa ce, ulterior - inainte, dinaintea, altadata

Verbul din propozitia introdusa de conjunqiile mentionate se afla la timpul prezent simplu (Simple Present): He will buy the car as soon as he gets the money. 1 will have dinner before I go to him. 21.3. One In cazul unor comparatii sau repetitii, substantiveIe pot fi inlocuite in propozitie de pronumele nehotarat "one". Utilizarea lui este obligatorie alaturi de adjective ~i in multe cazuri adjectivul este precedat de articolul hotarat: I have two red chairs and a white one. They have two cars. He wants the blue one. Pronumele nehotarat one poate sa apara Have you ever seen cheaper ones? I like these black ones. 21.4. Comparatia adjectivelor ~i adverbelor: 21.4.1. In cazul comparatiei referitoare la accea~i trasatura a doua substantive, superioritatea se exprima prin gradul comparativ precedat de articolul hotarat "the": This is the cheaper of the two cars. - Dintre cele doua ma~ini aceasta este mai ieftina.
~i

- El va cumpara ma~ina de indata , ce obtine banii. - Voi cina inainte sa merg la el.

- Am doua scaune

ro~ii ~i
0

unul alb. vrea pe cea

- Ei au doua ma~mi. El albastra. la plural:

- Ai vazut vreodata unele mai ieftine? - Imi plac acestea negre.

20

21.4.2.

Cre~terea sau descre~terea progresiva se exprima prin repetarea formei de comparativ a adjectivului sau adverbului, cele doua forme fiind legate prin conjunqia "and":

The car moved faster and faster. Petrol is becoming more and more expensive. They talked less and less quietly. 21.5. Verbul auxiliar to do 21.5.1.

-

mergea din ce In ce mai repede.

Ma~ina

- Benzina e din ce In ce mai scumpa. - Eu au vorbit din ce In ce mai aprins.

Verbul auxiliar "to do" se folosqte In propozitii afirmative pentru a accentua, a sublinia 0 afirmatie sau pentru accentuarea verbului principal al propozitiei. Verbul auxiliar va fi accentuat In pronuntie: Do come and visit me! - Vino
~i

viziteaza-ma neaparat!

21.5.2.

Verbul "to do" se folose~te pentru Inlocuirea verhului principal deja cunoscut, cu exceptia verbelor "to be, to have" ~i a verbelor auxiliare modale: She works as
~ard

as you do.

-

Munce~te

la fel de mult ca ~i tine.

21.5.3. Cu ajutorul verbului "to do" ne putem referi la verhul folosit anterior In propozitie: I asked him to repair the car and he did so. - L-am rugat sa repare ~i el a Iacut-o.
ma~ina

Urmarind exemplul de mai sus putem ohserva ca folosirea verhului "to do" poate aduce ~i informatii suplimentare.

21

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 21
A.

Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba romiina: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Which is the more exciting of these two films? The fast ones are very expensive. You will move as soon as your room is ready. Do invite her for dinner! We smoke as little as they do.
It is getting more and more cloudy.

B,..

Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba engleza: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. L-am rugat sa aleaga
~i

el a Iacut-o.

Dati-mi, va rog, pe cea economicoasa. El
cii~tiga

mai putin deciit ea.

Este sigura aceasta roata de rezerva? Dupa ce termini de citit, vei repara biblioteca. Ma viziteaza din ce in ce mai des.

C.

Corectati 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

gre~elile

din fiecare propozitie:

%

This is a useles task. I drink less than he do. The red one are sweeter. After she will finish school she will be a teacher. Is the engine accelerating good?

.~~2%
8% 4% 1% . J 2%

22

LECTIA 22 ,

PARTEA INTAI

,..

,..

Sa lnvatam ciiteva cuvinte din domeniul bancar: account
> [akauntJ

- cont, factura, nota de plata - cec - rata, plata in rate - imprumut - rata dobiinzii, dobiinda - moneda - formular - informatii - balanla, bilanl, echilibru, sold - retragere, ridicare de bani - depozit, depunere (la banca)

cheque instalment loan rate of interest coin form information balance

>

[t~ek]

> [insto:lmant] > [Htlm] > [reit av intrist] > [koinj > [fo:rm] >
[infamei~n]

> [bEUms]

withdrawal deposit

> [UiDzdro:al] > [dipozit]

Repetati cuvintele noi withdrawal

~i

intr-o alta ordine: - retragere, ridicare de bani -moneda - imprumut - cont, factura, nota de plata - depozit, depunere (la banca) - rata, plata In rate - rata dobiinzii, doMnda - informatii - cec - formular - balanla, bilant, echilibru, sold

> [ lI iD zdro:al] > [koin] > [laun] > [akaunt]

I~
2%
J%

-

coin

4~ <A.

1~ • ~

J\.
10

9.7:A il '~_1_,6_0/0

8 %

0'0
,0

10,7% 9 % 7,6_% 5,9%

2,~

2/5

loan account

3,9 %

2/4 2,1

deposit

> l dipozit]

instalment rate of interest information cheque form balance

> [insto:lmant] > >

rreit av intrist]
[infamei~n] [t~ek]

>

> [fo:rm] > lbElans]

23

lata cuvintele noi in propozitii. Fiti atenti la pronuntie: I have an account in a reliable bank. Do you want money or a cheque? You can pay in instalments. Can I get a loan here? The rate of interest is high. Do you take coins? You need these forms. ThiE. is useful information. Is my balance high enough? > [al hEy an akaunt In a nlalabl bEnk] > [du
IU:

- Am un cont la 0 banca de incredere. - Vreti bani sau un cec?

Uont mani

0:' a t~ek]

> [1U: kEn pel in Insto:lmants] - Poti plati in rate.

> [kEn ai get a loun hla'] > [DZa relt ov intnst iz hat] > [du 1U: telk kotnz]
> [iu: m:d DZI.Z fo:'mz]

- Pot obtine aici un imprumut? - Rata dobfmzii este ridicata. - Acceptati bani marunti (monede)? - Ai nevoie de aceste formulare. - Sunt informatii utile. - Este suficient de mare soldul meu? - EI a ridicat bani. - Ea face depuneri saptamanal.

> [DZIs iz lU:sfal

mfamei~n]

> [IZ mal bElans hai ina£]

He made a withdrawal. She makes weekly deposits.

> [hI: meld a uIDzdro:al] >
[~I:

melks ui:kh dipozits]

Completati propozitiile cu cuvintele care lipsesc. Cititi textul cu voce tare: Rata dobanzii
cre~te.

- The> rate of interest is rising. - What is this> form for? - I will make a> withdrawal today.

Pentru ce este acest formular? Azi voi ridica bani.

24

De cat timp ai un cont? I-am dat un cec. Aceasta este prima mea depunere. Unde este bilantul? Avem nevoie de mai multe informatii. Avem nevoie de acest imprumut. Aceasta este ultima rata. El vrea sa schimbe aceste monede.

- How long have you had an >account? - I gave him a >cheque. - This is my first >deposlt. - Where is the >balance? - We need more >information. - We need this >loan. - This is the last >instalment. - He wants to change these >coins.

Traduceti cuvintele in limba engleza: rata moneda sold retragere formular depunere rata dobanzii cont cec informatie imprumut > instalment > coin > balance > withdrawal > form > deposit > rate of interest > account > cheque > information > loan

in limba englezii existii mai multe substantive care nu au plural; ele sunt urmate de un verb la persoana a IIl-a singular. in limba romiinii unele se traduc la singular, altele la plural.
Urmariti substantivele de mai jos ~i retineti intelesullor: business furniture progress strength revenue merchandise property > [bizllls] > [Ia:rnit~ar] > [praugres] > [stren(g)TS] > [revamu:] > [ma:rt~andaiz] > [proparti] - afacere, treaba - mobilier, mobila -progres - putere, forta, tarie - venit, in special din impozit -marfa - proprietate, avere

lata ~i alte substantive: information money news > [infamel~n] > [mam] > [nlU.z] - informatii -bani ~tire, noutate, noutati, ve~ti veste/~tiri,

25

lata aceste substantive in propozitii: Business is good this year. The furniture was cheap. Little progress was made. Her strength was exhausted. The revenue is high enough. This merchandise is ready. They lost all their property. > [liti praugres uoz meld] > [biznIS IZ gud O'lS ila'] - Afacerile merg bine anul acesta. - Mobila a fost ieftina. - S-a progresat putin.

> [ha:' stren(glp u oz Igzo:stic] - (Ea) era la capatul puterilor. > [DZa revanlU: > [DZIs
1Z

hal

maf]

- Impozitul este destul de ridicat. - Aceasta marta este gata. ~i-au

ma.'t~andalz

IZ redl]

> [DZei lost

0

1 D/ei T propaTti]

pierdut toata averea.

Completati urmatoarele propozitii cu cuvintele care lipsesc. Cititi propozitiile cu voce tare atenti la pronuntie: Aceasta mobila este noua? Impozitul a crescut. EI are avere mare? Este destul de puternic pentru aceasta munca? Facem 0 multime de afaceri cu ei. S-au tacut multe progrese? Au cumparat marfa la pret redus. - Is this >furniture new? - The >rcvenue has risen. - Has he much >property?

~i

fiti

- Has he enough >strength for this work? - We do a lot of>busmess with them. - Has there been much >progress? - They bought the >merchandlse at discount.

lata acum ciiteva verbe noi. Urmariti semnificatia lor in limba romiina: to cash to lend to borrow to fill in
> [tu
kE~]

- a ridica 0 suma, a plati in numerar - a imprumuta, a da cu imprurnut - a imprumuta, a lua cu imprumut - a completa (un formular, chestionar... ) - a retrage, a lua inapoi, a scoate, a ridica bani - a depune - a Invata, a afla - a chema, a striga, a denumi, a boteza

> [tLl lend] > [tu borauJ >[tu film]

to withdraw

> [tll UiD! dlO ]

to deposit to learn to call (to)

> [tll dlpOZIt]

>[tula'n]
> [tu ko 1]

26

Unele dintre aceste verbe sunt neregulate. lata fonnele lor: fonna I lend withdraw learn > [ lend] > [\liD'dro:] > [la:'n] forma a II-a lent withdrew learnt > [lent] > [\liDzdru.] > [la.lnt] fonna a III-a lent withdrawn learnt > [ lent] > [\lIDzdro:n] > [la:'nt]

Sa folosim verbele invatate in propozitii: She cashed the cheque. He has lent us the money. >
[~i. kE~t

DZa

t~ek

I

- Ea a incasat cecul. - El ne-a imprumutat banii. - Noi am imprumutat mai putin anul trecut. - Ai completat fonnularul? - Ce-ai invatat ieri? ~i-au

> [hI: hEz lent as IYa marJlj > [\II: boraud les la:st Ila']

~

We borrowed less last year.

Have you filled in the fonn?

> [hEy w: fild in {)fa fa.'m]

What did you learn yesterday? > ["at dId III la:'11 Icsta'dcI] They withdrew all their money. How much have you deposited? We called the cat Blinky. > [DZel u1Dzdru: 0:1 Dzei' mani] > [hall mats h[ v lU: dipoZllld] > [Ui: ko. ld D/a kEt blin(g)ki]

retras toti banii.

- Cat ai depus?

- Am botezat-o Blinky pe pisica.

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza: Vrei sa depui multi bani? Inca nu l-ai completat. Noi am imprumutat multi bani de la el. Ai invatat cum se repara asta? Ce ti-a strigat? Completati, va rag, acest fonnular pentru ridicarea banilor. Ai incasat deja acest cec? Cu cat te-a imprumutat? - Do you want to > deposltmuch? - You haven't> filledit in yet. - We have> borroweda lot of money from him. - Have you> karnlhow to repair it? - What did she> callto you? - Fill in this fonn to > wlthdrawmoney, please.

- Have you> cashed this cheque already? - How much did he > lend you?

27

Traduceti unnatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza: a retrage, a ridica bani a chema a incasa, a schimba in bani (un cec) a completa (un formular) a invata a depune ada imprumut (cuiva) a lua imprumut (de la)
> to wIthdraw
> to call

> to cash > to fill In

>-to learn
> to depOSIt

> to lend > to borrow

Acum sa ne intoarcem la problema verbelor terminate in ,,-ing". Aceastti 0 formti a verbului desemneazti substantivul format din verb. in propozi{ii ea are roluri specijice substantivului dar i~i ptistreazti ~i caracterul verbal, datorittifaptului cti cere prepozi{iile $i cazurile specijiceformei de bazti a .verbului. in limba englezti aceasttiformti a verbului cu termina(ia ,,-ing" se nume~te gerund [dJerand]. Inainte de a analiza caracteristicile acestei forme verbale, iata cateva exemple. Cu ajutorullor putem observa ca aceasta forma a verbului se traduce in limba romana printr-un substantiv sau un verb la infinitiv.

Smoking is bad for you.

- Fumatul este daunator (pentru dumneavoastra). - Zborul este periculos?
- Inaintea de a pleca el a scris 0 scrisoare scurtii. - Poti sa inveti ceva fiicind (asta).

Is flying dangerous? Before leaving he wrote a short letter. You can learn something by doing it.

Ca orice substantiv gerunziul poate sti aparti in propozi(ie ca: 1. Subiect:

Walking in the woods is nice. Eating too much is not good for you.
2. Dupti prepozi(ii: They talked about going to the cinema. What do you think about buying a dog?

- Plimbarea in padure este placuta.
- A minca prea mult nu-ti face bine.

- Au vorbit despre faptul ca merg la cinema. - Ce parere ai despre cumpirarea unui caine?

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: A te uita la TV poate fi obositor. Nu-mi place sa ~terg pe jos. Solicitarea unui loc de munca este epuizanta. Ne giindim sa concediem zece angajati.
> WatchIng TV can be tIrIng. > I don't Itke dusting the floors.

> ApplyIng for a Job IS exhaustmg. > We are thmkmg about firIng ten employees.

28

Sa invatam ciiteva cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare prepared safe > [pripeard]
> [seif]

~i

retineti sensullor in limba romana: - pregatit, gata (de, sa) - sigur, lipsit de pericol, in siguranta - prezent, actual - sigur, convins - anterior, prealabil, precedent - riscant, periculos

present sure previous risky

> [prezant]
>
[~uar]

> [pri:vJas] > [riski]

Sa introducem cuvintele noi in propozitii: We are prepared to pay in cash. Is it safe to deposit money with that bank? What is the present rate of interest? Are you sure that your balance is high enough? When was your previous withdrawal? Lending them money is risky. > [Ui' a: r pripeard tu pei in kE~] > liz It selftu dlpozit mani UiD' DzEt bEnk] > ["ot iz D'a prezant reit ov intrist]
> [a: r IU: ~uaf D'Et io: f bElans iz hai inaf]

- Suntem gata sa platim in numerar. - Este sigur sa depui bani la banca aceea? - Care este rata actuala a dobiinzii? E~ti sigur ca soldul tau este indeajuns de ridicat?

> [Uen U io: f pri:vias oz uiDzdro:al] > [Iendin<g) D'em mani iz riski]

- Ciind ai ridicat bani ultima oara? - Este riscant sa Ie dai bani cu imprumut.

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza:
E~ti

sigur ca ai un cont aici?

- Are you> sure you have an account here? - My >previous deposit was small. - Are you > prepared to pay cash? - This loan is very >risky. - Cheques are >safer than bills. - The >present balance is very low.

Ultima mea depunere a fost mica.
E~ti

pregatit sa pHite~ti in numerar?

Acest imprumut este foarte riscant. Cecurile sunt mai sigure deciit bancnotele. Soldul actual este foarte scazut.

29

Traduceli cuvintele in limba engleza: sigur pregatit, gata (de) riscant prezent sigur, in siguranla precedent Sa ne intoarcem la pluralul substantivelor. Daca substantivul este precedat de un numeral, altul dedit unu, atunci substantivul este la plural: We waited for one and a half hours. They have lived here for three years. He is ten years old. - Am a~teptat 0 ora
~i

> sure
> prepared > nsky

> present
> safe

> previous

jumatate.

- Loeuiesc aici de trei ani. - EI are zece ani.

Daca substantivul are semnificafie de plural atunci trebuie safie la plural: In that accident they lost their lives. We all drove our own cars. We all bought our own tickets. - In acel accident ~i-au pierdut viata. - Fiecare
~i-a

condus

ma~ina.

- Noi toti ne-am cumparat biletele proprii.

Forma de gerunziu sefolose!jte in urmatoarele cazuri:

1.

Dupii anumite verbe: They stopped working after a few hours. Do you like swimming? - Ei au incetat lucml dupa cateva ore. - Ili place sa inoli? (Ili place inotul?)

2.

Cu urmiitoarele expresii:
it is no use it is worth
It is no use talking to him.

- nefolositor, rara rost, nu are rost - (care) merita
- Nu are rost sa vorbim eu el.

The book is worth reading.

- Cartea merita sa fie citita.

Traduceli urmatoarele propozilii in limba engleza: Lor Ie place sa bea cafea? Aceasta ma~ina merita sa fie cumparata. Nu are rost sa iei asta acum. EI tocmai s-a oprit din scris.
30
])0

they lIke drinkll1g coffee?
IS

This car

worth buying.

It's no use takmg It now. He has just stopped wrIting.

In incheire sa recapitulam toate problemele gramaticale discutate. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Dupa completarea formularelor am primit banii. Aceste inforrnatii sunt demne de incredere. II vei suna pe fratele meu? Poti plati ma~ina in rate. Imi place sa fac afaceri cu el. Noi toti am folosit bicicletele proprii.
E~ti sigur ca este riscant sa Ie imprumutam bani?

> After filling m the forms we got the money.

> This informatIOn is relJable. > Will you call my brother?

> You can pay the car in instalments.
> I lIke to do business with him.
> We all used our own bicycles.
> Are you sure that lending them

money is risky?

Este u~or sa faci
~tii

0

depunere.

> Making a: deposit is easy.
> Do you know the present rate of mterest?

care este rata actuala a dobanzii?

Poti face asta vanzand proprietatea tao Nu-mi place sa iau cu imprumut. Cati oameni
~i-au

> You can do it by selling your property. > I don't like borrowing. > How many people lost then lives'!
> I have had an account here for ten years.

pierdut viata?

Am avut un cont aici timp de zece ani. EI a incasat cecul in urrna cu o luna ~i jumatate.

> He cashed the cheque one and a half months ago.

lar acum urmeaza exercitiul de pronuntie. Cuvintele de pe acee~i coloana au un sunet identic, desemnat de literele scrise ingro~at. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare: [ E] cash bank balance stamp lamp [e] lend cheque left twelve engine [a] trouble struggle cut but sun [i: ] disease previous scene seen been

31

LECTIA 22 - PARTEA A nOVA ,
Cititi cu atentie urmatorul dialog. Silabele speciale:
~i

cuvintele accentuate sunt evidentiate prin caractere

Barbara: John, do you often have to go to the bank? John: I think so. Why do you ask that?

Barbara: Because sometimes there are many people there. John: Yes, many people want to make a withdrawal or a deposit.

Barbara: And you must fill in forms before you can do something. John: People try to write very fast because they have little time.

Barbara: The bank always want information, but that takes time, too. John: But when you do the necessary things you leave the bank in a hurry.

Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary:

Peter, don't you think that we still have time for shopping? I don't know. The streets are still full of traffic and you cannot drive very fast. And something is wrong with the car. It didn't accelerate well when I was driving home. And you don't know what the trouble is, so you have to ask a mechanic to check everything. If the trouble is serious I have to call a breakdown van.

Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter:

Peter, the mechanic just called and said that he had to put a new engine in our car, but is that true? I don't know. You know that some people are not reliable. They only want your money. But we don't have enough money right now to pay for a new engine. Then we have to borrow money, at a high rate of interest. This shows how one bad thing can cause another. Well, it is better not to worry too much.

Urmeaza un exercitiu de traducere In care vom recapitula materialu1 1ectii10r 21 propozitiile In limba engleza: Seara trecuta noi am vazut 0 piesa emotionanta. Ultima scena a fost una remarcabi1a. Cateva inventii sunt nefo10sitoare. Nu toate filmele sunt interesante. Dar mie imi plac cele bune. Tu te uiti la mai mu1te filme decat mine.

~i

22. Traduceti

> We saw a movll1g play last mght. > The last scene was a very remarkable one.

> Some inventIOns are useless.
> Not all rtlms are exciting.
> But 1 like the good ones.
>
YOLI \\

a1ch mOle films than I cia.

32

L-am rugat pe mecanic sa verifice motorul ~i el a lacut-o.
A~

> l asked the mechal1lc to check the engine

and he did so.
> I could overtake hIm easily. > Foreign cars are gettmg cheaper and cheaper.

putea sa-l

depa~esc u~or.

Ma~inile

straine devin din ce 'in ce mai ieftine.

Dintre cei doi baieti, el 'il 'intreaba pe cel mai mare unde este banca. EI nu ne-a putut da informatiile necesare. Ei au lacut plinul 'in graba. Este un motor foarte economic.
E~ti

> He IS asking the 01 der of the two boys '" here the bank is. > He could not give us the necessary mformation. > They filled up the car m a hurry. > It is a very economIcal engme. > Are you sure the battery is out of order? > It is safer not to accelerate too fast.
> I sa\, a policeman through the rear window. > Before repainng the brake, he checked

sigur ca acumulatorul nu functioneaza?

Este mai sigur sa nu accelerezi prea mult. Am vazut un politist prin geamul din spate. Inainte sa repare frana, el a verificat indicatoarele. Nu este greu sa schimbi un cauciuc. EI a ales
0 ma~ina

the indicators.
> Changmg a tyre is not dit1icult.

straina.

> He has chosen a foreign car. > \Ve have lent them some OIl. > Are you prcpared to help a spy?
> Is the situatIon stIlI alarming?

Noi Ie-am 'imprumutat ni~te ulei.
E~ti

gata sa ajuti un spion?

Situatia este 'inca alarmanta? Poti face asta 'inainte de a incasa cecul? Camioanele trebuie sa aiba frane foarte bune. Ei pot face asta lara toate gesturile acestea. Vezi diferenta? Nu are rost sa te ascunzi. Merita sa cumparam un acumulator nou? A devenit din ce 'in ce mai riscant. Am rugat-o sa ridice bani Am vrut sa cumparam 0 pe cea economica.
~i

> Can you do this before cashing the cheque? > Lorries must have very good brakes. > Thcy can do It without making all these gcstures. > Can you see what the difference is? > It's no use hiding. > It is worth buying a new battery?
> It was getting riskier and riskier.

ea a Iacut-o. am ales-o

> I asked her to withdraw money and she did so. > We wanted to buy a car and we chose the economical onc. > The cheaper of the two is the more reliable one. 33

ma~ina ~i

Dintre cele doua, cea ieftina este cea mai sigura.

Controleaza neaparat

~i

uleiul!

> Do check the OIl!
> This IS the last Instalment, but when were

Aceasta este ultima rata, dar cand au fost cele anterioare? Este important sa avem 0 roata de rezerva. Trebuie sa alegem i'ntre a scoate bani ~i a-i i'mprumuta. Iti poti vinde proprietatea. Ea s-a lasat de fumat saptamana trecuta. Patru oameni
~i-au

the prevIOus ones')

> It IS Important to have a spare tyre.
> We must choose between withdraWIng money and borrowlllg it. > Yau can sell your property.
> She gave up smoking last week.

pierdut viata.

> Four people lost their lIves.

"Changing a tyre is not difficult."

34

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 22 ,
22.1. in limba engleza exista mai multe substantive care nu au forma de plural ~i alaturi de care verbul se folose~te la persoana a Ill-a singular. in limba romana unele sunt traduse prin forme de singular, altele prin forme de plural: business furniture - afacere, treaba, treburi - mobilier, mobila

22.2. Gerunziul (substantive formate din verbe cu terminatia ,,-ing") 22.2.1. Ca orice substantiv la fel I. Subiect al propozitiei: Walking in the woods is nice. 2. Dupa prepozitii: They talked about going to Bucharest. 22.2.2. Forma de gerunziu
0

~i

gerunziul apare in propozitie ca :

- Plimbarea in padure este placuta.

- Au vorbit despre plecarea la
Bucure~ti.

folosim:

I. Dupa anumite verbe: They stopped working after a few hours. 2. Cu urmatoarele expresii: it is no use it is worth
It is no use talking to him.

- Au incetat sa lucreze dupa cateva ore.

- nu are rost - merita sa (00') - Nu are rost sa vorbim cu el. - Cartea merita citita.

The book is worth reading.

22.3. Daca substantivul este precedat de un numeral "mai mare decat unu", atunci substantivul apare la plural: We waited for one and a half hours. They have lived here for three years. He is ten years old. - Am
a~teptat 0

ora ~i jumatate.

- Locuiesc aici de trei ani. - EI are zece ani.

Daca substantivul are semnificatie de plural atunci trebuie sa primeasca ~i forma de plural: In that accident they lost their lives. ~i-au

pierdut viata in acel accident.

35

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 22
A.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. My previous job was filling in forms. It's no use withdrawing all that money. When did you make your last withdrawal? I think borrowing money is risky. Are you sure there is enough revenue?
It is better to ask for information before depositing money.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Noi toti ne-am completat formularele. Rata dobiinzii
E~ti cre~te

rapid.

gata sa-mi schimbi acest cec in bani?

In aceasta situatie poti sa dai bani cu imprumut. Ei au retras multi bani din acest cont. Imi place sa-mi verific des bilantul.

c.

Corectati gre~elile din urmatoarele propozitii: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I want more informations. Why have you lended them those books? Is there many progress?
It is safer without to borrow.

Who withdrawed it?

36

Lista verbelor neregulate din lecpile 21
forma I choose hide learn lend strike withdraw >
[t~u:z]

~i

22

forma a II-a chose hid learnt lent struck >
[t~auz]

forma a III-a chosen hidden learnt lent struck withdrawn >
[t~auzn]

> [hald] > [Ia.ln] > [lend] > [stralk] > [U1Dzdro:]

> [hid] > [la:fnt] > [lent] > [strak]

> [hidn] > [la:fnt] > [lent] > [strak] > [UiDzdro:n]

withdrew > [UiDzdru']

37

VOCABITLARUL LECTIILOR 21 SI 22 , ,
to accelerate account to alarm as soon as balance battery to borrow brake to brake breakdown van broken business to call (to) to cash catching to check cheque to choose coin deposit to deposit difference to disappoint disease economical engine to excite exciting to exhaust exhausting to fill in to fill up film
> [tu akselarelt] > [akaunt] > [tu ala.'m] > [Ez su:n Ez] > [bElans] > [bEtan] > [tu borau] > [brelk] > [tu brelk] > [brelkdaun yEn] > [braukn] > [biznis] > [tuko:l] > [tu >
kE~]

- a accelera - cont - a alarrna - de indata ce - balanta, bilant, echilibru, sold - baterie, acumulator - a imprumuta, a lua imprumut - frana - a frana ma~ina

de depanare auto

- sfiiramat, spart, stricat - afacere, treaba - a chema, a striga, a denumi, a boteza - a incasa, a schimba un cec in bani, a plati in numerar - molipsitor, contagios - a controla, a verifica - cec (bancar) - a alege, a selecta - moneda, bani - depozit, depunere, bani la banca - a depune, a depozita - diferenta, deosebire - a dezamagi, a deceptiona - boala, maladie - econom, economicos - motor - a provoca, a emotiona - interesant, captivant - a epuiza, a istovi - epuizant, istovitor - a completa (un formular, chestionar etc.) - a umple, a ocupa (un post liber), a pune (benzina in rezervor) - film
38
pu~i

[kEt~lll(g)]

> [tu >

t~ek]

[t~ek] t~u:z]

> [tu

> [korn] > [dlpozit] > [tu dlpOZlt] > [difrans] > [tu dlsapornt] > [dlzi:z] > [J:kanomikal] > [endJln] > [tu Iksalt] > [lksaltll1(g)] > [tu Igzo st] > r Igzo.stm(g)] > [tu fil m] > [tu fil ap] > [film]

foreign form front furniture gerund gesture to hide indicator information instalment invention to invite inviting it's no use to learn left to lend litre (USA liter) loan lorry mechanic merchandise to move movmg oil to overtake person petrol play prepared present prevIous progress property rate of interest

> [forin] > [fo:fm] > [ frant] > [ fii:fnit~af] > [djerand] > [ dJest~afJ > [tu hald] > [indikelta f] >
[inIamei~n ]

- strain, din alta tara - formular - partea din fata, front, fata - mobilier, mobila - gerunziu (substantiv format din verb) - gest - a ascunde, a acoperi - indicator (de directie, etc), aparat de masura/control - informatii - rata, plata in rate - inventie, descoperire - a invita - imbietor, ispititor, ademenitor, tentant - n-are rost - a invata, a afla - stang, din stanga - a imprumuta, a da cu imprumut - litru -imprumut - camion - mecanic - marIa - a se mi~ca, a se muta, a se deplasa, a emotiona - emotionant - ulei - a ajunge din urma, a - individ, persoana - benzina, carburant - joc, piesa - pregatit, gata (de, sa) - prezent, actual - anterior, prealabil, precedent - progres, evolutie - proprietate, avere - rata dobanzii, dobanda
depa~i

> [ insto:lmant] >
[inven~n]

> [tu invalt] > [ invaitin(g)] > [its nau iu:z] > [tu la:fn] > [left] > [tu lend] > [ li:ta r ] > [ laun] > [Ion] > [mikEnik] >
[ma:ft~andaiz ]

> [tu mu:v] > [mu:vin(g)] > [011] > [tu ouvafteik] > [pa:fsn] > [ petral] > [plei] > [pripeafd] > [prezant] > [pri:vias] > [praugres] > [propafti] > [relt ov intnst]
39

rear reliable remarkable to repair revenue risky safe scene situation spare spy strength to strike striking struggle sure to surprise surprising task to tire tiring trouble tyre useless to withdraw withdrawal worth

> [ria r] > [nlaiabl] > [nma:rkabl] > [tu npear] > [revaniu:] > [riski] > [ self] > [si:n] >
[sitlUei~n ]

- (in/din) spate, dos, urma - demn de Incredere, sigur - remarcabil, deosebit - a repara, a Indrepta - venit (anual), ca~tig(uri), beneficii - riscant, primejdios, periculos - sigur, lipsit de pericol, In siguranta - scena, decor, peisaj - situatie, stare - de rezerva, suplimentar, liber - splOn - putere, forta, tarie - a lovi, a izbi, a frapa, a - izbitor, frapant - lupta, ciocnire, Intrecere - slgur - a surprinde, a uimi, a lua prin surprindere - surprinzator,
nea~teptat

> [spear] > [sPai] > [stren(g)TS] > [tu straik] > [stralkin(g)] > [stragl] >
[~uar]

..

~

~oca

> [tu sapralz] > [sapralzin(gl] > [ta:sk] > [tu taia r] > [taiarm(gl] > [trabl] > [tad] > [1U:slis] > [tu uiDzdro:] > [U1Dzdro:al] > [Ua:TT']

- sarcina, Indatorire - a obosi - obositor, plictisitor - necaz, suparare, griji - pneu, anvelopa, cauciuc - inutil, nefolositor, zadamic - a retrage, a lua Inapoi, a scoate, a ridica bani - retragere, ridicare de bani - care merita

• .....

40

RECAPITULARE

1.

Pronumele "what, how, whIch, whom, whose": What do you want to do today? What flowers does she like most? How fast IS this car? WhIch school IS the best? Whom did you see yesterday? Whose chlld is thIs? - Ce vrei sa faci astazi? - Care flori ji plac cel mai mult? - Cat de rapida este aceasta - Care este
~coala ma~ina?

cea mai buna?

- Pe cme ai vazut ieri? -- Al cui este acest copil?

2.

Gerunziul: Walkmg here is nIce.
I don't like ironmg.

- E placut sa te plimbi aicl. - Nu-mi place sa calc (cu fierul). - EI vorbesc despre vizitarea Londrei.

They are talking about vlsltmg London.

LECTIA 23 ,

PARTEA iNTAI

Poate ati studiat geografia, dar nu ati fost inca la 0 leqie de geografie tinuta in limba engleza. Acum va invitam la 0 astfel de lectie: earth, Earth continent land valley mountain region source canal Europe lake ocean sea harbour the Danube fiver
> [a:rr] > [kontinant] > [l End] > [ vEli] > [mauntin] >
[ri:di~m]

- pamant, Pamant (planeta) - continent - uscat, pamant, camp, teren - vale - munte - regiune, tinut, zona - izvor, sursa - canal - Europa - lac ,- ocean - mare - port - Dunarea - rau, fluviu

> [so:rs] > [kanEI] > [iu:rap] > [leik] > [ ou~an] > [si: ] > [ha:rba r] > [D'a dEniu:b] > [riva']

Sa repetam acelea~i cuvinte intr-o alta ordine. Exersati pronuntia ~i memorati intelesul lor: valley source earth, Earth canal Europe continent lake ocean sea land harbour mountain the Danube flver
> [ vEli] > [so:rs] > [a'r] > [kanEl] > [iu:rap] > [kontinant] > [lcik] > [ ou~an] > [si: ] > [I End] > [ha:'ba r] > [mauntin] > pYa dEniu:b] >

- vale - izvor, sursa - pamant, Pamant (planeta) - canal - Europa - continent - lac - ocean - mare - uscat, pamant, camp, teren - port - munte - DUll<irea - rau, fluviu

I riva']

2

lata cuvintele noi in propozitii. Fiti atenti la pronuntie There are seven continents on the Earth.
I was happy when I saw the land.

~i

la traducerea in limba romana: - Pe Pamant sunt continente.
~apte

> [Olea' a:' sevn kontinants on D7 i a:'T S] > [ai U h Epi !len ai sou oz Dla lEnd] > [aua' taun iz in a vEli]

- Am fost fericit cand am vazut uscatu!' Ora~ul

Our town is in a valley. Are there many mountains in Europe? What is the name ofthis region? We want to find the source of the Danube. How wide is this canal? We live next to a beautiful lake.

nostru este intr-o vale.

> [a:' Dlea' meni mauntinz in iu:rap] > ["ot iz DZa neim ov DZis ri:djan]
> [Ui: "ont tu faind D7a so :'s ov D/a dEniu:b] > [hau lI aid iz D 7is kanEI] > lUi: liv nekst tu a biu:tifal leik] > ["ot
ou~anz

- Sunt multi munti in Europa?

- Care este numele acestui tinut ? - Vrem sa gasim izvorul Dunarii.

-Cat de larg este acest canal? - Locuim langa un lac minunat.

What oceans do you know?
I have never seen the sea.

du iu: nou]

- Ce oceane

cuno~ti?

> [ai hEv neva' si:n D7a si:]
> [hEz bukarest a ha:'ba r ] > [DZis iz a veri nErou riva"]

- Nu am vazut niciodata marea. Bucure~tiul

Has Bucharest a harbour? This is a very narrow river.

are port?

- Acesta este un rau foarte ingust.

"We want to find the source of the Danube"
3

NumeJe de ape sunt intotdeauna precedate de articolul hotarat "the".

Completati urmatoarele propozltll in hmba engleza folosind cuvIntele care hpsesc: Oceanele sunt foarte man. Aceasta informatle proVIne dIntr-o sursa buna. Romania are portun modeme? Acest animal
trale~te
0

- >Oceans are very big. - This Infonnation IS from a good >source. - Has RomanIa modem >harbours? - TIllS animal lives on the >land. - We spent a week in that >region. - Is the> Eal1h very large? - Many animals need the >sea to live.

pe uscat.

NOl am petrecut

saptamana in regiunea aceea.

Pamantul este foarte mare? Multe annnale au neVOle de mare pentru a trai. Sunt doar ciitlva munti in aceasta tara. Acest canal este foarte ingust. Primavara valea Dunarii arata mInunat.

- There are few> mountaInS in this country. - This >canalls very narrow. - In spnng the> \ alley of the Danube looks beautiful. - Our > contInentIS called> Europe. - They went to the> lake by bus. - Is this> n \ el In England?

Continentul nostru se

nume~te

Europa.

Ei s-au dus la lac cu autobuzul. Acest diu este in Anglia?

Desigur ati retInut cuvIntele engleze~ti. Pentru a va veri fica, incercati sa Ie traduceti in limba engleza: ocean Dunarea rau vale continent lac canal regiune, tinut > ocean > 1he Danube > nver > valley > contment > lake > canal > regIOn munte Izvor uscat pamant, Pamant (planeta) Europa mare port > mountaIn > saulee > land > eatth, Earth > Elllape > sea > harbour

Sa ne reintoarcem la problema gerunziului.

Vom invii!a diteva verbe dupii care utihzarea gerunziului este obhgatorie:
to hate to go on

> [tu helt]
> [tu gou on]

- a uri, a

du~mani

- a merge mai departe, a continua - a sfar~i, a tennina
4

to finish

> [Iu finiS]

to prefer

> [tu prifa: T ]

- a prefera, a-i place (mai mult dedit) - a continua, a urma, a duce mai departe - a abandona, arenunta, a se lasa (de)

to continue

> [tu kantiniu:]

to give up

>[tugivap]

lata cum se folosesc verbele impreuna cu "gerunziul": Many children hate going to school. They went on working. Have you finished reading? He prefers leaving early. They continued learning. I have given up smoking. > [meni t~ildran heit gauin(g) tu sku: I] > [DZei tlent on tla:Tkin fg )] > [hEv iu:
fini~t

- Multi copii urasc sa mearga la ~coala. - Au continuat sa lucreze. - Ai terminat de citit? - EI prefera sa piece devreme. - Au continuat sa invete. - M-am lasat de fumat.

ri:dm(gl]

> [hI: pnfa:Tz li:vin(g) a:Tli] > [IYel kantiniu:d la:Tnin(gl]
> tal hEv givn ap smaukin(g)]

Completati propozitiile

engleze~ti

cu forma corespunzatoare a verbelor impreuna cu gerunziul: - She >prefers going by train. - They >wcnt on talking. - I >hate gctting up early. - They >continued learning English. - Have you >finished mopping the floor? - I can't >giyc up singmg now.

Ea prefera sa mearga cu trenul. Ei au continuat sa vorbeasca. Urasc sa rna scol devreme. Au continuat invatarea limbii engleze. Ai terminat de
~ters

pe jos?

Nu pot sa renunt acum Ja cantat.

lar acum sa invatam cateYa cuvinte noi: mam shallow mountainous deep vast flat >[mem]
>l~Elau]

- principal. esentiaJ - putin adiinc, superficial - muntos, de munte - adanc - vast, foarte mare - plat, intins, neted

> [mauntinas] > [di:pJ > l va.st] >[nFt]

5

Cititi cu atentie unmitorul dialog in care apar ~i cuvintele noi:

A: B: A: B: A: B:

Where do you live? I live in a mountainous region. Do you live in the mountains? No, in a valley. Is it deep? No, it is shallow, but very vast. And the source of the Danube is in my valley. Is the Danube the main river in Romania? Yes, it is. And what about you? Where do you live? I live in a flat region in the east of Romania.

A: B: A:

Cititi separat fiecare propozitie. Fiti atenti la pronuntie: Where do you live? I live in a mountainous / region. Do you live in the mountains? No, in a valley. Is it deep? No, it is shallow, but very vast. And the source of the Danube is in my valley. Is the Danube the main river of Romania? > [Lll: a' du iu: liv] > [ai liv in a mauntinas ri:djan] > [du
ILl:

- Unde

locuie~ti?

- Locuiesc intr-o regiune muntoasa. Locuie~ti

liv in IYa mauntinz]

la munte?

> [noli in il vEli] >lizitdi:p] > [nou It iz va:sl]
~Elau

- Nu, intr-o vale. - Este adiinca? bal veri - Nu, este putin adanca, dar foarte intinsa. izvorul Dunarii este (izvora~te) 'in valea mea.
~i

> [End [Ya so:'s ov D'a dEniu:b iz in mai vEIi] > [iz D'a dEn/u:b D'a mcin rival ov ru:mcinia]

- Dunarea este fluviul eel mai mare al Romaniei? - Da. Iar tu ce mai faci? - Unde
locuie~ti?

Yes, it is. And what about you? > lies il iz End Llol abaul iu:] Where do you live? I live in a flat region in the east of Romania.
> l Llca ' du iu: livJ

> [ai liv in a fiEt ri:djan in D/i i:st ov ru:mciniaJ

- Traiesc intr-o regiune de campie din estul Romaniei.

6

In exercitiul unnator completati propozitiile In limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Oceanele nu sunt superficiale/putm adanci. In ace~ti muntl sunt vai intinse. Locuim intr-o regiune de campie. Acesta este canalul principal. Porturile trebuie sa fie adanci. Romania este
0

- Oceans aren't >shallow. - There are >vast valleys in these mountains. - We live in a > flat region. - This is the >main canal. - Harbours must be >deep. - Is Romania a >mountainous country?

tara muntoasa'?

Traduceti cuvmtele in limba engleza: mic, putm adanc pIaL neted muntos
> shallow

- vast, larg - principal, esential - adanc

> vast > main > deep

> flat > mountamous

Cand verbul to have illseamna a avea, a poseda, poate fi inloeulf eu eonstrueria to have got. She has got many books. Have you got anything for me'? He hasn't got a car. - Ea are multe cartl. - Ai ceva pentru mine? - El nu are
ma~ina.

Traduceti umlatoarele propozitii in limba engJeza folosind construetia to have got: EI au doua case. Ea nu are came. Ai putm timp'? De ce nu ai perdele? > They have got two houses. > She has got no dog. > Have you got any time? > Why haven't you got any cUI1ains')

lata acum ciiteva verbe noi: to lie to steal to cost to mean to sWIm to throw to throw out to laugh at
> [tu lai]
> ltu stl.1]

- a sta culcat, a zace - a fura - a costa - a Insemna, a avea de gand - a Inota - a arunca, a azvarli - a arunca, a scoate afara - a rade de
7

> [to kost] > [tu mi:n] > [tus"lln]

> [tu Prau] > l tu "Prau aut]
> [tu la:f Et]

Dintre verbele noi cele mai multe sunt neregulate. lata cele trei forme ale lor:

forma I
lie steal cost mean SWim throw > [Iai] > [sti:l] > [kost] >[mi:n] > [sUim] > [T'rou]

forma a II-a
lay stole cost meant swam threw > [lei] > [staul] > [kost] > [ment] > (sUEm] > [T'ru:]

forma a III-a
lain stolen cost meant swum thrown > [lein] > [stiiulan] > [kost] > [ment] > [sU am ] > [T'roun]

Cititi cu voce tare unnatoarele propozitii in care sunt incluse The book lay on the floor. His car has been stolen. They threw out the old magazines.
It cost me nothing to get it.

~i

verbele noi: - Cartea zace pe podea. Ma~ina

> [DZa buk lei on D7 a flo:f] > [hiz ka: f hEz bj:n staulim] > l D'ci 1"ru: aut D 7j aulu mEgazi:nz] > [it kost mi: naT'in(g) tu get it]

lui a fost furata.

- Au aruncat revistele vechi.

- Nu m-a costat nimic sa obtin asta. - A insemnat intotdeauna acela~i lucru. - Au inotat de-a lungul canalului.

It has always meant the same.

> [it hEz 0: l"eiz ment D7 a seim]

They swam across the canal.

> [D'ei s"Em akros D'a kanEl]

Fonna de gerunziu a verbului to lie este lying.

Completati unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu forma corespunzatoare a verbelor:
Cit te-a costat asta?

- How much did it > cost you? - We must> throw out these things. - They> stole all my tools. - Why is it > lying here? - This> means that everything is lost. - Did you often >swim in the lake? - She> threw the keys on the table.

Trebuie sa aruncam aceste lucruri. Ei mi-au furat toate instrumentele. De ce zace asta aici? Asta inseamna ca totul e pierdut. Ai inotat adesea in lac? Ea a aruncat cheile pe masa.

8

Verificati daca ati retinut cele trei forme ale verbelor: a costa a Inota a Insemna, a avea de gand a sta culcat a fura a arunca, a azvarli > cost > swim > mean >cost > swam > meant > cost > swum > meant

> lie > steal > throw

>Iay > stole > threw

>lam > stolen > thrown

Dupa urmatoarele expresii folosirea gerunziului este obligatorie: Do you mind ... > [du iu: maind] - Imi permiteti sa... ; Sunteti atat de amabil sa... - Nu-mipasa... ;Numa deranjeaza - Nu pot sa nu... ; Nu rna pot abtine sa... - Nuse ... - Este la fel ca ~i ... - Este Tara sens... ; Nu are rost sa... ; Nu merita ...

I don't mind ...

> [ai dount maind]

I can't help...

> [ai ka:nt help]

There is no ... This is like... It's no good...

> [D'ca' iz nau] > [D'is
IS

laik]

> [Its nau gud]

Completati unnatoarele propozitii In limba engleza cu forma corespunzatoare a verbelor:
E~ti

atat de amabil sa conduci

ma~ina?

- Do you mind >driving the car? - I don't mind >writing this letter. - I can't help >buying new books. - There is no >saying what he will do. - It's no good >telling him about it.

Nu rna deranjeaza ca scriu aceasta scrisoare. Nu rna pot abtine sa cumpar carti noi. Nu se poate
~ti

(spune) ce va face el.

Nu merita sa-i spunem.

in Incheiere l'om discuta despre fraza conditionala de tipul II (II Conditional) sau condi{ionalul prezent. La modul condi{ional prezent, Indeplinirea condi{iei este posibild. Structura frazei condi{ionale de tipul 11 este: In propozi{ia principald l'erbul este campus din would ["ud] + infinitivul scurt all'erbului de conjugat (fcirii particula to); In propozi{ia subordonatii introdusd de conjunc{ia if, l'erbul este la timpul trecut simplu (Simple Past).
If I had time I would come to you. She would write a letter if she had a pen. > [if ai hEd taim ai "ud kam tu iu:] >
[~i: ~i:

- Daca a~ avea timp, la tine.

a~

veni

"ud rait a leta' if hEd a pen]

- Ea ar scrie 0 scrisoare daca ar avea un stilou.

9

II

Cuviintul would este forma de trecut (Simple Past) a verbului auxiliar will.

in propozi!ia condi!ionala de tipul II verbul a fi are 0
were, it were): If I were you I would not refuse them.

singura forma - were (I were, she were, he

> l if ai Ute' iu: ai uud not rifiu:z IYem]

- In locul tau nu i-a~ refuza.

Introduceti formele corespunzatoare ale verbelor in urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Oaca ar costa mai putin,
a~

cumpara asta.

- Ifit >cost less I >would buy it. - If we >had money we >would have dinner at a restaurant. - Ifl >wereyou I >would give up smoking.

Daca am avea bani, am cina Ia restaurant.

In locul tau m-a~ lasa de [umat.

lata ultimul exercitiu al lectiei. Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Romania este in Europa. Acesta este eel mai inalt munte in America. Vrei sa
locuie~ti

> Romania is in Europe. > This is the highest mountain in America. > 00 vou want to live near the sea'? > This is the largest land on E3I1h. > There are a lot of canals in England. > If I hated him I would not visit him. > I want to continue leaming. > When you finish dinner we will go to the lake. > I prefer swimming in the river. > Your books are lying on the table in the room now. > What do you mean? > It's no good buying expensive food. > 00 you mind watching this play? > If I were you, I would not tell her about it. > I cannot help laughing.
10

in apropierea marii?

Acesta este eel mai mare uscat (de) pe Pamant. Sunt Oaca
0

multime de canale in Anglia. uri, nu
I-a~

I-a~

vizita.

Vreau sa continuu studiul. Cand vei termina cina, vom merge la lac.

Prefer sa inot in rau. Cartile tale zac acum pe masa in camera.

Ce vrei sa spui? Nu are rost sa cumperi mancaruri scumpe.
E~ti

atat de amabil sa te uiti la aceasta piesa?

In locul tau nu i-a~ vorbi despre asta. Nu rna pot abtine sa nu rad.

LECTIA 23 - PARTEA A DODA •
lneepem leetia eu invatarea euvintelor noi. Imaginati-va ea sunteti intr-un ora~ foarte mare. Cititi euvintele eu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la tradueerea lor in limba romfma: city capital inhabitant one-way street outskirts centre slums suburbs department store town hall zoo thoroughfare >lsiti] >[kEpitl] > [inhEbitant] > [Uan Uei stri:t] > [autska:Tts] > [scnta T ] > [slamz] > [saba:'bz] ] > l dipa:Ttmant sto: T > [taun ho:l] >[zu:] > [T'arafeaT ] ora~

- capitala - loeuitor, loeatar - strada cu sens unic - periferie (a unui - centru - cartier sarac/saraeaeios - suburbie, periferie - magazm - primarie - grad ina zoologiea - artera principala de cireulatie, strada principala - milion - zgomot, galagie
ora~)

million noise

>[milian] > l noiz]

Repetati suburbs

acela~i

euvinte Intr-o alta ordine: > [saba:'bz] > [taun ho: I] > [zu:] > [autska:Tts] > [kEpitl] > [sent,!'] > [lloiz] > ["an Uei stri:t] > [TSarafeaT ] - suburbie, periferie - primarie - gradina zoologica - periferie (a unui - capital a - centru
- zgomot, galagie
ora~)

town hall zoo outskirts capital centre nOIse one-way street thoroughfare

- strada cu sens unie - artera principal a de eirculatie, strada principala
-ora~

city slums million department store inhabitant

> [siti] > [slamz] > [milian]

- cartier sarae/saracacios - milion

> [dipa:Ttmant sto: T - magazm ] > [inhEbitant]
1I

- loeuitor, loeatar

lata cuvintele noi intr-un dialog. Cititi-I cu atentie:

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Do you like living in London? It's a big city. Yes, there are nine million inhabitants here. London is the capital of England. Is your house in the centre? Oh, no. I live in the suburbs. My house is in a quiet one-way street. I live in the outskirts of a small town. Do you like it? No, I don't. I'here are slums near my street. And there is a thoroughfare next to my house. There is always a lot of noise. Are there any department stores in your town? No, we have only small shops near the town hall. But we have a big and beautiful zoo. We can go to London zoo now. It's only three streets from here.

Sa urrnarim fiecare propozitie separat. Cititi cu voce tare Do you like living in London? It's a big city. Yes, there are nine million inhabitants here. London is the capital of England. Is your house in the centre? Oh, no. I live in the suburbs. My house is in a quiet one-way street. I live in the outskirts of a small town. Do you like it? No, I don't.
> [du iu: laik livin(gl in Iandn] > [its a big siti]

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie: - Iti place sa traie~ti la Londra?

- Este un

ora~

mare.

> [ies Dlea r a: r nain milian inhEbitants hia r] > [landn iz DZa kEpitl ov in<glgJand] > [iz io: r haus in DZa scnta r] > [ou nou ai liv in Dla saba:'bz] > [mai haus iz in a kUaiat uan uei stri:t] > [ai Iiv in Dli autska:rts ova smo:1 taun]
> [du iu: laik it]

- Da, sunt noua milioane de locuitori aici. - Londra este capitala Angliei.

- Casa ta este in centru? - Oh, nu. Locuiesc in suburbie. - Casa mea este intr-o strada lini~tita cu sens unic. - Locuiesc la peri feria unui ora~ mic. - Iti place acolo? - Nu.

> [nau ai daunt]

There are slums near my street. > [Olear a: r slamz nia:' mai stri:t] - Sunt cartiere saracacioase in apropierea strazii mele. And there is thoroughfare next my house. There is always a lot of nOIse.
> [End OZear iz a T'arafea' nekst tu mai haus]
> [Olear iz o:lueiz a lot ov

- $i este 0 strada principala langa casa mea. - Este intotdeauna mult zgomot.

noiz]

12

Are there any department stores in your town? No, we have only small shops near the town hall. But we have a big and beautiful zoo. We can go to London zoo now.

> la:' D'ea r eni dipa:rtmant sto:rz in io: r taun] > [nou "i: hEy aunli smo:l ~ops nia r DZa taun ho:l] > [bat "i: hEy a big End biu:tifM zu:] > ["i: kEn gou tu landn zu: nau]
r ]

- Sunt magazine mari in ora~ul tau? - Nu, avem doar magazine mici in apropierea primariei. - Dar avem 0 grad ina zoologica mare ~i minunata. - Putem merge acum la gradina zoologica din Londra.
-

It's only three streets from here. > l its aunl i TSri: stri:ts from hia

Este doar la trei strazi departare de aici.

lata alte exercitii pentru cuvintele noi. Completati urmatoarele propozilii in limba engleza cu cuvintele care lipsesc: Sunt multe strazi cu sens unic aici? Aceasta este cea mai importanta strada principala din acest ora~. Londra este un
ora~

- Are there many >one-way streets here? - This is the main >thoroughfare of this town.

mare.

- London is a large >city. - Do you often do shopping in this >department store? - Is this >town hall old? - The >capital of Romania is Bucharest. - The >inhabitants like to go to the mountains msummer.

Faci des cumparaturi in acest magazin?

Este veche aceasta primarie?
Bucure~tiul

este capitala Romaniei.

Locuitorilor Ie place sa mearga vara la munte.

"Children like going to the zoo"
13

Nu sunt cartiere saracacioase In acest ora~. In suburbii sunt putine birouri. Copiilor Ie place sa mearga la grad ina zoologica. Gara este in centrul
ora~ului.

- There are no > sl ums in this town. - There are few offices in the >suburbs. - Children like going to the >zoo. - The railway station is in the >centre of the city.

Nu vreau sa locuiesc la periferia Ce este zgomotul acesta?

ora~ului.

- I don't want to live in the> outskirts. - What is that> noise?

Pentru a veri fica daca ati retinut cuvintele noi, traduceti-Ie In Iimba engleza: primarie periferie (a unui ora~) gradina zoologica artera principala centru cartier sarac zgomot > town hall > outskirts > zoo > thoroughfare > centre > slums > noise - suburbie
-ora~

> suburbs > city > capital > inhabitant > department store > one-way street

- capitala - locuitor, locatar - magazin mixt - strada cu sens unic

In lectiile anterioare ati Invatat pronumele who. in aceasta lectie yom Invata despre folosirea pronumelui what. Daca propozi!ia interogativa care incepe cu prol1umefe interogativ what se rejera fa subiect, atunci propozi!ia va avea structura obi!jnuita a propozifiei afirmative: What happened yesterday? What is behind this mountain? What grows in your garden? - Ce s-a Intamplat ieri? - Ce este in spatele acestui munte? - Ce
cre~te

In gradina ta?

Dar daca what inseamna ce, ce fel de, cum, sau apare infr-un alt caz dedit nominativuf, atunci propoziria va avea sfructura propoziriei interogative: What colour is the sea? What mountains do you like? What did you see then? - Ce culoare are marea? - Ce fel de munti Iti plac? - Ce ai vazut atunci?

Traduceti In limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Ce scrii acum? Ce a lasat el? Ce
traie~te

> What are you writing now? > What did he leave? > What lives on the moon? > What car does he mean? 14

pe luna?

La ce ma~ina se refera el?

lata acum diteva cuvinte noi: on foot crowded deserted . . ImpressIve >lon fut] >lkraudid] > [diza:'tid] > [ imprcsiv] - pe jos - aglomerat - parasit, pustiu, gal - impresionant (care produce o impresie buna) - oribil, groaznic - industrial

horrible industrial

> [horibl] > [ indastrial]

Urmariti cum se folosesc aceste cuvinte in propozitii:
I usually go to work on foot.

> [ai iu:juali gou tu "a:'k on fut]

- De obicei merg la lucru pe jos. - Strazile sunt aglomerate toata ziua. - Noaptea ele sunt pustii. - In capitaHi sunt cladiri impresionante. - Cartierele sarace sunt oribile. - Locuim intr-un industrial.
ora~

The streets are crowded all day. > [DLa stri:ts a:' kraudid 0:1 dei]

At night they are deserted. There are impressive buildings in the capital. The slums are horrible. We live in an industrial town.

> [Et nait D'ei a:' diza.:'tid] > [D'ea' a:' impresiv bildinlg)z in D',1 kEpitl]
> [DZa slamz a:' horibl]

>[Ui: liv in an indastrial taun]

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Strazile
ora~ului

sunt deseori pustii.

- The streets of the city are often :>deserted.
- I always go >on foot when the weather IS DIce.

Cand este vremea frumoasa merg intotdeauna pe jos. EI a vazut ieri un accident groaznic. Aceasta primarie este impresionanta. Aceasta piata este intotdeauna aglomerata.
Ora~eJe

- He saw a >horrible accident yesterday. - This town hall is >impressive. - This square is always >crowded.
- >/ ndustrial towns are not beautiful.

industriale nu sunt frumoase.

Sa verificam daca ati retinut cuvintele noi. Traduceti cuvintele in limba engleza: plin, aglomerat groaznic, oribil
> crowded > horrible

15

industrial parasit, pustiu impresionant peJos

> industrial

> dcscI1ed > impressive > on foot

Pronumele what se folose.yte
What a good film! What a beautiful building! What a nice people! What heat'

~i

In propozi!ii exclamative care exprinui sentimente ~i emo!ii:
~

Ce film bun!

- Ce clad ire frumoasa! - Ce oameni draguti! - Ce canicula!

inaintea substantivelor care au ~i forma de singular ~i de plural se folose~te articolul nehotarat a/an la singular, dar nu se pune articol inaintea acestor substantive daca ele sunt la plural. Tot a~a nu se pune articol inaintea substantivelor care au numai forma de singular.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in Iimba engleza: Ce pantaloni
frumo~i!

> What nice trousers! > What a difficult question! > What weather!

Ce intrebare dificila! Ce vreme! Ce
ma~ina

rapida!

> What a fast car!

Ce mere delicioase!

> What delicious apples!

lata acum un grup de verbe noi: to cross
> [tu kros]

- a traversa, a strabate, a trece dintr-o parte in alta - a pleca, a pomi, a pleca din - a sparge, a sfiirama, a rupe, a frange - a desena, a trasa, a trage - a opri, a interzice, a impiedica - a hrani (a alimenta) - a ajunge (pana) la, a atinge, a sosi (la)
16

to depart to break

> [tu dipa:rt]
> [tu breik]

to draw to forbid to feed to reach

> [tu dro:]
> [tu forbid] > [tufi:d] > [tu ri:t~]

Dintre aceste verbe cateva sunt neregulate. invatati formele lor:

forma I
break draw feed forbid >[ breik] >[dro:] >[ lid] >[ forbid]

forma a II-a
broke drew fed forbade >[brouk] >[ dru:] >[ fed] >[forbeid]

forma a I1I-a
broken drawn fed forbidden >[broukn] >[ dro:n] >[fed] >[forbidn]

lata cum se folosesc verbele noi in propozitii: They crossed the street. She has already departed. Has she reached her destination yet? My son loves to draw ships. > [ DZei krost DZa stri:t]
>[~i:

- Ei au traversat strada. - A plecat ea deja. - Ea a ajuns deja la destinatie?

hEz o:lredi dipa:ftid]
~i: ri:t~t

>[hEz

destinei~n

ha: f iet]
~ips]

> [mai san lavz tu dro:

- Fiului meu ii place sa deseneze vapoare. - Tata mi-a interzis sa merg aco]o cu eI. - Ai hranit deja animalele?

Father forbade me to go there with him. Have you fed the animals yet?

> [ fa: DZa f forbeid mi: tu gau DZeaf uiD z him] >[hEv iu: fed DZi Enimalz iet]

Acum completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului: Ea
~i-a

rupt bratul cand a cazut.

- She >broke her arm when she fell.

Traversati strada doar pe trecerea de/pentru pietoni! - >Cross the street only at a zebra crossing! Am hranit animalele dupa micul dejun. Ce ai desenat acolo? Ei au plecat la
~apte.

- I >fed the animals after breakfast. - What have you ::odrawn there? - They ::odeparted at seven. - Have they >reached London? - My parents >forbid me everything.

Au ajuns la Londra? Parintii mei imi interzic totuI.

Verificati daca ati retinut verbele noi: a desena a atinge a sparge a hrani >10 draw >to reach >to break >10 feed - a inlerzice - a traversa - a pleca >to forbid >to cross >to depart

17

Acum vom sintetiza materialul acestei lectii. Traduceti in limba engleza: Ei au continuat lucrul toata noaptea. Bicicleta acestui copil a fost furata. Te-ai lasat de fumat? Eu am trei pisici. EI prefera sa mearga pe jos. Ce strazi aglomerate! Acum nu are rost sa plecam. Nu se
~tie

> They went on working all night. > This child's bicycle has been stolen.
> Have you given up smoking? > I have got three cats. > He prefers going on foot. > What crowded streets' > It's no good departing now. > There is no saying which regions we will visit. > In zoos feeding the animals is forbidden.

ce regiuni vom vizita.

in gradinile zoologice hranirea animalelor este interzisa. Nu m-am putut abtine sa nu zambesc cand I-am vazut dupa atatia ani. EI
ura~te

> J could not help smiling when I saw him after many years.
> He hates hving in this industrial (own.

sa locuiasca In acest ora;; industrial.

Ce s-a intiimplat? Ce ai pierdut?
E~ti

> What happened'? > What did you lose'!

atat de amabil sa-mi imprumuti bani?

> Do you mind lending me money?

in incheiere iata exercitiul de pronuntie. Literele aflate in aceea~i coloana, scrise accentuat, desemneaza sunete identice: [ei] hate break
main

[0:] draw source
hall

[E] shallow flat hat cat capital

[a: ] vast harbour depart arm task

way lake

call door

18

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 23 ,
23.1 Folosirea gerunziului este obligatorie: I. Dupa urmatoarele verbe: to hate to go on to finish to prefer to continue to give up 2. Dupa umlatoarele expresii: Do you mind... I don't mind ... I can't help ... There is no ... This is like... It's no good ... - Imi permiteti sa... ; Sunteti atat de amabil sa... - Nu ma deranjeaza; Nu-mi pasa... - Nu pot sa nu... ; Nu ma pot ab\ine sa... - Nu se poate
~ti

- a uri, a

du~mani

- a continua, a merge mai departe - a sfiir~i, a termina - a prefera - a continua - a abandona, a se lasa de

...

- Este la fel ca ~i ... - Este fara sens... ; Nu are rost sa...

23.2

Verbul to have inseamna: a avea, a posed a ceva. Acest verb englezesc poate fi inlocuit cu constructia to have got: She has got many books. Have you got anything for me? He hasn't got a car. Ea are muite cani. Ai ceva pentru mine? EI nu are
ma~ina.

23.3

Propozitia condi\ionala de tipul II - II Conditional 23.3.1 23.3.2 in propozitia conditionala de tipul II indeplinirea conditiei este posibila. Propozi\ia subordonata introdusa de conjunqia if este la timpu] trecut simplu (Simple Past). iar in propozitia principala apare constructia would + verbul de conjugat la in finitiv scurt (fara particula to): If I had time, I would go to the cinema. 23.3.3 - Daca a~ avea timp la cinema.
0

a~

merge

In propozitia conditionala de tipul II folosim doar were (l were, she were, he were, it were): If I were you I would not refuse them.

singura forma a verbului a fi -

- In locul til.U nu i-a~ refuza.

19

2304. Pronumele what
2304.1. Daca i"ntrebarea i"ncepe cu pronumele interogati v what ~i se refera la subiect, atunci propozitia va avea structura unei propozitii afirmative: What happened yesterday? - Ce s-a i"ntiimplat ieri?

2304.2.

Daca what i"nseamna ce, ce fel, cum sau apare i"ntr-un alt caz decat nominativul, atunci i"ntrebarea va avea structura propoziriei interogative: What colour is the sea? - Ce culoare are marea'?
~i

2304.3. Pronumele what poate sa apara i"n propozirii exc1amative care exprima sentimente emotii:
What a good film! What nice people! - Ce film bun! - Ce oameni draguti!

lnaintea substantivelor care au ~i forma de singular ~i de plural se folose~te articolul nehotariit a/an atunci cand sunt la singular, dar nu se pune articolla plural ~i i"naintea substantivelor care au numai fonna de singular.

11111111111111111111

20

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 23
A
Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. If I were you I would forbid him to go there. It's no good repairing it today. What a beautiful city! Have you got any news for me? She has given up watching TV late at night. What costs more than a million?

B.

Tradllceti unnatoarele propozilii in limba engleza: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Vom merge sa cinam la restaurant ciind termin de citit. Ce ochelari
frumo~i!
a~

Dacii a~ fi tiinar,

merge la mllnte.

Eu am multi prieteni. Ai avea ceva impotriva sa traversam pe jos aceasta vale? Preferam sa petrecem acasa sarbatorile.
gre~elile

C.

Corectati
I.

din urmatoarele propozitii:

I would do it if you would wait. What an impressive mountains! The boy went on run. What like you? Is it dangerous to cross the throughfare?

2. 3. 4. 5.

21

LECTIA 24 ,
Acum yom parasi viata la tara: village farmer crop meadow produce field fertilizer soil rye wheat flour domestic

PARTEA INTAI
yom merge la tara. lata cuvintele noi, legate de

ora~ul ~i

> [vilidj] > [fa:rma r ] > [krop] > [medau] > [prodiu:s] > [fi:ld] > [fii:rtilaiza r] > [soil] > [rai] > [Ui :t] > [flaua r] > [domestik]

- sat, comuna - ferrnier, taran - recolta pa.ii~te,

campie

- produs, produse agricole - camp, ogor i'ngra~amant

(artificial)

- sol, pamant - secara - grau - faina - domestic

Sa repetam cuvintele noi i'ntr-o alta ordine: farmer fertilizer village produce domestic flour meadow wheat crop rye soil field
> [fa:rma r] > [fa:rtilaiza r] > [viI idj] > [prodiu:s] > [domestik] > [flaua r] > [medau] > [Ui :t] > [krop] > [rai] > [soil] > [fi:ld]

- fennier, taran i'ngra~amant

(artificial)

- sat, comuna - produs, produse agricole - domestic - faina paji~te,

campie

~I
~~

I

- grau - recolta - secara - sol, pamant - camp, ogor

Illllllllllllll\11

I. W
I
~'% W

II -B:I
-~ I ' ~f

22

Acum folosind completati propozitiile in Iimba engleza cuvintele noi: Nu am avut recolta buna de trei ani. Ei locuiesc in acest sat. Ogoarele din apropierea raului sunt bune Secara cre~te repede? Este roua pe campn. Toti fratii mei sunt fermJeri.
Ingra~amantul devme dm ce in ce mal scump.

- We haven't had a good >crop for three years. - They live in this >vlllage. - The >fields near the river are good. - Does >rye grow fast? - There is dew on the >l1leadows. - All my brothers are >fallners. - >I"ertlhzer IS gettmg more and more expensIVe. - Is the >soI1 good in thIs mountainous region? - >Dol1lestlc produce is the best. - How much >flOUI must we buy?

Este bun pamantul in aceasta regmne muntoasa? Produsele de casa sunt cele mai bune. Cilta raina trebuie sa cumparam?

Desigt1{ ati insu~it deja cuvintele noi. Traduceti in hmba engleza:
paji~te

>meadow > field > vIllage > rye > produce > domestic

- grflU - faina ingra~amant

> \\ heat > flour (artificial) > fertlhzer >fannel >CIOP >5011

camp,ogor sat, comuna secara produs domestic

- taran, fermier - recolta - sol, pamant

in propozitiile exclamative care expnnu] sentzmente se folose$te des pronumele how - cum, ce dragu!, cat de De obicel stii langii un adjectiv sau un verb:
How good of you to viSIt me! - Ce dragu! din partea ta ca rna vizitezi! (cat e~ti de bun ca rna vizitezi!) - Ce dragut din partea lor ca ne ajuta! - Ce
galagio~i sunt ace~tI

How nice of them to help! How noisy these chIldren are!

copii!

Dupa constructlG how + adjectiv. inaintea substantivelor cu forma de singular $i plural aflate la singular, putem folosl articolul nehotarat a/an:
How nice a man he IS! How delicious an apple that was! - Ce om dragut este (el)! - Ce deliclOs a fost marul acela!

Incercati sa traduceti singuri in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitil: Ce dragut din partea ta ca faci asta! Ce saptamana buna a fost aceasta!
24

> How good of you to do It! > How good a week that was'

Ce frurmoasa era casa aceea! Ce minunate sunt aceste campii!
~i engleze~ti

> How nice a house it was! > How beatiful these meadows are! noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare: - la tara - a cosi/a usca ranul - abundent, - favorabil - rural, de tara, rustic - zi de odihna, vacanta, concediu
imbel~ugat,

Unneaza expresii in the country to make hay abundant favourable rural holiday

cuvinte

> [in DZa kantriJ > [tu mcik hei] >[aband,lnt] > [feivarabl] >[ru:raJ] >[holidei]

bogat

Yom folosi cuvintele noi intr-un dialog. Cititi cu atentie:

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Where did you spend your holiday? I was in the country. What did you do there? I made hay. What? Yes, my friend is a farmer. He had an abundant crop this summer so I went there to help him. And how did you like the rural life? Very much. The weather was favourable and the work was nice.

lar acum cititi separat aceste propozitii: Where did you spend your holiday? I was in the country. What did you do there? I made hay. What? Yes, my friend is a farmer. He had an abundant crop this summer so I went there to help him. And how did you like the rural life? Very much. The weather was favourable and the work was nice. >[ ies mai frend iz a fa'ma r] > [hi: hEd an abandant krop DZis samar sau ai Uent DZea r tu help him] >[End hau did iu: laik DZa ru:rallaifJ >[ veri mat~ DZa UcDZa r U fcivarabl End DZa ua:rk az U nais] az > [ai meid hei] >[Uea' did iu: spend io:' holidei] >[ ai Uo z in DZa kantri] - Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul?

- Am fost la tara. - Ce ai lacut acolo? - Am cosit ran. - Ce? - Da, prietenul meu este fermier. - EI a avut 0 recolta bogata in aceasta vara, a~a ca am mers acolo ca sa-I ajut. - $i cum ti-a placut viata la tara?

- Foarte mult. Timpul a fost favorabil ~i munca a fost placuta.

25

In exercillUl urmator completali propoziliile in limba engleza cu cuvintele care Iipsesc: Azi este un vant favorabil. Aceste imprejurimi rurale sunt foarte Iinii?tite. Mi-am petrecut concediul acasa. Trebuie sa cosim repede £anul. Aceasta recolta este mal bogata decat cea anterioara. _La lara nu este multa circulatie. - There is a > favourable wind today. - These >rural surroundings are very quiet. - I spent my >hollday at home. - We must >make hay fast. - This crop is more >abundant than the prevIOUS one. - There is not much traffic >in the country.

Acum incercati sa traduceli cuvintele urmatoare in Iimba engleza: rural, de lara a cosi fanul favorabil la lara abundent, bogat concediu, vacanla >nl1al > to make hay > favourable > In the country > abundant > holiday

Sa ne reintoarcem la pronumele interogative.

Ari inviirat deja pronumefe interogativ ~i refativ which - care, pe care, ceo Construcria which of care din/dintre se fofose~te foarte des. Dacii acest pronume se referii fa subiect, atunci propozi!ia va avea structura propoziriei afirmative. WhIch of you knows where my keys are? Which of these employees works the best? - Care dintre voi
~tie

unde sunt cheile mele?

- Care dintre acei?ti angajali lucreaza cel mai bine? - Care dintre ace~ti caini a alergat mai repede?

Which of these dogs ran faster?

Desigur atwICl cilild intrebarea nu se referii fa subiect, strllctura propoziriei este cea a propozir iei interogative· Which of them do you know? Which of those cars have you bought? Which of them have you recently met? Which of these houses do you like the best? Which of these rivers is the longest? Which of these books have you already read? - Pe care dintre ei il - Dintre aceIe
cuno~ti?

ma~ini,

pe care ai cumparat-o?

- Cu care dmtre el te-ai intalnit recent? - Care dintre aceste case iti place eel mai mult? - Care dintre aceste raun este eel mai lung? - Pe care dintre aceste carli ai citit-o deja?

26

RECAPITULARE
1. Simple Past Tense (timpul trecut simplu) descrie They visited us last month. He wrecked his car yesterday.
0

actiune, petrecuta in trecut:

- Ei ne-au vizitat luna. trecuta. - EI ~i-a distrus ieri ma~ina.

2.

Pronumele personal la nominativ Nominativ:
I

~i

la acuzativ:

Acuzativ: me you him her it us you them

you he she it we you they

3.

Folosirea pronumelui relativ "that" in propozitia subordonata atributiva restrictiva: People that like to work are always busy. - Oamenii carora Ie place sa lucreze, sunt intotdeauna ocupati.

LECTIA 25 ,

" PARTEA " INTAl

La inceput yom invata substantive noi, legate de viata la tara: barley seed agriculture pasture farmhand plough furrow tractor com grain bam cow
> [ba:Tli] > [si :d] > [Egrika It~aT] >
[pa:st~i\1

- orz - samanta - agricultura pa~une

> [fa:TmhEnd] > [pIau] > [farou] > [trEkE1T ] > [ko:Tn] > [grein] > [ba:Tn] > [kau]

- muncitor agricol - plug - brazda - tractor - cereale,grane,grau,porumb - graunte, bob - hambar, ~opron, ~ura - vaca

Repetati acelea~i cuvinte limba romana: furrow cow seed gram bam barley com plough farmhand agriculture pasture tractor

~i

in alta ordine

~i

fiti atenti la traducerea lor in

> [farou] > [bu] > [si:d] > [grcin] > [ba:Tn] > [ba:Tli] > [ko:Tn] > [pIau] > [fa:TmhEnd] > [ Egrikalt~aT] > [ pa:st~,i1 > [trEktil T ]

- brazda - vaca - samanta - graunte, bob - hambar, ~opron, ~ura - orz - cereale, grane, gra~ porumb - plug - muncitor agricol - agricultura pa~une

~

- tractor

2

Ulmariti cum se folosesc cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi propozitiile cu voce tare pronuntie: This farmer grows barley. >1 fYI>, fa.'llla' grauz ba.'li]
"I.

~i

fiti atenti la

- Acest fermier cultiva orz. - De unde vom cumpara seminte? - Agricultura este importanta in aceasta tara. - La ce se folosesc
pa~unile?

Where will we buy seeds from? >r"clrlld Agriculture is important in this country. What are pastures used for? The farmhands are ploughing. This plough will be repaired. A plough makes furrows in the soil. The farmers have paid for this tractor together. What kinds of com do you know? Many grains are eaten by the birds. We have a very large bam. How many cows has that farmer got?

bal sl.dz from]

>r Egi ika Itsa' iz lInpo :'tant 111 D/is bntri] >["ot a:'
pa:st~a'z

iu:zd fo:']

>[D'a fa:'mhEndz a:' plauin ie, ] >rD/is piau "il bi' ripea'dl >r a piau I1lclks farouz in D/a soill >rD/a t~l:'ma'z hE\' pCld fo.' D/is trEkta' tageD'a'l >r"<lt kall1dz a\' ko:'n du Ill: nau] >r meni grcltlz a:' Un b<ll D/a ba:'dz] >r"i: hE\ <l \ eri la"dJ ba:fn] >rhau meni kaLlZ hEz DIEt fa:'l1la f got]

- Muncitorii agricoli ara.

- Acest plug va fi reparat. - Plugul face brazde in pamant.

- Fermierii au platit impreuna acest tractor. - Ce fel de cereale
cuno~ti?

- Multe graunte sunt mancate de pasari. - Avem un hambar foarte mare. - Cite vaci are acest felmier?

Acum introduceti cuvintele corespunzatoare in urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Vrem sa cumparam un plug modern. Acest porumb este de pe acel ogor. Brazdele trebuie sa fie suficient de largi. Orzul este scump anul acesta? Grauntele sunt macinate pentru faina. Acest muncitor agricol lucreaza de mult aici? - We want to by a modern :::plough. - This :::t:orn is from that field. - The :::fuITOWS must be wide enough. - Is )barky expensive this year? - The >6ra111s are ground into flour. - Has this )fannhand worked here for a long time? - Do people earn much in :::agriculture? - The :::t:ows are in the pasture. - This :::tractor is often out of order. - The :::sceds are thrown into the >furrows - In September our :::ham is full.

Ca~tiga

mult oamenii in agricultura?
pa~une.

Vacile sunt pe

Acest tractor este adesea defect. Semintele se pun in brazde. In septembrie hambarul nostru este plin.

3

lata acum un exercitiu de control. Traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza: plug vaca brazda orz tractor muncitor agricol cereale graunte, bob
pa~une

> plough > cow >
flllTOW

> barley > tractor > flnnhand > corn > gram > pasture > seed > barn > agncultun;

samanta hambar agricultura

In foeul verbuflli auxiliar must - trebuie, a fi obligat - care exprimii 0 obliga{ie, anumite eazuri se fofose~te eonstrlletia to have to.

0

neeesitate, In

Sa urmarim propozitiile: She has to drink less coffee. Do you have to work today?
I won't have to go there tomorrow.
> r ~l. hEz tu drll1(l'lk les kufl]
> rdu
Ill.

- Ea trebuie sa bea mai putina cafea. - Trebuie sa lucrezi azi? - Nu va trebui sa merg acolo maine.

hEv tu"a:'k tade/]

> ral "aunt hEv tu gau D'ea f tamurou]

Nu uitati verbul auxiliar must poate fi folosit doar la timpul prezent. La timpul trecut ~i viitor in locul lui se folose~te constructia to have to.

Urmeaza un scurt exercitiu cu verbul to have to. Traduceti propozi!iile in limba engleza: leri a trebuit sa repar robinetul. Cand va trebui sa termini lucrul? Nu trebuie sa macinam grilu azi. Ea trebuie sa duccl vacile pc camp. Ce va trebui sa scriu maine?

> 1 had to repair the tap yesterday.
> When wlll you have to fi11lsh work? > We don"t have to grind wheat today. > She has to take the cows to the pasture.
> What Will I have to \\ lIte tomorrow'?

4

lata alte cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare agricultural fertile regularly healthy except possible interesting

~i

memora!i intelesul lor in limba romana: - agricol - fertil, rodnic - (in mod) - sanatos - cu excep!ia, in afara de - posibil - interesant
regulat/obi~nuit

> r Et,'rikalt~nrn I] > rfa:'tnil] > [n:giula'li] > [helT'i] >riksept] > rposibl] > rintrastin lgl ]

Acum vom exersa cuvintele noi intr-un dialog. Cititi propozitiile cu atentie:

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Do you like living in an agricultural region? Yes, I do. I think it is healthier to live in the country than in the city. But is the life here interesting? Yes, it is. There are many interesting things to do. We have everything here except cinemas. But isn't the work too hard? No, it isn't. I only have to fertilize the soil regularly because it is not fertile enough. Is it possible to grow all kinds of crops here? Certainly. I grow wheat, rye and barley.

lar acum sa urmarim fiecare propozi!ie separat. Fi!i atenti la pronun!ie: Do you like living in an agricultural region? Yes. I do. > rdu iu: lnik livlI1(g) in nn Egrikalt~arnl ri:djan] > [ics ni du:] - I!i place sa traie~ti intr-o regiune agricola? - Da.

> rni T'il/g1k it iz helT'ia' tu liv - Cred ca este mai sanatos sa traie~ti I think it is healthier to live in O/a kantri O/En in Ola siti] la tara decat la or~. in the country than in the city. But is the life here interesting? > [bat iz Ola latfhia' intrastin(el] Yes, it is. There are many interesting things to do. We have everything here except cinemas. But isn't the work too hard? No, it isn't. > [ics It iz] > [O/ca' a:' lneni intrnstll1(gl T'in(g,z tu du:] > [IIi: hEv C\TIT'in lel hia' iksept ~inall1az] > [hat iznt IYa lI a:'k tu: hn:'d] > [n<l\l it iznt] 5 - Dar este interesanta viala aici?

- Da. - Sunt multe lucruri interesante de Iacut. - Avem de toate aici, cu excePlia cinematografului. - Dar nu este prea grea munca? -Nu.

I only have to fertilize the soil regularly because it is not fertile enough. Is it possible to grow all kinds of crops here? Certainly. I grow wheat, rye and barley.

> [ai aunh hEy tu ra.'tJla/z D/a soil rcgllda'Jj bikoz It IZ not ra·rtaillllaf] > [iz it poslbl tu grau 0.1 kamuz <IV bops hia r ] > [sa:'tanlil > raJ grau
"jot

- Trebuie doar sa fertilizez pamantul in mod regulat pentru ca nu este destuI de fertil. - Este posibil sa cultivi aici toate felurile de cereale? - Desigur.

raJ End ba:rli]

- Eu cultiv grau, secara ~i orz.

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza eu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Aceste vaci nu sunt sanatoase. Mergem in mod regulat la meciul de fotbal. Este posibil sa vinzi aceste bilete? Putem veni toti cu exceptia lui Mark. Satul nostru se afla intr-o vale fertila. Cltesc intotdeauna
~tirile

- These cows are not >healthy. - We >rcgularly go to a football match. - Is it > possible to sell these tickets? - We can all come, >exccptMark. - Our village lies in a > terti Ie valley. - I always read the >agncultural news in the newspaper.

agricole in ziar.

"These cows are not healthy."

Ati retinut cuvintele noi? lata un exercitiu de verificare. Traduceti in limba engleza: cu exceptia, in afara de ferti 1, rodnic posibil agricol sanatos in mod
regulat/obi~nuit

> except
> fClidc

> possIble > agricultural > healthy > regularly

interesant
6

Urmariti cu atentie urmatoarele propozitii ""1 like coffee" said John. John said he liked coffee. "She is cooking dinner" said Peter, Peter said she was cooking dinner. - "Imi place cafeaua" a spus John. - John a spus ca ii place cafeaua. - "Ea
pregate~te cina"

a spus Peter.

- Peter a spus ca ea pregate~te cina.

Ati observat deosebirile dintre timpurile verbelor folosite?

In ambele cazuri avem de-a face cu vorbirea illdirecfii, care se folose.!}te de obicei atunci ciind paraji-aziim spusele cuiva.

in cazul vorhirii indirecte, structura propozi!iei este urll1iitoarea: dacii verhul propozi!iei principale (de exemplu John said, Peter said) este la timpul trecut (Simple Past, Past Continuous, Past Perfect), atunci timpul verbului din propozi!ia secundara. se schimhii conform regulii de concordanta a timpurilor, care este urmiitoarea:

Simple Present Present Continuous lata cateva exemple: He told me he grew all kinds of corn.

Simple Past Past Continuous

- EI mi-a spus ca el cultiva toate soiurile de grane.

Propozi!ia para!i-azatii a fost "1 grow all kinds of corn."

She said she was always late for work.
1 heard they were coming.

- Ea a spus ca intarzie intotdeauna de la lucru. - Am auzit ca au venit.

in propozipa principalii, verhul se ajlii cel mai des la timpul trecut simplu (Simple Past).

In exercitiul urmator, introduceti forma corespunzatoare a verbului in propozitiile in limba engleza: El mi-a spus ca este obosit. Jane a spus ea scrie 0 scrisoare. Mama mi-a spus ca nu are bani. Cine a spus ca nu Ie place sa lucreze? rar acum sa invatam un grup de verbe noi: to sow to store to harvest >rtusoul > [tusto:'l
> [tu ha:"'istl

- He told me he >was tired. - Jane said she >was writing a letter. - Mother said she >had no money. - Who said they >didn' t I ike working?

- a semana, a insamanta - a tine, a depozita - a recolta, a secera

7

to graze to milk to fail

> [tu grCIZ] > [tu mtlk] > [tu feil]

- a

pa~te,

a duce la paseut

- a mulge - a nu
reu~i

(la, in), a cadea

Verbul to sow este neregulat. Retineti formele lui:

forma I
sow > [sou]

forma a II-a
sowed > [soud]

forma a III-a
sown > [soun]

lata verbele noi in propozitii. Cititi eu voce tare Have you sown the wheat yet? > [hEv They stored the crop in their barns. We have harvested all our com. The cows grazed in the pastures every summer. You haven't milked the cows yet. The crop failed that year.
Ill.

~i

fHi atenti la pronuntie: - Ai semanat deja graul? - Au depozitat graul in hambarele lor. - Am recoltat tot graul nostru.

saun D/a !li:t Ict]

> [D/ cl sto:'d D/a krop in DL c? ba:'nz]

> [!Ii: hEv ha.'vistid 0.1 aua' ko.'n] > [D'a kauz grclZd In D/a pa:st~a'z evl'l sama']
> [IU: hEvnt milkt DE a kauz ICt]

- Vacile au pascut pe in fiecare vara.

pa~une

- Nu ai muls inca vacile.

> [D/a klUp fctld D7Et iia'l

- Recolta a Yost slaba anul acela.

Iar acum urmeaza un exercitiu cu verbele noi. Introduceti formele corespunzatoare ale verbelor in urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Ai recoltat multa secara anul acesta? Au muls vacile foarte regulat. El nu a
reu~it

- Have you >harvcstcd much rye this year? - They >milkcd the cows very regularly. - He has >failcd to return in time. - We >sowed the barley yesterday. - Have you >storcd it in a bam? - The cows always >grazcd near the river.

sa se intoarca la tirnp.

Noi am sernanat orzul ieri. L-ai depozitat in harnbar? Vacile au pascut intotdeauna in apropierea riiului.

Ca exercitiu, traduceti noile cuvinte in lirnba engleza: a pa~te a secera a rnulge
> to gtazc

> to harvcst
> to mtlk

8

a nu

reu~i

> to fail >to sow > to store

a semana, a insamanta a tine, a depozita

In incheiere sa ne reintoarcem la timpul Prezentul Continuu.

Cu ajutoru! timpu!ui prezent continull se exprimii ~i atitudinea criticii (neriibdare, supiirare) fn !egiiturii Cll 0 activitate sau un eveniment. Comp!ementu! de timp utilizat fn acest caz este always Cll sensu! de (in)totdeauna, ve~nic, mereu:
He is always forbidding me watching TV!

- EI imi interzice intotdeauna sa rna uit la televizor!
- Ea fumeaza mereu!

She is always smoking cigarettes!

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: Ei rna refuza intotdeauna! EI
cite~te

> They are always refusing me! > He is always reading newspapers! > They are always talking about horses! > :'vly father is always drinking only coffee!

mereu ziarele!

Ei vorbesc mereu despre cai! Tatal meu bea intotdeauna doar cafea!

9

LECTIA 25 - PARTEA A DOUA ,
tn partea a doua sa ne mai imbogatim vocabularul legat de viata la tara, lata cuvintele noi: country lane hedge crow scarecrow cattle cattle farming arable farming mixed farming rat rodent dairy dairy produce > [kantri kin] > [hcdj] > [krau] > [skea'krau] > [kEtl] > [kEtl fa:'min(gJ] > [Eri\bl fa:'min igl ] > [mikst fa:'min igl ] > [rEt] > [raudcnt] > [deari] > [deill'i prodiu:s] - drum de tara - gard viu - cioara - sperietoare (de ciori) - vite, bovine - crescatorie de vite - cultivarea plantelor - cultivare mixta; ferma mixta ~obolan

- rozatoare - laptarie, fabrica de prelucrare a laptelui - produse lactate

Exersati acelea~i cuvinte, dar in alta ordine pronuntia ~i sensullor in limba romana: arable farming dairy crow country lane rodent dairy produce rat hedge cattle mixed farming scarecrow cattle farming > [Erilhl fa:'min igl ] > [de,lri] > [ krim] > [kantri kin] > [raudcnt] > [deilri prodiu:s] > [rEt] > [hcdj] > [kEtl] > [mikst fa:'min igJ ] > [skea'krilu] > [kEtl fa:'min(CI]

~i

incercati sa va

insu~iti

- cultivarea plantelor - Iaptarie, fabrica de prelucrare a laptelui - cioara - drum de tara - rozatoare - produse lactate ~obolan

- gard viu - vite, bovine - cultivare mixta; ferma mixHi - sperietoare (de ciori) - crescatorie de vite

10

Acum

exersa~i

cuvintele noi in propozitii:
> [a kantn kin iz a raud

A country lane is a road through fields. There are hedges there. There are many crows in the fields. What is a scarecrow for? The cattle are grazing. Is there much cattle farming in Romania? Arable farming is more important. We are in mixed farming. A rat is bigger than a mouse.

T'ru: fi.ldz1

- Drumul de ~ara trece printre ogoare. - Acolo sunt garduri vii.

> I D"ca r a: r meni krallz in

- Sunt multe ciori pe camp.

Dla fi'ldzl > [lint iz a skea'krall f,):r1 - La ce
serve~te 0

sperietoare?

- Vitele pasco > [iz IYca r maT~ kEtl fa:'min1t'1 in ru.mellli~ll > [Erabl fa:'min(g) iz mo: r impu:'tant1 > ["i: a:'
III

- Sunt multe crescatorii de vite in Romania? - Cultivarea plantelor este mai importanta. - Noi cultivam de toate. - Un ~obolan este mai mare decat un ~oarece. - Rozatoarele mananca cereale? - Ducem laptele in mod regulat la Hiptarie. - Untul ~i branza sunt produse lactate.

mikst fa:'mlll(gJ1

> [a rEt iz biga' D"En a malls1

Do rodents eat com? We take the milk to the dairy regularly. Butter and cheese are dairy produce.

> I du Hllldents I·t ko:'n J > ["i: teik D'a milk tll D7 a dean rcgiularl i1 > [hata r End prodlll:S 1
t~i:z

a:' deari

Substantivul cattle este un substantiv colectiv, de aceea verbul aflat langa el se afla intotdeauna la plural.

Introduceti cuvintele corespunzatoare in urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Ce culoare are cioara? In satul nostru se afla 0 lapUirie. Se afla multe ferme mixte in aceasta regiune. Iti plac produsele lactate? Ne plimbam pe un drum de tara. Lui nu-i place sa cultive plante. - What colour is a >crow? - There is a >dalry in our village. - There is a lot of>mixcd fanning in this region. - Do you like >dairy produce? - We were walking in a >collntry lane. - He doesn't like >arahk farming.

11

Gardurile vii nu sunt foarte Inalte. Nu are rost sa folosim
~tii
0

- The

>hcdgc~

are not very high.

sperietoare (de ciori).

- It's no use having a >scarccrow. - Do you know what >rodents are? - We sold our >cattlc last year. - >Cattlc fanning is not possible here. - I have caught a >rat

ce sunt rozatoarele?

Ne-am vandut anul treeut vitele. Este imposibil sa cre~tem vite aici. Am prins un
~obolan.

{lr,() ~

.

"It's no use having a scarecrow".

V-ali Insu~it deja eu siguranpi cuvintele noi. Pentru verificare, traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte In limba engleza: rozatoare cioara drum de tara laptarie ferma mixta
~obolan

> rodent
> crow

> country Jane
> dairy

> mixed fannmg > rat > cattle > daIry produce > scarecrow > hedge > arabic farming > c,lttlc farmlllg
12

vite produse lactate sperietoare (de ciori) gard viu cultivarea de plante crescatorie de vite

Acum vom inviita pronumele reflexiv. Formele sale sunt:
1

myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

> rmaiseltl > [io:rselfj > [himself] > [ha: rseltl > ritseltl >[auarselvzl >[ io:rselvzl > [D'emselvz]

you he she it we you they

Urmariti folosirea acestor forme In propozitii: He hurt himself. They offered themselves for this job.
1 can't see myself in this IDlrror.

>[hi: ha:rt himselfl

- S-a ranit (ellnsu~i). - S-au oferit (ei1n~i~i) pentru aceasta munca. - Nu rna pot vedea In aceasta oglinda. Prive~te-te!

>rD/ el ot~l'd D/emselvz fo: r D/is dJob 1
>[al ka:nt si: maiselfin D/is mirarl

Look at yourself!

> [Iuk Et io:rseltl

Traduceti propozitiile In limba engleza: Mi-am cumparat 0
ma~ina.

>T have bought a car for myself. >She ironed a blouse for herself. >1 have hurt myself. >This will not hurt them. but yourself'

Ea ~i-a calcat 0 bluza. M-am ranit. Aceasta nu-i va rani pe ei, ci pe tine Insuti!

Iatii-ne din nou la vorbirea indirectii ~i la concordanta timpurilor. Regulile de concordantii ale timpurilor in cazul trecutului simplu ~i al prezentului perfect sunt:

Simple Past Present Perfect De exemplu: Mary told me "1 was there three years ago". John said "1 have never seen a scarecrow".

Past Perfect Past Perfect

- John said he had never seen a scarecrow. - Mary told me she had been there three years before.

Retinep.: In vorbirea indirecta, tn locul adverbului ago se adverbul before! 13

folose~te

Cu ajutorul celor invatate, folositi fonna corespunzatoare a verbelor in unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Peter a spus ca nu a vazut acel film. Am auzit ieri ca ei nu s-au intors inca. John a spus ca nu I-a cunoscut pe omul acela. Mary a citlt ca administratia acestei fabrici nu a concediat muncitorii. - Peter said he > hadn't watc hed that film. - I heard yesterday they >hadn't rctumedyet. - John said he > hadn't known that man. - Mary read that the management ofthis factory > hadn't fired the labourers.

Sa mai invatam cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie eu voce tare of course along hannful wet
dry

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntia lor: - bineinteles, desigur,
fire~te

> ray ko:fs] > [alon(gl] > rha:fmfal] > ["etl > [drail > [protitabl]

- de-a lungul, in lungul - daunator, rau - ud, umed, ploios - uscat - profitabil, rentabil

profitable

Iar acum sa exersam cuvintele noi in propozitii. Incercati sa Ie traduceti: Of course it is true. There are hedges along the road. Is smoking hannful? Don't store com in a wet place. This month has been very dry. Is agriculture profitable? > >
>
[0\

ko:fsitiztrll.]

- Bineinteles

ca este adevarat.

[D'e~lf

a: f hedjlz alon(") D/a raud] smaukin(g) ha mfall
f

- De-a lungul drumului sunt garduri vii. - Fumatul este daunator? - Nu depozita graul intr-un loc umed! - Luna aeeasta a fost foarte uscata. - Agricultura este profitabila?

[IZ

> rdaunt sto· f ko fn plels]

111

a "et

> rD'lsmanT'hEzbi:n veri drai] >
[IZ Egrikalt~af profitabll

Introduceti cuvintele corespunzatoare in unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Strazile nu sunt inca uscate. Ce
cre~te

- The streets are not> dry yet. - What grows well >alongthe roads? - Which is more >profitablc, arable fanning or cattle fanning? - Rodents are very > h,mn fu I. - Which is the >wettest month of the year? - > Of COUI se he can drive a car.

bine de-a lungul drumurilor?

Ce este mai rentabil, cultivarea plantelor sau cre~terea vitelor? Rozatoarele sunt foarte daunatoare. Care este cea mai umeda luna a anului? Bineinteles ca el poate conduce
0 ma~ina.

14

Verificati-va uscat

cuno~tinte1e.

Traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza:
> dry

bineinteles, desigur de-a lungul, in lungul profitabil, avantajos daunator umed, ploios

> of coursc
> along

> profitable > harmful > wct

lata acum verbe noi: to scare to shear to plant to dry to yield to set to cover > [tu skca']
> [tll ~la'l > [tu pla:nt]

- a speria, a ingrozi, a inspaimanta - a tunde - a planta, a sarli - a usca - a produce, a da, a rezulta, a ceda - a pune, a a~eza, a situa - a acoperi, a inveli

> [tu drilll
> [tu li:ldl > [t\1 sct]

> [tu kava']

Doua dintre verbe sunt neregulate. Invatati formele lor:

formal
shear set
>
[~i[l'l

forma a II-a
sheared > [~ia'dl set
> [sct]

forma a III-a
shom > set
[~o:'n]

> [sct]

> [sdj

lata verbele noi in propozitii. Nu uitati nici de exersarea pronuntiei: Have I scared you? We sheared the sheep in March. The com dried for many weeks. How much has the crop yielded? We asked him to do it, but he didn't want to yield. She set the flowers in water. The thunderstorm scared us. Cover the breadl
> [hE\' a; skca'd iu:l > lUi:
~ia'd

- Te-am speriat? - Noi am tuns oile in martie. - Graul s-a uscat timp de mai multe saptamani. - Cat a fost recolta de grau? - Noi I-am rugat sa faca asta, dar el nu a cedat. - Ea a pus florile in apa.

IYa

~i:p

in ma:'t~l > [Dla ko:'n dr'lld to:' meni "i:ksl
> [hau
mat~

hEz D/a krop

li.ldid]
> lUi: askt bim tu du: it hat

hi: didnt Uont tu iI: Id]
>
[~i:

sct IYa tlaua'z in "u:ta']

> [D/a T'an(b'~to:'m skca'd as I > [kava' 1Ya brcll1

- Furtuna (cu trasnete) ne-a speriat.
- Acopera painea!

15

lar acum introduceti fonna corespunzatoare a verbului in unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Ei au tuns oile Intr-o zi insorita. Noi am pus ieri cartofii. Sperietoarea nu sperie pasarile. Cerealele s-au uscat bine. Trebuie sa pui asta langa fereastra. El a uitat sa acopere mancarea. - They >shcarcd the sheep on a sunny day. - We >plantcd the potatoes yesterday. - The scarecrow doesn't >scarc the birds. - The com >dricd well. - You must >sct it next to the window. - He forgot about >covcnng the food.

Verificati-va asperia

cuno~tintele.

Traduceti unnatoarele verbe in limba engleza: > to scarc > to plant > to shcar > to drv > to yield > to sct > to covcr

a planta, a sadi a tunde a usca a produce, a rezulta, a da a pune, a a~eza a acoperi, a inveli

~

In vorbirea indirectii, verbul auxiliar will,folosit laformarea timpului viitor simplu (Simple Future) are forma de trecut - would:

She said "1 will not go there". John said "1 will have dinner at seven".

- She said she would not go there. - John said he would have dinner at seven.

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Peter a spus ca va fi acolo. Mama a spus ca vom sadi In pamantul acela.
ro~iile

> Petcr SaId he would bc thcre > :'v1othcr smd wc would plant tomatocs in that field.

lata ultimu1 exercitiu al lectiei, in care vom recapitula intregul material. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Maine va trebui sa semanam graul. Tata a spus ca este sanatos. Ai muls deja toate vacile? Ea pastreaza intotdeauna ziarele vechi! El a spus ca rozatoarele au mancat toata secara.
Prive~te-te!l

> Tomol1"ow wc wil] havc to sow wheat. > father said hc was hcalthy. > Havc you milked all the eows yct'? > She is always storing old nc\\spapers! > Hc said rodcnts had eatcn all thc rye. > Look at yourself'
16

Uita-te la tine!

El a spus ea a vazut-o acum doua saptamani. Maine vom seeera. Unde vom depozita orzul? Ei vorbesc mereu despre
ma~inile

> He said he had seen her two weeks before. > \Ve are haryesting tomOlTOw.

> Where will we store the barley?
lor rapide.
> They arc always talking about their fast cars. > The com cannot be harvested yet. > Only the feliile fields will yield !TIuch.

Graul nu poate fi arat Inca. Doar pamanturile fertile vor da 0 recolta mare. Vitele pase pe
pa~une.

> The cattle graze in the pastures. > There are rats in our ham.
> Rodents cat grains of corn.

In hambarul nostru sunt ~obolani. Rozatoarele mananca graunte de cereale. Imi place sa rna plimb de-a lungul drumurilor de tara. Este Taptarie In satul vostru? Bineinteles ca am tuns deja oile.

> I like walking along the country lanes.

> Is there a dairy in your village? > Of eourse we have shorn the sheep already.

In Incheiere urmeaza exercitiul de pronuntie. Literele aflate in aceea~i coloana ~i notate cu caractere accentuate desemneaza un sunet identic. Cititi cu voce tare cuvintele ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie: r0:1 shorn com worn forty caught rEl rat cattle cash fat flat raul plough cow now brown mouth raul farmer barley bam car father raul rodent crow sow show blow

17

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 25 ,
25.1. Verbul auxiliar modal must - care exprima necesitatea, obligatia - poate fi inlocuit cu verbul to have to. Verbul to have to nu este un verb auxiliar modal: She has to drink less coffee. - Ea trebuie sa bea mai putina cafea.
~i

Verbul auxiliar must are doar forma de prezent. La timpurile trecut folose~te verbul to have to.

viitor in locul lui se

25.2. Vorbirea indirecUi 25.2.1. 25.2.2. Vorbirea indirecta este folosita pentru a parafraza spusele cuiva. Daca verbul propozitiei principale este La timpul trecut (Simple Past, Past Continuous, Past Perfect) atunci verbul propozitiei secundare se schimba conform regulii de concordanta a timpurilor, care este urmatoarea: Simple Present Present Continuous Simple Past Present Perfect will
~

Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect would

~

~

~

~

Forma verbului la timpul Past Perfect ramane neschimbata. John said he liked coffee. Peter said she was cooking dinner. John said he had never seen a scarecrow. Mary told me she had been there three years before. 25.2.3. - John a spus ca ii place cafeaua. - Peter a spus ca ea a gate~te cina. - John a spus ca nu a vazut niciodata o sperietoare. - Mary mi-a spus ca a fost acolo in urma cu trei ani.

In vorbirea indirecta in locul adverbului ago se folose~te adverbul before.

25.3. Timpul Prezent Continuu Cu ajutorul timpului Present Continuous putem exprima ~i atitudinea critica (nerabdare, nervozitate, suparare) in legatura eu 0 activitate sau un eveniment. Complementul de timp eel mai des utilizat in acest caz este always, care aici are semnificatia de intotdeauna, mereu. He is always forbidding me watching TV! - Imi interzice intotdeauna sa rna uit la televizor!

18

25.4. Pronumele reflexiv Formele sale sunt: Pronumele personal
~

Pronumele reflexiv myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

> [ma/self] > [w:'seltl > [hnl1self] > [ha:'seltl > [itseltl > [a lla rsel \'z] > I io:rsel\'z] > r IYcmsel\'z]

you he she it we you they

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

He hurt himself. They offered themselves for this job.

- El s-a ranit. - Ei jn~i~i s-au oferit pentru aceasta munca.

19

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 25
A
Traduce~i

unnatoarele propozitii in limba romana:

I.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

She said they had harvested all the barley. Why are you always storing these useless things? Peter will have to milk all the cows in the pasture. Will you buy yourself a new car now? Who said my wife was ugly? Mary said she had sown the seeds two hours before.

B.

Traduee~i

unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: eopii groaznici ne sperie intotdeauna animalele!

I.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Ace~ti

£1 a spus ea nu i-a placut sa mearga pe jos pe aeest drum de tara. Trebuie sa faeem John a spus ca
0

sperietoare de ciori. nu a fost rentabila in unna eu doi ani.

cre~terea vitelor

Iti voi spune ceva despre mine insumi. Tata mi-a spus ca vom planta tlori in gradina.

c.

Gasiti

~i

eorectati

gre~elile

din propozitiile unnatoare:

I.
2.

John said he likes dairy produce. Why are they always drive old cars? They have just bought a new house for themselfs. Next month I will must shear the sheep.
I think it is possible to fertile this soil.

3. 4. 5.

20

LECTIA 26 ,

" PARTEA " INTAI

ineepem leetia ell un grup de substantive noi. Cititi-le eu voce tare ~i retineti intelesul lor in Iimba romana: frost rainbow thunder heat-wave hailstone distance shelter ditch twilight sunset dawn lightning > [frost] > [reinbou] > [T'andi{] > [hi:t lI c iv] > [heilstaun] > [distans] > r~eltijr] > rdit~] > rtllailait] > [sansct] > [do:n] > [laitnin(!!)] - ger, inghet - cureubeu - tunet - val de caldura - grindina - distanta, departare - adapost, refugiu ~ant,

canal ..

- amurg, crepuscul - apus de soare - zori - fulger

Acum repetati hailstone distance frost lightning ditch shelter thunder rainbow heat-wave dawn sunset twilight

acelea~i

cuvinte, dar in alta ordine: > [heilstaun] > [disUms] > [frost] > rlaitnin(~I] > rdit~] >
[~eltar]

- grindina - distanta, departare - ger, inghet - fulger ~ant,

canal

- adapost, refugiu - tunet - eureubeu - val de caldura - zori - apus de soare - amurg, crepuscul

> [T'anda1 > [reinbou] > [hi:t lI eiv] >[do:n] > [sansct] > [t'lail ait]

21

lata cum se folosesc cuvintele noi in propozitii. Repetati propozitiile cu voce tare pronuntie: There hasn't been frost yet. The ditches are frozen. How many colours has a rainbow? Thunder scares many people. We saw the village in the distance. They found no shelter. He continued ploughing in the twilight. Can we work after sunset? The heat-wave started in June. The hailstones were very big. Farmers start working at dawn. Did you see the lightning? > [hau meni kala'z hEz a rClIlbou] > [T'anda' skca'z meni pi:pl] > lUi: so: D'ii vilidJ in DLa distans] > [D/ei hlUnd nau
~elta'l

~i

fiti atenti la

> [IYea' hEznt bm frost iet]

- Nu a fost inca inghet. ~anturile

au inghetat.

- Cite culori are un curcubeu?

- Tunetul sperie multi oameni. - Noi am vazut satul in departare.

- Nu au gasit adapost.
- £1 a continuat sa are in amurg.

> [hi. kantinlU:d plauII1(g) III D/a t"arlalt] > [kEn
"I'

"a 'k a. fta' sanset]

- Putem sa lucram dupa asfintit? - Valul de caldura a inceput in iunie.

> [D/a hI. t "el\' sta:'tid 111 dJu 'n]

> [DL a hedstaunz "a '\ en bIg] - Grindina a fost foarte mare. > [farma'z sta:'t Etdo:n]
"a"kIl1(~1

- Fermierii incep sa lucreze in zori. - Ai vazut fulgerul?

In continuare sa exersam cuvintele noi. Introduceti cuvintele corespunzatoare in urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: A fost putin inghet iama aceea. Tunetul a speriat copiii. Unele apusuri de soare sunt minunate. Noi am gasit un adapost pe timpul furtunii. Imi plac zorile. Ce animale traiesc in canale? Noi nu am vazut fulgerul. Valurile de caldura nu sunt dese. Curcubeul apare adesea dupa ploile torentiale. Ce distanta este intre cele doua sate? - There was little> tj'ost that winter. - The >thunder scared the children. - Some >sunscts are beautiful. - We found a >shelter during the thunder-storm. - I like the >dawn. - What animals live in the >ditches? - We didn't see the >lightning. - >Heat-wa\'cs don't often happen. - There is often a >rainbow after a shower. - What is the >distancc between the two villages? - We met nobody in the >twtlight.

Nu ne-am inHilnit cu nimeni in amurg.

22

Desigm ati retinut deja corespondentul romanesc al urmatoarelor cuvinte in limba engleza: val de caldura apus de soare, asfintit zon cmcubeu inghet tunet grindina amurg fulger distanta
~ant,

> Ilcat-wave > sunset > dawn > r2inbow > fi'ost > thunder > hailstone > twilight > lightning > distance > ditch > shelter

canal

adapost

Pronumele de tipul myself, themselves pierd caracterul reflexiv, dadi le folosim pentru accentuarea altor suhstantive sau adverhe, devenind pronume de intarire. De exemplu:

I myself have given it to you. You have done it yomself. We shall plough the fields ourselves. He has heard it from the doctor himself.

- Eu insumi ti I-am dat. - Tu insuti ai facut-o. - Noi
in~ine

ne vom ara pamantmile.

- EI a auzit asta chiar de la doctor.
sfar,~itul

Dupa cum ati putut ohserva, In aceste cazuri prol1l11nele poate sa stea la mJjlocul sau la propozi{iei, lara a-~'i pierde caractentl de Intarire:

You yomself have done it.

sail:

You have done it yomself.

"Have you done it yourself?"
23

lata un grup de cuvinte noi: mild
raw

> [matldl

- bland, blajin, moderat - crud, nefiert, aspru - patrunzator, ascutit

piercing cool gloomy unsettled endless
> [ku·ll

- racoros - intunecos, sumbru - variabil, schimbator nesIar~it,

> [glu:JnJ] > [ansctald] > [cndlis]

interminabil, lara SIar~it

lar acum cititi acest scurt text referitor la starea vremii:
It is a gloomy day today. A piercing wind is blowing and there is raw frost. Yesterday the wind was cool but it was mild. The weather is always unsettled in this region and it often rains. Sometimes the rain is endless.

~

Sa urmarim fiecare propozitie separat. Fiti atenti la traducerea lor:
It is a gloomy day today.

> [It 17 a glu.mi de! tadc!]

- Azi vremea este intunecata.

A piercing wind is blowing and there is raw frost. Yesterday the wind was cool but it was mild. The weather is always unsettled in this region and it often rains.

> [a plarsin,gl "lnd i7 blau\I1(gj - Sufla un vant patrunzator End Olear 17 roo frost] ~i este un frig aspru. > [Icstarc.lu O/a l1\11d 11 07 ku 1 bat it 11 07 matld] > [O/a lI eo/ a r iz o.lllei7 ansetald in O/is ri:djan End it ufn relllz] - leri vantul a fost racoros, dar vremea a fost blanda. - Vremea este mereu schimbatoare in aceasta regiune ~i ploua des.

Sometimes the rain is endless. > [samtallnz 0 / 5 relll iz end lis] - Uneori ploua rara sIar~it.

Pentru a exersa cuvintele noi, completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: In luna martie vremea a fost mai blanda decat in luna maio Este un om sumbru. Nu-mi place acest frig patrunzator. In aceasta tara vremea este de obicei schimbatoare. Noi a trebuit sa lucram in vantul acela aspru. Lucram mai bine atunci cand este racoare. Pentru unii oameni 0 saptamana poate fi interminabila. - March was >mtlder than May.

- He is a >gloomy man. - I don't like this >picrcmg cold. - In this country the weather is usually >unsettlcd. - We had to work in the >raw wind. - We can work better when it is >cool. - To some people a week can be >endlcss.

24

Ati retinut deja cuvintele noi? Traduceti-le in limba engleza: crud, aspru
nesIar~it

> raw > endless > unsettled > cool > gloomy >mild > piercing

schimbator racoros intunecat, sumbru moderat patrunzator, ascutit

lata un exemplu de folosire a timpului trecut simplu (Simple Past):
Forma de trenlt a verbului sefoloseite pentru a exprima ipotezele. dorill{ele, In propozi{iile secundare cerute de unniitoarele cuvinte ii expresii:

it is time I wish if if only

>[itiztaim]
>[ai"i~l

- este timpul a~

dori ... , a~ vrea (sa fie ...)

> [itl > [ifaunli]

- daca, presupunand

ca...

- cat de bine ar fi, a~ dori mult (aceasta expresie de multe ori nu se traduce in limba roman a) - sa presupunem a-~i
a-~i

suppose fancy Imagme it would be better if

> rsapauz]
> [fEnsi]

imagina, imagina,

a-~i
a-~i

inchipui Inchipui

> [imEdjin] > rit "ud hi: beta' itl

- ar fi mai bine daea...

lata aceste expresii In propozitii:
It is time you went home.

- Este timpul sa pleei acasa. A~

I wish I were rich.
It would be better if we didn't leave early.

dori sa fiu bogat.

-Ar fi mai bine daea nu am pleca devreme. - Cat de bine ar fi sa avem timp suficient! - Sa presupunem ea ar vcni astazi. - Imagineaza-ti ea ai avca
0

If only there wcre cnough timc! Suppose he came today. Imaginc you had a lot of money. Fancy if the man you saw were yom father!

multime dc bani.

- Inchipuic~te-ti ca omul pc care l-ai vazut ar fi tatal tau!

In accste propozitii secundarc se folosc~te doar 0 singura forma a verbului to be, forma de trceut were.

25

Acum sa exersam folosirea timpului trecut simplu. Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:
A~

vrea sa ~tiu ce sa fac.
0

- I wish I >knew what to do. scrisoare. - It is time he :::wrote a letter to you. - Fancy ifthis house :::were mine. - If only he >drove faster! - Suppose we >stopped here. - Imagine if John >were a good driver. - It would be better if they >didn't buy a dog.

Este timpul sa-ti scrie

lnchipuie~te-ti ca aceasta casa ar fi a mea.

De-ar conduce mai repede! Sa presupunem ca ne oprim aici. Imagineaza-ti ca John ar fi un bun conducator auto. Ar fi mai bine daca ei nu ~i-aI' lua caine.

Speram ca ati reu~it sa rezolvati exercitiul anterior. Sa invatam cateva verbe noi: to shiver to rumble to seem to die to damage to suffer > [tu ~iva'] >[turambl] >[tLlsi:ml > [tu d'll] > [tLl dEmidJl > [tu ,.,afa'] - a tremura, a diirdiii (de frig) - a bubui - a parea, a da impresia - amuri - a dcteriora, a strica, a distruge - a suferi

Forma de gerunziu - gerund - a verbului to die este dying.

Acum urmariti folosirea verbelor 111 propozitii. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare: We shivered with cold. The thunder was rumbling in the distance. > rD/a T'anda' "0Z ramblill(gl in D1a distans] - Noi am tremurat de frig. - Tunetul a bubuit In departare. - Parea ca nu se mai termina aratul. - Cine a murit? - Grindina a distrus recolta.

The ploughing seemed endless. > [Ola plautn lg ) si:md endlis]

Who died?

> [hu: da/d]

The hailstones have damaged > r lYa hetlstoullZ hEy delmdjd IYa krop] the crop. The cattle are suffering from heat. > [D/a kEti a:' safa'lI1(c) from hi:t]

- Vitele sufera de caldura.

26

Iar acum e n'indul dumneavoastra. Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu formele corespunzatoare ale verbelor: Cine ne-a stricat
ma~ina

noaptea trecuta?

- Who >damaged our car last night?
- It has >seem~duseless so far.

Pana acum parea a fi nefolositor. Noi am tremurat in frigul patrunzator. Ei au suferit prea multa vreme deja. Ea a murit intr-un accident.

- We >shlvcrl"d in the piercing cold. - They have> suffered too long already. - She >dicdin an accident.

Desigur dupa acest exercitiu a parea, ada impresia a suferi a tremura, a diirdiii amurl a deteriora, a strica a bubui

~titi

deja pe de rost verbele noi. Traduceti cuvintele in limba engleza:
> to seem > to suffer > to shiver > to die

> to damage > to rumble

Iar acum ne yom ocupa din nou de pronumele re1ativ.
$tim deja cii pronumele that poate introduce propozi!ia secundarii relativii restrictivii. In cazul propozi!iilor secundare restrictive, In loclll pronumelui which se folose~te In mod obligatoriu acest prolll/me. In mlilte cazuri Insii, pronllmele that poate fi omis, ca de exemplu In lIrmiitoarele cazllri: I. DlIpii superlativ:
It is the best film (that) I have ever seen.

- Este eel mai bun film pe care I-am vazut. - El a cumparat cea mai ieftina bicicleta pe care i-au aratat-o. - Acestea sunt ce1e mai ridicate salarii pe care Ie pIatesc.

He bought the cheapest bicycle (that) they showed him. These are the highest wages (that) they pay.

This is the fastest plane (that) I have ever seen. - Acesta este cel mai rapid avion pe care I-am V3zut vreodata.
2. Dupii lIrmiitoarele cuvinte
el1gleze,~ti:

everything few
DlIpii all:

anything little

something much

nothing

Everything (that) you see is his. This is something (that) I don't understand. Is there anything (that) I have forgotten? There is little (that) I can do for you. All (that) we have bought is in the kitchen. 27

- Tot ceea ce vezi, este allui. - Acesta este ceva ce nu inteleg. - Este ceva ce am uitat? - Este putin ceea ce pot face pentru tine. - Tot ceea ce am cumparat este in bucatarie.

3.

Dupa adjectivele any $i only:
Is there any information (that) you can give me? This is the only news (that) I have heard. - Este vreo informatie pe care mi-o poti da? - Este singura ~tire pe care am auzit-o.

Pentru a exersa cele Invatate anterior, tradueeti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Este raul eel mai lat pe care I-am vazut vreodata. Nu au nimic care ar merita acei bani. Este ceva ce ar trebui sa ~tiu? Ai vreo carte pe care
a~

> This

IS

the widest nver (that) I have ever seen.
IS

> They have nothing that

worth the money.

> Is there anything (that) I must know?
0

putea sa

iau?

> Have you any books (that) J can take'?

In ultimul exercitiu de traducere allectiei ne yom referi la temele tratate anterior. Traduceti propozitiile In limba engleza:
Ellnsu~i vrea

sa 0 faca.

> He \\ants to do it himself > I will do everythl1lg that IS necessary. > It
IS

Voi face tot ce este neeesar. Este timpul sa lucrezi mai din greu. Vreau sa seman orz. Singurullueru (care a fost) deteriorat a fost bieicleta mea. De n-ar fi vremea aHit de sumbra! Ei
in~i~i

tnne you wOlked a little harder.

> I want to sow barley. > The only thl1lg that was damaged

was my bicycle.
> If only the weather welTn't so gloomy!
> They ha\ e seen hailstones themselves! > ThiS was the longest heat-wave (that)

au vazut grindina!

A fost eel mai lung val de ealdura pc care I-am avut vreodata. Va fi racoare la noapte.
A~

we have e\'er had.

> It will be cool tonight.
>
T wish T dIdn't

vrea sa nu tremur atat! vrea ca vremea sa nu fie sehimbatoare.

sh1\'er so'

A~

> I wIsh the weather were not unsettled. > There was not much that we could sec 111 the twilight.

Nu a fost mult ce am putut vedea In amurg.

lata exercitiuI de pronuntie. Literele scrise accentuat aflate In aceea~i coloana, desemneaza un sunet identic:

ra1
heat seem seed feed suffer rumble cut but rain lane grain shiver ditch milk fish

28

LECTIA 26 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
Exersa!i accentul ~i intonatia in urmatorul dialog. Cititi propozi!iile cu voce tare pronuntia cuvintelor ~i a silabelor scrise accentuat: John:
~i

fiti atenti la

Barbara, I just read in the newspaper that to people who live in the country and earn their money in agriculture, the weather is much more important than to those who live in a town or city. Barbara: That's right, favourable weather is necessary for a good crop. John: But sometimes it is too dry and at other times it is too wet. Barbara: There has to be enough sun, too. Yes, but if it is too dry for too long, the crop will not grow fast enough. John: Barbara: But we know that farmers are not easily satisfied.

Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter:

Peter, did you listen to what Barbara and John have just said? Yes, I did. The weather is something to talk about every day and everywhere. When people meet, they like to talk about the weather. They are glad when they can sit in the sun for example.

Barbara: Sometimes the weather can give us beautiful things. A lightning can be very impressive, but it also scares some people. Tom: Barbara: Is there anybody who doesn't enjoy looking at a rainbow? And what about a beautiful sunset? Even a thunderstorm or a shower can be beautiful. Tom: Barbara: The best thing is to be satisfied with the weather, for there is nothing that we can change about it.

In incheiere urmeaza un exercitiu de traducere in care am sintetizat cele invatate pana acum. Traduceti propozitiile in limba englcza: Nu poate fi adevarat ee spui. Maine pleeam la Madrid. Ei El
in~i~i

> What you say cannot be true. > \"lYe are leaving for Madrid tomOITOw.

au plantat

aee~ti

eartofi.
m~ina

> They planted these potatoes themselves.

vorbc~te

mereu despre

lui rapida.

> He is always talking about his fast car.
> This is something that I have never seen

Aeesta este eeva ce nu am vazut niciodata pana acum. Cine
cite~te

before.
> Who reads books will \cam much. > He is driving me home tonight. > If only the weather changed! > They offered themselves to harvest the rye. > Whcn do yOll want to shear the sheep') > I have seen it myself.

cfu1;i, va inva!a multo

El ma duce acasa cu ma~ina diseara. De s-ar schimba vremea! Ei s-au oferit (singuri) sa reeolteze secara. Cand vrci sa tunzi oile? Am vazut eu insumi asta.

29

Este singurul grfm pe care I-au depozitat deja. Este cea mai bHinda vreme pe care noi am avut-o de mult timp. Rozatoarele mananca multe eereale. Oamenii de la tara sunt eei mai
sanato~i?

> TIm; IS the only eOIll that has been stored already. > This IS the mildest weather that we have had for a long tllne. > Rodents cat a lot of corn. > Arc eountly people the healthiest ones') > The most hannful animals that we know

Animalele eele mai da~atoare pe care Ie cunoa~tem sunt ~obolanii.
Cre~terea

arc rats.
> is cattle farming still profitable? > The cattle arc suffcrIng from the raw cold. > This pasture is too wet. > ]s there anything that has been damaged by hailstones') > Why arc there hedges along the country lane?

vitelor este Inca rentabila?

Vitele sufera de frigul aspru. Aceasta pa~une este prea umeda. Este eeva ee a fost deteriorat de grindma?

~

De ee sunt garduri vii de-a lungul drumurilor de tara? Multi oameni batdini au murit In timpul valului de ealdura. Au fost tunse deja oile? Aeesta este eeva ee nu pare a fi posibil.

> Many old people died during the heat-wave.

> Have the sheep been shorn yet? > This is something that doesn't seem to be pOSSIble. > This field has yielded nothlllg that can be sold. > We heard the thunder rumbhng in the distance. > They \\ ent on harvestll1g in the twilight

Acest camp nu a dat nimic ee poate fi vandut.

Noi am auzit bubuitul tunetului In departare. Ei au continuat sa recolteze In amurg.

"This is something that I have never seen before." 30

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 26 ,
26.1. Pronumele de tipul myself, themselves Ie putem folosi ~i pentru accentuarea altor substantive. In aceste cazuri Ie numim pronume de intarire ~i accentul cade pe prima silaba a cuvantului.

r myself have given it to you.

- Eu insumi ti-am dat asta.

In acest caz, pronumele sta la mijlocul sau la sIar~itul propozitiei, rara a-~i pierde caracterul de intarire. You yourself have done it. You have done it yourself. 26.2. Forma de trecut a verbului se folose~te pentru a exprima ipoteze, dorinte, in ace Ie propozitii secundare cerute de urmatoarele cuvinte $i expresii; it is timc I wish if if only - este timpul - a$ dori ..., a~ vrea sa fie . - daca, presupunand ca . - exprima 0 dorinta puternica de exemplu: "de-ar fi ..." de multe ori nu se traduce in Iimba romana. - presupunand a-~i a-~i

suppose fancy imagine it would be better if

imagina, imagina,

a-~i a-~i

inchipui inchipui

- ar fi mai bine daca

Aceste propozitii secundare se refera intotdeauna la prezent sau viitor, de exemplu;
It is time you went home.

- Este timpul sa pleci acasa.
A~

r wish I were rich.

vrea sa fiu bogat.

In accstc propozitii secundare se folose~te doar forma de trecut were a verbului to be. 26.3. Pronumele relativ that se poate omite in unnatoarelc situatii;

I. Dupa superlativ;
It is the best film (that) I have ever seen.

- Este eel mai bun film pe care I-am vazut. - EI a cumparat cca mai ieftina-bicicl;ta pe care i-au aratat-o.

He bought the cheapest bicycle (that) they showed him. 2. Dupa urmatoarele cuvinte
engleze~ti:

everything few Dupa all.

anything little

something much

nothing

3. Dupa adjectivele any

~i

only: - Estc vreo informatie pe care mi-o poti da? 31

Is there any information (that) you can give me?

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 26
A Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii In limba romana:
l.

They built their house themselves. If only my daughter were more beautiful!
It would be better if they didn't damage our fridge.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

I have never seen anything more exciting. They are the only people I like. Can you tell me why they are digging ditches?

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii In limba engleza: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. De-ar fi copiii mei mai
de~tepti!

Imagineaza-ti ca ai gasit un portmoneu cu bani. Crezi ca
ellnsu~i

a deteriorat acest lucru?

Este tot ce pot face pentru tine. Este timpul sa pleci la lucru! Nu-mi place frigul patrunzator
~i

vantul aspru.

C.

Corectati
I.

gre~elile

din urmatoarele propozitii:

I wish I am younger. The thunder rumblled in the distance. We will see the sunset ourselfs. This gloomy weather is endles. Their flower is dieing.

2. 3.
4.

5.

32

Lista verbelor neregulate din lectiile 25 ~i 26

forma I
set >

forma a II-a

forma a III-a
set shorn sown >
>

r~ct]
r~ia'] r,ou]

set

>

rset]
rsia'd]

rset]
I~o:'nl

shear >
sow

sheared>
sowed
>

>

rsOlid]

>

rsoun ]

33

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 25 SI 26 , ,
agricultural agriculture along arable fanning barley barn cattle cattle fanning cool corn country lane to cover cow crow dairy
> >
rEgrikalt~aral] rEgnkalt~ar]

- agricol - agricultura - de-a lungul, in lungul - cultivarea plantelor - orz - hambar,
~ura, ~opron

> [alon(l"l > [Erabl fa,rmin(gl] > [ba:rlil > [ba:rn] > [kEtl] > [kEtl fa:Imin(gl] > r ku:1] > rko:rnl > rkantri kin] > I tu kava I] > [kau] > [haul > [Jeari]

- vite, bovine cre~terea

vitelor

- racoros - grane, cereale, grau, porumb - drum de tara - a acoperi, a inveli - vaca - cioara - Hiptarie, fabrica de prelucrare a laptelui - produse lactate - a deteriora, a strica, a distruge - zori, aurora - a muri, a deceda - distanta, departare ~ant,

dairy produce to damage dawn to die distance ditch
dry

> [Jean prodlU:s] > [tu dEmidl] > [Jo:n] > [tu dal] > [ Jistans] > [dit:;;] > [drail > [tu dral] > rendlis] > [Iksept] > [tu tl:tll > [tu tEnsl] > [fa:rmhEnd] > [fa:rtatl] > [n'ostl > [faroul

canal

- uscat - a usca nesrar~it,

to dry endless except tu fail to fancy farmhand fertile frost furrow

interminabil

- cu exceptia, in afara de - a nu a-~i
reu~i,

a cadea
a-~i

imagina,

inchipui

- muncitor agricol - fertil, rodnic - ger, inghet - brazda 34

gloomy grain to graze hailstone harmful to harvest to have to healthy heat-wave hedge herself himself if only to imagine interesting itself it is time it would be better if
I wish

> [glu:mi] > [grem] > [tu grciz] > [hl'ilstaun] > [ha:'mfal] > [tu ha:'vist] > [tu hEy tu] > [hl'IT'i] > [Ili:t Uciv] > [hcdj] > [ha:'selfj > [himseltl > [ifaunli] > [tu imEdjin] > [intrastin(g)] > [itselfj > [it iz taim] > [it "ud bl: beta' if] > [ai "i~] >
[laitnin(~I]

- intunecos, sumbru - graunte, bob - a
pa~te,

a duce la pascut

- grindina - daunator, rau - a recolta, a strange, a secera - a trebui - sanatos - val de caldura - gard viu - ea insa~i, chiar ea - el insu~i, chiar el - cat de mult ... , de-ar ... a-~i

inchipui,

a-~i

imagina

- interesant - el
'insu~i

- este timpul - ar fi mai bine daca a~

dori,

a~

vrea sa fie

lightning mild to milk mixed fanning myself of course oneself ourselves pasture piercing to plant plough possible

- fulger - bland, blajin, moderat - a mulge - cultivare mixta - insumi, insami, chiar eu - bineinteles, desigur, insu~i, insa~i
in~ine
pa~une

> [maild] > [tu milk] > [mikst fa:rmin(g)] > [maiselfj > [av ko:rs] > [" anse lfj > [auarselvz] > [pa'st<;;il'] > [pia'sin(vl] > [tu pla:nt] > [piau] > [posibl]

fire~te

- patrunzator, ascu!it - a planta, a sadi - plug - posibil, cu putinta

35

profitable rainbow rat raw regularly rodent to rumble to scare scarecrow to seem seed to set to shear shelter to shiver to sow to store to suffer (from) sunset to suppose themselves thunder twilight tractor unsettled wet to yield

> [profitabl] > [rel11b(lul > [I Ell > [ro:l > [rcglUla'lll > [rIludentl > [nu rambll > [tu skea'l > [skea'kraul > [tu sun1 > [si ,dl > [tu set] > [tu sia'] >
[~elta'l

- profitabil, rentabil - curcubeu ~obolan

- crud, nefiert, neprelucrat, aspru - in mod - rozator - a bubui - a speria - sperietoare (de ciori) - a parea, a da impresia - samanta - a pune, a - a tunde - adapost, refugiu - a tremura, a dardai (de frig) - a semana, a insamanta - a tine/a depozita - a suferi de - apus de soare, asfintit - a presupune, in~i~i, a-~i
a~eza,

regulat/obi~nuit

4
a situa

..,

> [tu siva'l > [tu soul > [tu sto :'1 > [tu safarl > [sansetl > [tu sa[Juuzl > [D/emsel\'71 > [randa'l > [tUail alt1 > [trEktarl > [ansetaldl > ["etl > [tu li,lll]

inchipui

insele, chiar ei/ele

- tunet - amurg, crepuscul - tractor - variabil, schimbator - ud, umed, ploios, de ploaie - I. a produce, a da, a rezulta; 2. a ceda - tu insuti sau insati, dumneavoastra
in~iva

~

yourself

>

rIO 'self]

yourselves

> [10 'schzl

- voi, sau dumneavoastra

in~iva

36

RECAPITULARE
1. Propozitia conditionala de tipul I se refera la viitor If I have money I will buy a new shirt.
~i

indeplinirea conditiei este posibila:

- Daca voi avea bani, voi cumpara" o cama~a noua.

2.

Propozitia conditionala de tipul II se refera la prezent, iar indeplinirea conditiei este putin probabila sau imposibila: If I were you I would not buy it. - In locul tau nu l-a~ cumpara.

3.

Verbul auxiliar modal "must" - exprima necesitatea, obligatia. Must poate fi inlocuit cu "to have to" - care nu este un verb auxiliar modal. She has to write the leter. - Ea trebuie sa scrie scrisoarea.
~i

Verbul auxiliar modal "modal" are doar 0 forma de prezent. La trecut locullui verbul "to have to".

viitor se folose~te in

4.

Pronumele relativ "that" se poate omite in urmatoarele situatii: a) Dupa un superlativ:
It is the best film (that) I have seen.

- Este eel mai bun film pe care I-am vazut.

b) Dupa urmatoarele cuvinte: everything few c) Dupa adjectivele "any" anything little
~i

something much

nothing

"only": - Poti sa-mi dai vreo informatie?

Is there any information (that) you can give me?

LECTIA 27 ,

PARTEA INTAI

,..

,..

Aceasta lectie este consacrata problemelor legislative. Cititi cu voce tare subsantivele noi ~i retineti traducerea lor in limba romana: law crime criminal fine pickpocket burglar burglary thief, thieves theft robbery shoplifter prisoner police
> [10:] > [krahn] > [kriminl] > [fain] > [pikpokitJ > [bit: 'glafJ > [bit: fglariJ > [Pi:fl [Pi:vzJ > [Tsei1J > [robariJ >
[~oplift~lf]

- lege - infractiune, crima - criminal - amenda, penalizare - hot de buzunare - spargator - spargere (furt) - hot, hoti
-furt

..,

- jaf, furt - hot de magazine - prizonier, detinut - politie

> [prizanafJ > [pali:sJ

Exersati cuvintele noi shoplifter thief, thieves law fine pickpocket robbery prisoner police crime theft burglary criminal burglar

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie:
[~opliftafJ

>

- hot de magazine - hot, hoti - lege - amenda, penalizare - hot de buzunare - jaf, furt - prizonier, detinut - politie - infractiune, crima
-furt
~

> [T'i:fI[Tsi:vzJ > [lo:J >
[f~lin]

> [pikpokit] > [robari] > [prizanaf] > [pali:s] > [kraim] > [Tseft] > [bit:fgJari] > [kriminl] > [bit:fglafJ
2

- spargere (furt) - criminal - spargator

Cuvantul police este un substantiv colectiv, precedat intotdeauna de articolul hotarat the, iar verbul este la plural.

lata cuvintele noi i'n propozitii. Cititi-le cu voce tare The law forbids some things. Killing a person is a crime.
A criminal does things that

~i

urmariti traducerea lor i'n limba romana:

> [DZa 10: forbidz sam T'm(glz] - Legea interzice unele lucruri.
> [kiJ m(gl
a

pa:'sl1

IZ

a

kralln]

- A omori' 0 persoana este 0 crima.

are forbidden. You must pay the fine. Pickpockets want to steal your purse.
A burglar enters your house to steal things.

> [a krimml daz T'm(glz rYEt a." forbidn]
>
[Ill.

- Criminalul face lucruri care sunt interzise. - Trebuie sa
pHite~ti

mast pel DZa fam

amenda.

> [pik]1oklts "ont III stl:l in.' ]1a.'s]
> l a ba" gla' cnta'z tll SIll T'l1l f ,d z ]
lOr

- Hotii de buzunare vor sa-ti fure portmoneul. - Spargatorul intra i'n casa ta sa fure lucruri. - Sunt multe spargeri zilnic. - Hotul fura. - Sunt din ce i'n ce mai multe jafuri. - Furtul inseamna sustragerea lucrurilor altor persoane.

haus

There are many burglaries every day.
A thief steals.

> [D'ea' a r melll bit:' glanz
e\'rI

del]

> [a l'dstl'lz] > [IYea' a r mo.' End InO ' robm IZ) > [T'eti
IZ sti:lm(gJ aD'ij' pi plz T'm(glz]

There are more and more robberies. Theft is stealing other people's things.

"Shoplifters take things out of shops without paying for them."
3

Shoplifters take things out of shops without paying for them. A prisoner has escaped.

>

l~oplIfta'z

telk T'm(glz aut av sops U IDZaut pelln(gl fa r D'em]

- Hotii de magazine scot (sustrag) lucruri din magazine rara sa plateasca pentru ele. - Un prizonier a scapat.

> [a prizana' hEz Iskel pI]

Completati unnatoarele propozitii cu cuvintele care lipsesc: Multi criminali nu sunt in inchisoare. Hotii pot fi
periculo~i.

- Many> cnmmals are not in prison. - > ThIeves can be dangerous. - Is car >thefta serious >cnme? - > PIckpockets have to be very fast. - The> burglar broke a leg in our house. - There was a > robbery near the post-office yesterday. - When was that> burglary? - The >pnsoners spent a long time in prison. - > The polIce are looking for two people. - Is this against the > law? - We had to pay a >fine. - The >shopllfterwas caught when he was leaving the shop.

Furtul de ma~ini este 0 infractiune serioasa? Hotii de buzunare trebuie sa fie foarte rapizi. Spargatorul
~i-a

rupt piciorul in casa noastra.

leri a avut loc un jaf in apropierea oficiului po~tal. Cand a avut loc spargerea aceea? Detinutii au stat mult timp in inchisoare. Politia cauta doi oameni. Aceasta este impotriva legii? A trebuit sa platim 0 amenda. Hotul de magazine a fost prins in timp ce parasea magazinul.

Ati remarcat desigur prepozitia against, care inseamna "impotriva, (in) contra." Probabil ati retinut deja cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza: amenda, penalizare prizonier, detinut hot de magazine criminal spargere politie jaf spargator lege hot hot de buzunare infractiune, erima
4

.

> fine > pnsoner > shoplifter > cnmmal > burglary > pollee > robbery > burglar > law > thIef > pickpocket >cnme

Vii prezentiim acum cel de-al trei/ea tip de propozitie conditionalii. in acest tip de propozitie condltia nu este realizabi/ii. Verbul din subordonata conditionalii este la timpul Past Perfect, iar in propozitia principalii verbul este la conditionalul trecut, care are urmatoarea structura:would +

have + forma a III-a a verbului de conjugat. lata diteva exemple:
If the burglar hadn't been caught, we would

- Daca spargatorul nu ar fi fost prins, pierdeam bani multi. A~

have lost a lot of money. I would have had time to read it if you had told me yesterday.

fi avut timp sa 0 citesc, daca imi spuneai ieri.

Pe baza exemplelor de mai sus, traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: El nu ar fi ajuns la inchisoare, daca nu ar fi furat aceasta carte. Daca noi coseam f'anul mai devreme, I-am fi viindut.
A~

- If he >hadn't stolen this book then he >would not have gone to prison. - Ifwe >had made hay earlier we >would have sold it. - I >would have gone to the cinema with you yesterday if I >had had time. - He >would have told me about it earlier ifhe >had known - What >would you have done if they >had fired you then?

fi mers cu tine ieri la cinematograf,

daca a~ fi avut timp. Mi-ar fi vorbit despre acellucru, daca ar fi
~tiut

mai devreme.

Ce ai fi facut daca te concediau atunci?

Verbele would ~i could sunt verbe modale. Structura propozitiei interogative in care apar ~i aceste verbe este: could/would + subiect + verbul de conjugat, de exemplu:

Could you leave yesterday? What would you do if you were rich?

- Ai putut pleca ieri? - Ce ai face daca ai fi bogat?

Forma negativii a acestor verbe sunt:

could not -forma prescurtatii couldn't [kudnt] would not -forma prescurtatii wouldn't [Uudnt]

They couldn't see us there. My mother wouldn't spend this much if she hadn't money. 5

- Nu puteau sa ne vada acolo. - Mama mea nu ar nu ar cheltui atiit, daca nu ar avea bani.

lata cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare innocent guilty obviously outrageous brutal > [inasant] > [giltl] > [obviaslI] > [autre/dps] > [bru:tl]

~i

fiti atenti la traducerea lor in limba romana: inocent, nevinovat vinovat (in mod) evident imoral, revoltator brutal, crud

lata cuvintele noi intr-un scurt dialog. Cititi cu atentie dialogul:

A: B: A: B:

Do you think this man is guilty? He can't be innocent. He obviously stole the cash from the bank. Yes, that was outrageous. I heard that he had been very brutal. I hope he will go to prison for a long time.

Traduceti propozitiile din text in limba romana: Do you think this man is guilty? He can't be innocent. He obviously stole the cash from the bank. Yes, that was outrageous. I heard that he had been very brutal. I hope he will go to prison for a long time. > [L1u /u: f'inlg1k LYis mEn lZ giltl] > [hI. ka:nt bi: inasant] > [hI. ob\ las II stau! IYa from D/a bEn(g)k] >
[ICS

- Crezi ca acest om este vinovat? - Nu poate fi nevinovat.

kE~

- Evident, el a furat banii din banca. - A fost intr-adevar, revoltator. - Am auzit ca a fost foarte brutal. - Sper ca va ajunge la inchisoare pentru multa vreme.

DIEt "az autreidjas]

> [ai ha:'d D7Et hi· hEd bl.n veri bru:tl] > [ai haup hI: lid gau tu prizn fo:' a ]on(gl tann]

~

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu cuvintele care lipsesc: Ai auzit vreodata despre aceasta crima revoltatoare? Este posibil ca ea este vinovata? Barbatul parea sa fie nevinovat. Evident, ei au auzit Nu fii atat de brutal!
~tirile.

- Have you ever heard of this > outrageous crime? - Is it possible that she is > guilt)? - The man seemed to be > mnoccnt - They have> obVIOusly heard the news. - Don't be so > brutll

6

Sa exersam inca nevinovat brutal (in mod) evident revoltator

0

data cuvintele noi. Traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza: > JOnocent > brutal > obvIOusly > outrageous

Sd urmiirim in contilluare cum se face trecerea din vorbirea directii in vorbire indirectii, in cazul propozifiilor interogative.
lata mai intiii, ciiteva exemple: John asked "Are you at home?". Peter asked "When were you in England?". - John asked if I were at home. - Peter asked when I had been in England.

Afi observat desigur, cd ordinea in propozifia indirectd interogatiVii este identicd cu cea din propozifia ajirmativd. De fapt, este vorba despre 0 propozifie ajirmativd $i nu de una interogativii. 111 cazul intrebiirii decizionale (da/nu), propozifia secundarii care urmeazii dupii propozifia principalii este introdusii prin prepozifia if. In cazul propozifiei interogative complementare pronumele interogativ riimane neschimbat. Nu uitafi timpul verbelor se schimbii!

Acum, treceti propozitiile interogative de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta: Mary asked "Where is he going?". Peter asked "Did they meet her?". Jane asked "Who has taught her how to swim?". John asked "Does he like music?".
> Mary asked where he \\ as g01I1g.

> Peter asked Ir they had met her. > Jane asked who had taught her how to sWIm.

> John clsked Ifhe liked musIc.

in exercitiul urmator, traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Peter a intrebat daca legea interzice acellucru. Mary a intrebat ciind I-a prins politia pe hot. John a intrebat daca hotii de buzunare sunt infractori. Jane a intrebat unde vrem sa mergem. Peter a intrebat ciite spargeri au avut loc in acest ora~.

> Peter asked if the law forbade It.
> Mary asked when the police had caught

the thIef > John asked if pickpockets were cnllllnals.

> .lane asked where we wanted to go.
> Pete! asked hO\\ mallY btl!gIaries there had been in thiS cIty

7

In aceasta Iectie nu ati invatat inca verbe noi. lata-Ie: to commit to arrest to rob to prosecute to confess to sentence (to) to beware of
> [tll kamit] > [tll arest] > [tll rob] > [tll proslkru:t] > [tll kanfes] > [tll sentans] > [tll blUea f av]

- a comite - a aresta, a pune sub interdictie - ajefui, a fura - a institui/a intenta (un) proces - a martllrisi, a recunoa~te - a condamna - a se feri, a se pazi

Acum yom folosi verbele noi intr-un dialog. Cititi cu atentie:
A: B: A: B: A: B: A: Beware of this man! He's a criminal. What crime did he commit? He robbed ten rich people. Was he prosecuted? Yes, he was. The police arrested him after looking for him for two months. Did he confess to the robberies? Yes, he did. And then he was sentenced to ten years.

Cititi propozitile separat Beware of this man! He's a criminal.

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie: > [hI:Z a krimml] > [" o t kralln dId hi kamit]
> [hi: rabd (en nt;; pi:pl]
Fere~te-te

de omul acesta!

- Este un criminal. - Ce infractiune a comis? - EI a jefuit zece oameni bogati. - I s-a intentat proces? - Da. - Po1itia I-a arestat dupa ce I-a cautat timp de doua 1uni. - E1 a recunoscut jafuri1e?

What crime did he commit? He robbed ten rich people. Was he prosecuted? Yes, he was. The police arrested him after looking for him for two months. Did he confess to the robberies? Yes, he did. And then he was sentenced to ten years.

> [" az hI: proSlklll:tId]
> [les hI: Uaz]

> [D/a pali:s arcstld hI:m a:fta f ]ukin(g) fa:' hun fo. l tu: man f'J

>[dld hI: kanfcs tll [Ya robanz]
> [les hI: dId] > [End [Yen hI: "az sen(anst (ll tcn la'z]

-Da. - Apoi a fost condarnnat 1a zece ani.

8

Completati urmatoarele propozitii cu cuvintele care lipsesc: Vecinul lui a comis un furt. Cine a fost arestat? Ieri cinci oameni I-au jefuit pe bacan.
Fere~te-te

- His neighbour >commited a theft. - Who has been >arrested? - Five men >robbed the grocer's yesterday. - >Beware of dark streets! - Why haven't they been >prosecuted? - He >confessed to all his crimes. - Who has >sentenced them?

de strazile intunecoase!

De ce nu li s-a intentat un proces? El
~i-a

recunoscut toate infractiunile.

Cine i-a condamnat?

in urmatorul exercitiu, traduceti verbele noi in limba engleza: a aresta a intenta (un) proces a se feri a condamna a comite a jefui a marturisi, a
recunoa~te

> to arrest > to prosecute > to beware of > to sentence > to commit
> to rob

> to confess

lata ultimul exercitiu al lectiei. Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: El m-a intrebat cfmd il vor condamna. Daca a~ fi ~tiut mai devreme, nu m-a~ fi intors acasa.
~tii

> He asked me when they would sentence him. > If l had known earlier I would not have returned home. > Do you know our brother was prosecuted? > He \\ as arrested because he commited a clime. > Mary asked if this story was outrageous. > There have been a lot of burglaries in OUI surroundings recently. > Do you know our law forbids theft? > Beware of thIs brutal man! > They sentenced them to five years. > She confessed the cnme.

ca fratelui nostru i s-a intentat un proces?
0

EI a fost arestat pentru ca a comis

infractiune.

Mary a intrebat daca aceasta intiimplare a fost revoltatoare. Au avut loc recent multe spargeri in imprejurimile noastre.
~tii

ca legea noastra interzice furtul? acest om brutal!

Fere~te-te de

I-au condamnat la cinci ani. Ea ~i-a recunoscut crima.

9

LECTIA 27 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
Sa continuam tot cu problemele legislative. Unneaza un grup de substantive noi. Citili-le cu voce tare: sentence remorse police-station ticket
> [scnt:.ms] > [rimo:"s] > [pali:s > [tiklltj
stci~n]

- sentinta remu~care,cainta

- post de politie - bilet, proces verbal (de contravenlie) - exces de viteza - crima, omucidere uciga~,

speeding murder murderer evidence behaviour blackmail capital punishment death sentence

> [spi:din(gl] > [ma:rda r] > [mll:'dararj > [evidans] > [bihcivd] > [bIEkmeil] > [kEpitl
pani~mant]

asasin

- dovada, marturie - purtare, comportament ~antaj

- pedeapsa capitala! cu moartea - condamnare la moarte

> [deT' scnlans]

Exersati cuvintele noi, dar in alta ordine: murderer speeding sentence capital punishment remorse ticket
> [ma:rdara r] > [spi:din lgl ] > [sentans] > [kEpitl

-

uciga~,

asasin

- exces de viteza - sentinta - pedeapsa capitaHi/ cu moartea remu~care,

panismant]
> [rimo:rs] > [tikat]

cainta

- bilet, proces verbal (de contraventie) ~antaj

blackmail murder evidence death sentence police-station behaviour

> [blEkmeil] > [ma:fda'] > [cvicbns] > [dcT' scntans] > [pali: s stei~ll] > [biheivia f]

- crima, omucidere - dovada, marturie - condamnare la moarte - post de politie - purtare, comportament

10

Citili cu voce tare urmatoarele propozilii in limba engleza in care am introdus cuvinte1e noi atenli la traducerea lor in limba romana: He got a long sentence. Does he feel any remorse? They were taken to the police-station. Do you often get a ticket? > [hI' got a lan(g' sentans] - EI a primit
0

~i

fili

pedeapsa lunga.

>1 daz hi:

ft:l enlllmo:'sj

- EI are vreo remu~care? - Au fost du~i la postul de polilie. des procese verbale de contraventie?
Prime~ti

>[lYeiua.l tClkn tll IYa pali:s stcisn]
> [till Ill, ofi! get a tibt]

Last week I got one for speeding. Is murder the most serious crime?
Is it known who

> [Ia~t " L k <11 got "an fa, spi dmlg1j

- Saptamana trecuta am primit una pentru exces de viteza. - Omuciderea este cea mai serioasa infractiune? - Se
~tie

> [IZ ma"da' fYa mallst si'! las krcl/ITI]
> [ iz It 11cllln hu'

cine a fost

the murderer was? There is enough evidence. What do you think of her behaviour? They are guilty of blackmail. Do they get capital punishment? The death sentence did not scare him.

D/,lllla,'dara'" az j > [[Yea'
IZ

uciga~ul?

lIlafc\'ldansj

- Sunt dovezi suficiente. - Ce parere ai despre comportamentul el? - Sunt vinovali de
~antaj.

> [" a t dll ill, T'lI1 lgl k

a\ hal blhe/\ la']
> [IYel 3:' giltl a\' blEkmell]
> L-Ill [Yel get kEpit!

panlSl1lant] > [D/a deT' sentans did nol skea' him]

- Vor primi pedeapsa capitala? - Condamnarea la moarte nu I-a speriat.

in urmatorul exerc1tiu completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu cuvintele care lipsesc:
Siiptamiina aceasta au avut loc trei crime. Postul de polItIC este langa hotel. Dovezlle sunt putine. Comportamenrullor este foarte ciudat. UCtga::;11 au tost arestali. Santalul
t'~te

- There have been three >murders this week. - The >police-statj'll1 is next to the hotel. - There is a little >cvldencc. - Their >beha\ lOur is very strange. - The >munlcll'rs have been arrested. - >Blackmcul is often profitable. - What >sentence did they get? - Some people think >capital punishment is useless. - The policeman gave him a >tieket.
11

adesea profitabil.

Ce pedt"apsa au primit? I)nll oalOeni ered ca pedeapsa capitala este t':lra rost. Pollllstul i-a intocmit un proces verbal.

Se condamna la moarte pentru furt? Excesul de viteza este penculos.

- Is there a >death sentence for theft? - >Speeding is dangerous.

Desigur, criminal,

pute~i

deja sa

tladuce~i

cuvintele noi in limba engleza: > murderer > death sentence > eVIdence
> sentence

uciga~

condamnare la moarte dovada sentinta exces de viteza pedeapsa capitalalcu moartea proces verbal de contraventie post de politie crima, omucidere comportament
remu~care

> speedmg

> capital punishment > ticket
> polIce-statIOn

> murder > behaviour
> remorse

~antaj

> blackmaIl

latti 0 modalitate de exprzmare a viitorului. cu ajutorul constructiei to be going to - a avea de gand sa. in aceastti constructie se conjugti doar verbul to be infunctie de persoanti ~i timp (I am going to, she is going to, they are going to, etc.). De exemplu:
I am going to watch a film tonight. They were going to fly to England. - Deseara rna uit la un film. - Ei au avut de gand sa zboare in Anglia.

• ::::-1
lnterogativul se formeazti prin inversiunea ordinii subiectului cu forma corespunztitoare a verbului to be. Nega!ia se formeazti prin adtiugarea la forma corespunztitoare a verbului to be a adverbului de nega!ie not. De exemplu:
Where are you going to spend your holiday? She was not going to visit us yesterday. - Unde iti vei petrece concediul? - Ea nu a avut de gand sa ne viziteze ieri.

t~ ;~;: : . .

1:::::::::1\·:::-.
i:" .:'

it;::!::' :
! .
I" .

Pe baza exemplelor, traduceti propozitiile care urmeaza in limba engleza: Nu avem de gand sa-l arestam pe acest om. Unde iti vei duce copiii? Tata! meu va vinde
ma~ina

> We aren't going to arrest this man. > Where are you going to take your children?

noastra veche.

> My father is going to sell our old car. > Are the police going to take them to the police-station?
> I'm not going to tell you this story.

Politia ii va duce la postul de politie?

Nu-ti voi povesti aceasta intimplare. 12

lata aIte cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare relieved sufficient violent decent envious (ot) gentle >lnli.vd] > [safi~ant) >l valalant] >l di:sant) >l en\'las) >[ dJentl]

~i

retineti sensullor: u~urat

- suficient - violent - decent, cumsecade - invidios (pe) - bland,
ginga~,

amabil

lata cuvintele noi in propozitii: He was relieved when he was not prosecuted. Is this sufficient for today? He has always been a violent man. Most people are decent. >[hl: "oz nli:vd lien hi: "az not proslkiu.tid) >llz D7 1s
safi~ant

- El a fost u~urat cand nu i s-a intentat proces. - Este suficient pentru azi? - El a fost intotdeauna un om violent. - Majoritatea oamenilor sunt curnsecade. - Hotul a spus ca era invidios pe oamenii bogati. - Ce persoana amabila este ea!

fo:' tadci]

>[hi: hEz o:]Ue/z bi:n a va/alant mEn] >[maust pi.pl a:' di:sant) >[DZa TSJ:fsed hi: U envias oz 3\ nt~ pi:pl] >[ Uot a dJcntl pa:'sn
~i:

The thief said he was envious of rich people. What a gentle person she is!

IZ]

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare:
Ace~tia

sunt oameni decenti.

- These are >decent people. - Were you >reheved, too? - Be >gentle to them! - Is there >sufficient oil? - Are they always so >vlolent? - It's no use being >envious.

Te-ai simtit u~urat ~i tu? Fii amabil cu ei! Este suficient ulei? Sunt intotdeauna atat de violenti? Nu are rost sa fi invidios.

Traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza: decent
u~urat

> decent > leheved > envious (of) > gentle

invidios (pe) amabil violent suficient 13

> \ !Olent
> suffiCIent

Jar acum vom invata un alt tip de pronume - pronumele relativ compus. lata trei dintre acestea: whoever whatever whichever
> l hu eva'] > [lJoteva']
>
[tlJt~c\a']

- oricine, oricare - mice - oricare, orice

Sa Ie folosim in propozilii: Whatever happens
I will help you.

> [tlnteva' h Epnz al "ll help IU:] > [hu."va'
SI:Z

- Orice s-ar intimpla, te voi ajuta. - Oricine vede holul, trebuie sa anunle polilia. - Orice ma~ina ai alege, te va costa mult.

Whoever sees the thief must tell the police. Whichever of these cars you choose, it will cost you a lot.

DZa Pl.f

mast tel Dca pzlli:s]

>

l Ult~C\ a' av IYJ:z ka:'z
Ill.
t~u Z

It "il kost

Ill:

a lot]

Dupa pronumele relative compuse, pentru exprimarea viitorului se folose~te timpul Simple Present.

Traduceli propoziliile urmatoare in limba engleza: Orice casa cumperi, va fi prea mica pentru familia tao Oricine imi cere bani, il voi refuza. Orice scrii va fi bine.
> Whichever house you buy It wJll be too small for your fatTIlly. > Whoever asks me for money, 1will refuse him. > Whatever you WrIte it will be all right.

lata acum cateva verbe noi. Citili-le cu atenlie to accuse (of) to release to murder to report to convict (of)
> l tu aklU:z] > [tllJllis] > (tu ma:'da'j > [tu JIjlO:'\] > [\ll kanvikt]

~i

invatati semnificatia lor: - a acuza, a invinui (de) - a elibera, a pune in libertate - a ucide, a omori - a raporta, a anunla - a condamna, a declara vinovat (pe cineva) - a pedepsi - a constata, a descoperi

to punish to find out

> l tu > [tu

pal1J~ ]
f~\lnd

aut] 14

Cititi eLI atentie urmatorul dialog In care apar

~i

cuvintele noi:

A: B:

Six months ago somebody reported a murder to the police. Did they catch the murderer? Yes, they did. He was accused and convicted. How was he punished? He was sentenced to capital punishment. But after two weeks he was released. Why? Wasn't he guilty? No, he wasn't. The police found out that somebody else had committed the crime.

A:
B:

A:
B:
A:

Traduceti In limba romana propozitiile din text: Six months ago somebody reported a murder to the police. Did they catch the murderer? Yes, they did. He was accused and convicted. How was he punished? He was sentenced to capital punishment. But after two weeks he was released. Why? Wasn't he guilty? No, he wasn't.
> l D/a pali.s falJlld aul DiEt The police found out that sambodJ els bEd kamilld somebody else had committed D/a ham!] the crime.
> [hi "oz aklU:zd Fnd kanviktJd] > [hal: u oz hI: pamst] > [hI: "oz scnl,lllS; III > l "lks man Ps ag;iu samhodi

lIpo:'(Jd a ma:'da' tll fYa pali:s] > [did IY L'l
kel~

- Cu ~ase luni In urma, cineva a anuntat 0 crima la politie.

D a mil:' dara'] - L-au prins pe criminal? - Da. - EI a fost acuzat ~i condamnat. - Ce pedeapsa a primit? - EI a primit pedeapsa cu moartea. - Dar dupa doua saptamani, el a fost pus In libertate. - Dece?

kEplt1

pal11~1l1al1t]

> l hat ana' Iu "I:ks hi: "oz nli sl] > ["al]

> ll'o,rnt hI'

~iltlJ

- Nu a fost vinovat? - Nu. - Politia a constatat ca altcineva a comis crima.

Sa exersam folosirea verbelor noi. Completati propozitiile In limba engleza cu forma verbala corespunzatoare: Noi am anuntat furtulla postul de politie. De ce I-au eliberat? El m-a acuzat ca i-am furat cizmele. 15 - We >reported the theft at the police-station. - Why have they >reh:a.,,~d him? - He >accused me of stealing his boots.

De ce nu i-au pedepsit? Pentru ce I-au condamnat? EI ~i-a omorat secretera. Am descoperit deja cine mi-a mancat cina.

- Why haven't they >punlshed them? - What did they >convlct him of? - He >has murdered his secretary. - I have already >found out who ate my dinner.

"I have already found out who ate my dinner."

Traduceti in limba engleza verbele: a raporta, a anunta a elibera, a pune in libertate a condamna, a declara vinovat a pedepsi a acuza, a invinui (de) a omori, a ucide a constata, a descoperi > to report > to release > to convict > to pUnish > to accuse (of) > to murder > to find out

In final, sa verificam in ce masura ati reu~it sa retineti materialul acestei lectii: Doi hoti de buzunare au fost arestati azi. Politia nu
~tie

> Two pIckpockets have been arrested today. > The polIce don't know where thIs criminal is. > The burglar would have been caught earher If we had had a telephone then. > They ob\ lOusly cOlTI1mtted thIs cnme.

unde se afla acest criminal.

Spargatorul ar fi fost prins mai devreme, daca am fi avut telefon atunci. Evident, ei au comis aceasta infractiune.

16

Purtarea lui este revolUitoare. Peter a i'ntrebat daca prietenullui a fost condamnat. Ei au intrehat cand yom intenta proces impotriva ei. Feriti-va de oamenii rai!

> His behavIour is outrageous. > Peter asked if his fnend

had been sentenced. > They asked when we would prosecute her.

> Beware of bad people! > He got a death sentence.
> If you had dnven slowlier you wouldn't

EI a primit pedeapsa eu moartea.
Daea ai fi condus mai incet, nu ti s-ar fi intocmit un proces verbal de contravenlie. Nu avem suficiente dovezi sa-i acuzam de acest jaf. Acest hot are vreo remu~care? Polilia are de gand sa-l duca pe la postul de politie.
uciga~

have got a ticket.
> We don't have enough evidence to accuse

them of thiS robbery. > Does thiS thief have any remorse'?
> The pollce are going to take the murderer

to the pol ice-statlOll,
> Whoe\er comes hetc I wdl throw him out. > How are you going to punish him?

Oricine va veni aici, 11 voi da afara. Cum ai de gand sa-l
pedepse~ti?

Acum urmeaza obi~nuitul exerciliu de pronuntie. Literele din desemneaza un sunet identic: [e] theft death envious gentle
[I: ]

aceea~i

coloana, scrise accentuat,

['II]

[i] convict criminal fish thick

relieved decent thief release

fine crime time rise

17

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 27 ,
27.1. Propozitia conditionala de tipul III (III Conditional) 27.1.1. in propozitia conditionala de tipul III conditia este ireala, nu este realizabila. 27.1.2. in propozitia conditionala introdusa de prepozitia "if" verbul este la timpul Past Perfect, iar in propozitia subordonata apare constructia: "would + have + forma a III-a a verbului de conjugat". De exemplu: If the burglar hadn't been caught - Daca spargatorul nu ar fi fost prins, we would have lost a lot of money. noi am fi pierdut 0 multime de bani. I would have had time to do it if you had told me yesterday. A~ fi avut timp sa fac asta daca imi spuneai ieri.

27.2. Vorbirea indirecta, propozitia indirecta interogativa 27.2.1. Ordinea in propozitia indirecta interogativa este identica cu aceea dintr-o propozitie afirmativa. 27.2.2. in cazul intrebarii decizionale (da/nu) propozitia secundara care urmeaza dupa propozitia principala este introdusa prin prepozitia if. De exemplu: Peter asked "Did they meet her?" - Peter asked if they had met her.

in propozitia interogativa complementara, pronumele interogativ ramane neschimbat. De exemplu: Mary asked "Where is he going?". - Mary asked where he was going.

Timpul verbului se schimba conform regulii concordantei timpurilor.

27.3. Constructia "to be going to" - "a avea de gand sa": 27.3.1. in aceasta constructie, se schimba doar forma verbului "to be" in functie de persoana ~i timp (I am going to, she is going to, they are going to etc.). De exemplu: I am going to visit them today.

- Ii voi vizita azi.

27.3.2. Interogativul se formeaza prin inversiunea subiectului cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului to be, iar negatia prin adaugarea adverbului de negatie "not" la forma corespunzatoare a verbului "to be". Where are you going to spend your holiday? She was not going to visit us yesterday. - Unde ai de gand sa-ti petreci concediul? - Ea nu a avut de gand sa ne viziteze ieri.

18

27.4. Pronumele relative compuse: whoever whatever whichever - oricine, oricare - once - oricare, orice

Whatever happens I will help you.

- Grice s-ar intampla te voi ajuta.

Whoever sees the thief must tell the police. - Gricine vede hotul, trebuie sa anunte politia. Whichever of these cars you choose, it will cost you a lot.
De~i dupa pronumele relative compuse se refera la viitor.

- Grice ma~ina alegi, te va costa mult.
folose~te

timpul Simple Present, de obicei, ele se

27.5. "Would, could" 27.5.1. Verbele "would" ~i "could" sunt verbe auxiliare modale, de aceea propozitiile interogative formate cu ajutorullor, implica inversiunea, de exemplu: Could you leave yesterday? What would you do if you were rich? 27.5.2. Formele lor negative sunt: "could not" - forma prescurtata "couldn't" "would not" - forma prescurtata "wouldn't" They couldn't see us there. My mother wouldn't pay for this if she hadn't money. - Nu puteau sa ne vada acolo. - Mama mea nu ar plati pentru asta daca nu ar avea bani. - Ai putut pleca ieri? - Ce ai face daca ai fi bogat?

19

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 27
A
I.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana: John isn't going to invite her to his house. Whoever comes tell him I am not at home. Peter asked who had caught the pickpocket. If the police had had this information earlier, they would have found the criminal easily. The prisoner asked if he had to pay a fine. This outrageous brutal crime was committed by a very young man.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Spargatorul a fost arestat dupa ce a jefuit doua case. De ce ai de gand sa-I declari vinovat de acest omor? Daca locatarii ar fi anuntat mai devreme spargerea, ei nu ar fi pierdut totul. Grice vrei sa faci, ar fi mai bine daca ai renunta. Maria a intrebat cand ii vor elibera sotul. Peter a intrebat daca hotului de buzunare i s-a intentat proces.

I.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

C.

Alegeti cuvantul care se I. John asked who
a. is

potrive~te

in propozitie:

arrested.

b. was 2. The children a. were b. wasn't 3. . a. whatever b. whoever 4. If they a. had sentenced b. sentence him to capital punishment it would have been horrible. tells you this, don't think it's true. going to play in the garden.

20

LECTIA 28 ,

" PARTEA " INTAI

Sa revenim la problemele legislative, dar yom studia alte teme. Daca pana acum ne-am ocupat de expresiile legislatiei penale, in continuare yom face cuno~tinta cu expresii ale legislatiei civile:. wedding wedding-day wedding-ring God, god bride guest bachelor bridegroom mamage divorce relatives service
> [\ledin();)] > [\ledin();) dei] > ["edin();) rin(g)] > [god] > [braid] > [gest] >
[bEt~ala']

nunta ziua nuntii verigheta Dumnezeu, divinitate mireasa musafir, invitat celibatar mire casatorie divort rude serviciu, ceremonie

> [braidgru:m] > [mEridj] > [divo:'s] > [relati:vz] > [sa:'vis]

lata noile cuvinte intr-o alta ordine. Fiti atenti la pronuntie corespondentul lor in limba romana: bachelor bride God, god guest servIce wedding-ring divorce wedding mamage wedding-day relatives bridegroom
>
[bEt~alar]

~i

retineti

celibatar mireasa Dumnezeu, divinitate musafir, invitat serviciu, ceremonie verigheta divort nunta casatorie ziua nuntii rude mIre

> [braid] > [god] > [gest] > [sa:rvis] > ["edin(g) rin(gl] > [divo:rs] > ["edin(gl] > [mEridj] > [cledin();) dei] > [relati:vz] > [braidgru:m]
21

lata cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi-le cu voce tare When is their wedding-day? What a beautiful wedding that was! He bought expensive wedding-rings. God, help me! The bride was late. The bridegroom is very tall. How many guests were there? This man is a bachelor. There are many divorces every year. They say marriage is forever. Were all your relatives there? The service was impressive.

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie: - Cand va avea loc nunta lor? - Ce nunta minunata a fost! - El a cumparat verighete scumpe. - Doamne, ajuta-ma! - Mireasa a intfirziat.

> ["en iz Dlel' UeulIllgl dei]

>[" o t a hlU:td1tl"edin(g) DIEt "oz]
>[hl: bo:t lkspensiv

"edin(g) rin(glz] >[god help mi:]
> [DZa braid U oz leit]
>[D1a braidgru:m
lZ

ven to:l]

- Mirele este foarte inalt. - Cfiti invitati au fost acolo? - Acest barbat este celibatar. - Sunt multe divorturi in fiecare an. - Ei spun ca mariajul va dura o ve~nicie. - Au fost acolo toate rudele tale? - Ceremonia a fost impresionanta.

>[hau meni gests "a.' D/ea']

>[DZIS mEn iz a bEt::;ala']
>[ Olea' a I mcni divo:'SIZ evn la'] >[ D/ci sci mEnu] iz (orcva']

>[" a .' 0.1 io:' rclati.vz IYea']
>[D/ 3 sa:'vis "oz lmpreslv]

"The bridegroom is very tall."

22

lata un alt exercitiu: completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu cuvintele care lipsesc: Casatoria nu este pentru mine. Nu voi fi acolo la nunta lor.
~tiu

- > Marriage is not for me. - I will not be at their >wedding. - I know there is > God - Everybody talked about their >divorce. - Have you bought the> wedding-rings yet? - He said he would never forget his >wedding-day. - They were late for the> service. - The> bride and the> bndegroom have few>relatives. - Were you one of the > guest~'? - I'm glad I'm a> bachelor - How long has the> bndeknown him? - The> bndegroomis my brother.

ca exista Dumnezeu.

Toata lumea a vorbit despre divortullor. Ai cumparat deja verighetele? El a spus ca nu va uita niciodata ziua nuntii sale. Au intarziat la ceremonie. Mireasa $i mirele au putine rude.

Ai fost unul dintre musafiri? Ma bucur ca sunt celibatar. De cat timp 11 cuno$tea mireasa? Mirele este fratele meu.

Traduceti cuvintele in limba engleza, pentru a Ie retine cat mai bine: mire divort musafrr verigheta mireasa serviciu, ceremonie Dumnezeu ruda, rude ziua nuntii nunta celibatar casatorie Sa revenim la pronumele relative. > bndegroom > di\ orce > guest > weddl11g-ring > bnde > sen Ice > God > relatIves > wedding-day > wedding > bachelor > marnage

Pronumele relative aflate la inceputul propozitiilor relative restrictive, pot fi omise in anumite cazuri.

23

De exemplu: The people (whom) I visited were very nice to me. Don't lose the ticket (which) he has given to you. Do you like the book (that) you have read? The news (which) we heard was very bad. - Oamenii pe care i-am vizitat, au fost foarte draguti cu mine. - Nu pierde biletul pe care ti I-a dat. - Iti place cartea pe care ai citit-o? ~tirea

pe care a auzit-o, a fost foarte proasta.

Is the car (which) you drove yesterday expensive? - Este scumpa ma~ina pe care ai condus-o ieri?

Traduceti in limba engleza frazele care contm propozitii secundare relative. Daca este cazul, omiteti pronumele relative, conform regulii anterioare:
Ace~ti

oameni pe care ii cunosc demult, au fost concediati ieri.
Ma~ina

> These people. whom I have known for a long time, were fired yesterday. > The car J bought last week IS \ ery fast. > The woman who IS walkmg there is my father's sIster > Where have you bought the suit you are weanng') > The potatoes we have dug are small. > This chair, which IS not for sale.
IS VClY

pe care am cumparat-o saptamana trecuta, este foarte rapida. care se plimba acolo, este sora tatalui meu. Unde ai cumparat costumul pe care tocmai il porti? Cartofii pe care i-am scos, sunt mici. Acest scaun, care este foarte vechi, nu este de vanzare. Casa pe care am construit-o nu este foarte inalta. Politistul care I-a arestat pe infractor, a spus ca nu a fost u~or.
Femei~

old,

> The house wc have built is not very high. > The policeman that arrested the criminal said that It hadn't been easy.

lata acum cateva cuvinte noi: engaged happy enormous single incredible religious >[mgeldjd] >[hEpI] >[mo:1mas] > [singl] > [mkrBdl bal] > [nlidJas]
24

-Iogodit - fericit - enorm, una~ - necasatorit, celibatar - incredibil - religios

Cititi unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza in care am folosit cuvintele noi: Smce when have they been engaged?
It was the happiest day of their lives.

>[sms lien hEy DZei bi:n mgeldjd] > [It "oz DZa hEpiast del a\' D/ei' lalvz] > [D'ei a:' gaum(g) tu Iiv in an ino"mas haus] >[a:'
Ill:

- De cfmd sunt logoditi?

- A fost cea mai fericita zi din viata lor. - Ei vor locui intr-o casa enonna. E~ti

They are going to live in an enonnous house. Are you still single? Their divorce is incredible. These people are very religious.

stll singl]

inca necasatorit?

>[D'd divo:'s iz inkredlbal]
> [D/t:z pi:pl a:'

- Divortul lor este incredibil. Ace~ti

oameni sunt
religio~i.

\en rilidjas]

foarte

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu cuvintele noi: Aceasta este
0

gradina imensa.

- This is an >enormous garden.
- It is >incredible that he is already here.

Este incredibil ca el este deja aici. Ei au fost logoditi doar pentru scurt timp. Ea a spus ca vrea sa ramana necasatorita. Sunt
religio~i ace~ti

- They have been >engaged for only a short time. - She said that she wanted to stay >single - Are these people >rehgious? - Were you >happy?

oameni?

Ai fost fericit?

Ati

reu~it

desigur, sa retineti cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza: > mcredible > engaged > single > enormous > religious > happy

incredibil logodit necasatorit, celibatar enonn, uria~ religios fericit

Sa revenim la vorbirea indirecta: 1. Propozi{ii condi!ionale in cazul vorbirii indirecte In propozi!ia condi!ionald de tipull, timpul verbului se schimbii conform regulii de concordan{ii a timpurilor (timpul prezent se schimba In timp trecut):

25

Peter said "If I have time I will go to the cinema".

- Peter said that if he had time he would go to the cinema.

in cazul propozifiilor condifionale de tipulII ~i III, timpul verbului rdmiine neschimbat, de exemplu:

John said "If I were you I would not do it." Mary said "If I had had the money earlier I would have paid for the car."
2.

- John said that if he were me he would not do it. - Mary said that if she had had the money earlier she would have paid for the car.

Expresii dupd care Propozifia secundard trece la timpul Simple Past. in urmdtoarele expresii se schimbd timpul verbului:

it is time I wish

- it was time
- I wished

Timpul verbului din propozifiile secundare care urmeazd dupd aceste expresii, nu se schimbd. latd doud exemple:

Peter said "I wish I had a house." Mary said "It's time I went home."

- Peter said he wished he had a house. - Mary said it was time she went home.

Pe baza regulilor enuntate anterior, traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: John a spus ca daca s-ar fi insurat cu Mary, atunci ar fi fost fericit. Mary mi-a spus ca este timpul sa il parasesc. Peter a spus ca daca ar avea bani destui, m-ar imprumuta ~i pe mine. Joan a spus ca ar vrea sa fie mai bogata. - John said that If he had marned Mary then he \\ollid have been happy. - Mary told me that It
W<lS

time I len hIm.

- Peter said that If he had enough money he \\ould lend me some. - Joan said she Wished she were richer.

Mama mea a spus ca daca ar vrea sa mearga acolo, - My mother Said that if she wanted to go there s-ar duce. she would go

Sa invatam inca eateva verbe: to marry to divorce to attend to believe to swear > [tu mEriJ >[tLl divo:'s] > l tu atcnd] >[tu bIli.v]
> [tu sU ea']

- a se casatori (cu), a se insura - a divorta - a fi prezent, a frecventa - a crede - ajura

Verbul "to swear" este neregulat. Formele sale sunt: formal swear> [SUe,I'] forma a II-a swore> f SuO"] forma a III-a sworn >[s"o:'n]

26

Cititi eu atentie dialogul urmator in care apar

~i

verbele noi:

A:
B: A: B: A: B:

Do you know that Joan is going to divorce her husband? Oh, no! I can't believe it! Are you sure? I swear it's true. But she married him a year ago! I know. I attended the wedding. This news is awful. I thought they were happy together.

Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba engleza: Do you know that Joan is going to divorce her husband? Oh, no! I can't believe it! Are you sure? I swear it's true. But she married him a year ago! I know. I attended the wedding. This news is awful. I thought they were happy together. > [du ill: nOll O'Et djoun 1Z giiuin lgl tu divo:' s ha:' halbimd]
> [ou nOll ai ka:nt hili:v it]

-

~tii ca Joan divorteaza de sotul ei?

- Oh, nul Nu pot sa cred! E~ti

> [a' Ill: )ua']
> [ai SUear lts trll:] > [bat Zil. mErid him a iia' agou] > [al nou al iitendld IYa uedm ,g )]

sigur?

- Jur ca este adevarat. - Dar s-a easatorit eu el acum un an. ~tiu. Am participat la nunta.

> [D'lS nru:z

IZ

0.f1]

- Aceasta veste este groaznica. - Am crezut ca erau fericiti impreuna.

> [ill TSo:t D/ei U a :' hEp! tageDZa']

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza eu forma verbala corespunzatoare: Poti sa juri ca este adevarat? Ei au erezut intotdeauna in Dumnezeu. Ciiti oameni au fost prezenti la nunta? Au divortat cu multi ani in urma. Cu cine te-ai casatorit? - Can you> swear that it is true? - They have always> believed in God. - How many people> attended the wedding? - They have been > divorced for many years. - Whom have you> marned?

Pentru a retine verbele noi, traduceti in limba engleza: a se casatori, a se insura sau a se marita a crede a divorta aJura a fi prezent/de fata la, a participa la 27 > 10 many > to believe > to dlvorce

> to swear
> to attend

lata doua cazuri in care se utilizeaza verbele auxihare could lata ciiteva exemple: Could you open the window? Would you give me some tea?

~i

would.

- Ai putea deschide geamul? (E~ti

atat de amabil) Poli sa-mi dai pUlin ceai?

Traduceli propoziliile urmatoare in limba engleza folosind aceste doua verbe auxiliare:
E~ti

atat de amabil sa-mi cumperi biletele?

> Would you buy me the tickets? > Could you look at my letter? > Would you lend me your books?

Ai putea sa te uili la scrisoarea mea?
E~ti

atat de amabil sa-mi imprumuli carlile tale?

Ai putea sa uili aceste cuvinte? Vrei sa faci curat in camera?

> Could you forget these words?
> Would you clean your room?

In exerciliul urmator, vom recapitula materia acestei leclii. Daca nu intampinali dificultali, inseamna ca puteli trece la partea a doua a lecliei 28. Traduceli in limba engleza:
Omul care a fost arestat, nu a marturisit inca. L-ar fi condarnnat pe prizonier, daca ar fi fost mai multe dovezi. Celibatarul despre care a vorbit ea, a fost una dintre rudele mele.
> The man they have arrested

has not confessed yet.
> They would have convicted the pnsoner

If there had been more eVidence.
> The bachelor she talked about was one of my relatIves.
> The weddIng-day was Incredibly hot.

In ziua nunlii a fost incredibil de cald.

"The wedding-day was incredibly hot."
28

Ea nu este acea femeie fericita din ziua nuntii sale. Mirele 0 cuno~tea pe mireasa de mult timp. Au fost multe ceremonii saptamana aceasta. EI de ce a jurat sa ramana celibatar? Verighetele pe care ni Ie-au aratat, erau revoltator de scumpe. Nu rna voi marita cu eL Ea este cea mai frumoasa mireasa pe care am vazut-o vreodata. Car\ile care se afla pe masa sunt ale tale.

> She is not the happy woman she was on her wedding-day.
> The bridegroom has known the bride for a very long tunc.

> There have been many services this week. > Why has he sworn to stay smgle? > The wedding-rings we were shown were outrageously expensive.
> I am not going to marry him.

> She is the most beautiful bride I have ever seen.
> The books which are on the table are yours.

In incheiere, urmeaza obi~nuitul exercitiu de pronuntie. Cititi cu atentie urmatoarele cuvinte:
[E]

[e] wedding guest relatives men when

[0:] divorce com enormous dawn sworn

[ei] engaged outrageous rate late gave

happy marriage bachelor man hat

29

LECTIA 28 - PARTEA A nOVA ,
Aceasta parte a lectiei incepe cu un dialog. Fiti atenti la pronuntia cuvintelor ~i silabelor accentuate: Barbara: Speaking about crime you know that people have always said that crime doesn't pay. John: But in some countries crime seems to be profitable because the criminals are not sufficiently punished.

Barbara: I agree, and if a prisoner is convicted of a crime, he often doesn't have to go to prison for a long time. John: How true it is. They say this is because the criminal didn't know what he was doing when he commited the crime. Don't ask me how they know.

Barbara: And if a prisoner's behaviour is good he is released. John: I think the only thing we can do to change this situation is to punish the people who don't want to punish the criminals.

Mary: Peter: Mary: Peter:

Of course there are happier things to talk about than crime, such as weddings. Yes, just tell me please who isn't happy himself when he sees other people happy on their wedding-day. Even if you prefer to stay single you can imagine that this is a day they will never forget. We must hope that life will always bring us more to be happy about than to be sad about.

Urmeaza ultimul exercitiu de traducere al acestei lectii: Ploua cand ne-am dus la postul de poIitie ca sa anuntam spargerea. In luna aceea au fost comise multe crime brutale. EI a spus ca nu se va simti in siguranta, pana cand criminalul nu va fi arestat. Daca a~ fi avut timp, la ceremonie.
a~

> It was rainmg when we were going to tbe

police-statIOn to report the burglary.
> Many brutal murders were committed

that month.
> He said that he would not feel safe

tIll the murderer was arrested.

fi fost prezent

> If I had had tune I would have attended the service. > The crime he was accused of was a violent one.
> 1 he man who was released was

Crima de care el a fost acuzat, a fost una violenta. Omul care a fost eliberat a fost evident nevinovat.

obviously mnocent.

Anul in care recolta s-a distrus, a fost prea secetos. > The year our crop failed, was too dry. EI nu este omul care era cand ne-am intalnit prima data.

> lie is not the man he was when we first met.

30

Crezi ca e vinovat? Nu vreau platesc amenda pentm ca sunt nevinovat. $antajul este infraqiune profitabila. Acest avion este
uria~. religio~i

> Do you lhll1k he

IS

gUIlty?

> I don't \\ ant to pay tht' fine because
I am Il1l10cent.

> BlackmaIl is a \ ery prolitable crnne.

> rhls

plane IS enOIIIlOllS.

L-am intrebat daca oamenii intotdeauna amabili. Ea a spus ca nu I-a vawt de la divort. A fura este 'impotriva legii.

sunt

> I asked him If I ellglou" people were always gentle.

> She saId she had not seen h1111 since the dIvorce.
>

Stealing

IS

agamsl the law.

Saptamana viitoare participam la
A~

0

nunta.

>

We ,Ire attendmg a \\ eddlng next week. I WIsh I were a bachelor agam.

vreau sa fiu din nou celibatar.

>

Grice faCl, nu-i da drumul. Aceasta poate fi folosita ca dovada. Cat de nevinovat parea
uciga~ul!

> Whatever you

do, dOll't release hun.

> ThIS can be used as e\ Idence.

> 'low innocent the murderer looked! > Are you sure the thief IS hichng JIl the sUllOlIlldings')

E~ti sigur ca hotul se ascunde prin imprejurimi?

31

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 28 ,
28.1. Pronumele relative compuse aflate la Inceputul propozitiilor relative restrictive pot fi omise In anumite cazuri. Exemple: The people (whom) I visited were very nice to me. Don't lose the ticket (which) he has given to you. Do you like the book (that) you have read? - Oamenii pe care i-am vizitat au fost foarte draguti cu mine. - Nu pierde biletul pe care ti I-a dat. - Iti place cartea pe care ai citit-o?

28.2. Vorbirea indirecta 28.2.1. Propozitia conditionala In cazul folosirii vorbirii indirecte In propozitia conditionala de tipul I, timpul verbulului se schimba conform regulii de concordanta a timpurilor (din timpul prezent trece la timpul trecut): Peter said "lfI have time I will go to the cinema". - Peter said that if he had time he would go to the cinema.

In cazul propozitiei conditionale de tipul II ~i III timpul verbului ramane neschimbat: John said "IfI were you I would not do it". - John said that if he were me he would not do it.

Mary said "If I had had the money - Mary said that if she had had the money earlier I would have paid for the car". earlier she would have paid for the car. 28.2.2. Timpul urmatoarelor expresii se schimba conform regulii de concordanta a timpurilor: it is time I wish - it was time - I wished

In schimb in vorbirea indirecta timpul verbului din propozitia secundara, care urmeaza dupa aceste expresii nu se schimba. De exemplu: Peter said "I wish I had a house". Mary said "It's time I went home". - Peter said he wished he had a house. - Mary said it was time she went home.

28.3. Folosirea verbelor auxiliare modale "could" ~i "would": Could you open the window? Would you give me some tea? - Ai putea deschide geamul? - Poti sa-mi dai putin ceai?

32

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 28
A Traduceti urmatoarele propozi1ii in limba romana: I. 2. 3. 4. 5. The man I met then was divorced. I said that if I were a teacher, I would teach English. The bride wished the service were shorter. Could you tell me )fthey are happy? He told me that ifhe had not bought the wedding-rings earlier, he would not have had money then. I wanted to attend the wedding but I was late for the train.

6.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozi1ii in limba engleza:
1.

EI presupune ca este timpul sa incepi lucrul. Ai cina cu mine?
(E~ti

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

atat de amabil sa cinezi cu mine?)

Cine a spus ca daca a~ fi mai tanara, m-ar lua de nevasta? Casa pe care am vazut-o atunci era prea scumpa pentru mine. L-ai putea ruga pe mire sa aduca florile? Ea a spus ca vrea sa fie necasatorita.

C.

Corecta1i
1.

gre~elile

din urmatoarele propozi1ii:

The house has just been bought is large. Could they to swear it's true? He said it is time he leaves. She told me that if she divorces her husband she will be happy. Would you opened the window?

2. 3. 4. 5.

33

V()CABVLARUL LECTIILOR 27 SI 28 , ,
to a.'euse (ot) agal'1st to al resl to attend bacl1elol behavi''lur to belil'\ e to bewan: (of) blacl<mall bride brictegroom brutal burglCl\ burglary
capit~1

> [tLi aklU:Z] > [agenst] > [tLi arest] > [tLi atend] >
[bEt~alar]

- a acuza, a invinui (de) - impotriva, (in) contra - a aresta - a fi prezent/de faFi la, a participa - celibatar - purtare, comportament - a crede (in) - a se feri, a se pazi (de) ~antaj

> [blhelvla r] > [tLi bi!i:v] > [tublllea'] > [blEkmeiJ] > [braid] > [braldgru:m] > [bru:tl] > [ba: rgla'] > [ba:'glan] > [kEpitl
pani~mant]

- mireasa - mire - brutal, violent - spargator - furt cu spargere - pedeapsa capitaHi/cu moartea - a comite - a marturisi, a recunoa~te - a condamna, a declara vinovat (pe cineva) - infractiune - criminal - moarte - condamnare la moarte - decent - divort - a divorta - logodit - enorm,
uria~,

punishment

to commit to conft'ss to convict (of)

> [Iu kamit] > [Iu kanfes] > [tLi kanvikt]

cnme criminal death death sentence decent divorce to divorce engaged enormous envious (of) evidence fine to find out

> [kraim] > [krimml] > [del"] > [del" sentiins] > [di:sant] > [divo:rs] > [tu dlVO:rS]

> [mgeidjd] > [mo:'mas]
> [envlas] > [evldans] > [fam] > [tu fallld aut] 34

colosal

- invidios (pe) - dovada, marturie - amenda, penalizare - a constata, a descoperi, a afla

gentle God, god guest guilty happy incredible innocent law to look marriage to marry murder to murder murderer obviously outrageous pickpocket police police-station prisoner to prosecute to punish relatives to release

> [dJentl] > [god]
>

bland,

ginga~,

amabil

DUlllnezeu, divinitate musafir, invitat - Vlllovat - fericit - incredibil - inocent, nevinovat - lege - a privi, a arata cumva (bIDe - casatorie - a se casatori, a se insura - crima, omucidere - a ucide, a omori - criminal, asasin, - (in mod) evident ru~inos, neru~int, uciga~
l'll

[gest]

> [gilti] > [hEpi] > [inkredibal] > [inasant] > [lo:J > [tu lukJ > [mEnd)] > [tu mEnJ > [ma:'da'] > [tu mao' da'] > [ma:'dara'j > [obvlaslJ ] > [autretdJas] > [pikpokit] > [pali:s] > [pali:s stel~n] > [prizana'] > [tu proslklll:t] > [tu
pani~]

imoral

- hot de buzunare - politie - post sau comisariat de politie - prizonier, detinut - a institui/a intenta (un) proces - a pedepsi - ruda, rude - a elibera, a pune in libertate, a-i da drumul u~urat

> [relati: vz] > [turili:s]

relieved religious remorse to report to rob robbery sentence to sentence (to)

> [rili:vd] > [rilidjas] > [rimo:fs] > [tu npo:ft] > [tu rob] > [robari] > [sentans] > [tu sentans]

- religios remu~care,

mustrare de con~tiinta

- a raporta, a anunta - ajefui, a prada (de), a fura - jaf, furt - sentinta - a condamna

35

service shoplifter single speeding sufficient to swear theft thief, thieves ticket

> [sa:'vis] >
[~oplifta'J

- serviciu, ceremonie - hot de magazine - necasatorit, celibatar - exces de viteza - suficient, indestuHHor - ajura - furt - hot, hoti - bilet, proces verbal (de contraventie) - violent - nunta, cununie - ziua nuntii - verigheHi - oricare, orice, indiferent de - oricare - oncme

> [sing!] > [spi.um lg )] >
[safi~<lI1t]

> [tll sUeaf] > [T'efl] > [T'i:fJ[T'i:vz] > [tikI!]

violent wedding wedding-day wedding-ring whatever whichever whoever

> [vaialant] > [Ucdm(g)] > [Uedm lg ) dei] > [Uedm 1g ) rin 1gl ] > [Uoteva ' ] >
[Uit~ev a ' ]

~

> [hu:e\ a f]

36

RECAPITULARE
I. Participiul Prezent: This is tiring work. The film was exciting. - Este
0

munca istovitoare.

- Filmul a fost eaptivant.

2.

Modul imperativ: Go to school! - Du-te la ~coala! - Dueeti-va (mergeti) la ~eoala! Stop drinking! - Inceteaza sa bei! - Incetati sa beti!

3.

Propozitia conditionalii de tipul I: If you don't make a mistake it will be all right. She won't tell me if I don't ask. - Daca nu faei 0 gre~eala, va fi in regula. - Ea nu-mi va spune, daea n-o intreb.

4.

Folosirea verbelor auxiliare modale could

~i

would:

a. propozitiile interogative se formeaza prin inversarea subieetului eu verbul auxiliar modal: Could you lend me some money? Would you be so kind to help me? - Ai putea sa-mi imprumuti
ni~te

bani?

- Sunteti at<1t de amabil (incat) sa rna ajutati?

b. in propozitiile negative, formele acestor verbe sunt: Could not - forma prescurtata couldn't I couldn't come because I was busy. Would not - forma prescurtata wouldn't 1 wouldn't tell you the truth if I didn't trust you. - Nu ti-a~ spune adevaruI daea nu a~ avea incredere in tine. - Nu am putut veni pentru ea am fost ocupat.

LECTIA 29 ,

PARTEA iNTA.I

Prima parte a leqiei se refera la trecerea timpului. Cititi cu voce tare noile cuvinte ~i retineti traducerea lor in limba romana: season moment midnight noon fortnight weekday leap-year century the day before yesterday the day after tomorrow past future
> [si:zn] > [maumimt] > [ midnait] > [nu:n] > [ fo:'tnait] > l ui:kdci] > [li:p iia'] > [sent-;;ari] > [D/a dei bifo:' iesta'dei] > [ D/a dei a: fta' tfll110raU] > [pa:st] > [ fiu:t~il']

- anotimp - moment, clipa - miezul noptii - amiaza, miezul zilei - doua saptamani - zi lucratoare - an bisect - seeol - alaltaieri

l'

- poimaine

- treeut - vii tor

lata-Ie aCllm in alta ordine:

past noon season the day before yesterday fortnight moment future the day after tomorrow midnight weekday century leap-year

> [pa:st] > [nu:n] > [si:zn] > l Df a dei bifo:' iestil'dei] > [ fo:'tnait] > [maum,jnt] >
[fiu:t~a']

- trecut - amiaza, miezul zilei - anotimp - alaltaieri

,

- doua saptamani - moment, clipa - viitor - poimaine

> [D/a dei a:fta' tall1orau] > [midnait] > ["i:kelci] > l sent-;;ari] > [li:p id]
2

- miezul noptii - zi lucratoare - seeol - an bisect

Acum vom folosi cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi-le cu voce tare Which is the season you like best? Wait a moment. They came after midnight. I'll be there at noon. She died a fortnight ago. > ("it~ IZ D'a sLzn Ill: 1alk best] > ["eit a mallmant] > [IYcl kcnl1 a:fta' midnait] > [ail bi: D/ea T Et nu:n] >
[~I:

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie:

- Care este anotimpul care iti place eel mai mult? A~teapta 0

clipa!

- Ei au venit dupa miezul noptii. - Yoi fi acolo la amiaza. - Ea a murit aCllm doua saptamfll1i. - Lunea este
0

child a [o:'tnait agiiu]
a "/:kdc/]

Monday is a weekday. This year is a leap-year. This is the twentieth century. We met the day before yesterday. Wait till the day after tomorrow.
I like reading about the past.

> [mandel

IZ

zi lucratoare.

> [IYis /la' iz a li:r ii'l'] > [D/is iz lYa t"entiaT' sen t~an] > ["i: mct (Ya clci biro: T iesta'clel]
> ["etl til D/a dci a:tta'

- Anul acesta este un an bisect. - Acesta este secolul xx. - Ne-am intiilnit alaltaieri.
A~teapta

-

pana poimaine!

tamorall] > [ai lalk rLcl1l1 1g1 aballt IYa pa:st] - Imi place sa citesc despre trecut. - Ce ne va aduce viitorul?

What will the future bring us?

> [liat "il D/a brin lgl as]

tlu:t~aT

In continuare completati propozitiile cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Nu ma culc niciodata inainte de miezul noptii. Accidentul a avut loc alaltaieri. - I never go to bed before >mldnight. - The accident happened the >day before yesterday. - Why are there >Ieap-years? - Everything was better in the >past.

De ce exista ani bisecti? Toate erau mai bune in trecut. La amiaza ploua. Yara este anotimpul eel mai fierbinte al anului. Nu
~tim

- It was raining at >noon.
- Summer is the hottest >season of the year. - We don't know anything about the >fllture. - They will marry the >clay after tomolTo\\'. - The twenty-first >century will start soon. - A >momcnt, please. - Do you work on all >wcekdays? - They are leaving in a >fortnight.

nimic despre viitor.

Ei se vor casatori poimaine. Secolul douazeei in cudind.
~i

unu va incepe

o clipa, va rog.
Luerezi in fiecare zi lucratoare? Yor pleca peste doua saptamani.

3

lar acum traduceti in limba engleza cuvintele: an bisect moment alaltaieri amiaza trecut zi lucratoare viitor doua saptamani miezul noptii secol anotimp poimaine
> leap-year > moment > the day before yesterday > noon > past > weekday > future > fortlllght > ITIldnight > century > season > the day after tomorrow

in continuare yom prezenta utilizarea participiului -ing.
Participiul-ing in limba englezii se folose~tefrecvent in propozitii asemiiniitoare exemplelor de mai jos:

When I entered the room, I saw him at the table.

- Cand am intrat in camera I-am vazut lamasa.
inlocuie~te

Pentru prescurtarea propozitiei subordonate, partea de propozitie scrisa accentuat se participiul -ing: Entering the room, I saw him at the table.

cu

- lntrand in camera I-am vazut la masa.

in exemplele de mai sus afi observat, desiguy, cii atat propozifia subordonatii, in care apare forma de participiu prezent entering, cat ~i propozitia principalii care contine verbul saw, au acela~i subiect, pronumele I. Participiul prezent se traduce in limba romtinii prin gerunziu.

lata cateva exemple in care am utilizat participiul prezent: When I opened the door, 1saw the children in the room. Opening the door, I saw the children in the room.
If they fire these people, they will make

- Cand am deschis copiii in camera.

u~a,

am vazut

- Deschizand u~a, i-am vazut pe copii in camera. - Daca-i concediaza pe ace~ti oameni, ei vor face 0 gre~eala. - Concediind o gre~eala.
ace~ti

a mistake. Firing these people, they will make a mistake.

oameni ei vor face

4

Acum alcatuiti constructii asemanatoare celor prezentate anterior ~i completati cu ele propozitiile in limba engleza: Uitandu-se pe geam, Mark i-a vazut. De pe munte se vedea marea.
A~teptand autobuzul, ea a vazut cat de intens este traficul.

- >Looking through the window, Mark saw them. - >Standmg on the mountain, we could see the sea. - > Waiting for the bus, she saw that there was a lot of traffic. - > Rcading the letter, I couldn't believe my eyes. - > Listening to the music, he forgot the time.
~tirile

Citind scrisoarea, nu-mi venea sa-mi cred ochilor. Ascultand muzica, el a uitat de timp. Conducand spre casa, el a auzit la radio. Vazand camera, Anne a spus ca nu este destul de mare. Fiind sarac, John nu cama~a noua.
~i-a

- >Driving home, he heard the news on the radio. - >Seeing the room, Anne said it wasn't large enough.
0

putut cumpara

- >Being poor, John couldn't buy a new shirt for himself.

"Being poor, John couldn't buy a new shirt for himself."

Acum urmeaza un grup de cuvinte noi, care se refera tot la timp: a.m. p.m. formerly one day in (the) future

> [clemJ
> [pi:emJ

- prescurtare de la antemeridian, inainte de pranz - prescurtare de la postmeridian, dupa amiaza - altadata, odinioara - intr-o zi - in viitor

> [1'o:'ma'1IJ
>["an deIJ
> [Ill (D/a) fiu:tsa'J

5

lata cuvintele noi intr-un dialog. Cititi cu atentie:

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

What do I have to do today, Jane? At nine a.m. you have a meeting with the management. I remember. And at eight p.m. I have dinner with Peter. Yes, that's right. Today you have a lot to do between the meeting and dinner. I think I didn't have much work formerly. No, you didn't. But it's changed recently. I hope I can have a holiday one day. Yes, in the future, but not now.

Sa exersam fiecare propozitie in parte. Atentie la pronuntie: What do I have to do today, Jane? At nine a.m. you have a meeting with the management.
I remember. > [\lot du al hEy tu du. tadel dJcm] > l £t nam clem IU: hEv a mi:tlll(~1 "lDI

- Ce am de Iacut azi, Jane?

D/a mEnldJl1lant] >
[al

- La noua dimineata yeti avea 0 ~edinta cu administratia. - Imi amintesc.

nmemba']
al

And at eight p.m. I have dinner with Peter. Yes, that's right. Today you have a lot to do between the meeting and dinner. I think I didn't have much work formerly. No, you didn't. But it's changed recently. I hope I can have a holiday one day. Yes, in the future, but not now.

> [End Et cit pl:em dina' \lIlY pi:ta']

hEv

-

~i la opt seara iau cina cu Peter.
a~a

>

[/CS

DIEts ra/t]

- Oa,

este.

> [tadel IU: hE\ a lot tu duo blt"i:n D/ a l1li.tll1 lg ) End dina']

- Azi aveti multe de Iacut intre ~edinta ~i cina. - Cred ca altadata nu aveam mult de lucru. - Intr-adevar.

> [ai T'inlg1k al didnt hEv l1lat~ "ark fo: r ma'li]
> [nau IU: didnt]

> l bat Its

t~cmclJd

ri:sntlI]

- Dar in ultima vreme s-a schimbat. - Sper ea intr-o zi sa pot sa merg in concediu. - Oa, in viitor, dar nu aeum.

> [al haup <II kEn hE\ a holidel "an dei] > llcS III IYa fllJ:t~a' bat not n:lu]

Iar aeum sa exersam euvintele noi. Completati propozitiile urmatoare: Luerul incepe la opt dimineata. - Work starts at 8 > a m. - She will have to write all letters > III thc future. - At 6 > p.m. the shops are closed. - >Onc dayyou will understand me. - > Formcrlythere were not many cars. 6

In viitor ea va trebui sa serie toate serisorile.
La
~ase

seara magazineIe sunt inchise.

Intr-o zi rna vei intelege. inainte nu erau multe ma~ini.

Urmeaza un exercitiu de traducere. Traduceti cuvintele In limba engleza: Intr-o zi dupa pranz altadata, odinioara Inainte de pranz in viitor > one day
> p.m.

> fonnerly
> a.m.

> in (the) future

in lecriile anterioare am studiat imperativulla persoana a II-a singular # plural. La celelalte persoane, atat la singular cat ~i la plural, pentru formarea imperativului se folose$te verbullet [let] - a permite, a ingadui, a lasa. De exemplu: Let me read it! Let them invite us! Let her take the car! Let us finish it now! - Lasa-ma sa 0 citesc! - Lasa-i sa ne invite! - Las-o sa ia ma~ina! - Lasa-ne sa terminam acum!

Fonna contrasa a lui "let us" este "Iet's" [lets], de exemplu: Let's go! - Samergem!

Sa utilizam regulile Invatate anterior In unnatorul exercitiu de traducere. Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Lasa-l sa uite asta repede! Sa cinam azi acasa! Lasa-i sa vina aici! Lasa-ma sa rna uit! > Let hun forget about it fast' > Let's ha\'e dll1ner at home today! > Let them come here' > Let me see It!

lata cateva verbe noi: to appear to disappear to describe to bury to leap >[tu apia'] >[tu dlsapia'] >[tu dlskralb] >[tu ben] >[tu It:pj a aparea, a se a disparea a descrie, a prezenta a ingropa, a inmormanta a sari, a salta
intati~a,

a se vedea

Verbul to leap este un verb neregulat. lata forme Ie sale:
forma I forma a II-a forma a III-a

leap>llIpj

leapt >llcpt]
7

leapt >[leptJ

Acum urmariti folosirea verbelor noi in propozitii: The car appeared behind the corner. The shoplifter disappeared. She described the thief to the policeman. Where have they buried him? The children leapt across the ditch. > [D'a ka:' apia'd bihamd D/a ko:'na']
I

-

a aparut dupa colt.

Ma~ina

> [D'a ~op!Ifta' dlsapia'd] >
[~I:

- Hotul de magazine a disparut. - Ea a descris hotul politistului. - Unde I-au ingropat? - Copiii au sarit peste
~ant·

diskralbd D/a T'i:f tu DZa pali:smEn]

> ["ea' hEy D'ei berid him] > [D/a t~ildran [ept akros
D/adlt~]

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu verbele corespunzatoare: Soarele a disparut in spatele norilor. Oind va aparea din nou? Poti sa descrii spargatorul? Cand vor fi inmormantati
ace~ti

- The sun >has disappeared behind the clouds. - When will he >appear again? - Can you >describe the burglar?

oameni?

- When will these people >be buried? - The aeroplanes >appeared in the distance. - >Leaping you can break your leg.

Avioanele au aparut in departare. Daca sari poti sa-ti rupi piciorul.

Dati echivalentul in limba engleza pentru urmatoarele verbe: a ingropa, a inmormanta a aparea, a se infuti~a a disparea a descrie a sari
> to burry

> to appear > to disappear > to describe >to leap

Am inviifat deja cum se scriu I.

~i

se citesc datele in limba englezii. Acum vom inviila cum se citesc anii:

Denumiri/e ani/or compu~i din trei cifre se citesc dupii cum urmeazii: 537
- five hundred and thirty-seven - nine hundred and sixty-six

966
2.

Denumiri/e ani/or formali din patru cifre, dintre care ultimele douii sunt zero, sunt citite ca multiplu de sute:
1700 2000 - seventeen hundred (,,~aptesprezece sute") - twenty hundred ("douazeci de sute")

8

3.

Celelalte numere din patru cifre se impart in dOUG grupuri sunt citite ca dOUG numere de cate dOUG cifre:
1995 - nineteen ninety-five ("nouasprezece nouazeci ~i cinci") - nineteen sixty-one ("nouasprezece unu")
~aizeci ~i

1961

4.

DacG a treia cifrG este 0 - zero, acesta se cite~te ca $i oh [au] :
1806 - eighteen oh six ("optsprezece zero ~ase")

lata cateva exemple de propozitii in care am folosit anii: Our teacher was born in 1961 (nineteen sixty-one). - Profesorul nostru s-a nascut in 1961. 1 lived in England in 1953 (nineteen fifty-three). - in 1953 am stat in Anglia.

lar acum traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: S-a intimplat in 753. Aceasta casa a fost construita in 1800. in 1999 voi termina ~coala. > It happened in seven hundred and fifty-three. > This house was built in eighteen hundred. > In mnetcen ninety-nme I will finish school.

in ultimul exercitiu al lectiei yom recapitula cele invatate pana acum. Traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza: Alaltaieri, mergand la ~coala m-am oprit langa acest magazin. Sa incercam sa ne intalnim la pranz. Peste doua saptamani va fi 1999. Vara este eel mai frumos anotimp? Odinioara nu erau multe
ora~e.

> Going to school the day before yesterday, 1 stopped near this shop. > Let's try to meet at noon.
> [t will be nineteen ninety-nine in a fortnight.

> Is summer the nicest season? > Formerly there weren't many towns. > I \\ anted to tell him something but he disappeared.
> Entcllng the house, he switched on the light.

Am vrut sa-i spun ceva, dar el a disparut.

lntrand in casa, el a aprins lumina.

9

LECTIA 29 - PARTEA A DOVA ,
lata un alt grup de cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu atentie ~i urmariti traducerea in limba romiina: absence birthday delay display number occasIOn opportunity
> [Ebsans] > [ba:'Tsdei] > l dilei] > [displei] > [namba'] > [ake(jan] > [opa'Uu:niti]

- absenta, !ipsa - zi de
na~tere

- intarziere, amanare - etalare, expunere, - numar - ocazle - prilej favorabil, moment potrivit - rabdare - prezenta - secundar (al ceasului) - excursie, calatorie, deplasare - cuviint
afi~aj

patience presence second hand trip

>

[pei~ans]

> [prezans] > [sekand hEnd] > [trip]

word

> [ua:rd]

Exersati cuvintele patience second hand delay presence occasion trip

~i

in alta ordine:
>
[pei~ans]

- rabdare - secundar (al ceasului) - intarziere, amiinare - prezenFi - ocazle - excursie, calatorie, deplasare - zi de
na~tere

> [sekand hEnd] > [dileiJ > [prezans] > [akeij,ln] > [trip]

birthday opportunity

> [ba:'T'dei] > [oparUu:niti]

- prilej favorabil, moment potrivit - etalare, expunere, - cuvant - numar - absenta, !ipsa
afi~aj

display word number absence

> [displei] > [",L rd] > [namba'] > [Ebs<lllS]

10

lata cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi-le cu voce tare:
It was a nice trip.

> [It "oz a nais trip] > [LYea' iz a \a:'dj namba' av hautelz 111 IYEt taun]
"at~

- A fost

0

excursie placuta.

There is a large number of hotels in that town.

- EXlsta un numar mare de hoteluri in acel ora~.
afi~ajul

My watch has a small display. > [mal

hEz a smol chsplcl] - Ceasul meu are

mic.

This clock has a second hand. > [O/IS k10k hEz a sekand hEndJ - Acest ceas are secundar. Can I have a word with you? The train had a delay. I met her on the occasion of your birthday. Today is her twenty-second birthday. He is waiting for an opportunity. Have a little patience! I will do it dUrIng their absence. You cannot say that in her presence.
> l kEn al hEv a "a:'d "ilY IU:]

- Pot vorbi cu tine? - Trenul a avut intarziere. - Am intalnit-o cu ocazia zilei tale de na~tere. - Astazi ea impline~te douazeci ~i doi de ani. - El a~teapta un moment potrivit. - Ai putina rabdare! - VOl face asta in absenta lor.

> [O/a tt em hEd a dilei]

> [al met ha:' on IYi akeljan m 10.' ba:'T'del] > l tadel IZ ha o t"entl sekand ' ba:'1'del] > [hi: iz "citin(gl fo:' an opa'tlU:nitl] > [hEy a lit!
pel~ans]

> [al till duo It dlUann lgl O"el' Ebsans] > [IU: kEnot sei fYU in ha:' prezans]

- Nu poti spune asta in prezenta ei.

Expresia to have a word with somebody inseamna a vorbi cu cineva (a schimba 0 yorba cu cineva).

lar acum completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Ea a dat petrecerea cu ocazia casatoriei noastre. Am avut un alt prilej favorabil mai tarziu. Absenta lor a fost alarmanta. Secundarul este stricat. El nu a spus nimic. Un numar de oameni au fost concediati. Excursia noastra a fost doar una scurta.
Afi~ajul arata

- She gave the party on the >occaSlon of our wedding. - I had another >opportunlty later. - Their >absence was alarming. - The >second-hand is broken. - He didn't say a >worcl. - A >nulllbel of people were fired. - Our >1111' was only a short one. - The >cJlsphl\ shows numbers.

numere.

11

Nu au fost intarzieri. Ziua mea de
na~tere

- There were no > delays. este in data de noua. - My > birthday is on the ninth. - She often loses> patience with her children. - I'll write the letter in your >presence.

Ea i~i pierde adesea rabdarea cu copiii ei. Voi scrie scrisoarea in prezenta tao

Traduceti in limba engleza cuvintele: absenta, lipsa zi de
na~tere

> absence > birthday > patIence > delay > presence > word > opportunity
> tnp

rabdare intarziere prezenta cuvant prilej favorabil excursie

> dIsplay secundar (al ceasului) numar ocazie > second hand > number > occasIOn

Sii ne i'ntoarcem la propozi{ia condi{ionalii de tipul I. Propozi{ia subordonatii condi{iona!ii poate fi introdusii ~i de unless [anles], care inseamnii if not - daca nu, in afarii de cazu! cando Fo!osind unless cu sensu! de if not, predicatu! propozi{iei subordonate nu mai poate fi negat, pentru cii in limba englezii nu existii nega{ie dub/ii:

Daca nu vii la yom intirzia.

~apte,

- If you don't come at 7 we will be late. - We will start to work if he doesn't appear.

- Unless you come at 7 we will be late. - We will start to work unless he appears.

Vom incepe lucrul daca nu apare.

Pe baza exemplelor de mai sus, traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Daca nu mananci, nu mergem la gradina zoologica. Daca nu ploua, mergem pc jos. Daca nu ai bani, iti voi imprumuta. Daca nu voi primi maine ii voi scrie.
0

> Unless you eat we \\on't go to the zoo. > Unless It lams we will go on foot. > Unless you ha\ e money 1 WIll lend you. > [ wlll write to h11n unless I get a letter tomO!TO\\. > Unless you tell them they \\on't kno\\ ho\\ to do It.

scrisoare,

Daca nu Ie spui, ei nu vor ~ti cum sa faca asta.
12

lata cuvinte si expresii noi: second-hand occasionally actually sharp digital to be fast to be slow
> [sekand hEnd] > [akcljanalI] > [Ekt~ua1i]

- uzat, folosit, de la mana a doua - din ciind in cand, uneori, de oazie - intr-adevar, in realitate, de fapt - ascutit, precis, exact - digital - a se grabi/a fi inainte (ceasul) - a intarzia/a ramane in urma (ceasul)

>

[~a:'p]

> [didjital] >[tu bl: fa:st] >[tu bl: slau]

Yeti gasi cuvintele noi in acest scurt dialog. Cititi cu atentie:

A: B: A: B:

What a nice watch you have got! Oh, thanks. I occasionally bought a new watch. Is it digital? Yes, it is. But actually, it's not new. It's a second-hand watch. Does it keep sharp time? Oh, no. I wish it did. Now it's two minutes fast. Yesterday it was one minute slow.

A:
B:

Sa citim propozitiile separat. Exersati pronuntia: What a nice watch you have got! Dh, thanks.
> ["ot a nais "ot~ iu' hEy got] >[au TSEn(glks] >[ai akeljanall met fred End ai bo:t a
"ot~

- Ce ceas frumos ai!

- Dh, multumesc.
- M-am intalnit intamplator cu Fred ~i am cumparat un eeas de la el. - Este digital? - Da.
its not n/u:]
Uot~]

I occasionally met Fred and I bought a watch from him.
Is it digital? Yes, it is. But actually it's not new. It's a second-hand watch. Does it keep sharp time? Dh,no. I wish it did. Now it's two minutes fast. Yesterday it was one minute slow.

from him]

>[ iz It didJltaI] >[Ies it iz] >[bat
Ekt~uali

- Dar, de fapt nu este nou. - Este un ceas folosit. - Merge bine?

>[ Its a sckand hEnd

>l daz It kJ:p ~a:'p talln]
>[ au nau] >[ ai "i~ It dId] >[nau its tu: minlts fa:st] >[/csta'del it "oz "an minlt slau]

- Dh,nu.
A~

vrea sa mearga.
grabe~te eu

- Aeum

doua minute.

- leri a intirziat un minut.

13

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu cuvintele care lipsesc: Vei avea nevoie de un cutit ascutit pentru asta. Uneori trebuie sa ridicam bani. Ei nu-i place sa cumpere lucruri uzate. Ceasul a ramas in urma din nou. Ceasurile digitale nu sunt scumpe. Ceasullor nu
0

- You'll need a > sharp knife for thIs. - We have to withdraw money> occasionally. - She doesn't like buying > second-hand things. - The clock> is slow again. - > Digital watches are not expensive. - Their clock> is hardly ever fast - He looks very young but he's> actually 50.

ia inainte niciodata.

El arata foarte tanar, dar de fapt are 50 de ani.

Urmeaza un exercitiu de traducere. Traduceti expresiile urmatoare in limba engleza: a ramane in urma (ceasul) uzat, folosit ascutit, precis din cand in cand, uneori a merge inamte (ceasul) > to be slow > second-hand >
~harp

> occasionaJly > to be fast

Partea de gramaticii a lec!iei se referii la verbele care au douii complemente: complement direct complement indirect
- raspunde la intrebarile "pe cine? ce?" - raspunde la intrebarea "cui?"

Atunci cdnd complementul indirect stii inaintea celui direct, structura propozi!iei este urmiitoarea:
She gave me a book. - Ea mi-a dat 0 carte.

Ordinea complementelor poate fi schimbatii, dar, in acest caz, inaintea complementului indirect se folosef}te particula to:
She gave a book to me. - Ea mi-a dat 0 carte.

Sa incercam sa traducem propozitiile in limba engleza pe baza celor doua constructii de mai sus: Imi vei arata camera ta? > WIll you show me your room'! > WIll you show your room to me'?
> I have descnbed them that accident. > I have descnbed that accident to them.

Le-am descris acel accident.

Da-i (lui) mai multa pame.
14

> (JIve hIm more bread' > (JI\e more bread to hnn'

lata acum un grup de verbe noi: to dial to fix to mend to ring to strike >[tll daial] >[tll fiks] >[tu mend] >[tu rm lg )] > [ tu straik]
~

a forma un numar

- a fixa, a consolida, a prinde - arepara - a suna - a lovi, a bate

Dintre acestea to ring
forma I

~i

to strike sunt verbe neregulate. lata formele lor: forma a II-a forma a III-a

ring >[rilt"] strike> [straik]

rang struck

>[ rEn(g)] >[ strak]

rung struck

>[ rani g)] >[strak]

lata acum verbele noi in propozitii. Atentie la pronuntie: My watch will be mended tomorrow. The clock struck twelve. >[mai "ot:;; lid bi: mcndid tamorau] >[ D/a klok strak t"elv]
Ill:

- Ceasul meu va fi reparat maine. - Ceasul a batut ora douasprezece. - Ati fixat deja
0

Have you fixed a date already? >[hEv I dialled John's number. The telephone has rung all afternoon.

fikst a dclt o:lredi]

data?

>[al datald dionz namba'] >[IYa teld~lUn hEz ran lg ) 0:1 a:fta'nu:n]

- Am format numarullui John. - Telefonul a sunat toata dupa-amiaza.

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza, folosind cuvintele noi: Ceasul tocmai batea ora patru cand am venit acasa. Cine ti-a reparat ceasul? Ei au fixat
0

- The clock >was striking four when we came home. - Who >has mended your watch? - They >fixed a date for the wedding. - >Has she >cllalled the right number? - >11<1\ C you >rung them yet?

data pentru nunta lor.

Ea a format numarul corect? I-ai sunat deja?

Traduceti in limba engleza verbele urmatoare:

a forma un numar
a suna a lovi, a bate

> to cllal

- a fixa - a repara

> tn fix
> tn mend

> to

Il!1g

> to stn ke

15

Iar acum urmeaza ultimul exercitiu allectiei. Incepeti rezolvarea temei pentru acasa doar dupa ce ati rezolvat rara gre~eala acest exercitiu: In drum spre birou am vazut un accident gray. Auzind vorbele lui nu m-am putut abtine sa nu zambesc. Traind la tara, ea nu a vazut niciodata un aeroport modem.
Cii~tigand

> Walking to my office, [ saw a serious accident.

> Hearmg his words, 1 couldn't help smiling.
> Living in the country, she has never seen a modem airport. > Eaming little money, he couldn't buy much.

putin, el nu a putut cumpara mult.

Mobila a fost recent livrata. Intr-o zi nu voi mai avea multa rabdare cuei. Negocierile vor avea [oc in 1999.

> The furniture has recently been delivered. > One day I will not have much patience with them.
> The negotiations will be in nineteen nll1ety-mne. > Unless you write this letter we won't go for a walk. > My watch is always slow. > I won't give them this money. > I won't give this money to them. > Let him buy a big number of new glasses.

Daca nu scrii aceasta scrisoare, nu yom merge la plimbare. Ceasul meu ramane mereu in urma. Nu Ie voi da
ace~ti

bani.

Lasa-I sa cumpere un numar mare de pahare noi.

Urmeaza [i:] leap season mean seen green

obi~nuitul exercitiu

de pronuntie. Repetati urmatoarele grupuri de cuvinte:

[ u:]
noon soon moon food spoon

l i]
fix ring bring sing digital

[ei]
display patience occasion day raise

16

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 29 ,
29.1. In locul unei propozitii subordonate putem folosi participiul prezent (forma -ing). When I entered the room, I saw him at the table. Entering the room, I saw him at the table. - Cand am intrat in camera, I-am vazut la masa. - Intrand in camera, I-am vazut la masa.

29.2. Modul imperatlv 29.2.1. La toate persoanele, (cu exceptia persoanei a II-a) atat la singular cat ~i la plural, imperativuJ se formeaza cu ajutoruJ verbului let - a permite, a ingadui, a lasa. Let me do it! Let them invite us! Let her take the car! Let us finish it now! - (Lasa-ma) sa fac asta! - (Lasa-i) sa ne invite! - (Las-o) sa ia ma~ina! - (Lasa-ne) sa terminam acum!

29.2.2. Forma scurta pentru let us este let's, de exemplu: Let's go! - Samergem!

29.3. Citirea anilor 29.3.l.Anul format din trei cifre se 537
cite~te

dupa cum urmeaza: - five hundred and thirty-seven - nine hundred and sixty-six

966

29.3.2.Anii formati din patru cifre, dintre care ultimele doua sunt zero, sunt cititi ca multiplu de sute. De exemplu: 1700 2000 - seventeen hundred (,,~aptesprezece sute") - twenty hundred ("douazeci de sute")

29.3.3. in alte cazuri anii din patru cifre diferite se impart in doua grupuri ~i se citesc ca atare: 1995 - nineteen ninety-five ("nouasprezece, nouazeci ~i cinci") - nineteen sixty-one ("nouasprezece, ~i unu·')
~aizeci

1961

29.3.4. Daca a treia din cele 4 cifre este ,,0", acesta se cite~te "oh":

1806

- eighteen oh six ("optsprezece zero ~ase")

17

29.4. Propozitia conditionala de tipul 1. Propozitia subordonata conditionala poate fi introdusa ~i cu cuvantul unless in loc de if. Semnificatia lui unless este ifnot - daca nu, in afara de cazul cando Folosind unless cu sensul de if not predicatul prepozitiei subordonate este obligatoriu la forma afirmativa. Daca nu vii la ~apte, vom intirzia. - If you don't come at 7, we will be late. Unless you come at 7, we will be late.

29.5. Complementul direct

~i

indirect

Unele verbe pot avea doua complemente: direct indirect - raspunde la intrebarile "pe cine?, ce?" - raspunde la intrebarea "cui?"

Cand complementul indirect 11 precede pe cel direct, atunci structura propozitiei este urmatoarea: She gave me a book. - Ea mi-a dat 0 carte.

Ordinea complementelor poate fi schimbata, dar In acest caz complementul indirect este precedat de to: She gave a book to me. - Ea mi-a dat 0 carte.

18

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 29
A

Traduceti urmatoarcle propozitii in Iimba romana:

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Reading the newspaper, I couldn't believe the news. Unless she earns enough, she won't go on holiday. Let's open all the windows in the house. Let John go there and find it. Why don't you want to show the picture to me? She will arrive in a fortnight at noon.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:
1.

Ce vei face in viitor? (Lasa-i) sa ne povesteasca ei aceasta intimplare! Daca nu vei fi serios, intr-o zi n-o sa te mai credo Vrand sa repare radioul, ell-a stricat. Avem un prilej sa mergem intr-o excursie. I-am dat lui ceasul meu digital (2 variante de traducere).

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

C.

Scrieti urmatoarele date cu litere:

1.
2. 3. 4.

1782 795 1900 2005

5.

3000

19

LECTIA 30 ,

" PARTEA " INTAI

lncepem lectia cu un grup de substantive noi. Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la sensullor In limba romana: answer appearance attempt collection environment habit headline history mornmg paper promise subject subscription
> [a:nsa r] > [apiarans] > [atempt] >
[kalek~n]

- raspuns - aparitie, ivire,
Inrati~are

- Incercare, tentativa - coleqie - mediu, ambianta - obicei, deprindere - titlu (In ziar) - istorie

> [invainlnmant] > [ hEbit] > [hedlain] > [histari]

> [mo:rnin(g) peipa r] - ziar de dimineata > [promis] > [sabdjikt] >
[sabskrip~n ]

- promlslUne - subiect, tema, materie - abonament

Repetati cuvintele Intr-o alta ordine:

.... ith some of fa '!!!!!!!iij~lle. You say I:8 I: :. rid's strongI
I

~~!IIIII!IIIi!

= "i
=

headline history environment subscription collection attempt mornmg paper answer promise appearance habit subject

> [hedlain] > [histari] > [invairanmant] > >
[sabskrip~n ] [kalek~n]

- titlu (In ziar) - istorie - mediu, ambianta - abonament - colectie - Incercare, tentativa

l ....

> [atempt]

> [mo:rnin(g) peipa r] - ziar de dimineata > [ a:nsa r] > [promis] > [apiarans] > [hEbit] > [sabdjikt]

- raspuns - promlSlUne - aparitie,
Inrati~are

- obicei, deprindere - subiect, tema, materie

20

lata acum cuvintele noi In propozitii: She gave me no answer. We learn from history. I like reading about that subject. The attempt was useless.
It is his habit to have a late breakfast.

> [~i geiv mi: nall ansa'] > [ lI i: la:rn from histari] > [ai laik ri:din lg ) abaut DIEt sabdjikt] > [D1i atempt lI oz iu:slis] > [it iz hiz hEbit tll hEv a lelt brekfast] > [ lI i: hEy tll kli:n ap alia' invairanmant] > [du ill: lI ant tll si: mai stEmp kalek~n] > [D1ei' apiarans iksaitid as] > [ill: hEy tu ki:p 10:' promis]

- Ea nu mi-a raspuns. - Invatam din istorie. - Imi place sa citesc despre subiectul acela. - Incercarea a fost rara rost. - EI are obiceiul sa ia tarziu micul-dejun. - Trebuie sa curatam mediul nostru Inconjurator. - Vrei sa vezi colectia mea de timbre? - Aparitia lor ne-a bucurat. - Trebuie sa-ti tii promisiunea.

We have to clean up our environment. Do you want to see my stamp-collection? Their appearance excited us. You have to keep your promise. The news is in the morning papers. I read only the headlines. He has had a subscription for many years.

> [DZa nill:Z iz in DZa mo:rnm lg ) - ~tirea este In ziarele peipa'z] de dimineata. > [ai ri:d aunli D1a hedlainz] > [hi: hEz hEd a fa:' meni iJa'z]
sabskrip~n

- Citesc doar titlurile principale. - EI are un abonament de multi ani.

In continuare sa exersam folosirea cuvintelor noi. Completati urmatoarele propozitii In limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Mediul (nostru) Inconjurator este foarte important. - Our >enVlronment is very important.
~i

a doua sa Incercare a e~uat.

- Also his second >attempt failed. - Did you think >history was a nice >sllbject in school? - The >sllbscription is cheaper. - I always read the >morning-paper. - They have an impressive >collection. - These are bad >habits. - He doesn't know the >answer. - Don't give too many >promises!

Crezi col istoria era 0 materie placuta la ~coala? Abonamentul este mai ieftin. Citesc intotdeauna ziarul de dimineata. Ei au
0

colectie impresionanta.

Acestea sunt obiceiuri proaste. El nu
cunoa~te

raspunsul.

Nu promite prea mult!

21

Infati~area ei ne-a facut sa zambim.

- Her >appearance made us smile. - Have you read the >headlines?

Ai citit titlurile principale?

"Her appearance made us smile."

Ati retinut cuvintele noi? Traduceti in limba engleza: ziar de dimineata incercare, tentativa, experienta aparitie,
infati~are

> mornmg paper > attempt > appearance > headline > promise > subscnptlOn > answer > subJect > habIt > en, Ironment > collectIon > hist'lry

titlu (in ziar) promisiune abonament raspuns subiect, terna obicei mediu, inconjurator colectie istorie

Adverbele once -["ans] - 0 data, twice -l tll,II~J - de doua ori, sunt jolosite joarte des pentru a exprima frecventa cu care se petrece 0 actiune. Celelalte adverbe se jormeazii cu ajutorul unui numeral $i al substantivului time: three times, four times etc.

22

Traduce1i urmatoarele propozi1ii, folosind cuvintele inva1ate anterior: Am citit de cinci ori aceasta carte. L-am intalnit
Gande~te-te
0

> I have read this book five times. > I have met him once.

singura data.

de doua ori inainte de a spune ceva.

> Think twice before you say something.
> I have lost the keys thl ee times already.

Am pierdut cheile deja de trei ori.

lata din nou expresii just in time in the meantime

~i

cuvinte noi:
> [dpst in taim] > [in DZami:ntaim]

- toemai la timp - intre timp, pana una alta, deocamdata a~teapta

wait a minute

> [Ueit a minit]

pU1in/o clipa, ai pU1ina

rabdare plenty of time

> [plcnti av taim]

- timp destul

Urmari1i expresiile noi in urmatorul dialog. Citi1i eu aten1ie:

A: B:

There is an interesting film on at the cinema today. What time does it start? At eight. We have plenty of time. In the meantime we can do some shopping. Certainly. It's six now. We'll do the shopping and get to the cinema just in time. Wait a minute! I've forgotten we have no money! We can't buy anything.

A:
B:

A:

Sa citim propozi1iile din text separat: There is an interesting film on at the cinema today. What time does it start? At eight. We have plenty of time. In the meantime we can do some shopping. Certainly. It's six now. We'll do the shopping and get to the cinema just in time. Wait a minute!
> [DZear iz an intrastm{g) film - Este un film interesant on Et DZa sinama tadei] la cinematograf astazi.

> [liot taim Jaz it start] > [Et eit]
> [lIl: hEv plenti av taim]

- La ee ora incepe? - La opt. - Avem timp destul.

1: > [in D/a mi:ntaim U kEn Ju: - Intre timp putem face ni~te cumparaturi. sam ~opin(g)]

> [sa:rtanli]
> [its slks nau]

- Desigur. - Acum este ~ase. - Vom face cumparaturile ~i vom ajunge tocmai la timp la cinematograf. 23
A~teapta

> [Ui:l du: D/a ~llpin(g) End get tu DZa sinima dJ ast in taim]
> [lieit a milllt]

pU1in!

I've forgotten we have no money! We can't buy anything!

> [a/v forgotn nau manl]

tlJ:

hEv

- Am uitat, nu avem bani!

> ["I: ka.nt bal eniT'm(g)]

- Nu putem sa cumparam nimic.

Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare: Stai putin,
~i

biletele tale?

- >Walt a minute, and your tickets? - We were >just in time to see their departure. - There was >plenty of time to return the book. - >In the meantime clean your room.

Am ajuns tocmai la timp ca sa vedem plecarea lor. A fost timp suficient pentru a inapoia cartea. Intre timp Ia curat in camera tal

Urmeaza din nou stai putin tocmai la timp

0

traducere: > walt a minute > just in time - intre timp - timp berechet > m the meantIme > plenty of time

in afara de adjectivele daily, weekly, folosite ~i ca adverbe, in limba engleza sunt ~i alte adjective a caror termina{ie este -ly, de exemplu:
lovely fatherly silly friendly >[lavh] > [fa.Dzarli] > [si!l] > [frendli] - dragut, simpatic, frumos - parintesc, patem - prost - prietenos, arnica 1

Daca din adjectivele cu termina{ia -Iy vrem saformam un adverb, nu putem sa dublam sufixul-Iy. in aceste cazuri adverbele se formeaza cu urmatoarele structuri:
in a lovely way in a fatherly manner in a silly manner in a fnendly way >[m a lavli "e/ ] > [in a fa:Dzarli mEna f ] > [in a sih mEna'] > [in a frend!1 Uei] - intr-o maniera draguta - intr-un mod parintesc - intr-un mod prostesc - intr-un mod prietenesc

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in !imba eng!eza, fo!osind expresiile noi: Nu face asta intr-un mod prostesc! Ne-au vorbit prietenos. Ea ~tie sa cante frumos. Fratele meu imi
parinte~te.

> Don't do it in a silly manner' > They talked to us m a fnend!y way. > She can sing in a lovely way.

vorbe~te

intotdeauna

> My brother always speaks to me m a fatherly manner.

24

Acum unneaza cu un grup de verbe noi: to waste to succeed (in) to pollute to neglect to subscribe (to)
> [tu "eist]

- a irosi, a pierde (inutil) - a reu~i, a izbuti - a polua - a neglija - a se abona, a plati cotizatia/ abonamentul

> [tu saksi:d] > [tu palu:t] > [tu niglckt] > [tu sabskraib]

Verbul to succeed este folosit to succeed in + verb cu tenninatia in -ing
I succeeded in ...

~i

in urmatoarea constructie: - a
reu~i,

a izbuti

- Am reu~it (sa fac ceva) - Ea a reu~it sa-~i repare
ma~ina.

She succeeded in mending her car.

lata verbele noi in propozitii. Retineti traducerea lor in limba romana You have wasted a lot of water. She has not succeded in doing this. This river is heavily polluted. They neglected their cats.
I have subscribed to a mornmg-paper.

~i

fiti atenti la pronuntie:

> [Ill: hEy L1 c/stid a lot av L1 o:ta'] >
[~l:

- Ai irosit multa apa.

in

du:inl~1

hEz not saksi.did D/is]

- Ea nu a reu~it sa faca asta.

> l D/IS rh a' lZ hEvIll palu:tid] - Acest rau este foarte poluat. > [ai hEy sabskraibd tu a mo:'nml~) pcipa']
~i-au

neg1ijat pisicile.

- M-am abonat 1a un ziar de dimineata.

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza: Nu am reu~it sa ne intoarcem la timp. Au irosit
0

- We >have not >succeeded in returning in time. - They >wasted half an hour on talking. - He >has subscribed to this paper. - These children >have been neglected for years. - This lake is not >polluted yet.

jumatate de ora vorbind.

El s-a abonat la acest ziar.
Ace~ti

copii au fost neglijati ani de-a randul. Acest lac nu este inca poluat.

25

Traduceti verbele noi in limba engleza: a fi abonat, a plati cotizatia/abonamentul a neglija a polua a reu~i, a izbuti, a avea succes (In) a irosi, a pierde Dacii verbul are douii complemente (direct poate ji subiectul propozi{iei: He showed me his garden. I was shown his garden. His garden was shown to me.
,~i

> to subscnbe to

> to neglect
> to pollute

> to succeed > to waste indirect), atunci la diateza pasivii, oricare dintre ele

- EI mi-a aratat gradina lui. - Mi-a fast aratata gradina lui. - Gradina lui mi-a fost aratata.

In exercitiul urmator, incercati sa construiti propozitii la diateza pasiva operand ambele tipuri de transformari: They sent him a letter.
> He was sellt a letter. > A letter was sent to him. > You won"t be given the money.
> The money won't be gIven to you.

He won't give you the money.

He described the accident to us.

> We were described the accIdent. > The accident was descnbed to us.

in limba englezii, participiul terminat in -ing poate inlocui propozi{ia relativii. Urmiiri!i exemplele: A man who lives in this street was injured in an accident yesterday. - Un barbat care locuie~te pe aceasta strada, a fost ranit ieri intr-un accident.

Structura propozi!iei dupii eliminarea pronumelui relativ: A man living in this street was injured in an accident yesterday. - Un barbat, de pe aceasta strada, a fost ranit ieri intr-un accident.

in propozi!ia astfel transformatii, participiul -ing determinii substantivul.

Iar acum, exersati folosirea participiulului prezent. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Stiloul care se afla pe masa este al meu. Femeia care se plimba acolo este
0

> The pen 1) lI1g on the tahle IS mll1e. > The woman \\;alkll1g there IS a secretary. > The reople visItll1g our vIllage are
(jOIn

secretara.

Oamenii care viziteaza satul nostru sunt din Anglia. Cine sunt acei oameni care stau acolo?

England

> Who are the people Slttll1g there"

26

It cuno~ti pe acel om care vine la noi? Oamenii care folosesc aceste unelte sunt foarte satisIacuti. Tablourile care atama aici vor fi vandute. Sunt intotdeauna multi oameni care-~i petrec vacanta aici. Au fast oameni care au vandut portocale ~i struguri. Cei ce vor mai multe informatii se pot reintoarce dupa ora cinci.

> Do you know the man coming to us?

> The people using these tools are very satisfied.
> The pictures hanglllg here will be sold.
> There are always many people spending their holidays here.
> There were people sdlmg

oranges and grapes.
> People wanting more information can return after five.

In ultimul exercitiu al leetiei veti avea ocazia sa reveniti asupra tuturor notiunilor noi de gramatica ~i vocabular: La ce te-ai abonat? Am rugat-o de doua ori sa piece in Ne-a vorbit parinte~te. Oamenii care-~i neglijeaza inIati~area cred ca nu este important sa arate bine. Animalele care traiesc in padure, pot gasi mfmcare suficienta. Stai putin, nu ti-ai pierdut umbrela? Ne-au aratat doua filme.
lini~te.

> What have you subscnbed to'?

> I have asked her tWIce to leave quietly.
> He spoke to us in a fatherly way. > People neglecting their appearance think it is not Importallt to look good. > Animals livmg in the woods can fll1d enollgh food. > Wait a minute, haven't you left your umbrella? > Vie were shown two films. > Two films were shown to us. > [ will say it only once. > They \\ere talking
In

o voi spune doar 0 singura data.
Au vorbit prietenos. Au sosit tocmai [a timp; nu a trebuit sa
a~teptam.

a fnendly manner.

> He came .Just in tnne: we didn't have to wait.

Urmeaza exercitiul de pronuntie. Cuvinte!e aflate pe cu voce tare: [e] neglect spend mend met set [E] habit can man hand land [a. ] sharp hard dark ask arm [au]

aceea~i

coloana cantin un sunet identic. Cititi

sound house our found out

27

LECTIA 30 - PARTEA A nOVA ,
Urmeaza un exercitiu de citire ~i pronuntie. Cuvmtele ~i sllabele accentuate Ie-am scris cu litere Ascultati caseta ~i cititi dialogul cu atentie, pentm a va insu~i cat mai corect intonatia limbii engleze:
ingro~ate.

Barbara: John: Barbara: John: Barbara: John:

John! Clever people say time is an important thing in our lives. Of course. To do the things we have to do we need time. When there is too little time we cannot do things as well as we want to do them. Yes, but there are people who always know what to do with the time. You are so right.They go for a walk or read a book or make all kinds of things that are useful or beautiful. Sometimes they sell these things, which is their way of showing that time is really money.

Mary: Peter: Mary:

What John was saying was true. But don't other people feel bad when there is nothing for them to do, or at least they think there is nothing? Yes, I think so. Usually these people are wasting their time or choose to listen to the radio or watch television. And these people are very happy when friends come to visit them so they can talk about the news or whatever is worth talking about.

Barbara: Wouldn't it be difficult to say which of these is the better way of spending time? Tom: Well, it's hard to say. We are always ready to say that we are doing things the right way and other people are not. Barbara: But how can we be sure? Tom: It is a good thing that we are all different.

lata ultimul exercitiu al lectiei. Daca reu~iti sa il faceti lara nici 0 gre~eala, atunci puteti trece la rezolvarea temei pentru acasa. Traduceti propozitiile urmatoare in limba engleza: Citind ziarul de dimineata m-am gandit la promisiunea pe care am Iacut-o. Tragand fermoarul hamei, am parasit casa in graba. AvionuI pleaca la trei dupa-amiaza. Ea a format numarullor de doua ori. Ea a raspuns
proste~te.

> Readmg the mornmg paper. I thought of
the promIse I had made.

> Zippll1g up my coat, I left the house 111 a llllrry.
> The aeroplane leaves at 3 p.m.

> She has dIalled theIr number tWIce.
> She answered
111

a sIlly way.

Noi am vazut un barbat care nu avea par pe cap. Vasul a naufragiat in urma cu doua saptamani. Acesta este geamul prin care a disparut spargatorul. Ei i s-a permis uneori sa pIece mai devreme. 28

> We saw a man havmg no hair on hIS head.
> The shIp \\ as wrecked a fortl11ght ago.

> Th IS

the \\ mdow through which the burglar dIsappeared.
IS

> She was occaSIOnally permitted to leave early.

Au fost intarzieri de doua ori. in viitor nu yom pierde timpul. Cati ani biseeti sunt intr-un seeol? Sa mergem azi la einematograf! Prezenta lor nu este neeesara. Cativa oameni ered ea este timp destul pentru a opri poluarea pamantului. Ce materii ti-au plaeut eel mai mult la in treeut multe lueruri erau mai ieftine. Va trebui sa fii aeolo exact la ora opt. Ea a primit serisoarea tocmai la timp. Intre timp vom fixa
0

> There was a delay twice.
> In future no time will be wasted. > How many leap years are there
In

a century?

> Let's go to the cinema today!
> Their presence is not necessary.

> Some people think there is plenty of time to stop polluting the Earth.
~eoala?

> What subjects did you like the best in school?
> [n the past many things were cheaper. > You'll have to be there at eight o'clock sharp.

> She got the letter just in time.
> In the meantime we'll fix a date,

data.

Noi am reu~it sa terminam luerul inainte de miezul noptii.
Ma~inile

> We succeeded In finishing the work before nllClnight.
> Cars pollute the environment.

polueaza mediul.

Vor fi mai muIte oeazii favorabile in viitor. Unii oameni au obieeiuri stranii. Am vazut multi oameni care purtau oehelari fumurii. EI ~i-a vizitat sora eu oeazia zilei ei de na~tere. Mi s-a promis
0

> There wIiI be more opportunities in the future.
> Some people have strange habits.
> I saw many people wearing

dark glasses.
> He visited his sister on the occasion of her birthday. > I was prommised a better job. > A better job was promised to me.

slujba mai buna.

"Their presence is not necessary." 29

RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI 30 ,
30.1. Adjective cu tenninatia -Jy 30.1.1. In afara de adjectivele daily, weekly care pot fi folosite ~i ca adverbe, In limba engleza sunt ~i alte adjective a caror tenninatie este -Jy. De exemplu: lovely fatherly silly friendly - dragut, simpatic, frumos - parintesc, patern - prost - prietenos, amabil

30.1.2. Daca vrem sa fonnam un adverb din adjectivul cu terminatia -Iy, nu i se adauga Inca un sufix -Jy. In acest caz vom folosi urmatoarele structuri adverbiale: in a lovely way in a fatherly manner in a silly manner in a friendly way - lntr-un mod placut/dragut - Intr-un mod parintesc - lntr-un mod neghiob/prostesc - Intr-un mod prietenos

30.2. Daca verbul are doua complemente (direct ~i indirect), atunci la diateza pasiva, oricare dintre ele poate fi subiectul propozitiei: He showed me his garden.
J was shown his garden.

- EI mi-a aratat gradina lui. - Mi-a fost aratata gradina lui. - Gradina lui mi-a fost aratata.

His garden was shown to me.

30.3. In fraza din limba engleza, participiul prezent (In -ing) poate Inlocui propozitia subordonata relativa: A man who lives in this street was injured in an accident yesterday. A man living in this street was injured in an accident. - Un barbat, care locuie~te pe aceasta strada, a fost ranit ieri Intr-un accident. - Un barbat de pe aceasta strada a fost ranit ieri Intr-un accident.

In asemenea cazuri participiul prezent detennina substantivul.

30

TEMA PENTRU ACASA 30
A I.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana: She is always doing serious things in a silly manner. We have succeeded in arriving there just in time. Their children were brought to hospital. Factories polluting the environment are very dangerous. They liked her lovely clothes. How could you waste all the money?

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

B.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza: Am
reu~it

I.

sa rna abonez la acest ziar.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Intre timp am citit ~tirile. (doua variante) Ne-au vorbit intotdeauna
Ma~inile
prietene~te.

care folosesc multa benzina sunt scumpe.

L-am vazut pe acest barbat doar 0 singura data. Ea
ca~tiga

foarte putin pe saptamana.

C.

Corectati

gre~elile

din urmatoarele propozitii:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

He loves me fatherly. These cars were sold a rich man. My father succeeded to mend the tap. The children who playing in the room are too noisy. She has already said it twice times.

31

VERBELE NEREGITLATE DIN LECTIILE 29 SI 30 , ,
forma I
leap > [It:p] ring > [rin(gl] strike> [stralk]

forma a II-a
leapt rang > [lept] > [rEn'gl]

forma a III-a
leapt > [Iept] rung > [ran(g)]

struck > [strak]

struck > [strak]

32

VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR 29 SI 30 , ,
absence actually a.m. >[Ebsans] > [Ekt~llali] > [eiem] > [a:nsaT ] > [tll apia'] >[apia'ans] >[Ez] > [atcmpt] > ltll bl: fa:st] > ltll bl: slauJ - absenta, lipsa - intr-adevar, in realitate - prescurtare de la antemeridian, inainte de amiaza - raspuns - a aparea, a se infiiti~a, a se vedea - aparitie, - cum,
a~a

answer to appear appearance as attempt to be fast to be slow

inIati~are

cum

- incercare, tentativa - a fila
0

lua inainte (ceasul)

- a fila ramane in urma (ceasul) - zi de
na~tere

birthday to bury century collection the day after tomorrow the day before yesterday delay to describe to dial digital to disappear display environment fatherly to fix formerly fortnight

> [ba:TTsdel] >[tu beri] > [sent"ari] > [kalek~an] > [O"a dei a:fta Ttamorall] >[O"a deiblfo: Tiesta'dei] > [dllei] > [tll diskraib] >[tll dalal] > [didJital] >[tll disapia'] >[ dlsplei] >lmvairanmant] >[fa:Oza'Ji] > [tll fiks] >[fo:'ma'li] >[fo:'tnalt]

- a ingropa, a inmormanta - secol, veae - colectie - poimaine - alaltaieri - intarziere, amanare - a descrie, a prezenta - a forma un numar - digital - a disparea - etalare, expunere, - mediu, ambianta - parintese, patem - a fixa, a consolida, a prinde - altadata, odinioara - doua saptamani
afi~aj

33

friendly future habit headline history in future in the meantime

> [frendli]

- prietenesc, amical - viitor

> [hEbit] > [hedlam] > [histari] > [in
fm:t~ar]

- obicei, deprindere - titlll principal (in ziar) - istorie - in viitor - intre timp, pana una alta, deocamdata - tocmai la timp - a sari, a salta - an bisect

> [in DZa mi:ntaIlTI]

just in time to leap leap-year lovely manner to mend midnight moment mommg paper to neglect noon number occasion occasionally once one day opportunity past patience plenty of time p.m.

> [dpst in taim] > [tu lI:p]

> [lavli]
> [mEna'] > [tu mend] > [midnalt] > [mallmant]

- dragut, simpatic, fmmos - mod, fel, maniera - a repara - miezul noptii - moment, clipa - ziar de dimineata

> [tll niglekt] > [nll.n]

- a neglija - amiaza, miezul zilei - numar

> [akeljan] > [akeIJanali]

- ocaZle - din cand in cand, uneori
0

(singura) data

- intr-o zi
> [opa'tm:mti] > [pa:st] >
[pel~ans]

- prilej favorabil - trecut - rabdare - timp destul - prescurtare de la postmeridian, dupa amiaza - a polua - prezenta
34

> [plent1 av talm] > [pum]

to pollute presence

> [tll [lolu:t]
> [prezans]

promise to ring season second hand second-hand sharp silly to strike subject to subscribe (to) subscription to succeed (in) trip twice unless

> [promis] > [tu
rin(~)]

- promlslune - a suna - anotimp - secundar (al ceasului) - uzat, folosit, purtat - ascutit, precis, exact - prost, neghiob - a lovi, a bate - subiect, tema, obiect - a fi abonat - abonament - a
reu~i,

> [si:zn] > [sekand hEnd] > [sekand hEnd] > [p:'p] > [sili] > [tu straik] > [sabdjikt] > [tu sabskraib] >
[sabskrip~n]

> [tu saksi:d] > [trip] > [t"ais] > [anles]

a izbuti

- excUTsie, (scurUi) calatorie - de doua ori - daca nu (cumva), In afara de cazul cand a~teapta putin/o clipa, ai putina rabdare

wait a minute

> [" eit a min it]

to waste way weekday word

> [tu "eist] > [" e t] > [ L1 i:kdei] > [" a:'d]

- a irosi, a pierde (inutil) - drum, cale, mod - zi de lucru, zi lucratoare - cuvant

35

RECAPITULARE
1.

Daca un substantiv apare de mai multe ori Intr-o propozitie, poate fi Inlocuit cu cuvantul one: I don't like this book; I like that one. I don't want these shoes; I want cheaper ones. - Nu-mi place aceasta carte; mie Imi place aceea. - Nu vreau ace~ti pantofi; vreau unii ieftini.

2.

Modul imp